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Reviewed work(s): Source: The American Political Science Review, Vol. 90, No. 2 (Jun., 1996), pp. 375-388 Published by: American Political Science Association Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2082891 . Accessed: 01/03/2013 23:03
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as somehow historically more fundamental. 1 Mar 2013 23:03:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . animating. I argue that only by supplementing(and transfiguring) equalityand libertywith an ethic of receptivegenerosity. institutions for group representation. both of which have contributed to the movement toward greater political fragmentation and contestation. class.Laclau and Mouffe. the move toward coalition politics is not so much a "solution" to the alternatives of totalization. has given rise to a growing sense of dissatisfaction concerning its own ethical inadequacies and political weaknesses and dangers. Receptive Generosity: Neo-Nietzschean Reflections on the Ethics Politics Coalition and of ROMAND COLES Duke University Recently there has been a movement to embrace coalition politics both as an historicallyfundamental mode of action and as ethically desirable. recent decades have Romand Coles is Assistant Professor of Political Science. to the efforts of the Industrial Areas Foundation to organize communities across boundaries of race. expand and clarify the possibilities that a radically democratic liberalism has available for envisioning and sustaining coalition politics. such as procedures that might help facilitate more frequent or desirable interactions. The praxis and telos of increasing unity is addressed most philosophically in two of Lukacs's (1971) essays. Equality. and Young (1990) are among those on the left who exemplify this move. Yet. to racial. would dissolve into an ever more unified. William Corlett. While efforts at coalition building in these instances have met with varying degrees of success and failure. charges of imperialism or assimilation made by some groups with respect to others. Stephen White. 90. these concerns often stemmed from perceived tactical and strategic exigencies: uneven contingent historical developments which. and transparent collective subject. when articulated in narratives that singularly emphasize incommensurability and indifference (see Lyotard 1984. and so forth." For numerous intermeshed reasons. History-from the reforms in ancient Athens (that deconstructed politics based on class. and ethnicity. From the "Rainbow Coalition". Bowles and Gintis (1986). to questions and struggles concerning multiculturalism. the thematic of difference. I do not mean to reduce or downplay a whole host of other important issues that arise in this context. ethically more desirable. Yet. some sense progressive politics has always concerned itself with the politics of difficult coalitions. This concern has a more Habermasian accent in such writers as McCarthy (1991) and White (1991) and a more Heideggerian/Adornian accent in Dallmayr (1991). as Bernice Johnson Reagon illustrates. Yet. The necessity for coalitions is addressed in classics such as Lenin (1975). In seen a growing disenchantment with the practice and telos of Marxian politics and the increasing sway of neo-Nietzschean philosophical and political reflections on difference. and class differences among "the women's movement". many are moving toward positions that embrace coalition politics not simply as a transitory "best of a bad situation" phenomenon but. Duke University. Roger Cooper. The author is grateful to William Connolly. the past few decades have witnessed a movement toward various theories of a more fragmented and contestational politics. Concretely. practices that cultivate cooperation and agonistic solidarity. the site of a fresh set of questions. and occupation and reconstructed a politics based on less rigid boundaries and a greater interweaving of different groups) to present debates on race and political districting and representation-illustrates the salience of questions concerning diverse groups that exceed the ethical realm. adjustments in power. Yet. and anonymous referees for numerous helpful comments. 2 June 1996 Liberty. No. "Reification and the Consciousness of the Proletariat" and "Towards a Methodology of the Problem of Organization. what type of ethical opening to oneself and to others. harmonious. concerning both concrete politics and theoretical shifts. Yet. Yet. sexual. with increasing revolutionary praxis. they illustratethe limits of such a project insofar as they are unable to address adequatelythe problemsposed by Reagon. withdrawal. the issue of diverse coalitions among new social movements has gained greater visibility in the past two decades due to a wide range of political events and experiences that have sprung from the increasing heterogeneity which characterizes the progressive political terrain. Thegift-givingvirtueallows us to formulate a vision of the possible grandness of plurality that is ethically more compelling than the logics of identityand differenceoffered by Laclau and Mouffe. embracingan open-ended developmentof equalityand liberty. the formulations of these questions and responses concerning institu- 375 This content downloaded on Fri.suggestedby an idiosyncraticreadingof Nietzsche'sgift-givingvirtue. Laclau and Mouffe (1985). Kimberley Curtis.1 I By pursuing these questions. Bonnie Honig.American Political Science Review Vol. NC 27708. 1985). From a related theoretical angle. would coalition politics likelybe sustainable and ethicallydesirable.both in terms of its possible directions and the type of self capable of engagingin such activity. tribe. or the weaknesses and blindnesses of isolation as it is a problem. In response to these problems. incommensurable difference. might be more capable of partaking in. they have almost always had to face agonizing issues of difficult communication. and sustaining such politics? These are the questions addressed in this essay. Durham.coalition politics presents many profound difficulties. to the challenges to the mainstream environmental movement on questions of race and class. and so forth. How might we understand the ethical and political directions that ought to animate coalition politics and the relations between diverse groups constituting a coalition? What sort of self. issues concerning the relations among different groups have become increasingly central. rather. and politically more tenable.
5 Of course.as if we could somehowescapehavingan ethics of our politics. Arendt (1958). that we ought no longer seriouslyconcern ourselves with debatesaboutthe ethics of our politics. and White (1991). The issues raised serve as a reference point in relation to which I interrogate. articulate.Thereare risksto this approach. With the exception of Levinas and Merleau-Ponty. from the idea that politics ought not be bound by a June 1996 supplement and refigure liberty and equality) through a reading of Nietzsche's Thus Spoke Zarathustra that is explicitly idiosyncratic but. that advice favoring such susceptibility is the same whether from Bernice Reagon.The Ethics and Politics of Coalition I begin with a presentation of Bernice Johnson Reagon's (1983) discussion of her thirty-year experience with coalition politics because she brilliantly illuminates the problems. Foucault (1973).S. problems. identities. 1 Mar 2013 23:03:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Although they use neo-Nietzschean ontological insights in theoretically and strategically helpful ways. challenges. It would be a mistake to infer. Each of these works develops their theory of "radical and plural democracy. the thinking of the others takes form through a careful engagement with Nietzsche. Although the general ethical vision presented here refracts differently depending upon who is speaking and who is 6 single ethical position. and possibilities involved. political theory include Connolly (1991). and 376 This content downloaded on Fri. 1968) and others. politics itself is not simply "based on" ethical positions but is partly about contesting and determining ethical issues. listening. Levinas (1969). especially since each represents an extremely contested terrain. efforts to thematize and explore the latter. a desirable ethics and politics of a multicultural society. and I hope to evoke some of it below.5 I develop an ethic of receptive generosity (not meant to supplant. I assumethem. Yet." Whatever differences they manifest seem to me to be insignificant with respect to the issues explored here. or myself (neither a black. gift-giving.2 I dwell on them at some length not only because I think they expand and clarify the possibilities and resources that a radical and democratic liberalism has available for envisioning and sustaining coalition politics but also because the limits and difficulties of such a position come into focus when juxtaposed with the problems Reagon identifies and the alternative directions to which she alludes. for that matter. ethically compelling. The first position is that of Laclau and Mouffe. or that efforts at receptive generosity mean the same thing in these diverse situations. nor perhaps even possible to speak of ethics. liberty. but to tions and practices are always deeply entwined with and partly constituted by numerous ethical and ontological assumptions. This shortcoming is manifested both in the likely failure of their ethical position to sustain the politics they endorse and in the extent to which their ethic does not reach high enough in imagining what is possible. I am not trying to truncate politics with an ethical ground.6 This reading of Nietzsche is by no means the only effort to address questions of ethics and otherness. on questions of equality. Next.in all those refractions there are important similitudes I that explorebelow. dangers. however. I argue. and so forth. written individually or co-authored. By addressing ethical questions and soliciting certain compartments. the influence of Husserl and Wittgenstein is also very visible. it is viewed as a privative mode of action. she discusses the difficulties of her presence at the festival-a site of coalition. Honig (1993). Proximate attempts in U. precisely because they do not exhaust yet thoroughly infuse the phenomena in question. 