You are on page 1of 66

NEMA THREE PHASE

AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR

HOME STUDY COURSE


NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 1
Chapter 1- AC Motor Fundamentals
Electromagnetism ........................................................................................................................................... 1
AC Motor Components ................................................................................................................................... 4
Principles of Operation ................................................................................................................................... 5
AC Motor Fundamentals - Quiz ....................................................................................................................... 6

Chapter 2 - The Nameplate


Industry Standards ......................................................................................................................................... 7
Nameplate Data .............................................................................................................................................. 7
Load Considerations ...................................................................................................................................... 14
Additional Motor Data .................................................................................................................................... 17
The Nameplate - Quiz .................................................................................................................................... 27

Chapter 3 - Application Considerations


Variable Frequency ........................................................................................................................................ 28
Environmental Considerations ........................................................................................................................ 31
Efficiency and Energy Legislation .................................................................................................................. 32
Starting Methods ........................................................................................................................................... 35
Application Considerations - Quiz ................................................................................................................... 40

Chapter 4 - Product Offering


Standard and Premium Efficient Open Dripproof Motors .................................................................................. 42
Standard and Premium Efficient Totally Enclosed Motors ................................................................................ 43
Hostile Environment Motors ........................................................................................................................... 44
841 Plus ........................................................................................................................................................ 45
Explosionproof Motors ................................................................................................................................... 45
“C”Face and Pump Motors ............................................................................................................................. 48
Special Purpose Motors ................................................................................................................................. 48
U.S. Motors’Product Offering - Quiz ............................................................................................................... 52

General Formulas and Conversion Tables ................................................................................ 53


Quiz Answers ............................................................................................................................ 57
Glossary .................................................................................................................................... 61
U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS
DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

INTRODUCTION

Approximately 90% of all industrial applications use three phase induction motors. Why? The standard utility service is
three phase, 60 hertz. It is the most practical motor for uses requiring over five horsepower. Special mechanical or electrical
features for unusual conditions can be readily incorporated into a three phase induction motor. The three phase induction
motor is simpler, more rugged, more easily maintained and less expensive than any other motor type. It is truly the workhorse
of the industry!

The purpose of this home study guide is to familiarize you with AC motor fundamentals, motor terminology and the U.S.
Motors product offering. AC motors are used all over the world in residential, commercial, industrial and utility applications,
and U.S. Electrical Motors manufactures a wide variety of these motors for a wide variety of applications.

You will find a brief quiz at the end of each section in the course - we urge you to take a few minutes to answer the questions
before moving to the next section. A thorough understanding of this material will give you the ability to select and price the
right AC motor for you or your customer’s application.

We hope that you find the format of this course user-friendly; it has been designed to provide you with simple, straightforward
answers to your AC motors questions.

ELECTROMAGNETISM

About three thousand years ago, an unusual mineral was discovered in Asia Minor. The mineral had the ability to attract iron
objects. It was the first known magnetic material. Man-made magnets were put to practical use in about the twelfth century,
but the connection between magnets and electricity was not made until the mid-1800’s. This discovery led to the invention
of the first electric motor in 1887 by John Tesla.

A substance is called a magnet if it has the property of attracting materials, such as iron. Magnets are comprised of two
poles: a north pole and a south pole. These poles represent the points of maximum attraction. In the case of a bar shaped
magnet, the strongest magnetic effect is produced at each end. Magnets not only have south poles and north poles, but
they also have magnetic lines of force, often called magnetic flux.

U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS 1


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

The most basic law of magnetic force is that unlike poles attract each other, and like poles repel. Two important considerations
apply to magnetism:

1. Every magnetic object creates a magnetic field that can affect other magnetic objects.

2. Every magnetic object can be acted upon by the magnetic field of another object.

The following diagram shows a device that demonstrates how magnetic fields can transmit mechanical torque without
making contact. A change in cranking speed would produce a change in output speed.

Magnetic fields are important because of the relationship between magnetism and electricity. A moving charge produces a
magnetic field and a magnetic field exerts force on a moving charge. These two parts of the relationship between magnetism
and electricity have a great practical value. They form the basis for understanding motors, generators and many other
electrical devices.

Every moving electrical charge produces a magnetic field. The charge may be moving along a conductor, or it may be
moving through a vacuum. The strength of the magnetic field depends on the speed and the strength of the charge.

One of the most important magnetic devices using electricity is the electromagnet. An electromagnet consists of a coil of
wire that carries an electric current. Electromagnets are the same as permanent magnets, except they only have magnetic
properties when electrical power is applied to the coil.

As the example below shows, the paper clips will cling to the bar of metal when electrical power is applied. When electrical
power is removed, the bar of metal no longer has magnetic properties and the paper clips fall.

2 U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

One other important feature of the electromagnet is its ability to change magnetic polarity due to a change in the direction of
electric current flow through the coil. A reversal of magnetic poles brought about by a reversal of connections to the battery
terminals is shown below.

In the majority of alternating current (AC) motors, the realignment of the magnetic poles takes place due to the normal voltage
reversals of the AC power. Alternating current, as the name implies, is continuously reversing at a rate determined by its
frequency. The figure below shows an example of how AC current changes with time.

SINGLE PHASE

The figure shown above is a “single phase” current. However, if we mounted three coils of wire about the shaft equal
distances apart, each coil would produce an alternating current. This would then be “three phase”or “polyphase”current. But
since the coils are equally spaced around the “circle of rotation”, each coil will have a different amount of current at a particular
moment.

U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS 3


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

THREE PHASE

The stator currents that flow in the three phases of a 3-phase motor are identical to each other. They have the same
magnitude and lag their respective phase voltages by the same angle. The phase voltages are 120 electrical degrees apart,
the 3-phase currents are also 120 electrical degrees apart.

AC MOTOR COMPONENTS

Two major assemblies make up an AC motor: the rotor and the stator. The rotor is made up of the shaft, rotor core (a stack
of steel laminations that form slots and aluminum conductors and end rings formed by either a die cast or fabrication
process) and sometimes a fan. This is the rotating part of the electromagnetic circuit. A fabricated rotor core with air ducts
is shown here.

The other major part is the stator. The stator is formed from thin steel laminations stacked and fastened together so that the
notches (called slots) form a continuous lengthwise slot on the inside diameter.

4 U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

Insulation is inserted to line the slots, and then coils wound with many turns of wire are inserted into the slots to form a circuit.
Each grouping of coils, together with the steel core it surrounds, form an electromagnet. Electromagnetism is the principle
behind motor operation. The stator windings are connected directly to the power source.

To explain the relationship of the coils we can use an example of six coils, two coils for each of the three phases. The coils
operate in pairs. The coils are wrapped around the iron material of the stator. These coils are referred to as motor windings.
Each motor winding becomes a separate electromagnet. The coils are wound in such a way that when current flows in them
one coil is a north pole and its pair is a south pole.

The stator is connected to a 3-phase AC power supply. Each of the pairs of coils are connected to the three phases of the
power supply. The three phase windings are placed 120 degrees apart.

PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION

A motor is a device that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. It is also known as a torque producing device.
Torque is defined as a turning or twisting force supplied by a drive to the load. The induction motor derives its name from the
fact that the rotor is not connected electrically to the source of power supply. The currents that circulate in the rotor
conductors are not produced directly by the voltage of the power supply. They result from the voltage being induced in the
rotor by the magnetic field of the stator.

For its operation, the induction motor depends on a rotating magnetic field. This field is set up by the current flowing in the
stator windings. The magnetic field, rotating around the outer surface of the stator, cuts across the conductors embedded in
the rotor and induces voltages in the conductors. The voltages induced in the rotor windings (squirrel cage) cause currents
to flow in the rotor conductors. The current-carrying conductors are then exposed to a magnetic field. This causes a repelling
force between the conductors and the field, and produces a torque that causes the rotor to turn.
U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS 5
DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

AC MOTOR FUNDAMENTALS - QUIZ

1. The most basic law of magnetic force is that unlike poles attract and like poles repel each other.
True _____ False _____

2. What is the main difference between a permanent magnet and an electromagnet?

3. What is the difference between single phase and three phase alternating current?

4. What are the two major components of an AC motor?

5. High electrical currents produced by the stator do not produce any magnetic field in the rotor. True
_____ False _____

6. An electromagnet has the ability to change magnetic polarity due to a change in the direction of
electric current flow through the coil. True _____ False _____

7. Alternating current is continuously reversing (changing polarity) at a rate determined by its frequency.
True _____ False _____

8. In three phase alternating current, each winding produces an alternating current of the same amount
at any given moment. True _____ False _____

9. Explain what is meant by an “induction”motor.

6 U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

INDUSTRY STANDARDS

Motor development began in the 1800’s with Oersted and Faraday’s research on magnetism, and Sturgeon’s development of
the electromagnet in 1825. Davenport received the first patent on an electric motor in 1837. By 1890, AC generating stations
came into being, but many diverse routes were being taken at this time. Edison was working in his Pear Street station - on
DC. The city of Manhattan was on DC, Niagara Falls was generating at 25 cycles, California at 50 cycles, and Philadelphia
was utilizing two phase power.

Because of this, a number of organizations were established to standardize the motor industry. Many of today’s motor
standards have been established through organizations such as the National Electrical Manufacturers’Association (NEMA).
NEMA will be referred to frequently in this course; they have established standards for a wide range of electrical products,
including motors. NEMA is primarily associated with motors used in North America. The standards developed represent
general industry practices and are supported by the motor manufacturers. These standards can be found in NEMA Standard
Publication No. MG-1.

IEEE is another agency that has established electrical standards and recommended practices for the motor industry.
International standards exist as well, with organizations such as the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), the
Canadian Standards Association (CSA), the Japanese Standards (JEC), the British Standards (BS) and at least one organization
for each country that exists.

IEC is the organization responsible for motor standards in the European community. These standards differ from NEMA
standards, and can be found in IEC 34-1-16. These motors are referred to as IEC motors. This course will limit itself to NEMA
standards.

Underwriters’Laboratories (UL) is an independent testing organization that sets standards for motors and other electrical
equipment. The National Fire Protection Association, which sponsors the National Electrical Code (NEC) is used by insurance
inspectors and many government bodies regulating building codes.

