. CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 INTRODUCTION: Power Electronics has three faces in power distribution, first one that introduces valuable industrial and domestic equipment, a second one that creates problems and finally a third one that helps to solve those problems. Modern semiconductor switching devices are being utilized more and more in a wide range of applications in distribution networks, particularly in domestic and industrial loads. Examples of such applications widely used are Adjustable Speed motor Drives (ASD’s), Diode and Thyristor rectifiers, Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS), computers and their peripherals, consumer electronics appliances (TV sets for example) and arc furnaces. These semiconductor devices present nonlinear operational characteristics, which introduce contamination to voltage and current waveforms at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC) of industrial loads. Unexplained computer network failures, premature motor burnouts, humming in telecommunication lines and transformer overheating are only a few of the damages that quality problems may bring into home and industrial installations. Complications related to the use of non-linear loads for these systems have been a major issue for a long time for both power providers and users alike. Power problems are partially solved with the help of LC passive filters. However, this kind of filter cannot solve random variations in the load current waveform. They also can produce series and parallel resonance with source impedance. To solve these problems, shunt active power filters have been developed, which are widely investigated today. These filters work as current sources, connected in parallel with the nonlinear load, generating the harmonic currents the load requires. However, the cost of these active filters is high, and they are difficult to implement in large scale. Additionally, they also present lower efficiency than shunt passive filters. For these reasons, different solutions are being proposed to improve the practical utilization of active filters. One of them is the use of a combined system of shunt passive filters and series active filters. This solution allows one to design the active filter for only a fraction of the total load power, reducing costs and increasing overall system efficiency.

Now a days voltage Source Converter (VSC) based custom power device are increasingly being used in custom power applications for improving the Power Quality (PQ) of power distribution systems. Devices such as Distribution Static Compensator (DSTATCOM) and Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) have already been in use. A DSTATCOM can compensate for distortion and unbalance in a load such that a balanced sinusoidal current flows through the feeder, it can also regulate the voltage of a distribution bus. A DVR

can compensate for voltage sag/swell and distortion in the supply side voltage such that the voltage across a sensitive/critical load terminal is perfectly regulated. A Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC) can perform the functions of both DSTATCOM and DVR. The UPQC consists of two VoltageSource Converters (VSCs) that are connected to a common DC bus. One of the VSCs is connected in series with a distribution feeder, while the other one is connected in shunt with the same feeder. The DC links of both VSCs are supplied through a common DC capacitor.

1.2 AIM OF THE PROJECT:

Power Quality (PQ) survey reports have highlighted voltage sag as the prime reason for which particularly production industries suffer huge loss. Most of these voltage sensitive critical loads are nonlinear in nature due to application of fast acting semiconductor switches and their specific control strategy. Undoubtedly they have revolutionized the state of the art technology in almost every field, but their large-scale presence in a system pose some major concerns as they affect the distribution utility in some highly undesirable way. Primarily, this kind of load currents is rich in harmonics and they may require some reactive Volt Amperes (VA) as well. The harmonic currents flowing through the finite source impedance of the utility supply cause the voltage distortion at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC) to the other loads. It results in malfunction of control signals, protection and metering of other loads and system metering devices. The aim of the IUPQC is two-fold: • To protect the sensitive load L-2 from the disturbances occurring in the system by regulating the voltage. • To regulate the bus B-1 voltage against sag/swell and or disturbances in the system. In order to attain these aims, the shunt VSC-1 is operated as a voltage controller while the series VSC-2 regulates the voltage across the sensitive load.

1.2.1 Voltage sag: Electronic devices function properly as long as the voltage (or the driving force) of the electricity feeding the device stays within a consistent range. There are several types of voltage fluctuations that can cause problems, including surges and spikes, sags, harmonic distortions, and momentary disruptions. Voltage sag is not a complete interruption of power; it is a temporary drop below 90 percent of the nominal voltage, and they normally last from 3 to 10 cycles (or 50 to 170 milliseconds). Voltage sags are probably the most significant Power Quality (PQ) problem facing industrial customers today and they can be a significant problem for large commercial customers as well.