3 Of course. nor desirable. I do not mean by this to imply. a field which includes those who think it is variously neither necessary. and develop two possibilities for formulating ethical openings that might at once broadly guide coalition politics and contribute to a cultivation of selves more capable of negotiating its difficulties in desirable ways. or Zarathustra. desire for otherness. to be avoided whenever possible and never engaged in without caution and a tragic sensibility. Thus. but it is far beyond the scope of this essay to try to delineate a precise location with respect to them all. distinct selves. This form is tightly entwined with its power of illumination. A black woman (and member of the singing group Sweet Honey in the Rock) addressing an audience of mostly white women at a women's music festival significantly animated by the theme "woman identified women. that things are simple: that." which many see realized only in lesbian relationships. nor one who has spent many years living with animals in a cave). Far from this: To write of ethics is to be engaged in a field of political contestation. who offer perhaps the most provocative and affirmative discussion of coalition politics in recent political theory. relations to power. more generally. 2 I refer to their works. for example. I suggest that only when significantly animated by a "gift-giving virtue" is coalition politics likely to be tenable and desirable. Laclau and Mouffe's favored virtues of equality and liberty are unlikely to be sufficient to sustain the tensions of coalition politics and. understandings. referenced below. I am quite simply appealing to everyone. Derrida (1978). experiences. this ethic takes a form less attentive to the important specificities and questions central to consideration when one is engaged with any number of more defined subject positions or. in the context of the ethical position I am sketching here. and dangers of grassroots political activity among groups of people with extremely different backgrounds. and aesthetic sensibilities. discourse. Occasionally I draw attention to proximities with some of these theorists in passing references. Throughout this essay. One element offered by Nietzsche's Zarathustra with respect to the issue at hand and not as powerfully present in most of his twentieth-century interlocutors is the articulation of ethics in a narrative form. and necessary for a thriving diverse society. It is to grab a corner of this infinitely tangled web of human history and explore in a small way possibilities for transfiguring the current order of things. Overlapping concerns are articulated in prominent interpretations of such theorists as Adorno (1973). but their emphasis on difference. Merleau-Ponty (1962. REAGON AND THE AGONIES OF COALITION POLITICS Bernice Johnson Reagon's (1983) essay "Coalition Politics: Turning the Century" helps us grasp the questions.3 I argue that their reflections are insufficiently transfigurative at an ethical level. 4 This is not to deny the necessity of strategic action in political life. For the idea that gender is the fundamental oppression demanding women-only solidarity does not resonate well with the experiences and outlooks of many black women on sex with men. the importance to many of them of solidarities with black One caveat should be noted before beginning. desirable. antagonism. Horkheimer (with Adorno 1972). have potentially wide-ranging significance. Dallmayr (1991). Corlett (1989). and receptivity. it means the same thing for a black woman to be acted upon and changed by a white man as the reverse. In being offered to a general readership. casts their synthesis in a predominantly neo-Nietzschean hue.4 Except when situated in an ethical constellation with receptive generosity. nor a woman.
Then. their appreciation of music made by black men. and so on. liberty and equality are radicalized in her text. Because the agonistic and agonizing character of coalition politics make it such that "you don't go into coalition because you just like it" (1983. I turn to Laclau and Mouffe next because their work on the horizontal character of equality and liberty sharply articulates principles suggested but left undeveloped in Reagon's brief address at the festival. 366). in the sense that they are freed from fixed essentialist articulations and instead are grasped as essentially open-ended and expansive. Most of the time you feel threatened to the core and if you don't. 1 Mar 2013 23:03:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . differences that can turn a person inside out. Because leaving home is painful. very often a self or a movement may (as Reagon suggests is partly the case at the festival) have a rigidly secured identity combined with an understanding of itself as open to difference. nurturing identity. 366). Working to build coalitions of diverse groups is often fundamentally threatening because many of the perspectives and practices that we take to be essentially constitutive and unquestionable aspects of our identity are challenged by others. 377 This content downloaded on Fri. They infuse her sense of the importance of all people's struggles against subjugation as well as her gestures toward "letting be" other groups and individuals. "The thing that must survive you is . failed to go far enough." avoid the "4Black folks." From there a variety of strategies can be deployed (with varying levels of consciousness) to avoid encountering differences and to secure one's identity. Engaging others in these situations involves grappling with differences that at once attract and repulse. I'm glad the principle is there for others to build on" (p. Still. There are profound disruptions at the edges of the encounters at the festival. it is a question of "turning the century with our principles intact" (1983. They formulate and tensionally juxtapose these ideas in a manner that has vital implications for coalition politics. Thus. The effort to engage and work with others very different from those with whom one has most in common are usually wrought with serious difficulties. referring to a song she had written years before that had tried to expand the content of liberty and equality but. are placed before us with a depth and frequency that can take one's breath away. More likely. Reagon fully recognizes that one cannot stay long in the midst of these threatening encounters. If it does not. This last. The limits and contingencies of our personal and group identities as well as the recalcitrance of others even to consider us seriously. "That is often what it feels like if you're really doing coalition work.American Political Science Review men. while in fact being the basis of your practice" (p. she enjoins us to return to this activity repeatedly with an attentive and wary eye to those strategies likely to subvert it. and so forth. unaltered. But the issue is clearly deeper and higher than mere survival for her. they do not go far enough. Furthermore. With a lot of luck and careful control over who gets included. talking. somebody is gonna use that song I sang. the superficiality of this posture is often readily apparent to those who are "included. 90." and maintain its posture of openness for a time. she says: "If in the future. My contention is that the principles to which Reagon refers are absolutely vital both in drawing her in the direction of encountering others as other and in sustaining her commitments to this direction even in the midst of great difficulties and dangers. the principles that are little color to it. Yet. In this case. Or. 359). listening. the encounters with otherness involved in coalition building are often obfuscated. Reagon suggests. Or a group may declare its own struggle and identity have the privileged location in history. you're not really doing no coalescing" (p. slave-like. The liberal ideas of equality and liberty repeatedly animate her text and life. the kind of encounter in and from which a meaningful and rich coalition politics might develop is probably being avoided. And their failure exposes the limits of their vision of a radical and plural democracy. illusory. Black folks are bound to find their way into the formerly barred room of comforting. you are just looking for yourself with a little color to it" (p. 356). Yet. 356). 359). who explicitly or tacitly suggest that what we hold dear is in fact trivial.. At this point one can begin the agonizing and infinite work of trying to encounter and partially come to terms with differences or retreat into another strategy of identity securement. perhaps the group can recruit lots of "themselves with a Vol. as well as the most important outcome of it. Most important to the possibility and event of coalition politics. 2 closed. let alone embrace our visions and ideals. 56).. No. Coalition politics is at best an intermittent activity which necessitates retreat to more comfortable relations that provide types of strength and nurture mostly absent from coalition activity. as well as any radical liberalism that fails to supplement and resituate the principles of liberty and equality with an ethic of receptive generosity. dangers to one's identity. they're gonna have to strip it or at least shift it. the group opens its doors with a posture of expansive inclusiveness. "the first thing that happens is that the room don't feel like the room anymore. is the vibrant atmosphere that fills Bernice Reagon's lungs and ears for a life of powerful singing. and on and on. along with the entire coalition effort. issues of race and class as they disrupt the homogeneity of woman-identification. (Laughter) And it ain't home no more" (p. In part. With playful seriousness Reagon says: "I feel as if I'm going to keel over any minute and die" (1983." Reagon taunts: "You don't really want Black folks. Reagon's position rests upon a strong strategic sense she shares with Laclau and Mouffe that peoples subjugated in diverse ways need each other in order to survive. Rather. The most obvious are direct efforts to subjugate others. burn-out and indifference continually threaten to provoke an apolitical retreat. oppressive. and because what people most often do like is the comfort of their established identities. 363). as we shall see. obnoxious. in a more subterranean fashion. it is easy to fall so heavily on the side of "repulse" that it hardens into ''against. anxieties. Nevertheless. unhealthy. of necessity. the "and" of "attract and repulse" is an extremely precarious place: Under the burden of this existential stress. learning little. is an ethical survival that exceeds mere survival.