These regulating agencies assist in the proper selection and application of motors. Standards established include definitions,
ratings, dimensions, tests and performance, application data and safety.

NAMEPLATE DATA

As a basic requirement of the National Electrical Code (NEC), the induction motor nameplate must show eight specific
items, including the manufacturer’s name; rated volts and full load amps; rated frequency and number of phases; rated full
load speed; rated temperature; time rating; rated horsepower and locked rotor indicating code letter.

U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS 7


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

Additional information will normally appear on most nameplates as well. This information might include the motor service
factor, enclosure type, the frame size, connection diagrams and unique or special features. The best way to approach a basic
understanding of what standardization means and to cover some of the material fundamental to standard induction motors is
to examine in detail the nameplate information contained on a typical motor.

Manufacturer’s Name.

You will also note that we have logos of additional agencies shown on the nameplate, including the UL recognition label, the
‘CE’mark for sales to the European Community and the Canadian Standards Association logo.

Rated Volts and Full Load Amps.

Each AC motor is designed for optimum performance with a specific line voltage applied. The most frequently used domestic
voltages for three phase systems are 230 and 460. Motors rated for these voltages will operate within the limits established
by NEMA at rated voltage.

Since line voltage is apt to vary over a period of time due to power system load conditions, the motor must be designed to
cope with some voltage variations. Standard induction motors are designed to tolerate voltage variations plus or minus
10%. Thus, a motor with a nameplate voltage rating of 230 could be expected to give satisfactory but not necessarily ideal
performance when supplied with power ranging from a low value of 207 to a high extreme of 253 volts.

Rated Frequency and Number of Phases


s

This indicates the frequency for which the motor is designed in hertz (cycles per second). 60 Hertz power is utilized
throughout the United States and Canada, as well as a few other countries. Motors are designed to tolerate a frequency
variance of plus or minus 5%, and a motor should be able to handle both voltage and frequency variations at the same time.

In most industrial and commercial installations, the power systems, and consequently the induction motors, will either be
single phase or three phase. The cost effectiveness and efficiency of the three phase induction motor makes it the natural

8 U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

choice for all requirements where three phase power is available.

Single phase motors may be used on fractional horsepower requirements (less than one horsepower) and in applications
such as agricultural installations, where three phase power is not available (usually through a maximum horsepower rating
of 10 HP).

Following are graphs showing the sine wave for both single and three phase alternating current. Alternating current is
defined as the flow of electrons which periodically changes in amount and direction. The single phase graph shows how AC
current changes with time. Most generators produce three separate current flows, all superimposed on the same circuit. A
three phase power system is built around a set of three equal AC voltages, each produced by a separate set of windings
within an electric generator. Those windings are displaced by 120 electrical degrees within the generator so that the
sinusoidal voltage produced by each is physically displaced by one-third of a cycle from each of the other two.

SINGLE PHASE

THREE PHASE

Rated Full Load Speed

The rated full load speed, or rpm (revolutions per minute) of a motor is the speed at which the motor will operate under full
torque conditions when applied voltage and frequency are held constant at the rated values. On standard induction motors,
the full load speed, or actual speed, will normally be between 95 and 99% of synchronous speed. This is also known as slip.
s

U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS 9


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

Synchronous speed is the theoretical speed of a motor based on the rotating magnetic field. The formula for obtaining
synchronous speed is

S = 120 x F where S = synchronous speed in revolutions per minute


— — — F = frequency in hertz
P P = number of poles in the motor

The number of poles and the speed of an induction motor are used interchangeably. If you know one, you can determine the
other with the formula shown above. Standard rpms are as follows:

TYPICAL
ACTUAL SYNCHRONOUS NUMBER
SPEED SPEED OF POLES
3530 3600 2
1750 1800 4
1175 1200 6
880 900 8

Rated Temperature Rise Or The Insulation


System Class and Rated Ambient Temperature
s
s

One of the most critical items relating to the life of any type of electrical equipment (ranging from televisions to giant power
generators) is the maximum temperature that occurs at the hottest point within the unit and the length of time that the high
temperature is allowed to exist. The maximum allowable safe operating temperature occurring at the hottest spot within a
motor is determined by:

1. The temperature of the air surrounding the motor. This is the ambient temperature. Motors are rated using a 40°C
ambient (104°F).

2. The heat created within the motor due to its operation at a fully loaded condition. This is the temperature rise.

3. The thermal capability of all the insulating materials used within the motor. For simplicity, these materials have been
broken into classes A, B, F and H.

This standard 20,000 hour life temperature class is based on ambient plus the heat created within the motor during operation.
Please keep in mind that motors are designed to withstand some very high temperatures. As an example, Class B is rated
at 130°C, which is 266°F, or 54 degrees above the boiling point of water. Motors have been designed to withstand this type
of heat.

10 U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

Insulating materials prevent metal to metal contact or interaction of phase to phase shorts. This is also known as dielectric
strength - it limits the effects of voltage variations. Insulation System Classes are as follows:

CLASS 20,000 HOUR LIFE TEMPERATURE

A 105°C
B 130°C
F 155°C
H 180°C

Time Rating

s
General purpose motors will be rated for continuous duty. When motors are to be utilized for specific, well-defined applications
where they will be operating for short periods of time, it is possible to reduce their size, weight and cost by loading them to
higher torques than would be possible if they were to operate continuously. As an example, garbage disposals are normally
rated for 15 minutes, since they would rarely operate for a longer period of time. The standard time ratings are 5 minutes, 15
minutes, 30 minutes, 60 minutes and continuous.

Rated Horsepower

s
This represents the rated horsepower output when the motor is loaded to rated torque at rated speed. NEMA has established
standard horsepower ratings, from fractional through thousands of horsepower. The standard horsepower ratings from 1
through 4000 are shown below. When application horsepower requirements fall between two standardized values, the
larger size is usually chosen. This adds a margin of safety that will reduce the motor’s operating temperature rise and
extend the operating life of the motor.

STANDARD HORSEPOWER RATINGS


1 THRU 4000 HP
1 30 300 1250
1-1/2 40 350 1500
2 50 400 1750
3 60 450 2000
5 75 500 2250
7-1/2 100 600 2500
10 125 700 3000
15 150 800 3500
20 200 900 4000
25 250 1000

U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS 11


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

The illustration below shows how the term horsepower came about. The work capacity of a horse was used to define the
power of an electric motor. It was determined that a horse could lift 1000 pounds, thirty-three feet, in one minute. It is the
amount of work done in a given amount of time.

From this, our formula for horsepower is

FOOT POUNDS PER MINUTE


HP =
33,000
-OR-

FOOT POUNDS PER SECOND


HP =
550

12 U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

AC motors used in North America are generally rated in horsepower. Equipment manufacturing in Europe is generally rated
in kilowatts (KW). Horsepower can be converted to kilowatts with the following formula:

KW = .746 x HP

Kilowatts can be converted to horsepower with this formula:

HP = 1.341 x KW

The relationship between horsepower and torque should also be noted here. Torque is the turning or twisting force supplied by
a drive to the load. Units of measure are inch pounds or foot pounds. Torque and horsepower are related to each other by a
basic formula that states:

The following graph shows the relationship between horsepower and torque. With only speed as the variable, you will note
that a one horsepower, 600 RPM motor would have approximately the same output torque as a three horsepower, 1800
RPM motor.

U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS 13


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

LOAD CONSIDERATIONS

Note that only after the load has been started and adequate torque is available to run the load, does speed become a factor.
There are three basic load types, and these types are classified by the relationship of horsepower and speed. Constant
torque applications are those that have the same torque at all operating speeds, and horsepower varies directly with the
speed. About 90% of all applications, other than pumps, are constant torque loads. Examples of this type include conveyors,
hoisting loads, surface winding machines, positive displacement pumps and piston and screw compressors.

Constant horsepower applications have higher values of torque at lower speeds, and lower values of torque at higher
speeds. Examples include lathes, milling machines, drill presses and center winders.

14 U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

The drills in the diagram below are an example of a constant horsepower application. When a larger hole is being drilled, the
drill is operating at low speed, but it requires a very high torque to turn the large drill in the material. When a small hole is being
drilled, the drill is operated at a high speed, but it requires a very low torque to run the small drill in the material.

Spring coilers, punch presses and eyeletting presses will frequently have torque requirements falling somewhere between the
characteristics of constant horsepower and constant torque. A general test for deciding if a machine might require constant
horsepower would be to study the machine output. When a machine is designed to produce a fixed number of pounds per
hour regardless of whether it is making small parts at high speed, or large parts at a lower speed, the drive requirement is apt
to be constant horsepower.

The last basic load type is variable torque. The torque required varies as the square of its speed, and horsepower requirements
increase as the cube of the speed. Examples include centrifugal pumps, turbine pumps, centrifugal blowers, fans and
centrifugal compressors.

U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS 15


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

And a discussion of load types would not be complete without including information on high inertia loads. A load is considered
to be ‘high inertia’when the reflected inertia at the motor shaft is greater than five times the motor rotor inertia. Inertia is the
tendency of an object that is at rest to stay at rest or an object that is moving to keep moving.

We tend to think of flywheels as having high inertia; but, many other types of motor driven equipment, such as large fans,
centrifuges, extractors, hammer mills and some types of machine tools, have inertias that have to be identified and analyzed
in order to produce satisfactory applications.

The high inertia aspect of a load generally only becomes a problem during acceleration. For example, if a standard motor
is applied to a large high inertia blower, there is a possibility that the motor could be damaged or fail completely on its first
attempt to start. This failure could occur even though the motor might have more than adequate torque and horsepower
capacity to drive the load after it reaches the required running speed. A good example of high inertia that most of us are
familiar with would be a ferris wheel or a large fan.

In most cases, equipment manufacturers will be able to provide the typical inertia values for a given application. General
guidelines on the inertias that standard motors can safely accelerate are given in MG1-14.40.