Much of these equipments are used in applications that are critical to an overall process. 1. If electrical equipment operates correctly and reliably without being damaged or stressed.2. robotics. Internal causes of voltage sags can include starting major loads and grounding of wiring problems. Many types of electronic equipment are sensitive to voltage sags. Generate noise on regulating and control circuits causing erroneous operation of such equipment. programmable logic controllers. start-up of large loads at neighboring facilities. it can be considered that . including variable speed drive controls. and control relays. 50Hz). Cause excessive heating in rotating machinery. When talking about harmonics in power installations.e. controller power supplies.3 POWER QUALITY: Power quality is simply the interaction of electrical power with electrical equipment. Hence it is very important to mitigate the effect of current harmonics at the point of common coupling itself.. Harmonic current components lead to: Increase in power system losses. 1. These power harmonics have become much more prevalent with the development of high efficiency electronic equipment which form nonlinear load. it is the current harmonics that are of most concern because the harmonics originate as currents and most of the ill effects are due to these currents. Creates significant interference with communication circuits that share common right-of-ways with AC power circuits.There are two sources of voltage sags: external (on the utility’s lines upto consumer’s facility) and internal (within consumer’s facility). Common causes of external voltage sags are lightning. storms. motor starter contactors. which can lead to very expensive downtime when voltage sags occur. These current harmonics further manifest themselves into voltage harmonics when passing through system impedance.2 Current harmonics: Harmonics can be put as high frequency current and voltage distortions within a power system whose frequencies are integral multiples of the fundamental system frequency (i. Whether or not voltage sag causes a problems will depend on the magnitude and duration of the sag and on the sensitivity of consumer’s equipment.

lighting ballasts. power factor switching transients. and relays. grid switching transients and customers who create harmonics and send them back onto the utility system distorting voltage and adding to reliability problems. Harmonic distortion Interruption. decreased motor performance. temporary: A loss of utility power lasting more than 2 minutes caused by a nearby short circuit due to something like animals. As a general statement. usually caused by the utility switching operations to isolate a nearby electrical problem. deterioration of power factorcorrection capacitors or erratic operation of breakers. They may cause equipment heating. high frequency noise. transformers. automated utility switching. Power quality issues will affect each type of electrical equipment differently. fuses. or accidents.the electrical power is of good quality. and electronic adjustable speed drives. Corrected by. overheating in motors. Temporary interruption . or neutral conductors. component failures. momentary: A very short loss of utility power that lasts up to 2 seconds. Momentary interruption Interruption. Since distribution systems are exposed to lightning. usually caused by microprocessor-based loads in the building such as computer power supplies. Power quality issues can be very high-speed events such as voltage impulses / transients. if the electrical equipment malfunctions. free of transients. harmonic distortion and high frequency noise. any deviation from normal of a voltage source (either DC or AC) can be classified as a power quality issue. unbalance in voltage and current and total power loss. we would suspect that the power quality is poor. voltage swells and sags.4 POWER QUALITY DISTURBANCES: Harmonic distortion: Continuous or sporadic distortions of the 50 hertz (HZ) voltage sine waveform. measurement faults and scores of other similar problems. 1. These can cause telecommunications or computer interference. wet insulators. Harmonics can also be transmitted from an energy user down the block. accidents. It is then transmitted at various voltage levels to the end user. wave shape faults. is unreliable. If the generator were at the customer site. On the other hand. or is damaged during normal usage. At the generating station utilities create a perfect sine wave with their generators. that would be the ideal solution.

passive filters have been used to mitigate the effect of power supply discrepancies.5 SOLUTIONS TO POWER QUALITY PROBLEMS: There are three ways to solve the problems of power quality and provide quality power customized to meet user’s requirement: System improvement. Voltage sag Swell: A short term increase in voltage lasting anywhere from milliseconds up to a few seconds. . They are usually caused due to start/stop of heavy loads and poorly regulated transformers. Sags starve a machine of the electricity it needs to function. causing computer crashes or equipment lockups. heating and air-conditioning equipment. Of these. the other loads connected to the system are provided with clean power. Use mitigation equipment based on power electronics. However. Conventionally. in applications these passive second order filters present the following disadvantages: The source impedance strongly affects filtering characteristics. such as line current and voltage harmonics. compressors. Voltage swell 1. Thereby. the best way to handle power quality problems is to mitigate the effects of distorted voltage or current at the Point of Common Coupling. Voltage swells may lead to damage of sensitive equipment. and increase the load power factor. Usually caused by equipment start-up such as elevators.Sag: A short-term decrease in voltage lasting anywhere from milliseconds up to a few seconds. This would ensure that the harmonics are restricted from entering the distribution system and contaminating the system power as a whole. Improvement of equipment immunity. and copy machines or nearby short circuits on the utility system.