" They hope this will greatly enhance the left's theoretical capacity (dulled by its focus on unity and necessity) to illuminate the contemporary world in ways likely to lead to more effective and desirable changes that eschew totalitarian impulses for a radical and plural democratic formation around which diverse social movements might coalesce. Yet.7 To those who rejoin that this is unlikely to convince anyone who does not already "happen to believe. reason. antagonisms. Their sense that these norms are sufficient and not in need of substantial supplementation in light of their ontological reflections is exemplified by Mouffe. but it goes no farther. yet believing we can never entirely escape the problem. and articulation of these values. the normative task is subsumed under political struggles that seek a hegemony involving "the construction of a new 'common sense' which changes the identity of the different groups. the chain of democratic equivalence necessary for hegemony is bound to this pair of very formal and negatively defined values rather than to definite substantive notions of the good life. indeed. Aware of the concerns raised here. For example.. insofar as this equivalence is the condition of possibility for the formal egalitarian spaces for difference. sexual freedom. toward the rhetoric of persuasion itself insofar as "persuasion . women's rights. and openness in all societal phenomena. 183). Equality and liberty are to some extent entwined in relations of reciprocal definition and reinforcement. and this "more" disrupts the reciprocally supportive relationship between the two values. more thickly interpreted as an identificational belonging to the same project.. Laclau and Mouffe suggest that equality must mean more than just equality of liberty. ecology. consensus is by necessity based upon acts of exclusion" (1991. which is "an empty locus" that has an essentially "open-ended" character. multiplicity. Native American rights. Henceforth. which have significantly and effectively animated historical movements for more than two hundred years. This change in the status of the norms of liberty and equality. it must be distinguished from a 'they' and that means establishing a frontier.. For the very identity and existence of equality and liberty hinge upon a certain solidarity with the common project of radical democracy through which these values can be maintained and can proliferate. function. A horizon is a soliciting yet essentially inexhaustible reference by means of which a formation "constitutes itself as a unity only as it delimits itself from that which it negates" (p. insofar as their ontology precludes essentialist metaphysical understandings of these values and instead views them as correlates of an antagonistic ensemble of social forces and practices. 1 Mar 2013 23:03:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . structurally involves force. Laclau and Mouffe argue that the totalizing requirements of public life (equality as equivalential chain) can be juxtaposed with other values (liberty as autonomy) such that we IDEALS. Equality is significantly equality of liberty." Laclau and Mouffe respond with a skepticism toward the persuasive efficacy of rationalist arguments and. By appropriating equality and liberty as social logics. and their subsumption under political struggles. the status of these norms is entirely transformed in light of Laclau and Mouffe's rejection of metaphysical foundations. Still. Laclau radically expresses this stance in phrases such as "we happen to believe in those values" (1991. In the ethico-practical dimension. we must understand-and with a tragic heroism embrace-these values as utterly "contingent historical projects." "persuasion is one form of force" (p. 378 This content downloaded on Fri. and liberty has an egalitarian structure. 66). 97). 90).. Yet. is not without its effects on the substantive meaning. Reagon expresses this idea when she states that the civil rights movement "just rolled around hitting various issues" (1983. In this sense equality. Laclau and Mouffe argue for a ''new logic of the social. The potentially dangerous aspect of this idea is striking in Mouffe's claim that. and a horizon.. Granted. The erosion of foundations. not as "essences" but as developing "social logics" (Laclau and Mouffe 1985. "to construct a 'we'. and so forth." products of struggles which have generated the particular traditions and practices that precariously make and unmake our identities. 183) around the ideals of liberty and equality. 7 On this point they are in explicit agreement with Richard Rorty (1989). and history. if modern ideals remain.The Ethics and Politics of Coalition June 1996 represents an enormous amplification of the content and operability of the values of modernity" (Laclau 1988. 1)." is the condition of possibility for constituting the "we" through and by which equality of liberty can exist. who writes that "the problem . but the fact that its political principles are a long way from being implemented" (1992. defining an 'enemy' . Laclau and Mouffe believe we can carry into the future and intensify the best aspects of the Enlightenment. This is elucidated in terms of the distinction between a foundation. AND RADICAL DEMOCRACY Through extensive elaborations of the ontological radical contingency. 81). it would appear that difference and liberty are subordinated to equality. though they disagree with much of his politics. the engagement of Laclau and Mouffe with ontology aims to deconstruct all essentialist efforts to restrain the wild proliferation of sites where the ideals of equality and liberty are brought to bear. 78). Henceforth. HEGEMONY. approximating the very type of systemic totality they seek to avoid. 363): antiwar. in such a way that the demands of each group are articulated equivalentially with those of others" (Laclau and Mouffe 1985.. is not the ideals of modern democracy. such as transparent self-grounding subjectivity. which has an internally "determining and delimiting" relation to what it founds that fixes and constrains the content and function of the founded. "far from being a negative phenomenon. They seek to hegemonize (gather together and transfigure) new social movements around a deepening agonistic embrace of the norms of liberty and equality. groups can gather around the horizons of equality and liberty by articulating the numerous openended struggles against inequality and subjugation through which the meanings of equality and liberty take form. which Laclau and Mouffe call the "chain of democratic equivalence.
191). 2 racy and thereby come to participate in a coalition that both draws them toward a new "common sense" and simultaneously (as a part of this sense) guarantees autonomous spaces for contesting. problems. the greatest possibilities for human emancipation. more radically. It is for this reason that the demand for equality is not sufficient. lack of transparency. the reciprocally limiting and antagonistic relation between these two social logics (Mouffe 1991. given their philosophical embrace of contingency. this community of impossibility. solicits subjugated voices.. gays and lesbians. Yet. Laclau 1992). and so forth.American Political Science Review check totalization and proliferate multiplicitous emancipations. a deepening vacuum-like void of impassability. these relations between selves and others? How are we to characterize ethically the exchanges and movements between people? What ought to animate these exchanges and movements? As we can see from the above reflections. equivalence. a precarious and renegotiable balancing act between identity and difference is instantiated that offers. In the process. diversifies its struggles. each self. and others are transfigured by the discursive practice of radical democ- Vol. Laclau and Mouffe dismiss both modes when conceived of as foundations or achievable endpoints. 1 Mar 2013 23:03:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .. Here the dimension of "being with" others is imagined as a movement in the direction of absolute difference.. they maintain that "this total equivalence never exists: every equivalence is penetrated by a constitutive precariousness. the tensional juxtaposition. Each group (or. embraces the ideal of egalitarian liberty will allow and even encourage the logic of autonomy to transfigure and limit the logic of hegemonic equivalence. given their ontology of difference. each subself) would tend toward the horizon of "auto-constitutivity. but needs to be balanced by the demand for liberty . in the possibility of representing its radical indeterminacy" (Laclau 1990. at the same time. But precisely how are we to imagine this gathering. The freedom and power of diverse social movements almost always hinge upon their ability to join with other struggles. 79). plurality. Laclau and Mouffe are correct to identify the continued importance of the liberal ideas of equality and liberty for progressive coalition politics. Of course. Laclau and Mouffe claim. relations that take shape between ourselves and others.. finally. what gives life to radical and plural democracy is not simply the reciprocally supportive relation between equality and liberty but. The animating desire is undisturbed. and Laclau and Mouffe view the principles of radical democracy as precisely the identity-modifying focus around which the chains of equivalence necessary for such hegemony can be established.. transparent atomism. a transfiguring mixture of them." Since total equivalence is never extant and always horizonal. reformulating. it is also an ethical move based on a recognition that the horizonal character of their ideals solicits a deepening and broadening of ethics which requires plural reformulations. In this sense. But does this position push as far and high as it ought to. 90. their reconstrual of these principles as horizonal social logics radicalizes them in a manner which both facilitates and articulates the desirability of a proliferation of these ideals. consumers. "Radical democracy makes this openness and incompletion the very horizon on which all social identity is constituted" (Laclau 1990. Here the dimension of "being with" others is imagined as a movement in the direction of subsumption under a singular identity. Community. insofar as Laclau and Mouffe believe that it is precisely such an open and plural ideal which can unite diverse movements in collective action. and gathers them in a growing hegemonic formation. ecologists. and aspirations. and agonistic entwinement of differences? And does their construal of equality and liberty provide an ethical standpoint sufficient for the coalition politics they seek to embrace? Laclau and Mouffe envision radical and plural democracy as a transfigurative gathering together of diverse peoples. In short. Laclau and Mouffe offer us two indeterminate logics and. A retraction and dissolution of exchange is envisioned. manifests itself . This plurality of spaces in which to contest the democratic equivalence makes possible an open-ended renegotiation of the terms at the heart of radical democratic hegemony: equality and liberty. all hegemonic projects established on totalizing claims will be based on the erroneous idea of an achieved identificational equality which various social groups will find inadequate and transgressive of important aspects of their identity. whether of the whole or of the part. blacks.reciprocally limiting. women. the irreducible moment of the plurality of spaces" (Laclau and Mouffe 1985. 182). is that "through the irreducible character of this diversity and plurality. the precariousness of every equivalence demands that it be complemented/limited by the logic of autonomy. that is. Furthermore. and contingency. anti-imperialists. marking irreducible specificity. And their tensional juxtaposition illuminates and might help check the dangers that accompany the 379 This content downloaded on Fri. A movement that explicitly recognizes this ontological and political situation and. antagonism. In a precarious middle ground these logics are said to do battle in a manner most conducive to openness and a freedom that escapes the tyranny of identity. equality. liberty. No. The animating principle of these exchanges is the desire to be with the other as a part of the One. society constructs the image and the management of its own impossibility" (Laclau and Mouffe 1985. 233). Laclau and Mouffe are seeking to transfigure radically the type of hegemony to be sought: hegemony as a regulative idea-as a horizon-must be reformulated to embrace and embody its essence as horizonal. are in this instance imagined as movements aimed at seducing and trapping into the whole. 184). What this means politically. The first is a logic of hegemony. as the project of radical democracy multiplies spaces. 79-82. The second logic is that of autonomy. isolated. "The fullness of the social . indeterminate and open. absolutely particular identities that would be "unable to communicate with each other" (Laclau and Mouffe 1985. Workers.. Yet." incommensurability. This is partly a strategic move. They embrace them only as indeterminate antagonistic horizontal logics. "To this extent. moreover and especially. Difference is not necessarily to be eradicated but transfiguratively assimilated within a totality. mutually transfiguring.
