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My CourseSmart Notes 3/8/2013 Chapters 1 - 4

Basic Methods of Policy Analysis and Planning, Third Edition


by Carl V. Patton; David S. Sawicki; Jennifer J. Clark Pg Title Note Date Modified

xiii

Quick analysis

Does anyone see any disadvantages to this idea? Think about Pariser...

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xiii

What is this book about?

Important to note what authors say their book is about.

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176 Operationalize

Measures are used to operationalize the criteria. Example: On time take-offs for Delta. Notice that these terms move from the more abstract and client oriented to the more practical and analyst oriented.

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Theycanbemeasures,rules,andstandards...allthoseattributes,objectives,orgoals whichhavebeenjudgedrelevantinagivendecisionsituationbyaparticulardecisionmaker What are evaluative 176 (individual or group). Criteria are used to help us compare the alternatives. Quade defines a criteria? criterion as the standard by which we can rank the alternatives in order of preference, using the information uncovered about their impacts.

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145 Develop a fact base

Problem: the poor pay more for health care. Facts that should become part of our analytic base would include information about the key words and phrases. Poor Pay more (added thought to what Patton says here--pay more relative to what? Sales tax disproportionately affects people w. less money--paying 8% tax on something that costs $100 impacts you more when you earn $800/week v. $2,000/week right? Health care

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Delineate the 144 boundaries of the problem.

We must be aware of the connection of the problem under analysis to other problems. As these other problems are resolved or as they worsen, our analysis can be affected.

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144

Defining the problem.

1. Think about the problem. 2. Delineate the boundaries of the problem. 3. Develop a fact base. 4. List goals and objectives. 5. Identify the policy envelope. 6. Display potential costs and benefits. 7. Review the problem statement.

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Verify the initial problem statement. Use the best available data to cut the problem down to 4.2 DEVELOPING THE size Define the problem from the perspectives of interested parties Identify potential 143 PROBLEM winners and losers, and Conduct a first approximation of the analysis. The task of the STATEMENT analyst is to move from a general problem concept to specific measures of that problem, so that alternatives can be devised and evaluated.

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Problem statements set the analytic agenda, but they may also be adopted by the media, by politicians, by community groups, by task forces, and by other constituent groups. A 143 Problem statements convincing problem statement can focus resources of many groups on an important problem.

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143 Doing nothing

Doing nothing is a possible policy. "The do-nothing option comes in a variety of styles" What are they?

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143

Potential value of vague goals

Inconsistent or ambiguous goals allow policymakers to support conflicting policies. How? See p. 142.

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Unintended 142 consequences matter...

Advise your client that defining a problem so that it can be resolved is counterproductive if the unintended consequences are worse than the original condition. ... Policy analysis shouldrevealtheconsequencesoftheproposedactionintendedandunintendedfor everyonesbenefit.

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142 Values

What values are inherent in your policy problem? Important for problem definition. "Problems can be verified, defined, and detailed only in relation to the values of the groups and individuals involved."

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When performance 142 and standards are increasing...

Banfield has pointed out the ironic situation in which performance is actually increasing, but standards are increasing even more rapidly, with the result that improvement looks like decline.5RecentcriticismsoffederaleducationpolicysetinNoChildLeftBehindhave highlighted how simultaneous gains in school performance in the context of increasing standards can make improving schools look like failures.6

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141

Identifying and Pragmatic approach Social-criterion approach defining the problem

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140 Framing the problem Concrete terms Normative standards (about values, expected behavior)

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128

Give your readers a road map. p. 127+ A report organized according to this method would 3.6.3 Organizing the contain the following sections: 1. Summary, 2. Problem Definition, 3. Evaluation Criteria, 4. Report Alternatives, 5. Analysis and Comparison, 6. Conclusion, and 7. Next Steps.

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3.6 125 COMMUNICATING THE ANALYSIS

Simplicity Accuracy Documentation Fairness

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122 Statistical tests

A variety of statistical tests can be used to answer the question of whether two or more variables are associated or are independent. Which one to use depends on the scale of measurement with which we are working: nominal, for which some characteristic is classified into exhaustive, mutually exclusive but not ordered categories (ethnicity, e.g., with categoriesdefinedsotheydontoverlap);ordinal,forwhichsomecharacteristicisclassified into exhaustive, mutually exclusive and ordered categories (e.g., popularity ranking or level of education completed); or interval, for which some characteristic is classified on a scale

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120

3.5.5 Descriptive Statistics

Measures that summarize the attributes of a data set.