FACTS controller: FACTS controller is a power electronic-based system and other static equipment that provide control of one or more AC transmission system parameters. the opportunity offered by a variety of innovative circuit concepts based on these power devices enhance the value of electrical energy. As long as the voltage is in phase quadrature with the line current. the series controller only supplies or consumes variable reactive power. A variety of powerful semiconductor devices not only offer the advantage of high speed and reliability of switching but. the filter must be rated by taking into account both currents. FACTS is one aspect of the power electronics revolution that is taking place in all areas of electrical energy. The passive filter may fall into series resonance with the power system so that voltage distortion produces excessive harmonic currents flowing into the passive filter. Parallel resonance between the power system and the passive filter causes amplification of harmonic currents on the source side at a specific frequency. When the harmonic current components increase.6 BASIC TYPES OF FACTS CONTROLLERS: Series Controllers: The series controller could be variable impedance such as capacitor. more importantly. all series controllers inject voltage in series with the line. etc. Even variable shunt impedance connected to the line voltage causes variable current flow and hence represents . In principle.. which have acquired significance in recent times. represents an injected series voltage in the line. Shunt Controllers: The shunt controller could also be variable impedance. In principle. Even variable impedance multiplied by the current flow through it. reactor. One such solution lies in the use of FACTS controllers. Any other phase relationship involves handling real power as well. sub-synchronous and harmonic frequencies (or a combination) to serve the desired need. or a power electronics based variable source of main frequency. the filter can be overloaded.As both the harmonic and fundamental current components flow into the filter. The increased severity of harmonic pollution in power networks has attracted the attention of power electronic and power system engineers to develop dynamic and adjustable solutions to the power quality problems. variable source or a combination of these. all shunt controllers inject current into the system at the point of connection. 1.

Custom power controller: An active power electronic device has the ability to perform current interruption and/or voltage regulation in the distribution system to improve power quality. Using the concept of basic facts controllers and understanding the requirement of the given power quality problem. As long as the injected current is in phase quadrature with the line voltage. or a Unified Power Quality Controller with series and shunt elements. However. Any other phase relationship involves handling real power as well. Voltage sag/Interruption mitigation devices: Protect the load from the source (Utility). . which are controlled in a coordinated manner. when the shunt and series controllers are unified. Custom power: Custom power is the concept of employing power electronic (static) controllers in 1kv through 38kv distribution systems for supplying a compatible level of power quality necessary for adequate performance of selected facilities and processes. combined shunt and series controllers inject current into the system with the shunt part of the controller and voltage in series with the line using series part of the controller. the shunt controller only supplies or consumes variable reactive power. it is possible to provide the consumer with power.injection of current into the line. In principle. there can be a real power exchange between the series and shunt controllers via the power link. Two classes of custom power devices are: Reactive power injection/harmonic compensation devices: Protect the source (Utility) from the load. Combined series-shunt controllers: Combined series-shunt controllers could be a combination of separate shunt and series controllers. that is tailored to suit the load requirement.

CHAPTER-2 LITERATURE SURVEY .

pp. 2005. Power Electron. Ghosh and G. Mar.” Elect. 1998. . A. Mar.” IEEE Trans. Ledwich. vol. 405–413. and A. vol. 2. Jindal. no. Fujita and H. “A unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) for simultaneous voltage and current compensation.. vol. no. 1. pp. no. 1. pp. 2. Funabashi “Unified Power Quality Conditioner for Dynamic Voltage Restoration And Fault Current Limitation.1 H. Power Del. vol. no. 205–213. 13. 315–322. A. It forms the core to which ideas can be added and developed in to a comprehensive system. pp. 3. which will be able to cover the deficiencies of some of the existing system. “The unified power quality conditioner: the integration of series.2 LITERATURE: Fujita and H. Hojo and T. “The unified power quality conditioner: the integration of series. vol. 4.” IEEE Trans. 55–63. Jan..2. Ghosh. K. 45. 13. 2. M.. 2004. Akagi. 59. Power Del. Power Syst.” IEEE Trans. no.1 INTRODUCTION: A literature survey forms the basis on which a project can be built or developed. Some of them have been discussed in brief. 2001. 19. 2.and shunt-active filters. articles and technical papers written by well known authors.CHAPTER-2 LITERATURE SURVEY 2. 315–322. pp. Joshi. Res. 1. Jan. 2. 1998.” IEEE Trans. This chapter deals with the data and information accumulated after referring to many books. A.and shunt-active filters. Power Electron.. Akagi. “Design of a capacitor-supported Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) for unbalanced and distorted loads..