as we sink into mindless mediocrity and subjections. without a seductive account of the agonizing grandness of plurality. Yet. disruptive. Coexistence in this sense constantly disappears into the singularity of the whole or the part. Rather. give it away that way (up and down)" (1983. His gestures toward a greater degree of "ethical permeation" than they offer. although he emphasizes the undeveloped ethical potential in their understanding of relational identities. in the midst of the most agonistic difference. the highest virtue of postmetaphysical earth. their otherness. might we not simply oscillate between relations of assimilation and indifference? I am not implying that an ethic of generous receptivity could or should simply replace the twin logics offered by Laclau and Mouffe (although it can bestow upon them a status more compelling than "I happen to believe"). Leaving aside for now the likely corrosive effects of the explicit status of their project. with all the cooperation and agonism this implies. This is so not only because in the absence of giving and receiving we cannot remain beings worthy of this life. threatening. an ethics soliciting "a struggle for mutual recognition [of differences]" (1987. 368). I think their meaning is refigured in her address in relation to an ethic of receptive generosity in such a manner that they take a greater turn toward otherness. When the immense pressures of coalition politics come to bear. it is extremely significant that when she explicitly reflects upon the ethical direction which ought to guide our lives and "turn the century. You can't stay there all the time.8 Mutual limitation is to prevent these logics from accomplishing total disappearance. and recalcitrances that frequently permeate the terrain of gift-giving. That will only happen if you give it away. Related to the shortcomings of their project in a strictly ethical sense is a question concerning the inadequacies of their ethical stance for supporting the politics they endorse. frightening character of coalition politics. but the experience and the wish illuminate and call us toward future paths of giving and receiving. Reagon's brief remarks on giving raise a directional question." we must truly wonder whether the difficult engagements with others that she describes could likely be sustained simply by an openness which is to emerge through this juxtaposition of two logics of closure. but also because when the grandness of giving and receiving a gift occurs. Reagon powerfully develops ways in which liberty and equality can be incorporated into strategies of assimilation and denial. 380 This content downloaded on Fri. Yet. You go to coalition for a few hours and then you go back and take your bottle wherever it is. configured giftgiving as the highest virtue. are for people who live long after you are long forgotten. I do not wish to imply a point by point identity between his view of generosity and that of Reagon. Coalition politics has little to do with the relative tranquility of a study. smother. we may well lack the ethico-existential comportment and resources necessary to sustain the kind of political tensions and ambiguity sought by radical and plural democracy and demanded by coalition politics. give it away. Reagon states: "You don't get fed a lot in a coalition. desirabilities. This situation leads to a continual interrogative relationship between determinacy and indeterminacy in receptive generosity. You go wishing everyday was like that" (1983. move toward. and so forth. as practiced in the efforts to receive and grapple with core-threatening differences in coalition politics. their own Dallmayr expresses some of these reservations concerning radical equivalence and war in his review of Laclau and Mouffe. My emphasis on recalcitrance is due not only to ontological considerations but also to numerous political experiences in which the extravagant gift of one person or group is interpreted as so much imperialism. But generosity is one of the key virtues that keeps one coming back for more. dramatically evoked by "I feel as if I'm going to keel over any minute and die. and don't just give it on the horizontal . and equality and liberty will likely take up strategic positions within imperialist identities that assimilate. irrelevance. and heights of the dimension of "being with" others as others: striving to engage." it appears that her highest virtue.. if you do them right.. on the other hand. 359). "that's all you pay attention to: when that great day happen. a project that is under way. distances. but the opening that forms in what is left of differential coexistence does not come close to an adequate and desirable ethical account of "being with" others-the possible agonizing grandness of plurality. do Laclau and Mouffe finally have a compelling ethical response to these questions (provided that these options are strategically plausible in a given instance): Why not seek to assimilate the other? Why not seek to separate entirely? There is little reason to be hopeful here. At any rate. In a coalition you have to give. what is painfully lacking in their formulation is a promising ethical account of the possibilities. but she does not critique the principles as such. Lacking an ethic that solicits a more receptive and generous effort to engage otherness. On the one hand. Nietzsche. Rather. are largely consonant with my effort to articulate such an ethic in the section on Nietzsche below.9 In turning to Nietzsche. too. Yet. 1 Mar 2013 23:03:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . our gifts wither. I am arguing that a soliciting description of the desire for the other as other must enter into a constellation with the former two ideals. 294). they have no ethical account that would draw us toward and animate our engagements with these difficult others. 365). 8 June 1996 project contains the seeds of other-assimilation and other-oblivion. and it is different from your home. is not sufficient to sustain one's life in this work in an uninterrupted manner. Without a generosity born in our efforts to receive the other as other. 9 The following analysis of the gift-giving virtue has some significant parallels with Corlett's (1989) insights. and then you go back and coalesce" (p. and Nietzsche can be read as a thoughtful response. Generosity. Whatever it is that you know. my account places far more emphasis on the difficulties. by the intended recipients.The Ethics and Politics of Coalition project of a radicalized liberalism. Bringing to mind again Reagon's account of the dangerous. and they are clearly important to her. Every day is not like that. You cannot stay there. An encounter between my analysis and the gift as it figures in Derrida (1992) and Levinas (1969) would be highly illuminating. such that equivalence and autonomy come to be significantly redrawn by an imagining of community animated by a desire for the others' otherness. is giving: "But most of the things you do. or explicitly deny otherness. and what is conceivable in the latter may collapse in the former. the one that keeps drawing her to others as other.