Locked Rotor Indicating Code Letter

When AC motors are started with full voltage applied, they draw line currents substantially greater than their full load running
current rating. The magnitude of the so-called inrush current is a function of motor horsepower and the design characteristics
of the motor.

In order to define the inrush characteristics and present them in a simplified form, a series of code letters group motors
depending on the range of inrush in terms of kilovolt amperes. By using the kilovolt ampere basis, a simple letter can be
used to define both the low voltage and high voltage inrush values on dual voltage motors. The electrician installing the motor
uses this information to properly size the starter for the motor. Following is a listing of the code letter designations.

16 U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

To determine the across the line starting inrush amperes from the code letter designation, the code letter value, horsepower
and rated operating voltage are inserted in the appropriate equation. The equation to be used is determined by whether the
motor is single or three phase. The following simplified equations will give approximate results for three phase motors rated
for 200, 230 or 460 volts:

200 Volts LRA = Code letter value x HP x 2.9


230 Volts LRA = Code letter value x HP x 2.5
460 Volts LRA = Code letter value x HP x 1.25

Generally, standard motors of 15 HP or larger will have code letters of G or lower; 10 HP and smaller motors will have code
letters of H or higher.

ADDITIONAL MOTOR DATA

We have now covered all of the required data on a nameplate. But, as you have probably noticed, much more information is
generally provided by the motor manufacturer.

Motor Service Factor (SF)


s

NEMA defines service factor as a multiplier, when applied to the rated horsepower, indicates a permissible horsepower
loading, which may be carried under the conditions specified for the service factor at rated voltage and frequency. This
service factor can be used for the following:

1. To accommodate inaccuracy in predicting intermittent system horsepower needs.

2. To lengthen insulation life by lowering the winding temperature at rated load.

3. To handle intermittent or occasional overloads.

4. To allow occasionally for ambients above 40°C.

5. To compensate for low or unbalanced supply voltages.

NEMA does add some cautions, however, when discussing service factor:

1. Operation at service factor load will usually reduce the motor speed, life and efficiency.

2. Do not rely on the service factor capability to carry the load on a continuous basis.

3. The service factor was established for operation at rated voltage, frequency, ambient and sea level conditions.

U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS 17


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

Enclosure Type

s
The enclosure of the motor must protect the windings, bearings, and other mechanical parts from moisture, chemicals,
mechanical damage and abrasion from grit. NEMA standards MG1-1.25 through 1.27 define more than 20 types of enclosures
under the categories of open machines, totally enclosed machines, and machines with encapsulated or sealed windings.
The most commonly used motor enclosures are open dripproof, totally enclosed fan cooled and explosionproof.

Open Dripproof. The open dripproof motor (ODP) has a free exchange of air with the ambient. Drops of liquid or solid
particles do not interfere with the operation at any angle from 0 to 15 degrees downward from the vertical. The openings are
intake and exhaust ports to accommodate interchange of air. The open dripproof motor is designed for indoor use where the
air is fairly clean and where there is little danger of splashing liquid.

Totally Enclosed Fan Cooled (TEFC). This type of enclosure prevents the free exchange of air between the inside and
outside of the frame, but does not make the frame completely airtight. A fan is attached to the shaft and pushes air over the
frame during its operation to help in the cooling process. The ribbed frame is designed to increase the surface area for cooling
purposes. There is also a totally enclosed non-ventilated (TENV) design which does not use a fan, but is used in situations
where air is being blown over the motor shell for cooling, such as in a propeller fan application.

The TEFC style enclosure is the most versatile of all. It is used on pumps, fans, compressors, general industrial belt drive
and direct connected equipment. The footless “C”face type is used as an input to speed reducers for material handling
equipment, and the multispeed version can be used on fans, blowers and machine tools. Conversion to brake motors are
used on conveyors, speed reducers and other equipment requiring quick stops. Special protection can be added to the TEFC
motor to help it withstand hostile environments such as chemical and pulp and paper applications.

18 U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

Explosionproof. The explosionproof motor is a totally enclosed machine and is designed to withstand an explosion of
specified gas or vapor inside the motor casing and prevent the ignition outside the motor by sparks, flashing or explosion.
These motors are designed for specific hazardous purposes, such as atmospheres containing gases or hazardous dusts.
For safe operation, the maximum motor operating temperature must be below the ignition temperature of surrounding gases
or vapors. Explosionproof motors are designed, manufactured and tested under the rigid requirements of the Underwriters
Laboratories.

Hazardous location motor applications are classified by the type of hazardous environment present, the characteristics of the
specific material creating the hazard, the probability of exposure to the environment, and the maximum temperature level that
is considered safe for the substance creating the hazard. The format used to define this information is a class, group,
division and temperature code structure.

Efficiency
s

Efficiency is defined as the ratio of the power output divided by the power input. Machine losses are in the form of heat, and
include stator winding loss, rotor loss, core loss (hysteresis and eddy current), friction and windage, and stray load loss.

NEMA standard MG1-12.54.2 provides instructions for establishing the value of efficiency. The standard states that the
nominal efficiency shown on the nameplate shall not be greater than the average efficiency of a large population of motors
of the same design. And, the full load efficiency, when operating at rated voltage and frequency, shall not be less than
the minimum value associated with the nominal value.

Care should be taken in comparing efficiencies from one motor manufacturer to another. It is difficult to compare efficiencies
based on published, quoted or test data, due to the fact that there is no single standard method which is used throughout the
industry. The most common referred to standards are IEEE 112 (U.S.), IEC (International), JEC-27 (Japanese), BS-269
(British) and ANSI C50.20 (same as IEEE 112). IEEE 112 is used more than any of the others in the United States. However,
even it allows for a variety of test methods to be used. The preferred procedure is IEEE method B, where the motor is
operated at full load, and the power is directly measured.

U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS 19


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

Frame Size. Motor frame dimensions have been standardized with a uniform frame size numbering system. This system
was developed by NEMA and specific frame sizes have been assigned to standard motor ratings based on enclosure,
horsepower and speed.

The current standardized frames for integral horsepower induction motors ranges from 143T to 445T. These standards cover
most motors in the range of one through two hundred horsepower.
s

The numbers used to designate frame sizes have specific meanings based on the physical size of the motor. The first two
digits are related to the motor shaft height and the remaining digit or digits relate to the length of the motor.

As a rule of thumb, you can calculate the shaft height on horizontal motors in inches, (“D”dimension), by dividing the first two
digits of the frame size by four. Please note that this works on all foot-mounted NEMA frame motors in 143T through 445T
frames.

The third digit of the frame size is related to the length of the motor but there is no rule of thumb that can be easily applied.
It is important to note that when standard foot-mounted motors have frame sizes that differ only in the third digit, the shaft
diameters, shaft lengths, and distance from the end of the shaft to the bolt holes in the feet on the shaft end of the motor will
be the same.

The length difference in the examples above occur between the feet as shown by dimensions A and B. The suffix T indicates
that the motor frame assignment conforms to the current, or so called “T”frame “Nu-Rate”standards which were adopted in
1964.

Between 1954 and 1964, a different set of standard frame assignments were utilized. In many automotive manufacturing and
some process industries, there is still a preference for the “U”frame motors. The “U”frame motor is substantially larger and
heavier than an equivalent “T”frame motor.

Prior to 1954, a third set of NEMA standard frame sizes existed. The table which follows shows the various NEMA frame
assignments for totally enclosed motors based on speed and horsepower for the original (pre-1952), “U”frame (1952-1964)
and “T”frame (current) standards.

20 U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

TOTALLY ENCLOSED

The rerate, or frame size reduction programs were brought about by advancements in motor technology relating mainly to
higher temperature ratings of insulating materials, improved magnetic steels and improved bearings. At the present time,
NEMA frame assignments do no exist for motors larger than 445T and each manufacturer may have different frame designations
for these motors.

One additional suffix that may be used on standard motors in frames 284T and larger is an “S”inserted after the “T”. This “S”
stands for short shaft. These motors are arranged to be directly coupled to loads, such as the centrifugal pump shown below.

In addition to having a short shaft, the motor will have a small diameter shaft (“U”dimension) and the bearing in the drive shaft
end of the motor will be somewhat smaller than the equivalent long shaft motor. Short shaft motors are intended for use only
on direct coupled centrifugal pumps and other direct coupled loads where there will not be a side pull (overhung load) exerted
on the shaft by “V”belts.

U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS 21


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

Manufacturer’s Identification Number. This model and/or catalog number is used to establish motor identity and age for
replacement parts and warranty.

s
NEMA Design Letter

s
Changes in motor windings and rotor design will alter the performance characteristics of induction motors. Motors are
designed with certain speed torque characteristics to match the speed torque requirements of the various loads. To obtain
some uniformity in application, NEMA has designated specific designs of general purpose motors having specified locked
rotor torque, breakdown torque, slip, starting current, or other values. The following graph shows the relationship between
speed and torque that the motor produces from the moment of start until the motor reaches full load torque at rated speed.

Locked rotor torque, or starting torque, is developed when the rotor is held at rest with the rated voltage and frequency
applied. This condition occurs each time a motor is started. When rated voltage and frequency are applied to the stator, there
is a brief amount of time before the rotor turns. At this instant, a NEMA B motor develops approximately 150% of its full load
torque.

The magnetic attraction of the rotating magnetic field will cause the rotor to accelerate. As the motor picks up speed, torque
decreases slightly until it reaches pull up torque. As the speed increases the torque increases until it reaches it’s maximum
at about 200%. This is called breakdown, pullout or stall torque.

Torque decreases rapidly as speed increases beyond breakdown torque until it reaches full-load torque at a speed slightly
less than 100% of synchronous speed. Full load torque is the torque developed when the motor is operating with rated
voltage, frequency and load. The speed at which full-load torque is produced is the slip speed or rated speed of the motor.

22 U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

Minimum acceptable values for different motor designs have been established and are identified by the letters A, B, C and
D. The general shapes of the four typical torque-speed characteristics are shown here.

NEMA Design B motors have normal starting torque, with low starting current. These are the most widely used design, and
have locked rotor torques adequate for starting a wide variety of industrial machines and locked rotor starting currents
acceptable to most power systems. Some Design B applications would include machine tools, fans and blowers, compressors,
chippers, and centrifugal pumps.

