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Yugesh Bhattarai Dr.

Sims English 150-24(Honors) 10 November 2012

Is Global Warming Real?
The most discussed topic in the present scientific community is Global Warming. Since 1997, many research and debates have been done on this topic. The term Global warming refers to long-term increase in Earth’s average surface temperature. A major predicted effect of global warming is redistribution of climatic zones as defined by temperature, precipitation, and associated ecosystems. Some people argue that it is a fund collecting theory that is hyped by the scientific community. However, eleven of the last twelve years (1995–2006) rank among the 12 warmest years in the instrumental record of global surface temperature (since 1850), the continuous rise of sea level, the drastic and continuous Artic meltdown has clearly indicated that the worse is yet to come.1 Global climate changes, including episodes of global cooling and warming, have occurred many times throughout Earth’s history as a result of natural variations in solar radiation, atmospheric chemistry, oceanic and atmospheric circulations, volcanic eruptions, and other factors. Global warming in the last few decades, however, is primarily caused by human activities that started during the Industrial Revolution, when human burning of fossil fuels began to increase drastically, releasing large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2). Atmospheric concentrations of CO2, methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and artificial chemicals called

1

Solomon, S., et al, eds. ―IPCC, 2007: Summary for Policymakers.‖ In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

Yugesh Bhattarai

and water vapor (H2O). certain gases in the atmosphere. If Earth’s atmosphere were completely transparent to infrared radiation. one of the greenhouse gases. Solar radiation is the major source of energy arriving at Earth’s surface (a small fraction.halocarbons have long been increasing as a result of emissions from fossil-fuel burning and other activities. This warms the atmosphere directly and warms Earth’s surface both by contact with warmer air and by re-radiation of infrared radiation from the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide. it will be difficult for us to forestall climate change. which. Much of this incoming energy is at short wavelengths (ultraviolet and visible light). Methane (CH4). where their energy drives atmospheric and oceanic circulations and biological processes like photosynthesis. traps in the solar radiation to keep the temperature of the Earth surface warmer. comes from Earth’s interior). mostly notably Carbon-dioxide(CO2). This trapped in solar radiation causes the temperature of the earth surface to rise. Most of the radiations usually were reflected from the earth surface or the atmosphere. As of 2008. if we do not act accordingly right now. The surface then re-radiates most of this energy as longer-wavelength light. However. or infrared radiation. most of the solar radiation is trapped in. infrared light. atmospheric 2 Global Carbon dioxide Project 2010 Yugesh Bhattarai .9%. we refer to as Global Warming. These forms of light are absorbed by Earth’s surface.2 This alarming increase in the increment of radiation has shown many changes especially in the climate. A research conducted by Global Carbon dioxide Project in 2010 has shown an annual increment in Carbon dioxide production by 5. absorb some of the infrared light radiated by Earth’s surface and are warmed. Due to its excessive production and deposition in the atmosphere. about 1/7500. this re-radiated energy would simply shine out into space and the planet would have an average surface temperature of about 0°F (–18°C). variously termed heat radiation. At some point. Increased atmospheric concentrations of these gases are causing Earth to warm.

for which we never really contributed. However. This will not really change the level of sea water. However. the amount of heat radiation reflected will be lower as well. which includes the tallest peak Mt. Sea ices have melted at a faster rate than they usually used to. Rajiv Nigam . as shown by air bubbles trapped in ancient Antarctic ice. When this ice melts. My country. has faced many consequences of global warming.13°C) per decade for the last 50 years. This is because. Goa. the ice has already displaced the volume of water in the sea and it will be equal to the volume of water it will produce after it melts.23°F (0.3 Melting of ice in the Arctic has other consequences that will further lead to rise in the temperature. Nepal. However. it will increase the volume of water in the sea level because this was not displacing the water earlier. Climate changes have made it difficult for many people in the world to survive. Everest. If this 3 U. melting of the sea ice is not a big issue. At this rate of greenhouse production. melting of the Arctic ice is a serious problem. and had increased more rapidly in recent years: The two warmest years since instrumental records began in the 1800s were 1998 and 2005.000 years. the snow there is melting at an alarming rate. addressing the two-day University Grants Commission-sponsored workshop on current trends in research on ―Quaternary sea-level changes‖ at National College in Tiruchy.levels of CO2 and CH4 were about a third higher than at any time in at least 650. Tamil Nadu. Arctic will be free of summer ice as soon as 2020 and places like Mumbai will not be found in the map of the world. But when there is no ice left. India 5th December 2003 Yugesh Bhattarai . White color usually reflects the heat radiation.N. Thus. because of the Global Warming. Global average surface temperature had increased by about 0. panel on climate change and Dr. the sea level rises. Melting of ice is an early warning of big changes to come. Nepal has eight of the ten highest peaks of the world.scientist with the Geological Oceanography Division. This will further lead to rise in temperature of the Earth surface.

The 1997 Kyoto Protocol—an extension of the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Around 1. the world’s second largest producer of greenhouse gases (after 4 ―Floods and Landslides Kill Dozens in North East India‖ The New York Times 24 September 2012 Yugesh Bhattarai . the drastic change in climate can affect us. The global warming had impacts on the life of plants and many animals throughout those periods and we. Tsunami. Furthermore. However. some people argue that through the history of the Earth. Wildlife and plants are shifting their ranges to higher latitudes (closer to the poles.4 Droughts have occurred in many parts of Nepal that has led to famine. these phenomenon occurred and past by and the scientific community is just making it a big deal to attract funds.3 million people in North East India were displaced because of the flood this year. El Niño/ Southern Oscillation. The United States. Thus floods have occurred a lot. and North African drought cycle. were not even present. an international treaty signed by most nations— acknowledges that human activities can alter global climate and commits signatory nations to reducing their greenhouse-gas emissions. Many people died because of hunger in my country. 177 nations had ratified the Kyoto Protocol. Glaciers have melted a lot during the summer. and many more. As of January 2008. I feel this is not the case this time. humans. Like dinosaurs.continues for some more years. Seasons have changed quite a lot. It has already shown big warning with strong hurricanes coming around quite often like Sandy. alterations have been seen in large-scale weather phenomena like the southeast Indian monsoon season. there were many times. to track cool weather as climate warms) and to higher altitudes in mountainous regions. I will not be able to call myself from a country that has the tallest peak of the world. Atlantic hurricane season. But.

et al. eds. An Inconvenient Truth: The Planetary Emergency of Global Warming and What We Can Do About It. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis: Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 2007. M. 2006. et al. MN: H. 2007. Cambridge. Spencer. L. The world has seen so many changes throughout its history. New York: Cambridge University Press. I wish they realize it before it is too late. et al. Rattan. W. Metz. The Discovery of Global Warming. Bibliography: Gore. Emmaus. New York: Cambridge University Press. Parry. Solomon. Al. Weart. eds.. Even the great Napoleon Empire fell down because of a simple mistake he did. when they realize the bad impacts of Global Warming on human life. 2006. 2007. May this not be the fortune of the whole human civilization. New York: CRC. Global Climate Change. B. Lal. MA: Harvard University Press. 2005. Minneapolis. Paul. New York: Cambridge University Press.China) and one of the biggest emitters on a person-by-person basis.. Adaptation and Vulnerability: Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. PA: Rodale Press. It is only a matter of time. 2004 Yugesh Bhattarai . S. et al. Wilson.. Climate Change and Global Food Security. Climate Change 2007: Impacts. Climate Change 2007: Mitigation of Climate Change: Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. McCaffrey. eds. was the only industrialized country in the world to have not ratified the treaty.