Furthermore. the UPQC also filters out the current harmonics of the load. Joshi. 2001. In the voltage control mode it can make bus voltage at a load terminal sinusoidal against any unbalance. 2004.. In this paper the operating principles.This paper deals with unified power quality conditioners (UPQC’s). Power Del. Therefore. the general UPQC is capable of improving “power quality” as well as improving power factor. The flow of instantaneous active and reactive powers has shown that installation of the shunt-active filter is effective in performing dc-voltage regulation. The operation of UPQC presented in this paper is suitable for both utilities and customers having sensitive loads. Theoretical comparison among three types of control methods for the series-active filter has clarified that the combination of current and voltage-detecting methods is suitable for voltage flicker/imbalance elimination and harmonic compensation. 405–413. “Design of a capacitor-supported Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) for unbalanced and distorted loads. It has been shown that the success of the DVR depends on the choice of these two capacitors. but also to eliminate voltage flicker/imbalance appearing at the receiving terminal from the load terminal. Ghosh and G. and A. Res. To accomplish this. the voltage at the point of common coupling must be of similar nature and also must contain the same amount of harmonics as the source. Ghosh. harmonic or flicker in the source voltage or unbalance or harmonic in the load current. A. which is not only to compensate for current harmonics produced by nonlinear loads. even an ideal DVR may not be able to suppress voltage spikes unless a low impedance path from the PCC to ground is provided through a shunt capacitor. 59. it can make the current drawn balanced sinusoidal. Jan. vol. structure. 1. . It is shown that the DVR with a capacitor connected in shunt with it gives the good performance. Their values must be chosen judiciously as discussed in the paper.” Elect. 55–63. From the point of view of a customer. and control of a DVR that is supplied by a dc capacitor are discussed. pp. vol.2. pp. the operation of UPQC is ideal from both viewpoints. This value is chosen such that the DVR can ride through and provide voltage support during transients. 2.3 A. which aim at the integration of series-active and shunt-active filters.2 A.” IEEE Trans. the UPQC can provide balanced voltages to their equipment that are sensitive to voltage dips. Although the specific UPQC dealt with in this paper provides no power factor correction in order to minimize the required rating of the shunt-active filter. In this paper the topology and control technique of a UPQC that operates in simultaneous voltage and current control modes.2. Ledwich. In the current control mode. no. Power Syst. It has been shown that when the load is nonlinear. 2. it draws a balanced sinusoidal current from the utility bus irrespective unbalance and harmonic in either source voltage or load current. “A unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) for simultaneous voltage and current compensation. 1. K.. At the same time. Jindal. From the utility standpoint. no. the value of the dc capacitor also plays an important role. Three different configurations are analyzed. 19.

the series converter of the UPQC also shows good performance. However. pp. Funabashi “Unified Power Quality Conditioner for Dynamic Voltage Restoration And Fault Current Limitation. the sensitive load is fully protected against sag and interruption.. The performance of the IUPQC has been evaluated under various disturbance conditions such as voltage sag in either feeder. harmonic contents in loads.g. the UPQC can quickly respond to the sag and compensate it well. UPQC is a very powerful device.2. is applied to the system.. However the performance under some of the major concerns of both customer and utility e. This paper deals with dynamic voltage restoration and fault current limitation by a Unified Power Quality Conditioner. 205–213. supply voltage distortion. This can solve the power quality problems. It is confirmed by the simulation studies that the UPQC has great potential to improve power quality. fault in one of the feeders and load change.” IEEE Trans. the benefit that may be obtained can offset the expense. Power Del. Hojo and T. unbalanced loads. swell and fault has been described.It is however to be mentioned that a UPQC is a very powerful device and can be operated in various other modes depending its ownership. 2005. This may increase the cost of this device. Jan. Thereby the loads connected to the system are provided with clean power. . no. It is expected that the UPQC is also effective when a distributed generator is interconnected to the distribution system. It is the best way to handle power quality problems is to mitigate equipment of distorted voltage or current at the point of common coupling. In case of the system fault at the load side of the UPQC. This would can harmonics are restricted from entering the distribution system. The IUPQC is to regulate the voltage at the terminals of Feeder and to protect the sensitive load from disturbances occurring upstream. When two types of voltage sag. vol. The IUPQC has been shown to compensate for several of these events successfully. system disturbances such as voltage sag. 2. 45.4 M. We have known that a method of control is beneficial to both utility and customer. CONCLUSION After analyzing all these technical papers. The sensitive load is usually a part of a process industry where interruptions result in severe economic loss. 1. three-phase balanced voltage sag and single phase unbalanced voltage sag. In the IUPQC configuration discussed in above paper.