Design A motors have normal starting torque and high starting current. Typical applications would include equipment having
brief heavy overloads, such as an injection molding machine.

NEMA Design C motors have high starting torque (approximately 225%) and low starting current. These motors have high
locked rotor torque and relatively high full load slip. They are especially suited for starting heavy loads such as reciprocating
compressors, stokers, crushers and pulverizes, as well as positive displacement pumps.

Design D motors have high starting torque and low starting current, but with high slip. At no load the motor operates with little
slip. When peak load is applied the motor slip increases appreciably, allowing the unit to absorb the energy. This reduces
power peaks supplied by the electrical system, resulting in a more uniform power requirement. These motors may be
used on applications like a low speed punch press with a heavy flywheel, or hoisting applications.

Bearing Part Numbers. The bearing part numbers on U.S. Motors’machines are made conveniently available on the nameplate
so that, when required, procurement of replacement bearings can be carried out prior to motor disassembly.
s

U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS 23


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

Connection Diagrams. Connection diagrams can be found on the nameplate of some motors, or the diagrams may be
located inside the motor conduit box or on a special connection plate.

Unique or Special Features. This information could include special features such as refined balance, special insulation
treatments, space heaters, internal motor overheat protection, or any one of many other special construction features.

Obviously, information such as horsepower, speed, voltage and frequency are very important in determining the right motor
for your customer’s needs. However, after getting all the information on a motor requirement, if you don’t ask your customer
about the assembly position required, the motor you choose may be unusable. The standard assembly positions are:

And, what about the connection to the load? It could be direct connected by a coupling, a clutch or a spline. In this case, good
alignment is important, and this type of connection imposes a small load on the bearings.

24 U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

It might be belt, chain, or gear drive connected to the load. This configuration imposes a radial load on the motor bearings
referred to as overhung load. Good alignment and proper belt and chain tensions are important. Gear drives may also impose
axial or thrust load on the motor bearings.

Perhaps your customer requires a face or flange connection. The male motor register is aligned with the female register of the
load such as a gear drive or a pump. The shaft of the motor might even carry a pinion, a pump impeller or a blower.

U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS 25


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

And what about mounting? The most common type of mounting is the horizontal, rigid foot mounting. This configuration is
suitable for any of the connections shown above, and the motor can be mounted on a solid foundation, adjustable bases or
slide rails.

A NEMA C-Face end shield mounting, either footed or footless, can be used. The C-face has a male register with tapped
mounting holes that attaches directly to the driven equipment.

Using a NEMA “D”flange end shield mounting is another method. Generally, this is the same as a C-face except mounting
holes are thru-holes as opposed to tapped holes.

26 U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

THE NAMEPLATE - QUIZ

1. What is the major purpose of organizations such as NEMA?

2. Rated Frequency and Number of Phases, Rated Volts and Full Load Amps and the Service
Factor of a motor are all required nameplate data according to NEC. True _____ False _____

3. Induction motors are synchronous units. True _____ False _____

4. The standard temperature life of a motor is based on the ambient plus the heat created within the
motor during operation. True _____ False _____

5. Explain how torque and horsepower are related.

6. What is the locked rotor indicating code letter used for?

7. Define efficiency.

8. The shaft height of a motor can be determined from the first two digits of the frame size.
True _____ False _____

9. “U”frame motors are still in use today. True _____ False _____

10. What letter designates the superstandard and most widely used NEMA design?

U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS 27


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

VARIABLE FREQUENCY

The AC induction motor is normally a fixed speed device because the utility power is a fixed frequency supply. AC adjustable
speed drives eliminate this restriction because they are able to change the supply frequency to the motor. If we look back to
the previous chapter, we find that motor speed is a function of the number of poles (which is a constant once the motor is
manufactured) and the supply frequency.

If we accept the fact that the drive does change the supply frequency, then we can plug some values into the motor formula
for speed and see the results.

120 x frequency
Motor Speed =
# poles
120 x 60
1800 =
4

This represents the speed of a four pole motor. Now, let’s change the frequency to 30 . . . .

120 x 30
900 =
4
and, 10 hertz . . . .
120 x 60
300 =
4

Now you can see how a previously constant speed motor can operate at more than one speed, if the frequency can be
changed. An inverter, ASD, VFD, AFC, Adjustable Speed Controller, Adjustable Frequency Controller, Variable Frequency
Drive and PWM drive (many different terms for the same thing) allows a fixed speed motor to operate at an infinite number of
speeds. Why would our customers want inverters? To solve a problem, improve a product, automate a plant - and, to save
money.

The AC power at the output of the inverter is different from the AC power that is supplied by the utility. AC adjustable speed
power is a synthesized square wave power. Utility power is a sine wave type of power.

28 U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

Drive Technology has changed by leaps and bounds - today, we see flux vector drives, micro-drives, and even variable
frequency drives in the motor. At the same time, costs have dropped, which makes the savings on energy and maintenance
costs and the improved process efficiency even more desirable.

The drive technology continues to evolve, originally utilizing current source and 6-Step Modulation, most manufacturers
today use the PWM (pulse width modulated) technology, moving away from SCR’s to the IGBT. Analog circuits have been
replaced by digital signals and fast acting computers. Custom components and circuits have replaced larger single components
and many circuit boards.

Switching frequencies have increased from 360 hertz to 20k hertz or higher. Output frequency range has expanded from 6-
60 hertz to 0-1000 hertz. Low performance standard drives are now high performance multifunction controllers.

Wall size units are now palm size. All of these innovations have made it necessary for motor manufacturers to adjust to the
technical challenges presented by today’s drives. Please refer to the Inverter Duty Motor Home Study Course for a complete
discussion of the application considerations of PWM inverters and AC induction motors to a total system. Obviously, the
PWM waveform has a tremendous impact on the motor life and performance.

Motor manufacturers have accepted these new challenges by developing and publishing industry specifications that define
both general purpose duty and definite purpose duty. U.S. Motors was the first to develop and produce a motor product that
meets the definite purpose specification, and has continued its research and development as well as improving technical and
application assistance for motors utilized on VFD power.

NEMA MG1-1993, Part 30 and 31 define what level of ‘Inverter Duty’motor is required:

Part 30 - Level 1. General purpose product capable of reliable performance in inverter installations where peak transients do
not exceed 1000 volts and/or rise times are not shorter than 2 microseconds.

Part 31 - Level 2. Definite purpose product capable of reliable performance in inverter installations where peak voltages do
not exceed 1600 volts and/or rise times are not shorter than .1 microsecond.

U.S. Motors was the first motor manufacturers to develop a motor to meet customer expectations for inverter applications.
The Varidyne Series Motor is a total AC Variable Frequency design package, including pulse resistant magnet wire, precision
phase, slot and cell insulation, and maximized steel and copper content. The Varidyne motor has a high rigidity stator core
treatment and low vibration rotor assembly. The Inverter Grade insulation system gives you reliable performance and is
compatible with all brands of variable frequency drives.

U.S. Motors also has a complete line of premium efficient and energy efficient products that can be used on AFD’s when the
following parameters are followed. Premium efficiency Unimount (type UTE), Dripproof (type DE/RE), Hostile Duty (type
CTE), Auto Duty (type JDE) and Corro-Duty (type TCE) motors meet NEMA MG-1, Section IV, Part 31.40.42. All motors
have 40°C ambient, 1.0 service factor on inverter power, 3300 feet maximum altitude and all enclosed motors have Class F
insulation and are suitable for use with adjustable frequency drives under the following parameters:

• Up to 10:1 speed range on variable torque loads


• Up to 4:1 speed range on constant torque loads
• 1.0 Service Factor
• 600 volt or less line power
• Cable limitations per the following table
• Standard 2 year warranty

U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS 29


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

Maximum Cable Distance AFD to Motor

Switching 460 Volt 575 Volt 230 Volt 380 Volt


Frequency Premium Premium Premium Premium
3Khz 196 ft 53 ft 482 ft 295 ft
6Khz 138 ft 37 ft 340 ft 209 ft
9Khz 113 ft 31 ft 278 ft 170 ft
12Khz 98 ft 26 ft 241 ft 148 ft
15Khz 88 ft 24 ft 215 ft 132 ft
20Khz 76 ft 21 ft 186 ft 114 ft

For voltages and switching frequencies not listed above please use the following formula to determine maximum cable
distance:

1328 - (2.15 x Voltage)


Square Root (Switching Freq)
= Feet

Energy Efficient World Motors Unimount (type FUT), Dripproof (type FD/FR), Hostile Duty (type FCT) and Corro-Duty (type
FTC) motors meet NEMA MG-1, Section IV, Part 30.02.3.9. All motors have 40°C ambient, 1.0 service factor on inverter
power, 3300 feet maximum altitude and all enclosed motors have Class F insulation and are suitable for use with adjustable
frequency drives under the following parameters:

• Up to 10:1 speed range on variable torque loads


• Up to 2:1 speed range on constant torque loads
• 1.0 Service Factor
• 460 volt or less line power
• Cable limitations per the following table
• Standard 1 year warranty

Maximum Cable Distance AFD to Motor

Switching 460 Volt 230Volt 380 Volt


Frequency Energy Energy Energy
Efficient Efficient Efficient
3Khz 103 ft 435 ft 218 ft
6Khz 73 ft 307 ft 154 ft
9Khz 59 ft 251 ft 126 ft
12Khz 51 ft 217 ft 109 ft
15Khz 46 ft 194 ft 98 ft
20Khz 40 ft 168 ft 85 ft

If application requirements exceed these standards, an output filter must be applied or an inverter rated Varidyne motor or
new 841 Plus “S”model with Inverter Grade insulation must be used.

Again, please refer to the Inverter Duty Motor Home Study Course for full details of the affects of inverter drives on motors
and U.S. Motors full product offering.

30 U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS

AC motors that are properly selected and used should give many years of satisfactory service. Motor life is prolonged by
keeping the motor cool, dry, clean and lubricated. Choosing the best motor for the application and the environment will insure
that long life. Because so many conditions contribute toward short service life, it is impractical to set forth all possibilities,
but some discussion will help point out the need for application analysis where trouble is experienced.

