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VII Seminrio Tcnico de Proteo e Controle 22 a 27 de Junho de 2003 Rio de Janeiro - RJ

Artigo: 37558002

AUTOMATICALLY SETTING DISTANCE RELAYS FOR USE ON SERIES COMPENSATED LINES

Gustavo Arruda1* (gustavoa@chesf.gov.br) Patrcia Ramos Morais1 (patricia@chesf.gov.br) (1) CHESF, Brasil. (2) Electrocon International Inc., USA. 1 ABSTRACT voltages. The MOV is typically studied using transient (time-domain) programs like the ATP. Modeling the MOV for use in steady-state phasor domain programs is a challenging task because of the non-zero intersequence coupling terms that appear in the system impedance matrices for unbalanced faults. The separate phase MOVs operate independently and may conduct differently. When setting a relay, the relay engineer typically uses a phasor based short-circuit program to perform a number of fault studies. The results of these studies are used to determine the relay settings. If a series capacitor/MOV is present near the relay, it must be accurately modeled to get realistic short-circuit results. Several methods of modeling the MOV for use in short-circuit programs have been proposed: Goldsworthy [1], Coursol et al [2] and Mahseredjian et al [3]. In [1], a linearized model for MOV-protected series capacitors was first introduced. For balanced faults, the capacitor and MOV are replaced by an equivalent linear impedance in the system impedance matrix. This equivalent impedance is a function of the total capacitor/MOV current and is denoted by ZEQ. The parameters of the function are determined by computer simulations. An iterative procedure is used to arrive at the final value of ZEQ. When the fault is unbalanced, the unequal conduction in the phases of the MOV will produce a sequencedomain matrix that is no longer diagonal. In [2] and [3], the authors compensate for the non-zero intersequence coupling terms by different methods. The solution however takes place in the sequence domain and the sequence networks have to be correctly put together. This means that the algorithmic equations depend on the type of fault. The technique presented in this paper uses phase coordinates rather than sequence coordinates. This Ashok Gopalakrishnan 2 (eii@electrocon.com)

This paper presents a novel procedure for modeling the Metal Oxide Varistor (MOV) for use in steady-state phasor based short-circuit programs. The MOV is modeled iteratively in phase coordinates, rather than in the sequence domain. A method for automatically computing the protection settings of distance relays, in the context of series compensated lines, is also described. Keywords: series compensation, MOV, distance relays, relay setting. 2 INTRODUCTION

Power system engineers are familiar with the use of series capacitors for voltage compensation on long transmission lines. To protect the capacitor from overvoltages that develop in the presence of shortcircuit faults, metal oxide varistors (MOVs) are used in parallel with the capacitor. The MOV is basically a non-linear resistor that limits the voltage across the capacitor during a fault condition. When the fault condition is cleared, the MOV allows almost instantaneous re-insertion of the capacitor into the transmission line. Protective relaying of series compensated lines is complicated by a number of factors voltage inversion, current inversion and sub-synchronous oscillations for faults near the capacitor. These phenomena cause the zone 1 element of the distance relays to overreach, and the relay will have to perform some special functions to avoid overreaching. It is important to note that even relays not directly on the compensated line can also be affected by the series capacitor. Further complications are introduced by the action of the MOV that protects the series capacitor from over*

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method also uses the ZEQ of [1]. However, since each phase is iterated independently of the other phases, the inter-sequence coupling does not affect the computations. That is, both balanced and unbalanced faults can be easily handled. Further, the MOV computation does not need any knowledge of the fault dependent sequence circuits. This means that any type of system unbalance can be treated correctly. The MOV conduction is represented by a series fault across the capacitor. Since the capacitors are retained in the computation, recalculation of the system impedance matrices is not required. The computation algorithm is described in the next section of this paper. The method was tested by incorporating it into an existing short-circuit program [4]. The paper also describes a protection simulation environment that helps the relay engineer determine the settings of protective relays. Many different shortcircuit computations are automatically performed, based on rules that are specified by the engineer and the appropriate relay settings are determined, [5]. Finally, the relay settings are validated by a steppedevent simulation of the tripping sequence [6], using detailed relay comparator equations. Miscoordinations between primary and backup protection can be found in this way. 3 3.1 MOV COMPUTATION ALGORITHM Representing the MOV Device