a problem acknowledged. Thus. epistemological. Yet. and entwined in such a way as to undermine fundamentally the initial plausibility of the latter. Uncharitable in potential God and His creation become increasingly difficult to receive. as she confronts radical contingency and difference practically in the crucible of coalition politics). so contingent that He could change the past. that strand is not compelling (as Heidegger shows) and is not necessarily entwined with the strand I develop. Zarathustra journeys the harrowing paths of the gift-giving virtue because of his strong sense of the The theme of generosity is present in Honig (1993) and Kaufmann (1950). I do not accuse Heidegger of giving us a "lame reading" (Lampert 1986). He tries to be more solar than Zarathustra. not the proper name. as it bears upon the question of ethics and coalition politics. tends to view Nietzsche's philosophical positions as largely consonant with a democratic politics at once pluralist and egalitarian. Thus. in the eyes of so many of Kant's successors. Unlike most who seek to draw out something more admirable in Nietzsche. Yet. economy." a claim made dubious when reading each in light of the others. which reduces others and the earth to "standing reserve" for exploitation (see Heidegger 1977a. but it is insufficiently developed in the former and poorly developed (through too close an association with Aristotle. pp. the charge that one picks and chooses is interesting only insofar as it is relevant to the truth of the matter at hand. Thus Spoke Zarathustracan be read as a narrative that explores the possibilities and dangers of various ways of formulating the gift-giving virtue. "the rabble" are not very receptive these days." But all interpretations engage in this vertiginous task (Nietzsche taught us this). 13 Many commentators miss the centrality of this theme in Nietzsche's work (see Higgins 1987." the people. My development of the gift-giving virtue takes seriously Gadamer's (1988) emphasis on the importance of the narrative for interpreting the text. Honig (1993) also fails to acknowledge sufficiently the multiple ethical voices in Nietzsche at odds with her project (which has substantial affinities with my own). It does not follow. that we must read Nietzsche in as indeterminate and potentially disintegrative a manner as one might draw from (and thereby reduce?) Derrida's text. in discussions of "re-territorialization" in Deleuze and Guattari (1987). I do not even claim that the sum of his epistemological. I obviously "pick and choose.10There is much in Nietzsche's pondering that runs directly against the grain of the insights I seek to draw from him. As a friend of Nietzsche.13What gift-giving is and how it can be are as 10 Warren (1988). 38283) in the latter. because God had been the very movement of giving. In the case of Deleuze. No. in this relative chaos. His will becomes potentially deceitful and malevolent. While Beatty focuses his analysis (1970) on giving. 381 This content downloaded on Fri. 1977b. habit. I do not bring out the voice in Nietzsche that Heidegger identifies as the culmination of metaphysical forgetfulness of being. and ethical reflections lead. all His creation was His gift. appears radically arbitraryand draws skeptical glances. The difficulty is not simply that the "others. Lampert's (1986) frequently insightful commentary makes questions concerning gift-giving central. although insufficiently transcended. The degrees of unity and multiplicity must be substantively argued. error. His command. accident. and simultaneously the project of establishing the subject as the pure self-giving ground intensifies in its stead. Finally. and power relations increasingly appear to invade. while recognizing the diversity of insights within Nietzsche's work. nor do I know anyone who does. necessarily entwined with what I did choose. from among his many discrepant expressions I find the following account of the gift-giving virtue to be one of his most compelling ideas and directly relevant to the present discussion. of His loving gift. Radically separated from-unable to receive-things and others in themselves. a skepticism is radicalized concerning receptivity as the ground of truth.. 1 Mar 2013 23:03:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .. Derrida (1979) illuminates the problematic assumptions that would reduce Nietzsche's writings to a totalizing context of meaning. it is the sense of the narrative and argument that should be judged here. truth. 12). These readings fail to account for the many affirmative-constructivemoments in Nietzsche's works. Although this is a monumental problem. 56). it was His word. had been given His Son. 2 much questions as answers. toward a democratic community of receptive generosity. in Kant. in its ontological." and I am "closest to him when resisting him" (Nietzsche 1954. for example. and an endless technological mastery imperative. It is here. is my concern here. his brilliant but very one-sided reading (1983) is entwined with an excessively disintegrative politics and ethics in Deleuze and Guattari (1983). Nehamas 1985). 11).12The latter. 74)."1 Outside the field of intellectual history. who exemplified the incarnation of caritas and taught us how to receive and proliferate its movement and thus to belong to Being instead of Nothingness. that Nietzsche explores and seeks to affirm the gift-giving virtue. we "give the law to nature" and "give the moral law. it is enmeshed more profoundly with something of which the old saint "has not yet heard .American Political Science Review Vol. giving. he misses most of the profundity of the text by concentrating on the themes of radicalized independence and innocence. however." But contingency and power come to be just as disruptive of the effort to make the self the givingground of the world. the "highest virtue" (1954. Much of Warren's analysis is helpful and provocative. when contemplated politically with more skill than he himself exhibited. and ethical senses. he is my "best enemy. the deepest reaches of Kant's necessity and universality. especially when the corpus is as manifold as Nietzsche's. From Descartes forward. He perceptively criticizes an important strand of Nietzsche's writing. Each illuminates aspects of Nietzsche that other interpretations attempt to conceal. 11Almost all the secondary works claim. 12 That is. 14 Many commentators contend that Nietzsche responds to this situation by embracing a thorough-going perspectivism (see Danto 1965) or a project of difference affirming deconstruction without construction (see Deleuze 1983). It is thus that I learn from him. to "get Nietzsche right. By accenting this voice. only if what I did not "pick" is compelling. which leads to homelessness. God's radical omnipotence begins to rip free of its essential inscription in the constellation of love and charity. This consonance is concealed from Nietzsche due to the "narrowness" of his political assumptions. We. 90. but I see far more diversity and (sometimes nonilluminating and apparently unintended?) contradictions among Nietzsche's philosophical reflections. as I show below. as the reclusive saint who has retired from giving reveals early in the "Prologue" when he tells Zarathustra that "they are suspicious of hermits and do not believe that we come with gifts" (p.14But what a place! In part. that God is dead" (p. 1982). well known to Laclau and Mouffe (and certainly to Reagon as well. History. ontological. At least with William of Ockham this begins to come undone. and value as they were of God. ZARATHUSTRA AND THE GIFT-GIVINGVIRTUE I do not think Nietzsche was secretly a radical and plural democratic. This poses incredible problems.
neighborliness." that "golden splendor makes peace between moon [emblem of receptivity and passiveness] and sun" (1954. For the sun that awakens Zarathustra is not a fundamentally separate condition of possibility. For despite 15Love and gift-giving distinguish his own teachings from those of his impostures. as I argue below. June 1996 his inability to receive the reclusive saint's warning concerning the extreme difficulties of being received (an inability that exemplifies the relative weakness of receptivity in his sense of giving early in the text. metaphysics of presence.The Ethics and Politics of Coalition degrading and annihilating relations between selves that come to predominate where it is lacking. Yet. This negative motivation is nourished through countless genealogical critiques aimed at exposing the illnesses that spawn and are spawned by various modalities of "sick-selfish" will to power: pity. 83). 382 This content downloaded on Fri. Significantly. then he seems to have little clue. 17 Thiele (1990) seems to read Zarathustra as embracing a thoroughgoing solarity from beginning to end. Book VII). But does the herd-like stream of humanity. his individualistic figurations of skiing and biking in the conclusion do not go very far toward helping us consider relations between selves. of "the great weight Nietzsche lays on the interaction between individuals and their world. This essential reception pierces the self-same givingground with contingencies of possibility and danger. blinded by the sun he seeks to emulate. 9-10)."'7 Zarathustra's first encounters with people in the marketplace go exactly as the old saint predicted: His efforts to give are smashed upon the shores of those unwilling to receive him. he still resists advancing to the question of the other as other. They are. Zarathustra soon repeatedly discovers the recalcitrance that meets his giving. they merely hint" (1954. is connected with others. that which gives all beings being and perceptibility (Plato 1974. the state. the spirit of revenge and resentment. and gift is explicitly drawn in the next paragraph. selfish egoism. and the oblivion that results from such weakness). when Zarathustra says: "You would have tired of your light and of the journey had it not been for me and my eagle and my serpent" (1954. as we shall see. and in ways which increasingly bring to the fore the mounting ironies. and it draws Zarathustra down from his cave toward recipients and tremendously difficult questions. as he closes Part I with his speech on the "gift-giving virtue. failing. Zarathustra perceives a weakening associated with the eclipse of generosity. its overflowing giving. especially concerning relations with others. "what would your happiness be had you not those for whom you shine?" we should recall that in Will to Power Nietzsche defines happiness (pleasure) as the feeling of increasing strength and power (1967. 16 On the theme of solarity. what would your happiness be had you not those for whom you shine?" (1954. 76). This. with its tenacious stupidity. 