Overheating. Heat is one of the most destructive stresses causing premature motor failure. Overheating occurs because of
motor overloading, low or unbalanced voltage at the motor terminals, excessive ambient temperatures, or poor cooling
caused by dirt or lack of ventilation. If the heat is not dissipated, insulation failure and possibly lubrication and bearing failure
can damage a motor.

Moisture. Moisture should be kept from entering a motor. Water from splashing or condensation seriously degrades an
insulation system. The water alone is conducting. Nonconducting contaminants are readily converted into good leakage
current conductors. The proper type of motor should be chosen for use in a damp environment. Most motors can be equipped
with drains or breathers to allow moisture to drain from the motor. Space heaters are also available to prevent moisture
condensation in the motor during times the motor is not running like the heater shown below.

Contamination. Nonconducting contaminants such as factory dust and sand gradually promote over-temperature by restricting
cooling air circulation. In addition, these may erode the insulation and the varnish, gradually reducing their effectiveness.

Altitude. Standard motor ratings are based on operation at any altitude up to 3300 feet (1000 meters). High altitude derating
is required above 3300 feet because of lower air density.

Ambient Temperature. The standard ambient temperature is 40°C, or 104°F. This value was selected as one that would
seldom be exceeded for any appreciable length of time in the majority of cases. Motors are usually designed for this
temperature unless there is a definite requirement for a machine with some other value.

Motors for use in abnormally hot places are usually designed to accommodate the higher ambient by having a lower winding
temperature rise, and are sometimes designed in a larger frame size. The opposite is also true. Operation of motors in very
cold ambients can result in severe duty on the motor component parts. Arctic duty motors are available from U.S. Motors that

U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS 31


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

are rated for operation down to minus 60°C.


A variety of modifications and accessories are available for use on AC motors to protect them from the environment. In
addition to those mentioned above, a cast iron, TEFC motor with CORRO-DUTY protection, which resists the effects of salt
water, solvents, various acids and chemicals can be provided.

Screens can be placed on the openings of an ODP style motor to protect the inside electrical components from small
animals. Seals or slingers can be placed on the output shaft of a motor to help prevent intrusion of liquids or particles.

EFFICIENCY AND ENERGY LEGISLATION

Enactment of the Federal Energy Act of 1992 took place on October 24, 1997, and this act, commonly referred to as
EPACT92, governs the efficiency of general purpose motors, among many other products. This information is based on data
available from the Department of Energy, NEMA and other nationally recognized associations. It obviously is subject to
change, as the DOE formulates the actual Federal code that will regulate integral horsepower electric motors and releases
that information through the Federal Register.

Product. Motor product covered by this act includes general purpose motors from 1 to 200 horsepower, open and enclosed
designs, with three digit NEMA T frames, single speed, 2, 4 and 6 pole designs, foot mounted, three phase, squirrel cage
induction Design A or B motors, rated for continuous duty, 230 or 460 volt, 60 hertz, that are manufactured after October 24,
1997. Motor products not covered include definite purpose motors and special purpose motors.

Note that only Design A&B motors are regulated by this legislation; the remaining designs C and D account for a very small
portion of the market and the benefit to redesign may not be technically feasible or economically justifiable. Estimates by
NEMA and its member companies put the affects of the energy act at approximately 75% of the 1 to 200 horsepower motors
sold in the U.S. annually.

Labeling. The energy act requires that each motor manufacturer label general purpose product with a NEMA nominal
efficiency. The accuracy of that number will be determined by a manufacturer’s use of a computer simulation program known
as correlation. The DOE has asked each manufacturer to verify the accuracy of their correlation method through a series of
actual motor tests that would demonstrate the overall reliability and repeatability of the method. The NEMA energy taskforce
members have jointly developed a laboratory standard in conjunction with NVLAP (National Voluntary Lab Accreditation
Program) that will allow each manufacturer to certify the accuracy of test data within his own facility. It is also expected that
third party labs, such as UL, will apply for similar status and accreditation.

Rewound Motors. The question of motor rewind comes up often in discussions of EPACT92. Rewinding of motors is not
addressed in the act itself. Several members of the DOE staff are aware of the affects of rewind, not only in potentially
reducing efficiency of a rewound motor but also of prolonging the life of an older designed product with very low efficiency.
EASA (Electrical Apparatus Service Association), as the representative of the rewind industry, has spent a great deal of time
and resource to develop standards of rewind for energy efficient motors. They have requested motor manufacturers to supply
an ever increasing amount of winding and test data to help them meet their standards.

Motor User Issues. To address a concern regarding adequate starting torque, U.S. Motors Engineering Department has
completed some in depth studies on a wide range of motors and applications. The conclusions reached by this study support
the hypothesis that energy efficient and premium efficient motors, when applied correctly, will offer the user a more reliable
product that runs cooler and lasts longer than the standard efficient product being replaced.

The only significant difference in performance that may occur is a slight increase in speed. Since the energy efficient design
better uses the motor’s active materials, the losses are less, which can result in slight speed increases.

The next two pages contain the tables from MG1-1993, Table 12-10, for both open and enclosed motors. These tables show
the nominal and minimum efficiency percentages for general purpose motors as enacted by EPACT92, from 1 through 500

32 U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS 33


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

34 U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

horsepower, for both NAM and IEC motors.


STARTING METHODS

There are a number of ways to start squirrel cage induction motors. Each method has its own characteristics and place of
correct application. You should refer to the motor manufacturer for any starting method other than across the line starting. It
is important to understand that applications requiring any other type of starting method necessitate careful consideration of
the motor torque to accelerate the load.

Across the line.

Starting characteristics:
Motor terminal voltage equals line voltage.
Motor current equals line current.
Starting torque equals rated starting torque.

Applications:
Use where system capacity and stiffness are sufficient to stand the high starting current without excessive
voltage drop.

Series Resistance reduced voltage. In this method, a voltage-dropping resistance is placed in series with the motor during
starting. The impedance seen by the power system then is the resistance of the resistor starter plus that of the motor.

U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS 35


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

Starting characteristics:
Motor terminal voltage is reduced from line voltage.
Starting torque is reduced by the square of the terminal voltage.

Applications:
Usually on low voltage (less than 600 volts).
Where load torque during acceleration is minimal.
Not often used with large motors because of the high heat loss in the resistors.
May be used for full acceleration or for system voltage recovery.

Solid state reduced voltage. In this method, a solid state starter, consisting of power SCR’s controlled by logic circuits, is
used to chop the sine-wave system power so that only a portion of the wave is applied to the motor. The logic circuits can be
programmed to respond to any of several sensors to control the voltage: internal time ramp, current sensor feedback or
tachometer feedback. In addition, most starters have provisions to reduce the voltage when the loading on the motor is low,
thus minimizing the no load losses of the motor.

Starting characteristics:
Motor terminal voltage is reduced from line voltage.
Motor current equals line current.
Starting torque is reduced by the square of the terminal voltage.

Applications:
Available through 4160 volts.
Where rate of acceleration needs to be controlled.
Where current limits exist, but load torque is high.
Where the motor runs at no-load for significant periods.
Where soft start (gradual taking up of slack) is desired.

36 U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

Autotransformer Reduced Voltage. In this method, an autotransformer is placed in series with the motor during starting.
The transformer action reduces the voltage applied to the motor terminals, which reduces the motor’s locked rotor current.

Starting characteristics:
Motor terminal voltage is less than the line voltage (by transformer ratio).
Motor current exceeds line current (by the inverse of the transformer ratio).
Starting torque is reduced by the square of the terminal voltage.

Applications:
Where complete acceleration at reduced amperes is needed.
Where line ampere reduction requirements are severe and load torque is not minimal.

WYE Start/Delta Run. This method is similar to reduced voltage starting. Effectively, the voltage reflected to the stator is
reduced by a factor of 1/3. Impedance seen by the power system is 3 times the impedance of the delta run connection.

U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS 37


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

Starting characteristics:
Motor terminal voltage is reduced from line voltage by a û3 factor.
Starting current is approximately 30% of normal.
Starting torque is approximately 20-30% of full load torque.

Applications:
Where load torque during acceleration is very low.
May be used for partial acceleration.
Used more often for European applications.
Primary usage is on centrifuges.

Part Winding Start. This method uses only a portion (usually 1/2, but sometimes 2/3) of the motor winding when starting the
motor. It is to be used only for voltage recovered and must not be left on the start connection for more than 1 to 2 seconds.
The motor is not expected to accelerate on the start connection and may not even turn.

Starting characteristics:
Starting current is 44-75% of normal, depending on the specific winding connection.
Starting torque is very low (may not even turn the shaft) (45% to 0% depending on connection).
Winding heating is very high on start connection.

Applications:
Where power system has automatic voltage recovery and normal starting current would cause unacceptable
voltage dip. Should not stay on the start connection more than 1-2 seconds.

38 U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

Double Delta. This method accomplishes the equivalent of reduced voltage starting by changing a delta connected winding
from parallel groups to series groups during the start. The advantage of double delta is that all of the winding is connected
during the start cycle, and the rate of heating is not so severe. Caution! May not work successfully on some PWS
configurations (i.e. 4-2 starter).

Starting characteristics:
Starting current is 60-75% of normal, depending on the specific winding connection.
Starting torque is typically 45% of full load torque.

Applications:
Where power system has automatic voltage recovery and normal starting current would cause unacceptable
voltage dip.

U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS 39


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

APPLICATION CONSIDERATIONS - QUIZ

1. What is the purpose of the motor enclosure?

2. What is TEFC an abbreviation for?

3. An open dripproof motor has a free exchange of air with the ambient. True _____ False ____

4. All explosionproof motors are UL approved. True _____ False ____

5. Name two examples of constant torque applications.

6. An example of variable torque application is a drill press. True _____ False _____

7. Pumps are almost always considered variable torque applications. True _____ False _____

8. What is the most destructive agent to a motor?

9. What type of motor would you suggest using in an extremely cold environment?

10. What purpose does a seal or slinger provide on the output shaft of a motor?

40 U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

U.S. MOTORS PRODUCT OFFERING

U.S. Electrical Motors offers a full line of three phase AC induction motors for a variety of applications and environments.
Following is our catalog numbering system which will aid you in identifying a motor product.