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Guidelines for 119 preparing useful tables and graphics

See Patton p. 118 (Dependent variable: that which you are trying to explain. It's value is dependent upon the effect of other variables (the independent variables. Dep variable example: Recidivism) (Independent variable: variable(s) that is hypothesized to cause, or lead to, variation in the dependent variable. Indep variables you could look at to understand/explain recidivism: criminal history, substance abuse, antisocial attitudes, antisocial peers, etc.)

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117 Table 3.8

<a class="account-group js-user-profile-link" href="https://twitter.com/DeJesusStefanie">Geospatial analysis online and software resources and integrated data depositories </a>

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Developing the 107 layout of your hypothesis

See p.107+ for examples of graphic displays of info on housing/income/neighborhood pop

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106

The preparation of graphics

should be part of both the analytical and communication processes. Four basic steps in preparing useful graphics--see p. 105.

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105 Graphic techniques

Info on graphic displays. Table 3.3

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102 Document analysis

Record ideas. Record references. Record names. Have a purpose. Place the documents in priority order. Develop categories Record facts. Set deadlines.

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100

Estimating data quality

Patton recommends scoring scheme for: What were the data collected? How were the data collected? When were the data collected? Why were the data collected? Who collected the data? p.100

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90

Information required Historical background and context Basic facts Political attitudes and resources of major to undertake analysis actors. Forecasts and projections Additional contacts and materials. p.89-90

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89

Interviewing and Surveys

p. 89 +

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89 Elite interviewing

Can be quite important to policy analysis. Why?

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6 components of 86 usually part of judicial opinions

P.85-86

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81 Another gov't source National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS) https://www.ncjrs.gov/

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80

Senate and House Committees

Is a Senate or House Committee working on your policy issue? (I know the answer is yes for some of you!)

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79 Finding resources

Indexes, journals--see specific examples here.

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76

Critically evaluate sources

Ask questions of the material and data you find as you work on your policy problem. See a couple of questions posed here for examples.

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76

Journal of the American Planning Association Journal of Planning Education and Research Academic journals in Journal of Policy Analysis and Management Policy Studies Journal and Reviews American Policy Analysis Review of Public Administration Policy Sciences Research Policy

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74

Importance of libraries

See text re: how libraries can help assess quality of information, think of Pariser's TED talk.

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69

Chapter 3--what is covered

procedures for identifying, gathering and analyzing existing data, conducting specialized interviews and quick surveys, for producing basic analyses and for communicating the results.

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68

By the time analysts people have been working on issue and may be more resistant to alternative suggestions. get involved...

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57

Important terms to know

Know these terms.

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56

Methods by Steps in Know this. Know this. Know this. PA process

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53

More follow through...

postprogram evaluation--see text below too.

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53 follow through

Important for policy analysts to follow through on their work--nothing works well if it is not implemented and monitored well.

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51 Presentation of info

As you read about your policy issue and follow your policy makers think about the info you are "gathering", defining the issues within it, the actors, defining the problem, etc. And importantly--the most effective way to present various kinds of information.

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45

Problems w. defining Often org's cannot or will not make clear statements of objectives, particularly problematic the problem in public org's. Why?

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44 Giraffe

"Don't accept the initial problem statement without question." Did you ask yourself if the giraffe belonged in the fridge?

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44

PA Process model by Important to Know. Patton et al

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42 Rational model

Rational model approach cannot always work...why?

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40 Elements of PA

Urban Institute's version of PA for state/local govt

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40 elements of PA, II

see previous note

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40

important elements in PA

There are several examples of the elements or steps of PA; they are not identical. What are the commonalities? Differences? Are the differences significant? PA is an iterative process.

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38 Figure 2.3

Framework for ethical analysis. Questions posed across 4 areas in relation to one's self; to employees and clients; colleagues and the profession; and the general public.

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35 Partisan

A political resolution may look different than an analytical resolution. Disputes over values versus disputes over facts. --> What is a current policy issue where the dispute is over values not facts (or to a lesser extent facts)? -->What is a current policy issue where the dispute is over facts and to a lesser extent values?

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34 Fiduciary model

What does this mean in practice? --> sometimes the client may select the option that isn't the best one, or that is not in his/her best interests. Your professional obligation is to educate, inform, present evidence and options; but it is the client's decision ultimately. The idea of obligation to a third party has merit for policy analysts in the public sector--does it in the private sector?

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33

Administrative discretion

"Through administrative discretion a career civil servant participates in governing a democratic society without being directly accountable to the electorate." What does Rohr mean by this?