75). material acquisitiveness. being. and Zarathustra. "it was not myself I saw. A significant stream in Thus Spoke Zarathustra struggles with the problems Derrida identifies. This in turn forces him to radicalize the entwinement of giving and receiving. When he exclaims. 232. in contrast to the dominant bent of Thiele and Nehamas (1985). last men. Nietzsche traces Zarathustra's solar wanderings in Part II in parables that "do not define. and he instantly externalizes the problem: "My enemies have grown powerful and distorted my teaching till those dearest to me must be ashamed of the gifts I gave them" (p. nevertheless his initial understanding of solar generosity contains a fissure in the idea of autonomous giving (shared by the Good. He summarizes: "Tell me my brothers: what do we consider bad and worst of all? Is it not degeneration?And it is degeneration that we always infer where the gift-giving soul is lacking" (1954. 238). if the solicitous image of self-giving solarity repeatedly misleads as well as leads Zarathustra. his gifts are giftless. ultimately pushing him beyond his opening formulations of solarity. As Part II opens he is startled awake by a dream in which a child holds a mirror before him. In each instance. equality mongering. Zarathustra still locates the origin of gift-giving virtue in being "above praise and blame. the Good (transfigured into God by Christian neo-Platonists). which Thiele's work does not adequately explore. But whereas one might expect him to pause in a moment of self-reflection before such an image and question how he might be implicated in these dangers and failures.16His experience of this solar generosity gives rise to the seductive exemplary solarity which animates his often stumbling journey toward the giftgiving virtue: "You great star. and many accounts of God and modern subjectivity) through which Zarathustra's reflections move with widening disruptive effects. is incapable of such self-reflection until near the end. This intertwining of giving and receiving as a condition of strength. A theory of receptive generosity as the wellspring of intelligence and power gradually emerges through the relatively small fissure of receptivity in the "Prologue. For if he can say. He in turn receives not receivers but a corpse. bear sole responsibility for these disastrous encounters? Or is it also the blindness of the solarity that governs Zarathustra's giving? If the latter. Yet." Yet. ascetic selflessness. it is rather essentially entwined with those who receive its light. 83). the marketplace. tragedies. And at the deepest and highest levels of the text this challenges him to question not only his understanding of the recipients but also what gift-giving means in the face of such recalcitrance. See "Zarathustra's Ape" (1954. and weaknesses accompanying this position. but a devil's grimace and scornful laughter" (p.15 But what summons Zarathustra toward the gift-giving virtue as the condition of possibility of well being? Would it be too facile to mention the sun? The solar summons in the "Prologue" is borne upon a powerful historical wave stemming at least from Plato's solar analogy used to gesture toward Agathon. 75). Zarathustra himself. the jealous god of monotheism. Entwined with this is Zarathustra's experience of the sun as that which eternally overflows with a generous luminosity so graciously accepted by its earthy recipients. Strong (1975) is absolutely right when he writes. 175-78). He takes this as a sign that his teaching is endangered. In some sense the power of the sun. see Derrida (1981). 74). 1 Mar 2013 23:03:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . is to miss some of Nietzsche's most provocative insights. 9). the solar blindness which rots the very giving it guides simultaneously blinds him to possible self-reflection." where "your will wants to command all things" (p.
Significantly. like a "mouth-talking all the time" about "woman identified" in ways which obliterate a priori the specificities of many women. 99). a plunging river of love: "Mouth have I become through and through" (p. let alone a "dancing star"?19Could it be. her fascinating analysis (1985) of Dionysus. 365). as a gift to the child. to offer much in absence of some sort of receptive. but the shift involves not only a move toward the problem of receiving the gift of the doctrine of eternal return but also. You think that what you've got to say is special and that somebody needs to hear it. Kaufmann 1950). he leaps up and "like dawn" proclaims that he will once again go down to his friends and enemies. festationof his own "sun-poisoning"-in additionto all he identifies?And what might it be about solaritythat 383 This content downloaded on Fri. 90. 106). As a ceaseless self-originating giver of light. 106). but he ends up conceptualizing it as "letting be. Is it radiance. but instead drawn together and pulled apart in the context of agonistic incomplete identities. closing his speech with: "Like a wind I yet want to blow among them one day. 19 The centrality of receptivity to giving is insufficiently developed by some of those mentioned above for whom gift-giving is important (Honig 1993. And when the recipients are ungrateful. weak. Oh. hear. ah.. Zarathustra exclaims: "Light am I. haunting indeterminacies. toward the problem of receiving others. Most of us think that the space we live in is the most important space there is" (1983. he speaks of the image of the rabble mirrored in the well they poison: "grinning snouts." having developed one organ to the detriment of all else (p. he says: "I do not know the happiness of those who receive" (p." gestures toward the self-defeating character of solarity. But. He lets them close enough to admit that he has been bitten. . tiring. For lurking in the nagging ironic background Nietzsche provides for Zarathustra are deeper questions the latter avoids: Is there a tarantula hiding in his sun? Has he bitten himself? Is the rabble poisoning the well partly a mani- Vol. See also Nietzsche (1979. devoid of the wild yet more receptive and discerning dialogical encounters with the often chaotic otherness of the world that are necessary for the birth of intelligence. She challenges us (and Zarathustra) to receive others. coarse. "Many suns revolve in the void: to all that is dark they speak with their light-to me they are silent. as another light. Higgins obscures the importance of "Night Song" when she reduces it to a "lament about the emotional strain" of appearing as a "bottomless well of insight and generosity" (1987. receptivity is central. touch? Can a mouth alone be radiant? Giving? Bernice Reagon does not think so." "revolting smiles" (1954. and love suggests a very fruitful path that might be explored both to illuminate Nietzsche's sense of Dionysus and to deepen an analysis of receptive generosity. What is yearned for here. my virtue tired of itself" (p. 106-7). the location of "a great shift" (1986. and difficult distances. Echoing the "devil's grimace and scornful laughter" of his own image.American Political Science Review Secured with this account. It is not long before Zarathustra turns his mouth upon "the rabble. 108-10). Recalling here Nietzsche's understanding of happiness as a feeling of increasing power. Those who are all mouth bear giftless gifts. Nietzsche opens the section that follows Zarathustra'swind fantasy with a parable on storm-provoking tarantulas. Zarathustra immediately construes these spiders in a wholly external way. diverse. difference. for "Zarathustra is no cyclone or whirlwind" (p. in a world wrought with powerful contingencies. darkening of my sun!. whose "poison makes the soul whirlwith revenge" (1954. 99). 2 could make it so? The "Night Song" parable that soon follows revolves around these questions. no longer either the origin or the recipient of stable ontological ground that sufficiently guides one's relations toward others. once again. interrogative entwinement with the world and others around them? Could it be that the height of the highest virtue is only attainable through agonistic and yet more powerfully receptive relations with others as others? How could Zarathustra hope to give to those of whom he knows 18 On the one hand. peering from out of his own sun? He rages and fumes against the rabble. "The only way you can take yourself seriously is if you can throw yourself into the next period beyond your little meager human-body-mouth-talking all the time" (p. 1 Mar 2013 23:03:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 105). I can hear her taunting: "Most people who are up on this stage take themselves too seriously-its true. the future. Is "the rabble" closer than he thinks. transfiguration. 102-5). for unreceptive generosity seems to be mostly unreceivable and thus fails to engender "receivers"). In absence of this: "My happiness in giving died in giving. developed below. But is this not precisely an "inverse cripple. Apollo. and Ariadne with regard to the themes of unity. his exclamation. like the "mouth-talking all the time" Virginia Supreme Court which recently separated a child from his lesbian mother. the question concerning whether he has been bitten is very concealing. No. 365). the enmity of light against what shines: merciless it moves in its orbit" (p. but he leaves us with a strong sense he has risen above the poison. giving. 102). 138)? Mouth he is! But can he see. For Lampert (1986). as we shall see. monotonic. giving we hear here? Or something else? Again with pointed irony. Of course. they are the type exemplified by punishing equality police and courts.18 From the depths of darkness. becomes incapable of cultivating a gift. power. another voice. Lampert's focus on the growing distance between the philosopher-ruler and other people in Zarathustra obscures the numerous. and important relations Zarathustra both seeks and discovers. entwined with the former. that I were night!" (1954. he is-unlike darkness-unable to receive anything. they are defined out of existence. and with my spirit take the breath of their spirit" (p. That is arrogance. 96). and darkening? Could it be that the unreceptive giver. Receiving the other-solely-as-a-receiverseems to be insufficient (and perhaps impossible. seems to be the capacity to receive partially the other as other. and once again he so proclaims without a moment's reflection upon the semblance. 136). as we cultivate our giving. what seems necessary for radiant generosity and power itself." Here Nietzsche has him speak about those he finds most nauseating in terms remarkably similar to those he uses to describe the image of himself that he finds in the mirror." which overlooks the very important reciprocally transfigurative and agonistic characteristics of giving and receiving between people in Zarathustra's thinking. On the other hand. that isolated oblivious atoms-even big overflowing onesare simply too small. Lampert correctly reads the section as pivotal. But why this weakening.. 84). "Oh. the past.