I PU =

IC I PR

(1)

where IPR is the capacitor protective level current and is usually 2 to 2.5 times the rated current of the capacitor bank. The equivalent phase impedance ZEQ of the capacitor and MOV, as a function of IPU can be written as (1):
Z EQ (I PU ) = R 'C (I PU ) jX 'C (I PU )

(2)

By means of extensive computer simulations, Goldsworthy [1] showed that the MOV begins to conduct for values of IPU 0.98, and equation 2 can be used to compute the equivalent MOV/Capacitor impedance. Please see (1) for the actual equations that are used to compute RC' and XC'. For values of IPU < 0.98, the capacitor is retained as the branch impedance without any changes. In the algorithm described below, the capacitor impedance is separated from the calculated ZEQ, and the remaining impedance (ZMOV) is applied as a series fault across the capacitor. The protected capacitor is therefore always part of the network, whether the MOV across it conducts or not. 3.2 Iterative Solution for MOV Currents

The iterative procedure is performed in the phase domain, instead of the sequence domain. This has two advantages: 1. 2. The inter-sequence coupling is not an issue any more. The phases of the MOV and capacitor are uncoupled. Any type of fault in the rest of the network can be treated.

Figure 1 shows a single MOV device in parallel with a capacitor. The total current through the capacitor/MOV component is IC. If the triggered gap and the bypass switch are open, IC will flow through the capacitor (ICAP) and the MOV (IMOV). The capacitor and MOV currents by themselves are not sinusoidal, but IC, the sum of these two currents, is approximately sinusoidal [1].
SERIES CAPACITOR IC BUS1 ICAP IMOV ZCAP ZMOV BUS2

The algorithm proceeds as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. For the presently applied system fault, determine the faulted bus(es). The fault is applied without the MOVs. Search for MOV-protected series capacitors around the fault bus(es). For all the phases in all the capacitors identified in Step 2, determine if the corresponding phase of the MOV conducts (IPU 0.98). In iteration n, for all conducting phases of the MOVs in Step 3, use the total current IC(n), through the capacitor/MOV combination to compute the equivalent impedance ZEQ(n) as in (1). In the first iteration, the MOV current is zero. In iteration n, IC(n) is given by I C (n) = I CAP (n) + I MOV (n) 5. (3)

CONTROL TRIGGERED GAP

BYPASS SWITCH

Figure 1: Series Capacitor and MOV Arrangement. First, the current IPU is defined as

1 1 1 = Z MOV (n) Z EQ (n) Z CAP

(4)

The effect of including the iterative calculation procedure on the apparent impedance measured by a distance relay is illustrated in Figure 2.

6.

7.

For a non-conducting phase of the MOV, ZMOV(n) is infinite. Modify the fault definition to include the MOV impedances as a series fault. Therefore, the original system fault, and all conducting MOVs are reapplied on the system as one simultaneous fault. Note that for non-conducting phases of the MOVs, the applied fault impedance will be infinite. In other words, that particular phase of the capacitor will remain in the network without being bypassed by the MOV. Use the short-circuit algorithm [4] to recompute the post-fault voltages at the MOV and original fault nodes.
YPHASE + YFAULT (n) VPHASE (n + 1) = I PHASE

Bus 3

Bus 1

(5)

App. Imp. with MOV Calculation App. Imp. without MOV Calculation

YPHASE is the reduced bus admittance matrix of the unfaulted network, including the capacitors but not the MOVs. YFAULT is the bus admittance matrix of the MOV connections and the original fault. The actual formation of YFAULT involves collapsing and overlapping operations as described in [7]. This is the crucial step that allows us to treat an arbitrary fault. IPHASE is the vector of source currents in the multiple-node version of Norton' theorem. s VPHASE(n+1) is the vector of phase voltages at the faulted buses. Now, use the voltages at the end points of the conducting MOVs to determine the MOV current IMOV(n+1):

Bus 2

Figure 2: Effect of Including the Iterative MOV Calculation on the Apparent Impedance of a Relay. In Figure 2 the series capacitor is located between the buses marked Bus 1 and Bus 2 . The line is between Bus 2 and Bus 3 . The capacitor is protected by an MOV. A three-phase fault is applied at Bus 2 . When the MOV is ignored, the apparent impedance to the fault lies at Bus 2 , as shown by the label B(1) . But in reality, the MOV does conduct for the fault. If the iterative MOV computation is included, the apparent impedance moves to the point identified by the label A(1) . That is, the MOV partially conducts and the resulting capacitor/MOV impedance is the correct apparent impedance seen by the relay. It is clear that not including the MOV computation in coordination studies can result in incorrect indication of relay operation. 4 AUTOMATICALLY SETTING RELAYS

8.