CHAPTER-3 CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION ..

For example the CGD. while the low value of CGD is termed CGDl. namely CGS.1 the high value of CGD is called CGDh. Fig. 3.3. if the present trend is any indication. Although sufficient literature is available on characteristics of MOSFETs and IGBTs.3.1. Fig. it also shows the internal body diode and the parasitic BJT.1.1. the future will see more and more Applications making use of MOSFETs and IGBTs. CGD and CDS.1.2. practical aspects of driving them in specific circuit configurations at different power levels and at different frequencies require that design engineers pay attention to a number of aspects.CHAPTER-3 CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION 3.3.1 structure of MOSFET and V-I characteristics Fig.1 MOSFET Description: Modern Power Electronics makes generous use of MOSFETs and IGBTs in most applications and. as shown in Fig. decreases rapidly as the Drain to Source voltage rises. Shows a symbol of N-Channel MOSFET and an equivalent model of the same with three interjunction parasitic capacitances. In addition.2 shows a symbol of N-Channel MOSFET and an equivalent model .

e.1.1. drain current commences. it is an RC Circuit.3. a clamped inductive load To understand Turn-on and Turn-off phenomena of the Power MOSFET. From time zero to t1. Beyond t4. 3. Only the external impedance in series with VDD limits drain current. 3. 3. as the Gate-to-Source voltage rises above VGS (th).1. Fig: 3. so as to clearly explain the entire turn-on sequence.1. This is also termed turn-on delay. This is called the Miller Plateau Region. 3. which play a role in turn-on and turnoff events. more or less like a mirror image of VGS. After time t1.1. In this time period. Note that between 0 to t1.1.4 A MOSFET being on by a driver in a clamped inductive load.5 show variation of different parameters with respect to time. As stated above. This is shown in Fig. but the Drain to Source voltage VDS is still at VDD while the MOSFET is carrying full load current. VGS remains clamped to the same value and so does IGS.5 Turn on sequences of MOSFET The waveforms drawn in Fig. .3 A MOSFET being turned off by a driver Fig.4 A model of MOSFET is shown with all relevant components. (CGS+CGDl) is exponentially charged with a time constant T1 until Gate-to-source voltage reaches VGS (th).1 Turn-on and Turn-off Phenomena Turn-on Phenomenon Fig.1 at time t1.3 and Fig.1.1. IGS falls exponentially. as VGS rises. Drain voltage remains at VDD and Drain current has not commenced yet.3. MOSFET’s Gate to Source Capacitance CGS needs to be charged to a critical voltage level to initiate conduction from Drain to Source. t2 to t4. we will assume clamped inductive switching as it is the most widely used mode of operation. MOSFET enters linear region as shown in Fig. During this interval most of the drive current available from the driver is diverted to discharge the CGD capacitance to enhance rapid fall of Drain to Source voltage. During the time interval. neither the Drain voltage nor the Drain current are affected. i. because from the point of view of circuit analysis. VGS begins to exponentially rise again with a time constant T2. 3.