CATALOG NUMBER
H 2 5 E 2 B S C R ()
Product Identifier Horsepower RPM @ 60Hz Mounting -Primy. Mounting
8P - 841 Plus 14 = 1/4 1 = 3600 (First Digit) (Third Digit)
A - Auto Duty 13 = 1/3 2 = 1800 Default = T Shaft or Default = Rigid base
AB - Auto Duty 12 = 1/2 3 = 1200 STD 48 or 56 F-1
Brakeless Brake 13 = 3/4 4 = 900 S = Short Shaft R = No base
BM - Brake Motor 1=1 5 = 720 M = JM 2 = F-2 Assembly
C - Corro-Duty 32 = 1 1/2 6 = 600 P = JP 3 = F-0 Assembly
D - ODP Gen. Purpose 2=2 9 = Multi- J = WCCP 4 = Resilient Base
DC - DC Motors 3=3 Speed 2 = Special 5 = W-5 Assembly
DJ - ODP CCP 5=5 T = TM Shaft 7 = Yokemount
E - Elevator 7 = 7.5 U = JMV Shaft 8 = W-8 Assembly
FD - Farm Duty (1 ph.) 10 = 10 V = JPV
H - Hostile Duty 15 = 15 Voltage
2 = 2300
J - Close Coupled Pump 20 = 20 A = 208-230/460
Mounting
JT - Jet Pump Motor 25 = 25 B = 230/460 Single Phase
KT - Finished Goods Kit etc… .. C = 460 (Fourth Digit)
D = 208-230/460 Default = 56 Frame
M - IEC Metric Motors
Electrical 190/380
P - Predator Motors E = 230/460 or NEMA
PF - Power Factor A - Perm Split Cap. 190/380 4 = 48 Frame
B - Split Phase F = 460/380
Correction Capacitors 14 = 140 Frame
C - Cap Start G = 575 Mounting-Flange
T - TEFC 18 = 180 Frame
D - Constant Torq 2WDG H = 200 (Second Digit)
U - Unimount E - Energy Efficient I = 115/230 21 = 210 Frame
Default = None
UJ - Unimount CCP F - Constant HP 1WDG J = 115/208-230
K = 230 B = Roller Bearing
VB - Vector Blower Cld G - Constant HP 2WDG C = C-Face
L = 110/220
VN - Vector Non-Vent H- M = 220/440 D = D-Flange
WD - Washdown Duty K - KVAR Torq 2WDG N = 115
L - KVAR Torq 1WDG P = 90
K = TCH (Spcl ‘AK’)
X - XP Dual Label
M- Q = 180 Q = Square Flange
XC - XP Dual Lbl Corro-Dty R = 220/380-440 Y = Special
N - Permanent Magnet
XJ - XP Dual Label CCP S = 460 (PWS)
P - Premium Efficient
XS - XP Dual Lbl Steel Frm Q - Des ign C
U = 230/460
Y - XP Single Label 190/380
R - Constant Torq 1WDG 220/415
YC - XP Single Lbl S - Standard Efficient V = 4000
Corro-Duty T - Inverter DutyConstant W = 2300/4000
YJ - XP Single Label CCP Torque X = 200/400
V - Inverter Duty Variable Y = 500
Torque Z = Other
W - Shunt Wound

U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS 41


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

ENERGY AND PREMIUM EFFICIENT OPEN DRIPPROOF MOTORS

A variety of three phase, open dripproof motors are available from U.S. Motors. These energy efficient and premium efficient
motors are for normal duty industrial equipment, such as compressors, conveyors, pumps and fans. They are generally
supplied with Class F insulation, are for continuous duty, with ball bearings and available in standard voltage ratings of 200,
208-230/460, 230/460 and 575 volts. The Open Dripproof offering consists of two types of products: the steel frame, types
FD and DE on 56-320 frames from 1/3 HP to 60 HP and the cast iron frame types FR and RE on 360-440 frames, from
30 HP to 400 HP.

WorldMotor FD and type DE are energy efficient and premium efficient. These motors fully comply with EPACT ‘92 and
NRCan efficiency standards. The steel frame FD and DE are available with die cast aluminum brackets with steel bearing
inserts for improved reliability in severe load applications. The base is steel welded and the 180 frame and larger has a
diagonally split conduit box for ease in wiring. Double-shielded bearings with regreasing provisions are standard on the 180
frame and larger, and lifting lugs are available on the 210 frame and larger. A new designed steel frame was introduced in
1996 that extended the frame of the motor, utilizing a more pancake style end shield, resulting in a motor that is more efficient
with greater cooling capacity.

The WorldMotor FD motor also has dual voltage (230/460) with 12 leads out and is suitable for wye delta start on either
voltage. World Motor products are suitable for use on 50 or 60 Hertz applications. The product has aluminum end shields on
56-250 frames and cast iron end shields on 280-440 frames. In addition to the stock product offerings, we are able to extend
the product range to additional ratings and requirements with production models that incorporate modifications and accessories
such as space heaters, thermostats, screens and ambients above 40°C.

42 U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

Our type WorldMotor FR and type RE are cast iron frame motors and are available from 30-400 horsepower, in speeds of
3600, 1800, 1200, 900 and 720 RPM. The motor has both cast iron frame brackets and a diagonally split conduit box. All
bearings are double-shielded (open on 440 frame) with regreasing provisions. “C”Face, is available on all sizes from production.
The FR meets federally mandated efficiency levels, and the RE is a premium efficient product.

FR and RE

ENERGY AND PREMIUM EFFICIENT TOTALLY ENCLOSED MOTORS

Our first offering of enclosed motors is our aluminum frame UNIMOUNT motor, available from 1/4-30 HP. This motor line
offers the widest range of electrical and mechanical features, including a 1.25 service factor, full Class F insulation system,
and 50 or 60 Hertz operation. The aluminum alloy extruded motor frame improves heat dissipation for cool operation and
long life on 180 frame and larger.

Mechanical Features include an oversized diagonally split conduit box for easier connections; lifting lugs on 180 frame and
larger; die cast aluminum brackets that have steel or cast iron inserts to ensure reliable performance under severe load
applications. The rugged motor base is removable to allow conversion to footless configuration. Sturdy plastic fan and fan
cover are provided for maximum cooling and extended life. Other features include horizontal and vertical mounting (Canopy
cap kit), Shur Stop brake kits (1-1/2-35 ft. lbs.) and F-1 to F-2 convertibility (180 frame and larger). “C”Face kits with clamped
bearing and “D”Flange kits (140 and 180 frames) complete the long list of mechanical features of the Unimount.

U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS 43


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

The Unimount can be used on pumps, fans, compressors, general industrial belt drive and direct drive equipment. The FUT
designates an energy efficiency motor; the UTE the premium efficient model. A UTF is a “C”Face footless type motor. The
footless “C”Face type can be used as an input to speed reducers for material handling.

The Unimount Air Over, type UTN, is used on propeller fans where fan air blows directly over the motor. The Unimount
Multispeed is used on fans, blowers and machine tools where more than one standard speed is required (also available from
stock). The conversion to brake motors is used on conveyors, speed reducers and other equipment requiring quick stops.
The Unimount Plus is used for pumps, fans, compressors, general industrial belt drive and direct connected equipment where
12 lead, wye-start, delta-run starting is required.

HOSTILE ENVIRONMENT MOTORS

Our first offering of hostile duty cast iron enclosed motors is our FCT line, which is an energy efficient motor from 1-350 HP.
The FCT offers tri-voltage through 25 HP and offers “C”Face and “D”Flange conversion kits from stock. The exterior of the
FCT is protected by a polyphenolic paint, and it has an external neoprene shaft slinger on the pulley end. Stainless steel
nameplate and plated hardware for additional protection. The conduit box is steel and the fan cover guard is plastic through
286T frame and steel or aluminum from 324T and above. Also available as a premium efficient motor, type CTE.

CORRO DUTY MOTORS

The TCE is our next cast iron, TEFC product, which has all the features of the CTE, plus CORRO-DUTY. The CORRO-DUTY
features include a cast iron conduit box with non-braided, non-wicking leads, as well as compression type grounding lugs and
lead positioning gasket. It also includes a cast iron fan cover guard. Epoxy varnish on rotor core, brass condensation drains
and internal bearing caps make this suitable for mill and chemical plants and other hostile environments.

44 U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

841 PLUS MOTOR

U.S. Motors was the first to introduce a motor that meets or exceeds the IEEE 841 specifications for pretroleum and chemical
applications. The 841 Plus is now the leader within the petroleum and chemical industry. The first to offer the VBX Inpro/
Seal as a standard feature; the first to offer a five year warranty; and, the first to offer inverter duty designs from stock.

In severe duty applications, the 841 Plus motor offers superior protection and premium efficiency. The 841 Plus motor,
exceeds the 1997 federally legislated efficiency levels, has as standard our patented Inverter Grade insulation system, and
has the same size bearings on 250 frame and larger. A smart ring is located on the fan end bracket that allows field
adaptability to a standard Inpro/Seal. Machining to the bracket or disassembly is not required to retrofit an Inpro/Seal.

EXPLOSIONPROOF MOTORS

Hazardous location motor applications are classified by the type of hazardous environment present, the characteristics of the
specific material creating the hazard, the probability of exposure to the environment and the maximum temperature level that
is considered safe for the substance creating the hazard. The format used to define this information is a class, group,
division and temperature code structure.

The term ‘class’is used to define the form of the hazard that is present. The term ‘group’defines the actual characteristics of
the substance that is hazardous, and the term ‘division’is used to define the type of exposure that is expected. The term
‘temperature code’is used to define the maximum level of temperature that the hazardous substance will be exposed to
during normal or abnormal operation of the motor. Typically, this is a reference to the maximum frame temperature the motor
will experience. Following are the categories for class, group, division and temperature codes.