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33

Administrative discretion

Question: a diner is frequented by many police officers. The owner of the diner lets the officers park in his lot for free. Should the police accept this offer? The ethical issues of the day come in small packages, generally. Big clear ethical issues (dumping toxic waste in river, medical trials that find the medicine is harming people) are big and clear. There are thousands of small package ethical issues that on more cynical days I think our society is really failing at...Thoughts?

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33

Obligation, responsibility

Do these concepts apply to private and public sector equally? Why/why not?

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33 Tong's point

Personal integrity. Consistency. Delaying immediate gratification. Curbing impulsive behavior...what a wonderful world it would be...

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31 Ethical theories

Please do not brush over this section. Educated people not knowing the foundation of ethics as a philosophy and how it is applied poses significant problems for both the private and public sector. Think of the unethical behavior we've learned about over just the past few years...

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30 Teleological theories Teleo---what is the meaning of teleo?

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29 Values in govt

This is a great point as well. Values gets bantered about as such a black/white issue but what those discussions rarely get to is that there is a core set of values that the public expects Govt to uphold--that isn't about issues like abortion or gun control. What are some of those values? Fairness, ethical policies, honesty...

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28 EXCELLENT point

Working ethically, every day. Did anyone watch the show Boss, with Kelsey Grammer on the Starz network? Good examples of unethical work that harmed the public good.

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27

Role of client or manager

PA is an interactive process; these are good suggestions for what how a client/manager should be involved.

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25 Normative

What is meant by normative views?

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24

What constitutes good PA?

logical, valid, replicable, info that can be used by decision makers, info is economically viable, tech feasible, ethical, politically acceptable, and it moves toward resolving public issues.

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24 More of what PA is... identifying the path for analysis

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23 Prospective PA

Note principle tasks involved--good outline for several class assignments.

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23 descriptive PA

often used in conjunction with prospective PA

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23

PA focused on outcomes

AKA: ex ante, pre hoc, anticipatory, or prospective. Prior to implementation. Predictive (projection) and prescriptive (problem has a definite solution and there exists a well-defined procedure for achieving the solution).

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Timing of policy analysis

Before or after implementation?

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22

best option from choices

Consideration of relations between the policies and goals

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Systematic 22 investigation of options

...assembly and integration of the evidence for and against each option... very important point.

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22

Policy Analysis...over Familiarize yourself with this time

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21

History of policy analysis

Know your history.

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A good presentation 21 improves a good I'll second that: A good presentation improves a good product. product.

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21

Products of policy analysis

What are the some examples of products of policy analysis?

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Their definition of the problem may be accurate--but is it the complete picture? What other things may be influencing/pushing/pulling on the issue that they have defined as a problem? 16 LISTEN to your client Your role is to go beyond what the client is saying/asking for and investigate other influential factors.

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14 Enduring Learning

This fits well with a component of enduring learning, which I discussed in the syllabus video. Being able to argue the point/side of others is important on many levels--like what/which levels? What are the strengths to this skill?

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12 Say it with numbers.

VERY IMPORTANT. Use data to support your positions. Show people your argument, do not tell people your argument. What do you think I mean by that?

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Creativity / own 11 approach

As someone trained in the social sciences, these kind of statements make me very nervous. I am not sure I want a bunch of policy analysts running around making it up as they go along...am I overreacting? Reassure me that what Patton et al are talking about is not a hodge podge, mismash, mess at the end of the day...?

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11

The problem should This is probably the most important sentence in the book. dictate the methods

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10

Types of Policy Actions

It is important to understand these differences. Think of your policy topic--can you give an example of your policy topic in each type of action?

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Thinking like analysts Have you started to think like an analyst and/or planner? and planners

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No standard response...

What is the value in a standard response? What are the disadvantages to not having a standard approach? Are the authors really suggesting a lack of standards?

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Comprehensive 5 planning v. policy analysis

Note the differences.

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This book is for people who wish to 3 improve their analytical skills

How did your thinking about your analytical skills change after the TED video (E.Pariser) and Critical Thinking quiz?

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characteristics of 2 modern policy problems

How well does your policy issue fit with these characteristics outlined by Patton et al? 1. They are not well defined. 2. They are seldom purely technical or purely political. 3. Their solutions cannot usually be proven to be correct before application. 4. No problem solution is ever guaranteed to achieve the intended result. 5. Problem solutions are seldom both best and cheapest. 6. The adequacy of the solution is often difficult to measure against notions of the public good. 7. The fairness of solutions is impossible to measure objectively.

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