VGS initially decays exponentially at the rate determined by time constant T time 0 to t1. the VGS begins to fall further below VGS (th). the final value of the VGS determining the effective RDS (on). The Turn-off Phenomenon: The turn-off phenomenon is shown in Fig. where it is clamped to the DC Bus voltage level by the diode in the clamped inductive switching circuit being studied.1. 3. This time interval also corresponds to the Miller region as far as the gate voltage is concerned as mentioned above. The inverters find their application in modern ac motor and uninterruptible power supplies. VDS rises from IDS * RDS (on) towards its final off state value of VDS(off). CGS is getting discharged through any external impedance between gate and source terminals.2 INVERTERS: Inverter is power electronic circuit that converts a direct current into an alternative current power of desired magnitude and frequency with the use of appropriate transformers. Remember that the Drain Voltage VDS was already at its off state value VDS (off) at the beginning of this interval. which keeps VGS constant. Thus at t4. when the output from the Driver drops to zero for turning off MOSFET.During this time interval the MOSFET gets fully enhanced. Static inverters have no moving parts and are used in a wide range of applications. switching and control circuits. VDS attains its lowest value. The MOSFET is in its linear region and drain current ID drops rapidly towards zero value.6. From t1 to t2. from small switching .1. Fig: 3. the MOSFET is fully turned off.6. During the next time interval. determined by VDS= IDS * RDS(on) . but the Drain Source voltage VDS just begins to rise. MOSFET turn off sequence 3. As can be expected. Notice that the drain current ID remains unchanged during this time interval. When VGS reaches its ultimate value.

2. High dv/dt and di/dt ratings .power supplies in computers. 3. It is so named because early mechanical AC to DC converters was made to work in reverse. and thus was “inverted”.2 Advantages of inverters: • • • • • • Small leakage current during off stage Low voltage drop during ON stage Faster turn ON and turn OFF Small control power to switch from one state to other High forward current and blocking voltage capabilities.Resonant inverter 3. to convert DC to AC. The inverter performs the opposite function of a rectifier. to large electric utility high-voltage direct current applications that transport bulk power. The electrical inverter is a high-power electronic oscillator. Inverters are commonly used to supply AC power from DC sources such as solar panels or batteries.2.1 Classification of Inverters: Based on the source used • • Voltage source inverter Current source inverter Based on switching methods • • Pulse width modulation inverters Square wave inverters Based on switching devices used • • Transistorized inverter Thyristorized inverter Based on the inversion principle • • Resonant inverter Non.

1 Half -Wave Rectification: In half wave rectification.4. the difference between the term diode and the term rectifier is merely one of usage.2.e. it is very inefficient if used for power transfer. either the positive or negative half of the AC wave is passed. Half-wave rectification can be achieved with a single diode in a one-phase supply. and other components.4.3 Application of Inverters: • • • • • 3.. i. UPS static VAR compensators Active filters Flexible AC transmission system A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC). Because only one half of the input waveform reaches the output.1) . the term rectifier describes a diode that that is being used to convert AC to DC.3. which is in only one direction.1 Circuit and voltage wave of Half wave rectifier The DC output voltage of a Half wave rectifier can be calculated by using the following two ideal equations: Vrms = VSpeak/2 ……………… (3. which periodically reverses direction. 3. Almost all rectifiers comprise a number of diodes in a specific arrangement for more efficiently converting AC to DC than is possible with only one diode.3. or with three diodes in a three-phase supply. Rectifiers have many uses including as components of power supplies and as detectors of radio signals. Rectifiers may be made of solid state diodes. to direct current (DC). while the other half is blocked. mercury arc valves.3 RECTIFIER: Adjustable speed ac drives. A device which performs the opposite function (converting DC to AC) is known as an inverter. 3. When only one diode is used to rectify AC (by blocking the negative or positive portion of the waveform). a process known as rectification. vacuum tube diodes.

Although in the actual construction the windings are usually wound one over the other.f. The windings connected. to suppress electrical noise in sensitive devices. a currents flows through it. Four diodes arranged this way are called a diode bridge or bridge rectifier. in a circuit with a non-center tapped transformer. However.2 Full Wave Rectification: A full-wave rectifier converts the whole of the input waveform to one of constant polarity (positive or negative) at its output.m.2) 3. and is more efficient.m.VDC = VSpeak/π ……………… (3. Each transformation is usually to transfer from one circuit to another one by the way of electromagnetism. The core is built up of soft iron or silicon steel laminations to provide a path of low reluctance to the magnetic flux. current and waveform can be transformed with the help of Transformers. in the secondary winding enables it to deliver current to an external load connected across it. in the secondary winding. AC voltage.f. . In AC circuits.2 circuit and output of the full wave rectifier 3.2. The winding are insulated from both the core and each other. in secondary is the same as that of the flux or that of the supply voltage. but it has no direct relation with this circuit. four diodes are required instead of the one needed for half-wave rectification. Thus the energy is transformed from primary to secondary winding by means of electromagnetic induction without any changing frequency. When the primary winding is connected to an AC supply mains.4. or to transfer power between two circuits which must not be connected together. Fig 3.4 TRANSFORMER Transformer refers to the static electromagnetic setting which can transfer power from one circuit to another one. so current flowing through this winding produce an alternating flux in the core. Isolation transformers provide galvanic isolation and are used to protect against electric shock. Since flux is alternating and links with the secondary winding also. The frequency of induced e. An elementary transformer consists of a soft iron or silicon steel core and two windings. Since this winding links with an iron core. to the supply main is the primary and to the load circuit is the secondary.m.f. The induced e. so induces an e.3. Full-wave rectification converts both polarities of the input waveform to DC (direct current).