what might shame the other.. who provides a compelling discussion of the issue in chapter 5. the revengeful tarantula he so despises. Receptive generosity as a response to this situation emerges in my reading of the doctrine of eternal return. 273-74).. however. become himself." which Zarathustra defines precisely as "the will's ill will against time and its 'it was. clearly he viewed it as a practical regulative idea (an idea he called "the greatest weight") (1974.. Yet. gather together the "fragment. Danto (1965). he is an angry spectator of all that is past" (p. that is what I find most unendurable" (p. Before the past the self-proclaimed unreceptive will seems impotent and mythical. 137). who remain active across decades. leading to withdrawal. Yet. frequently demonstrate a capacity to engage receptively a wide range of difficult issues and perspectives." "The now and the past on earth-alas. a monster of a year. They ain't gonna do you no good" (p. my friends. In learning nothing from one's encounters. once again.. then. 363)." such that we can remain vitally engaged with others far into the future. But has he not. unable to give. It is clear that Reagon recognizes the cleft between monological giving and the possibility of receiving. the will becomes a destructive force and "wreaks revenge. like the kind he suggests that the hunchback who would rather be "cured" ought to embrace: "When one takes away the hump from the hunchback one takes away his spirit" (1954. 150). Such revenge my fullness plots: such spite wells out of my loneliness" (1954. Kaufmann (1968). resentment. an intractable past that is more than its will and cannot be changed "at will. interprets eternal return solely as "a view of the self' (p. if Zarathustra's agony in "Night Song" brilliantly opens onto this wisdom. through which the other and otherness have come and always are already coming? Somehow the will must receive time. provide an ontological reading.. Moreover. it soon disappears again in blinding flashes of the solarity by which he is seized. Zarathustra's animals capture the most important core of the idea: "All things recur eternally. "They can teach you how to cross cultures and not kill yourself" (p. In this reified void which characterizes the relations of such a self (or group) with others. The present moment of the will receives."' Unless the will can receive otherness in the fundamental form of temporality. The significance of Zarathustra's reflections here are broad and deep. Part of this involves "pulling back" from coalition politics. As is Zarathustra. nay. to recognize and create the possibilities that the contingencies and indeterminacies infusing our own and others' identity afford. is carried along by. 361).. "The will is still a prisoner.. all orientation concerning what might be empowering.. Zarathustra recognizes a problem within the solar will that makes reception itself difficult. They lose all sense of the other. "cloud upon cloud rolls over the spirit.20 I will only sketch a possible sense of the latter as it emerges in the context of and engages the questions we have been pressing and the directions we have been pursuing. Angry at that which the will must unwillingly receive. this spider who dwells where the sun shines brightest and hottest? Zarathustra's most suggestive efforts to address the problem of receptivity can be traced in his discussions of June 1996 the latter inextricably entwines all selves with rabblishness. Unable to receive. dreadful accident" that temporality appears to be. Reagon calls us instead to agonistic dialogues with others... riddle. which must like an hour There are endless debates on the ontological status of the eternal return in Nietzsche's thought. 1 Mar 2013 23:03:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . a sense of receptive generosity itself as a way of being. and the narrowest cleft is the last to be bridged.The Ethics and Politics of Coalition nothing.. 138). darkening of my sun!"). or both. as does Nehamas (1985). 363). Yet. produced himself. who "hold the key to turning the century." Whether or not he really thought this doctrine had literal ontological merit. Reagon's reflections can help us articulate some of their importance for considering an ethical possibility and trajectory for coalition politics." She calls us "to have an old age perspective. Lampert (1986) views it primarily as a practical regulative idea. 139)." not just because they are more likely to remain vibrant. among others. and Zuboff (1973). this unreceptive effort is not only tiring in an unhelpful manner to the supposed recipients but also tends to tire of itself. impossible to embrace. and say "thus I will it. a view I wish to decenter through a discussion of receiving otherness "within" and "without. You teach that there is a great year of becoming. Powerless against all that has been done. 106)." the sun extinguishes itself (p. "Watch those monoissue people. "I should like to hurt those for whom I shine . but because they are most likely to have something to give: perhaps most important. those from whom he has received so little? "They receive from me. and part of it involves the way one engages others in such a politics (1983. And a giving whose fundamental structure dooms it to failure leads to resentment. as life-giving. Zarathustra's concern here is to try somehow to embrace difficult reception." "The heart and hand of those who always mete out become callous from always meting out" (1954." But how to do this when what has come and is coming is permeated by so much rabblishness (and also the highest profundities of others that one "girt with light" finds difficult to perceive/receive)? Nietzsche seeks a sort of redemption in the face of recalcitrant time and rabblishness through the doctrine of the "eternal return. one remains untransfigured and untransfiguring. 20 the way time pierces the active will with a passivityit must receive despite itself and of the mannerin which 384 This content downloaded on Fri. an overwhelming sense of futility and weakness is most likely to emerge ("Oh. she argues. and we ourselves too. But how to receive time. 106). rob those to whom I give. It is they. 140). She notes that those who tend not to tire. For he realizes that the passive aspect of our relation to time is ineliminable and gives the lie to the will's claims to be self-originary giving. but do I touch their souls? There is a cleft between giving and receiving. Nehamas. in an endless effort to grapple discerningly with what is foreign. she is concerned about cultivating a generosity that does not "tire of itself." recognizing the real limits of these categories. Zarathustra's giving turns unpalatably sour. It was-that is the name of the will's gnashing of teeth and most secret melancholy. The section "On Redemption" offers much on the difficulties of embracing receptivity as vital.