U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS 45


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

Class I (Gas or Vapor)

Group:
A - Acetylene
B - Hydrogen and Manufactured Gases
C - Ethyl-Ether, Ethylene and Cyclopropane
D - Gasoline, Hexane, Naphtha, Benzine, Butane, Propane, Alcohol
Lacquer Solvent Vapors and Natural Gas

Division II:
Hazard of fire or explosion is present only as a result of an accident. Motors may be
dripproof or TEFC.

Class II (Dusts)

Group:
E - Metal Dust (Special Seals)
F - Carbon Black, Coal or Coke Dust
G - Flour, Starch or Grain Dust

Division I:
Hazard is always present due to normal conditions. (Dust suspended in the
atmosphere.) Motors must be explosionproof construction with Underwriter’s label.

Division II:
Motors may be TEFC or externally ventilated:

(A) Where dust deposits on electrical equipment prevent safe heat dissipation.
(B) Where deposit or dust might be ignited by arcs or burning material.

Class III (Fibers) Fibers that are easily ignitable but not apt to be suspended in the air to produce
mixtures. Examples include rayon, nylon, cotton, saw dust and wood chips.

Division II:
Location in which easily ignitable fibers are stored or handled. TEFC enclosure can
be used if there is a minimal amount of fibers or flyings in the air.

In addition to the identification of the class, group and division, it is necessary as well to obtain the temperature code for the
explosionproof motor. This code indicates the maximum surface temperature for all conditions including burnout, overload,
single phasing and locked rotor. This “T”code must be identified on the nameplate.

IGNITION TEMPERATURE vs
TEMPERATURE MARKINGS

MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE FOR ALL CONDITIONS: w BURNOUT


w OVERLOAD
w SINGLE PHASE
w LOCKED ROTOR

46 U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

T - CODES ON NAMEPLATE

Our explosionproof offering begins with our Type L, which is a high efficiency motor, available from 1/2 through 350 HP.
Classifications vary, but most of these products are available for Class I, Groups D and C, and Class II, Groups F and G (and
on the smaller frame sizes, Group E). The Type LF is a “C”Face, footless design, available from stock from 1/3 through 15
HP.

Our Type LC combines both our explosionproof and CORRO-DUTY features into one UL listed product. 50 Hertz operation is
available at 190/380 or 380 volts. These motors are upgraded from the Type L design to include class F insulation, a shaft
slinger, brass drain and breather and all of our standard CORRO-DUTY features. Available from 1-200 HP for Division I, Class
I Group D, Temperature Code T2B.

A relatively new addition to the explosionproof family is the Explosionproof CORRO-DUTY Type NC for Division II applications.
These products are now available from stock from 1-200 HP.

U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS 47


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

“C” FACE AND PUMP MOTORS

As previously mentioned, our Type D high efficiency ODP product is available from 40 to 60 HP with a “C” Face. The
Unimount design is also available as a “C”Face, in stock from 1/4-30 HP footed and footless. “C”Face and “D”Flange kits are
available in frames 140-360 for Types FCT and TCE.

Our close coupled pump motors are designed for the specific requirements of centrifugal pumps. This product is used in the
heating, ventilating and air conditioning market cooling systems to move water up in multistory buildings. Agricultural use is
in the center pivot market.

A number of shaft types are available on our CCP motors. The JP shaft has packing glands that are the sealing devices
which are manually packet and adjusted using braided cotton for the sealing material. The JM Shaft is a mechanical seal
that uses molded or preformed seals held in place by a spring. We also have available the West Coast shaft, which is similar
in design to the JM style. The shaft of the close coupled pump motor is directly connected and mounted to the inside of the
pump. In the open dripproof design, the CCP motor is available from 1-100 HP, in the Unimount design from 1-20 HP, from
stock.

SPECIAL PURPOSE MOTORS

Inverter Duty Motors. Three phase, open dripproof inverter duty motors are available from 1 through 250 horsepower. A 10!
(6-60 Hertz) speed range is available for variable torque applications, and a 5:1 (12-60 Hertz) speed range for constant torque.
These motors are used on pumps, fans, blowers and other industrial equipment using inverter powered applications.

The TEFC Unimount motor is available for the same speed ranges from 1 to 20 horsepower, and the TEFC hostile duty
product from 1 to 200 horsepower, plus 1 to 150 horsepower for 10:1 constant torque.

48 U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

All of these motors have our Inverter Grade Insulation system which meets NEMA MG-1 Part 31, and a special three year
warranty on inverter power.

Vector Duty Motors. For conveyors, presses, hoists and other flux vector applications, we offer the three phase, TENV,
hostile duty, c-face vector duty motors from 1 to 15 horsepower.

This TENV motor can handle a 0-1800 RPM (0-60 Hertz) speed range for constant torque applications. The motor includes
our Inverter Grade insulation system that meets NEMA MG-1 Part 31, and is delivered standard with a 5-28 volt 1024 PPR
encoder.

Also for vector duty applications, U.S. Motors offers a three phase, TEBC, hostile duty motor for 0-1800 RPM (0-60 Hertz)
speed range for constant torque applications having constant torque requirements at or near zero speed

The TEBC vector duty motor is available from 1 to 200 horsepower, 1800 and 1200 RPM. These vector duty motors also have
a three year warranty on inverter power.

Automotive Duty Motors. The U.S. Motors’“U”frame automotive duty line is designed to provide a long, trouble-free life.
The automotive industry has formulated a set of specifications designed to provide the highest reliability for 24 hours per day,
7 days a week service - and our totally enclosed fan cooled “U”frame motors meet the GM, Ford and Chrysler specifications.
These motors are available from stock from 1/4 through 250 HP, in both high and premium efficiency.

U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS 49


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

Washdown Duty. Our Washdown Duty motor line offers a motor designed for the food processing industry and other
applications that are routinely exposed to chemicals, washdown, humidity and other severe environments. This TEFC motor
has a stainless steel shaft and key and a 1.15 service factor with Class F insulation. It is rust and corrosion protected with
USDA approved white epoxy paint, and comes standard with a double dip and baked winding and lip seals in both endshields.
The Washdown Duty motors are offered in 1/2 through 10 HP with the following mountings: rigid base; “C”face footless; and
“C”face with rigid base.

IEC Metric Motors. For those OEMs exporting to Europe and Asia, and where a user requires a motor replacement on
imported equipment, U.S. Motors offers an IEC metric motor, available from 1 through 100 HP, or .75 KW through 75 KW. The
IEC motors feature Class F insulation, and can be run on 460 volts 60 Hertz, or 380, 400 or 415 Volt, 50 Hz. These motors
have a stainless steel nameplate and a finned housing made of aluminum alloy with an exterior protective treatment of
polyurethane vinyl finish.

Brakemotors. A brakemotor is an electric motor with a brake. The brake, normally operated by an electromagnet against a
spring, is usually fitted to the non -drive end of the motor. Its purpose is to hold a load steady, high speed movements with
short stopping times and precise positioning, emergency stops, safety devices, slowing down and stopping high inertia
loads. Our 2000 Series Brakemotors, Type FB, are available from 1/3-2 HP with rigid base, “C”face footed, or “C”face
footless configurations. These motors are used in applications where instantaneous response is required, such as palletizers,
conveyors, baggage handling equipment and general material handling systems. A great brakemotor in a small package - the
2000 Series brakemotor is just one inch longer than a standard motor.

50 U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

2000 Series Brakemotor FC Series Brake Motor

The FC Series Brakemotor, is available from 1/3-20 HP, 1800 and 1200 RPM in a rigid base, “C”face footed or “C”face
footless configuration. These brakemotors can be used when manual release, brake torque adjustments, external air gap
adjustments and high cycling is required. Typical applications would include bulk material handling equipment, conveyors,
cranes and hoists.

FIRE PUMP MOTORS


For fire pump applications per NFPA 20 where contaminants are minimal, we have a line of motors from 5 to 250 HP with
NEMA B design performance. These motors have rolled steel and cast iron frames that are suitable for wye-delta start on
250T frame and above, and part wind start through 125 HP.

U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS 51


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

U.S. MOTORS’PRODUCT OFFERING - QUIZ

1. U.S. Motors offers open dripproof motors in both steel and cast iron frames.
True _____ False _____

2. Name three types of kits available for the UNIMOUNT motor.

3. What type of applications would the multispeed version of the UNIMOUNT be used for?

4. The TCE is just like the FCT except it has a cast iron conduit box and a cast iron fan cover guard.
True _____ False _____

5. Name three possible applications for the TEFC hostile duty Type FCT and CORRODUTY Type
TCE motors.

6. For explosionproof motors, the term “class”defines the actual characteristics of the substance that
is hazardous. True _____ False _____

7. What is our type designation for an explosionproof motor with CORRODUTY?

8. Name the three different types of shafts available on the close coupled pump motors.

9. Washdown Duty motors are painted white. True _____ False _____

10. What material is the frame of the IEC metric motor?

52 U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

GENERAL FORMULAS AND CONVERSION TABLES

U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS 53


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

GENERAL FORMULAS AND CONVERSION TABLES

54 U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

GENERAL FORMULAS AND CONVERSION TABLES

U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS 55


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

GENERAL FORMULAS AND CONVERSION TABLES

56 U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

QUIZ ANSWERS

AC MOTOR FUNDAMENTALS

1. True.

2. An electromagnet only has magnetic properties when power is applied.

3. In three phase AC, three different sets of current are present as compared to only one in single
phase.

4. Stator and rotor.

5. False.

6. True.

7. True.

8. False.

9. The rotor is not connected electrically to the source of power supply, but rotation is “induced”by
the magnetic fields of the stator.

THE NAMEPLATE

1. To assist in the proper selection and application of motors.

2. False.

3. False.

4. True.

5. Horsepower is equal to torque times speed over a constant.

6. It is used by the electrician installing the motor to properly size the power supply wiring and
starter.

U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS 57


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

QUIZ ANSWERS

THE NAMEPLATE (continued)

7. Efficiency is the ratio of the power output divided by the power input.

8. True.

9. True.

10. NEMA Design B.

APPLICATION CONSIDERATIONS

1. The motor enclosure must protect the windings, bearings and other mechanical parts from moisture,
chemicals, mechanical damage and abrasion from grit.