load imbalance could be caused by unevenly distributed single-phase load or by balanced three-phase load running at a fault condition. The voltage across the capacitor is held constant at the required value using closed loop control. The source imbalance may be caused by a large load imbalance and non-uniform source output impedance. A similar definition is also given another similar definition was adopted in. 3. The capacitor is to be so designed so as to provide DC voltage with acceptable ripples 3. High frequency transformer is considered to reduce the size of the circuit. The capacitance between primary and secondary windings would also couple AC current from the primary to the secondary.5 CAPACITOR Capacitor is used as an interface between the two back to back connected inverters and the voltage across it acts as the dc voltage source driving the inverters.. or same load current rms levels but different phase shift. The first definition is based on the differences between the maximum per-phase load and the minimum perphase load. Isolation transformers are commonly designed with careful attention to capacitive coupling between the two windings. VDC must by at least equal to 3/2 of the peak value of the line AC mains voltage.Suitably designed isolation transformers block interference caused by ground loops. such as phase open or short fault. An unbalanced load may show up as different load current rms levels among phases. Thus. 3. In a three-phase system.1 Applications In electronics testing and servicing an isolation transformer is a 1:1 (under load) power transformer used for safety and simplicity. They could be grouped into two methods. Isolation transformers with electrostatic shields are used for power supplies for sensitive equipment such as computers or laboratory instruments. or both. the capacitor that acts as an energy storage device is shared between the two bi-directional converters. In order to assure the filter current at any instant. Replacing the line-frequency transformer with a high-frequency isolated dc-dc converter would make the energy storage system more compact and flexible.6 Basic types of loads Unbalanced loads: The loads connected to the line are said to unbalanced if they draw the currents which are not in the phase difference as source voltage. the DC voltage.4. There are several existing ways to define the imbalance. and expressed as .

All the rectifiers are assumed to have a 277 V (line-to-neutral) three-phase source and an output power of 150 kW with a resistive load. arc furnace.” Non linear load: The most common linear loads in power electronics system are resistors. 2. IEC gives the definition of “degrees of unbalance in a three-phase system” in as “ratios between the R. The most common nonlinear loads are diode rectifier. they could be described as “a load that draws a nonsinusoidal current wave when supplied by a sinusoidal voltage source” Several typical diode rectifier loads are studied. thus even worse situations. . Because of their simplicity. inductors and capacitors.S. Three-phase diode rectifier with L/C DC link filter. Sensitive load: The load which will be readily respond to the disturbances even for small duration and will effected early towards the non linearity in the system. and three single-phase rectifiers.Max(line to line load) – Min (line to line load) %Unbal = Total three phase load Based on symmetrical component representation. Three-phase diode rectifier with capacitor DC link filter. Simple nonlinear loads. such as a thyristor rectifier may lead to larger harmonic currents. Such as 1. and switching mode power supply. they are the most popular topologies for front-end AC/DC conversions. Other nonlinear loads. Three-phase diode rectifier without DC link filter. including a three-phase diode rectifier without DC link filter. A linear load could be defined as a linear relationship between the voltage across and the current through the load or their derivatives. Although there is no explicit mathematical description for nonlinear loads. values of the negative sequence *dissymmetry+ or zero sequence [asymmetry] coordinate and the positive sequence co-ordinate. 3. are enough to point out the impacts of nonlinear loads. thyrisitor chopper. three-phase rectifier with L/C as the DC link filter. such as rectifiers. three-phase diode rectifier with only capacitor as the DC link filter. reliability and low cost.M. Hence we have to keep the load with better safety measures.