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2D & 3D
MCS WCS VCS NPC DCS
2 . You can also use the working plane to define keypoints by picking. • By displaying a grid. but you can move it and/or rotate it to any desired position.Y) Working Plane Coordinate Systems Attached to the working plane.‖ WY W Y X1 X2 Y1 Y2 WX WX WP (X. the WP origin coincides with the global origin. • By default.Working Plane The ―WP‖ in the prompts and in the picker stands for Working Plane — a movable. Used mainly to locate and orient solid model primitives. 2-D reference plane used to locate and orient primitives. you can use the WP as a ―drawing tablet.
The location may be: • At WP origin [CSWP] • At specified coordinates [LOCAL] • At existing keypoints [CSKP] or nodes [CS] May be Cartesian. Z axes. location (0. Y Y12 X12 Y11 X X11 3 .90.0) in global Cylindrical.10. with ID number 11 or greater. cylindrical.Global Coordinate Systems The global reference system for the model. or spherical. May be rotated about X. Local Coordinate Systems A user-defined system at a desired location. Y. or spherical (2). cylindrical (1).0) in global Cartesian is the same as (10. May be Cartesian (system 0). • For example.
Y. and Z axes in 3D space.Y. and Z axes. 4 .Screen Coordinate System Screen layout The Right-Hand Rule It provides an easy-to-understand reference to determine the positive and negative directions of the X. Knowing how to use this simple reference makes it easier to visualize the elationships of the X.
Is required to describe the shape of objectsand for monitoring changes in those shapes.Units Solid modeling systems use generic units internally. Coordinate system Allows for the mapping of positions andorientations in a 3 dimensional model space. Units are user specified either at creation of model or at point of output. Is used to ensure relevance between 3Dmodeling structures and their real world counterparts. – For example. 5 . when printing hardcopy or transferring data between applications. Within the database values are unitless CAD systems typically supply units at output.
Computer graphics Using X. a movable world coordinate system (WCS) may be used to assist in the construction of the model.Z Point Coordinates Three-dimensional (3D) models are constructed in 3D space . integer screen (absolute) coordinate system corresponds to the number of pixels on the screen. 6 .and.Y.typically in a right-handed cartesian coordinate system.Z Point Coordinates We will call this the global coordinate system (GCS) . in addition. Computer graphics Using X.Y. There will normally be a fixed coordinate system which is used for the overall definition of the model.
Orientation is typically ―right-handed‖. 7 .Computer graphics Coordinate formats (3-dimensional): Cartesian or rectangular Cylindrical polar Spherical Cartesian Coordinate System Most common format used in CAD systems spherical and polar systems do not permit vectorization Consists of a set of three mutually orthogonal axes. intersecting in a common point or origin.
0. Used to simplify input Data input is specified relative to +Z temporary system Data are transformed to absolute +Y’ reference internally +Z’ +X’ +Y +X 8 .Right-handed coordinte system +Z +Y Direction of positive rotation is given by the right-hand rule (0.0) +X Temporary Coordinate System Many also provide for the specification of temporary Local (or User-Defined) Coordinate Systems.
9 . edges. The user's coordinate system. commonly called world space is the highest level. Z = Z’) Z +Z Y’ Z=Z’ +Y 1 X’ +X World & Image Space Coordinate Systems A model is reduced to a picture by systematic transformation through several coordinate systems. while the device space is the lowest.Reference Planes Many modelers will allow for thespecification of new local coordinatesystems by specifying a reference (XY) plane May be located with respect to existing model geometry: – aligned with existing vertices. surfaces) – or to coordinate location (e.g.
World & Image Space Coordinate Systems Device space The actual coordinate system by which points are plotted on the graphics device. This is usually measured in pixels. 10 . the lower left corner of your window is (0. World & Image Space Coordinate Systems Screen Space It is defined to be the square -1 ≤ x.y plane. On the SGI machines. with x values increasing to the right and y values increasing upward.0). Most drivers for specific graphics devices are written to map this space onto device space. y ≤ 1 on the x.
which is commonly referred to as world space. y. etc. Points in image space are mapped onto the screen by projecting them. (0. they can be transformed. i.thus. z ≤ 1. via a parallel projection. onto the plane z=0 . After objects are created. 11 .0. To allow for depth calculations. World & Image Space Coordinate Systems Object Space The local coordinate system of an object being created.World & Image Space Coordinate Systems Image Space 3-D coordinate system containing Screen Space. and moved about a larger coordinate system.e. duplicated. this space is usually defined by -1 ≤ x.z) any point in image space will project to the center of the display screen.
World & Image Space Coordinate Systems World Space The coordinate system of the scene that is to be projected into image space for viewing. Computer graphics Points In 2D a single point can be presented by x y coordinates.z ≤ 1 .y. IY x. A mapping is usually constructed that maps an area of world space into the image space volume -1 ≤ x. [IX IY] = [x y] T In 3D [IX IY] = [x y z] T IX . y T : integer display coordinates : global life size coordinates : transformation matrix (2x2) T : 3x2 matix 12 .
Rotation does not affect the size or shape of the object.Geometric Transformations Modeling systems operate on model entities (and hence the database) through three transformation operations. y x 13 . Scaling (dilation) changes the size of the image without changing the shape. y’ x. Translation Rigid body transformation – Every point of entity moved equally a specified distance in a specified linear direction y May be specified in terms of: – Initial and final location of a reference point – A delta value with respect to the current coordinate system x’. Translation is a straightforward movement.
y x Dilation (scaling) Alters the absolute size of an entity by multiplying it’s geometric coefficients by a scale factor. point view of axis is used x. y Requires a rotation axis and angle – In the case of a 2D rotation. Scale factor may be applied equally in X.Rotation A rigid body rotation in which every point of an entity is revolved an equal amount about a reference. Y and Z directions – Entity shape remains the same y Scale factor may be applied differently in X.Y or Z – Entity shape changes Requires a base point x. y x 14 .
5. y C’ B’ C For point A A’ A For point B 0 For point C A(1.5) C(1. 2.5. y C’ C B’ A’ B A 0 A(1. 1.1) B(2.5.1) B(2.5) C(1.5) x 15 .Geometric Transformations Rotation of a triangle through 45º about origin. 2.5) B x Geometric Transformations Mirror image about the y-axis.5. 1.
which is conventionally called H. an extra element that can be set to unity is needed: An extra coordinate is needed. it is not the z-axis. Several possible transformations between global and homogeneuos coordinates are achived by changing H. Homogeneuos Coordinates To enable multiplication. 16 .Homogeneuos Coordinates The H-coordinate can be thought of as an extra scale factor.
using a 3x3 transformation matrix makes the mathematics very much easier. thus. for 3D global coordinates. 17 . a 4x4 transformation matrix is used. y] coordinates. y=Y/H and z=Z/H. [X Y H] where x = X/H & y = Y/H 3D Homogeneuos Coordinates Any point with global coordinates (x y z) can be scaled as (X Y Z H) where x=X/H.2D Homogeneuos Coordinates The extra dimension is conventionally called the H-axis and although the picture data is in 2D [x.
shearing and rotation.3D Homogeneuos Coordinates (x y z 1) = (X/H Y/H Z/H 1) (X Y Z 1) = (x y z 1) T where The 3x3 matrix produces scaling. The 1x3 matrix produces traslation. – same projection techniques used in engineering graphics The X x Y matrix of mapped points is stored in a memory device referred to as the screen buffer. Projection is based upon used line-ofsight X Y 18 . the 3x1 matrix generates a projection and the 1x1 matrix gives an extra scale factor Model display Accomplished by mapping 3D positions to a 2D viewing plane (the screen).
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