2. Totally Enclosed Fan Cooled.

3. True.

4. True.

5. Conveyors, hoisting loads, surface winding machines, screw compressors.

6. False.

7. True.

8. Heat.

9. Arctic Duty.

10. Keeps moisture and debris from entering the motor.

58 U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

QUIZ ANSWERS

U.S. MOTORS’PRODUCT OFFERING

1. True.

2. Brake kits, “C”bracket kits, “D”flange kits and double “C”face brake kits.

3. Fans, blowers and machine tools.

4. True.

5. Petro-chem plants, mines, foundries, pulp and paper plants, waste management facilities and
chemical plants.

6. False.

7. Type LC.

8. JM, JP and Westcoast.

9. True.

10. Aluminum alloy.

U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS 59


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

GLOSSARY

Alternating Current - Electricity that changes direction at a regular rate.

Ambient Temperature - The temperature of the medium, such as air, water or earth, into which the heat of the equipment
is dissipated.

Back of a Motor - The back of a motor is the end which carries the coupling or driving pulley (NEMA). This is sometimes
called the drive end (D.E.) or pulley end (P.E.).

Bearing (Ball) - A ball shaped component that is used to reduce friction and wear while supporting rotating elements. For
a motor, this type of bearing provides a relatively rigid support for the output shaft.

Breakaway Torque - The torque required to start a machine from standstill.

Breakdown Torque - The breakdown torque of an AC motor is the maximum torque which it will develop with rated voltage
applied at rated frequency.

C-Face - This type of motor mounting is used for close coupled pumps and similar applications where the mounting holes in
the face are threaded to receive bolts from the pump. Normally, the C-Face is used where a pump or similar product is to be
overhung on the motor. This type of mounting is a NEMA standard design and available with or without feet.

Circuit - An electrical network of conductors that provide one or more closed or complete paths for current.

Continuous Duty - A motor that can continue to operate within the insulation temperature limits after it has reached normal
operating temperature.

Definite Purpose Motor - A definite purpose motor is any motor design, listed and offered in standard ratings with standard
operating characteristics and mechanical construction, for use under service conditions other than usual or for use on a
particular type of application (NEMA).

D Flange - This type of motor mounting is used when the motor is to be built as part of the machine. The mounting holes of
the flange are not threaded. The bolts protrude through the flange from the motor side. Normally D Flange motors are
supplied without feet since the motor is mounted directly to the driven machine.

Dimension Drawing - A dimension or outline drawing (base plan, floor plan, etc.) is one which shows the physical space
and mounting requirements of a piece of equipment. It may also indicate ventilation requirements and space provided for
connections or the location to which connections are to be made.

Duty Cycle - The relationship between the operating and resting times or repeatable operation at different loads.

Dynamic Braking - A system of electric braking in which the motor, when used as a generator, converts the kinetic energy
of the load into electric energy dissipated in resistors, and in doing so, exerts a retarding force on the load.

Efficiency - The ratio of power output to power input indicated as a percent. In motors, it is the effectiveness to which a
motor converts electrical power into mechanical power.

Electrical Conductor - A material having many free electrons that can move easily. An object so constructed from conducting
material that it may be used as a carrier of electrical current.

60 U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

GLOSSARY (continued)

Electrical Insulator - A material having a few free electrons that cannot move freely. A material or combination of materials
which effectively resists the passage of an electric current.

Electric Current - The result when many free electrons move in the same direction.

Electromagnet - A coil of wire that carries an electric current. A magnet in which the field is produced by an electric current.
Upon removal of the electrical current it exhibits little or no magnetic influence.

Energy - A quantitative property of matter indicating capacity to do work.

Foot Pound - A unit of work. The work done by a force of one pound acting through a distance of one foot.

Force - The tendency to change the motion or position of an object with a push or pull. It is measured in ounces or pounds.

Frame Size - The physical size of a motor, usually consisting of NEMA defined “D”and “F”dimensions at a minimum. The
“D” dimension is the distance in inches from the center of the motor shaft to the bottom of the mounting feet. The “F”
dimension relates to the distance between the centers of the mounting feet holes.

Frequency - The number of complete alternations per second of an alternating current.

Front of a Motor - The end opposite the coupling or driving pulley (NEMA). Also called the opposite pulley end (O.P.E.).

Full Load Torque - The full load torque of a motor is the torque necessary to produce rated horsepower at full load speed.

General Purpose Motor - This motor has a continuous Class B insulation rating and NEMA B design, listed and offered in
standard ratings with standard operating characteristics and mechanical construction for use under usual service conditions
without restriction to a particular application or type of application (NEMA).

Horsepower - A measure of the amount of work that a motor can perform in a given amount of time.

Hysteresis Loss - The resistance offered by materials to becoming magnetized results in energy being expended and
corresponding loss. Hysteresis loss in a magnetic circuit is the energy expended to magnetize and demagnetize the core.

Induction Motor - An alternating current motor in which the primary winding on one member (usually the stator) is connected
to the power source. A secondary winding on the other member (usually the rotor) carries the induced current. There is no
physical electrical connection to the secondary winding; its current is induced.

Inertia - A measure of a body’s resistance to changes in velocity, whether the body is at rest or moving at a constant velocity.
The velocity can be either linear or rotational.

Integral Horsepower Motor - A motor built in a frame having a continuous rating of 1 HP or more.

Locked Rotor Current - Steady state current taken from the line with the rotor at standstill (at rated voltage and frequency).
This is the RMS current when starting the motor with or without load.

Locked Rotor Torque - The minimum torque that a motor will develop at rest for all angular positions of the rotor (with rated
voltage applied at rated frequency).

U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS 61


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

GLOSSARY (continued)

Multispeed Motor - An induction motor that can obtain two, three or four discrete (fixed) speeds by the selection of various
stator winding configurations.

NEC - The National Electric Code is the recommendation of the National Fire Protection Association and is revised every
three years. City or state regulations may differ from these code regulations and take precedence over NEC rules.

NEMA - The National Electrical Manufacturers Association is a nonprofit organization organized and supported by
manufacturers of electrical equipment and supplies.

No Load - The state of a machine rotating at normal speed under rated conditions, but when no output is required from it.

Open Motor - A machine having ventilating openings which permit passage of external cooling air over and around the
windings of the machine.

Power - Work done per unit of time. Measured in horsepower or watts: 1 HP = 33,000 ft.lb./min/ = 746 watts.

Power Factor - A measurement of the time phase difference between the voltage and current in an AC circuit. It is
represented by the cosine of the angle of this phase difference. Power factor is the ratio of real power (kW) to total kVA or
the ratio of actual power (W) to apparent power (volt-amperes).

Pull-Up Torque - The torque required to accelerate the load from standstill to full speed (where breakdown torque occurs),
expressed in percent of running torque. This is the minimum torque the motor develops between locked rotor and breakdown
torque.

Reactance - The opposition to the flow of current made by an induction coil or a capacitor.

Reversing - Changing the direction of rotation of the motor rotor. An AC motor is reversed by changing the connection of
one leg on the three phase power line.

Rotor - The rotating member of a machine with a shaft.

Service Factor - When used on a motor nameplate, a number which indicates the maximum loading permissible above the
nameplate rating without causing serious degradation.

Slip - The difference between rotating magnetic field speed (synchronous speed) and the rotor speed of an AC induction
motor. Usually expressed as a percentage of synchronous speed.

Special Purpose Motor - A motor with special operating characteristics, special mechanical construction or both, designed
for a particular application and not falling within the definition of a general purpose or definite purpose motor (NEMA).

Speed - The speed at which an induction motor operates is dependent upon the input power frequency, the load and the
number of electrical magnetic poles for which the motor is wound. The higher the frequency, the faster the motor runs. The
more poles the motor has, the slower it runs.

Starting Torque - The torque exerted by the motor during the starting period.

62 U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR
HOME STUDY COURSE

GLOSSARY (continued)

Stator - The stationary portion of the magnetic circuit and the associated windings and leads of a rotating machine.

Synchronous Speed - The speed of an AC induction motor’s rotating magnetic field. It is determined by the frequency
applied to the stator and the number of magnetic poles present in each phase of the stator windings.

Torque - A turning force applied to a shaft, tending to cause rotation. Torque is normally measured in pound / feet and is
equal to the force applied times the radius through which it acts.

Totally Enclosed Motor - A machine so enclosed as to prevent the free exchange of air between the inside and the outside
of the case, but not sufficiently enclosed to be termed airtight.

Wiring (or Connection) Diagram - A wiring diagram is one which locates and identifies electrical devices, terminals and
interconnecting wiring in an assembly.

Work - A force moving and object over a distance. Measured in foot / pounds (ft.lbs.). Work = Force x Distance.

U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS 63


DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
U.S. Electrical Motors Division, Emerson Electric Co.
8100 West Florissant Avenue, St. Louis, MO 63136

REGIONAL OFFICES PHONE FAX REGIONAL OFFICES PHONE FAX


ORANGE, CONNECTICUT (800) 243-2700 (203) 891-1077 MONTREAL, QUEBEC/CANADA (800) 361-5509 (514) 332-5912
CHICAGO, ILLINOIS (800) 323-5223 (630) 893-0182 TORONTO, ONTARIO/CANADA (905) 475-4670 (905) 475-4672
MEMPHIS, TENNESSEE (901) 794-5500 (901) 794-0741 MONTERREY, MEXICO (52) 8-389-1300 (52) 8-389-1310
DALLAS, TEXAS (800) 683-4126 (972) 644-0254 CARACAS, VENEZUELA (58) 2-237-7522 (58) 2-232-9727
SANTA FE SPRINGS, CALIFORNIA (800) 854-3302 (562) 941-1858 BOGOTA, COLOMBIA (571) 439-5420 (571) 439-5417
INTERNATIONAL SALES (314) 553-2196 (314) 553-2135

WWW Home Page: http://www.usmotors.com


©1999 U.S. Electrical Motors
Prices, specifications and ratings subject to change without notice.
HSC-246-125 8/99 Printed in the U.S.A