42). always transfiguring dialogical effort with others to discern what is lower and what is higher. the depthsof beings. bubbling. musics. No. withdrawal. 1 Mar 2013 23:03:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . see Coles 1992a. simply that it is one very potent articulation of such a pressure. Reagon describes the engagement in such politics in terms of overwhelming pressures which threaten to the core. partly cooperative. exHe narratives. is nevertheless the precarious elaborating foundation of well-being and sense. in the stream of Nietzsche's thinking that I am tracing here. On the other hand. in contrast to those who are "obtrusive with [their] eyes" and are stuck in the "foreground" surface of things.. the knot of causes in which I am entangled recurs and will create me again" (1954. On the one hand. to discern how these differences and distances might be brought together and held apart such that we might become more receptive of their gifts. the entwinement of giving and receiving which. the more strongly do his roots strive earthward. responds in two ways. underneath "the greatest weight"-the thought of eternal return (which is hence the greatest gift?). and practicesthat tend to engender such questioning. downward. "you. 385 This content downloaded on Fri. paradoxically. For the distance. practices. 0 Zarathustra. and wailing at once lift one up and press one down into explorations of violence and possibility. and 1995.American Political Science Review glass turn over again and again . more capable of giving.those aspectsand possibilitiesthat are concealedbeneath immediateappearances. as a question through which the opening of time as a site of possibility for the creation/ coming of the higher emerges. wanted to see the ground and background of all things. its greatest possibility for emergence "arises. again. in what is greatest as in what is smallest . rather. and rabblishness which are in part the space of giving's possibility. which is pressed into being and opened under the weight of this highly pressurized thought of passive receptivity. thoughts. into evil because the background depth of beings is barred from generous approach by the taboos of evil (races. Finally. 228).. although never free of all doubt in the manner Descartes yearned for. harmonies. having graphically portrayed these dangers in the narrative of Zarathustra." wanted to plunge into Vol. one cannot simply will it away anymore than one can will away the past. Much of Zarathustra's effort focuses upon coming to terms with the implications of this thought: "the eternal recurrence even of the smallest . Under these pressures generous receptive agonism can easily dissolve into strategies of assimilation. he offers us "the greatest weight" of the eternal return as a kind of interrogative counterpressure those to Reagon describes. writhing. sexualities. These are pregnant thoughts. eternal recurrence. The interrogative overture (a word capturing the essential connection between opening and height) is endlessly renewed in the question of how one might receive the rabblishness (and grandness) within and without in order that it might be gathered together into a giving and a gift high enough to redeem it. instead are. desires. It is through this agonistic giving and receiving in depth that one can best affirm life and might rise toward a joy capable of dancing in the face of the eternal question of the eternal return. Ironically. all these years are alike in what is greatest and what is smallest. 1992b. he evokes the seductive possibility of buoyant empowerment and joyful wisdom that might accompany receptive and generous engagements. There is no singularly triumphant answer to this question. hangs over Zarathustra in an essentially interrogative hue. One might say that a key task of coalition politics would be the cultivation of diverse philosophies. One looks up to the highest virtue and is pressed into the pregnant depths by its midwife. difference. Not only the group of themes she emphasizes (although these are often powerful) but also the rhythms. and we ourselves are alike in every great year. questioning the possible and desirable. the possibility of radiance seems to hinge precisely upon the agonistic dialogue between others.and action. a dimension of their significance can be further clarified by returning to Reagon's reflections on coalition politics. it is a journey through depth toward height. bodily expressions. in order to keep us returning to those most difficult and dangerous spaces with others. into the dark. Zarathustra says to himself that. Nietzsche. This question involves the partly agonistic. or outright subjugation.) The gift-giving virtue is what is highest. and textures of voices singing. and so forth). Instead. this thought of unending closed time. is how to receive this smallness (and grandness) in such a way that radiance and giving do not darken but. as is implied when he says that "one must look away from oneself [and one's foreground] in order to see much" (1954. 90.. checking assimilation and indifference. the deep-into evil" (p. 219).being questioned. despite moments in the text when joyful triumph seems absolute. simultaneously permeate it with tragic dimensions of erring." Nietzsche thinks. opacity. this climb is not direct. made possible in part precisely through this reception. but it is incapable of manifesting itself as that which comes from on high. one of Zarathustra's clearest articulations of this relation is given early in the text: "It is with man as it is with the tree. high enough to say "yes" to the eternal return of this moment. 2 claims that "hence you must climb over yourself. classes. Reagon cultivates another very potent articulation in her distinctive relation to the tradition of gospel music. Yet.. less resentful and revenge seeking.. My claim here is not that the idea of the eternal return is the only interrogative counterpressure which might be cultivated with an eye toward a more desirable form of coalition politics and ethics of receptive generosity more generally. The question then. The more he aspires to the height and light. that was my disgust with all existence" (p. the striving into evil is to be animated and circumscribed by the generous respect for otherness solicited by the highest virtue. The greatest weight presses us generously into the depths of our surroundings as the oblique path of ascension. and more important because he recognizes the fleeting character of the first moment. One cannot escape the smallest in others and oneself." but. (For discussions of agonistic dialogical ethics.. Rather. I have argued that the radical democratic liberalism of Laclau and Mouffe offers little to resist such pressures. 153).
by the erring finitude of all monological accounts. If genius. we could begin by rooting the ideal of equality of liberty in the indeterminacy of giving and receiving. even and especially if often agonistic. if we were to think this through "in the widest sense." perhaps even the absence of hands becomes part of the gift. favored ideals of equality and liberty in a constellation where receptive generosity is the slightly brighter star. receptive generosity remains a soliciting ideal whose realization is "not yet. 161)." even if usually hidden like a brilliant painter without hands is usually concealed (and. And we got to vomit over that a little while" (1983. and by gesturing toward the possibilities of vitalization. ideals. reform. pity. and finitude. beyond ourselves to others' otherness. indeterminacy. analogous in certain respects to the gift of the hunchback that might emerge precisely through the hump itself). others to search oneself thus. indeed encourage." it is rather (or in addition and more powerfully) a central and compelling dimension of a reformulated ethic. "We cannot stay there. Perhaps in this context they will be less likely to engender the diverse imperialisms of identity they have sometimes fostered. and yielding so that in giving [they] receive"-capable of friendship (1954. 21 386 This content downloaded on Fri. Moreover." in these most agonistic spaces. It attempts to draw an ethics precisely from this thought. If we now reposition Laclau and Mouffe's. it risks and provokes its own weakening. 247-48) offers some very suggestive comments on a theory of equality that can be drawn out of passages from Nietzsche's middle period. and receive something of value from them even as he yearns for much more. and visions can relax a bit. revenge. For such indeterminacy is radically disruptive of all efforts to legitimize coercive impositions of inequality on the basis of claims to be more "gifted. seized by the "forelock. 368). to give an account of how we are and ought to be called. a bit broken and exhausted. then the task solicited by the gift-giving virtue is receptively to search the depths of others and oneself for such pregnant possibilities. Nietzsche writes: "Could it be that in the realm of the spirit Raphael without hands. 1 Mar 2013 23:03:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . But perhaps it is also a strength that giving and receiving should appear pale and fragile in Zarathustra's closing pages: a powerful and necessary warning to the "beautiful soul" that might emerge from such an ethic unless thus chastened. 69-74. is perhaps not the exception but the rule? Genius is perhaps not so rare after all-but the five hundred hands it requires to tyrannize the kairos. 22 CONCLUSION My elaboration of Nietzsche's Thus Spoke Zarathustra gestures toward a narrative argument-fallible but quite compelling-concerning why and how receptive generosity is desirable as an ideal animating our relations with others. These children are still coming on the final page. Yet. offer something of receivable worth to his interlocutors. redrawn." And it is necessary to allow. for places where our passions. to wrestle with it. a direction from which they are coming-like Zarathustra's. a brilliance of what might be received and given. Receptive generosity calls us to these difficult relations of giving and receiving in a manner most likely to avoid the dynamic of darkening suns and revenge seeking." seizing chance by its forelock" (1966. near. They become preconditions of postsecular caritas as well as ends in themselves that protect more private and autonomous sites of identity formation. my argument seeks to move beyond For one of the most provocative historical discussions of Nietzsche's life and thought concerning his relation to politics. partly due to continued interference of Nietzsche's devitalized sense of the transfigurative possibilities of politics and his unending attraction to the monological solar idea. but not yet here. "the right time. His remarks on "agonistic" equality have some affinity with my discussion below.21 In these respects Zarathustra's encounters might be judged at least to some degree to be a weakness. empowerment. as is the case with a famous Chinese artist who holds the brush in her mouth. for too long before we must leave. 222-23). indeterminately lurks as a possibility that is "perhaps not so rare after all. The ideal always partly suffers in its incarnation.The Ethics and Politicsof Coalition Questions of the "greatest weight" often seem to solicit Zarathustra in Book IV. In a very powerful passage in Beyond Good and Evil. But insofar as it throws us into wrenching situations. revitalize in a different way. these encounters manifest a rather pale and discontinuous image of the more radiant possibilities of entwined giving and receiving that the text at times seems to conjure as a soliciting ideal. "We've got to do it with some folk we don't care too much about. and more generally liberalism's. he tames his nausea. experience more joy in his relations with others. June 1996 Laclau and Mouffe's "I just happen to believe" response to the thought of contingency. who shall be "taciturn even when [they] speak. requires an equality of liberty to protect the indeterminacies of dialogue (between and among selves and groups) Warren (1988. This task. taking this phrase in the widest sense. therefore. see Bergmann (1987). To sketch very briefly a direction in which such formulations might move." It is a direction toward which we bring forth children.22they might acquire a meaning more colored by the solicitation to give to and receive from others as others. equality of liberty is a precondition for protecting the indeterminate dialogical relations through which the gift-giving virtue is most likely to thrive. Contingency need not lead us simply to the ethical silence of "I just happen. Political life is difficult! As Bernice Reagon says. and intelligence that can more likely emerge in relations animated by a more dialogical rendering of the gift-giving virtue. and his encounters there frequently distinguish themselves from many others in the text insofar as he often seems to listen more. needing only to be gathered. most likely to redeem the rabblishness that keeps on coming through us and from others. Finally. By illuminating the poisoning and life-denying decadence that proliferates in its absence." Others are simply too opaque to us and too protean to be excluded or demoted in the politics of giving and receiving. Perhaps this is to some degree a weakness. ask more questions.
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