I MOV (n + 1) =

9.

(6) The subscripts 1 and 2 in the equation above refer to the buses 1 and 2 at which the MOV is connected. ZMOV(n) is the MOV impedance in iteration n. Check the mismatch between IMOV(n+1) and IMOV(n). These quantities are actually the vectors of phase currents for each conducting MOV. Therefore, the mismatch is computed as the 2norm of the vector that is formed by the difference between IMOV(n+1) and IMOV(n) for all conducting phases of the conducting MOVs. If the mismatch is less than a user-defined tolerance, the solution has converged. Otherwise, go to Step 4 for the next iteration. ICAP(n+1) and IMOV(n+1) are used to compute the ZEQ for the next iteration. 3

(VPHASE (n+ 1)1 VPHASE (n+ 1)2 ) Z MOV (n )

To determine relay settings, a relay engineer typically uses a steady-state short-circuit program to perform a number of short-circuit studies. These might involve a) applying a series of sliding faults along the protected line, b) applying faults at the remote bus with and without infeed, c) line outage/grounding of parallel circuits if any, d) checking load avoidance etc. The results of these studies are collected, and then with the help of setting guidelines that the utility may have, the engineer comes up with a tentative setting list for the relay at hand. Of course, the settings have to be checked to ensure that they maintain coordination with other relays in the network.

Modern numerical relays provide many protection functions in a single package. In order to manage the large number of settings and elements, an automatic, systematic setting procedure can be invaluable for the engineer. In spite of differences between relays of different manufacturers, generic setting rules applicable to a wide variety of stepped-distance and pilot protection schemes can be developed. 4.1 Setting Procedure

relay being set. Thus, the relay model is set in exactly the same way as the physical device. It is important to note that the secondary tap settings computed so far are in the temporary memory of the protection simulation environment. The user uses these settings to graphically study the response of the relay to different faults, including resistive faults. After setting several relays, the user can run a coordination study using the stepped-event technique, which simulates the entire tripping sequence from fault occurrence to fault clearing for a large number of relay elements. Both the graphical study, and the stepped-event study might yield situations where in the temporary settings of the relays might need to be tweaked a little to satisfy utility requirements. Once satisfactory results have been achieved, the user can save the temporary settings back to the system database for permanent storage. It is also possible to have multiple setting groups for any relay in the network. Then, depending the system conditions, the user can decide to use one or the other setting group for their studies. 4.2 Setting Rules

Relay setting is done within a protection simulation environment that contains a system database, a detailed relay library and a steady-state phasor fault analysis [4]. This environment also includes the iterative MOV calculation procedure. The database contains network component models and detailed relay models. The user starts by selecting a particular relay in the system. Then the user selects one of the setting algorithms. The algorithm then prompts for the maximum load current and the load angle, for example. The setting algorithm then systematically performs the required fault studies, and then comes up with a generic set of relay settings based on the primary (network) units. The primary settings are then converted to secondary tap settings, specific to the Table 1: MHO Element Settings.

Setting rules for an underreaching zone 1 and an overreaching pilot zone are presented in Table 1.

ELEMENT RULES Phase or ground DIST Lesser of 80% of the protected line (or the shortest path of a multi-terminal zone 1 line) and 80% of the minimum apparent impedance for a far-end 3-phase or single-line-ground fault, with infeed removed and a coupled branch grounded. MTA equals zone 1 line angle. All phase zones are checked for maximum load. Zero-sequence compensation from local branch impedances. Forward pilot zone Maximum of (line ohms and largest apparent impedance for remote-bus fault) + 20% of the shortest downstream line; for a multi-terminal line use longest protected path. Reach margin > 1.2 for line-end solid faults. Reach margin < 0.8 for faults at downstream zone 1 limits with infeed branches outaged. Phase element limited to 66% of the apparent impedance at maximum load current and a power angle of 30 degrees. Use blinder or load-encroachment elements if load limits interfere with the pilot scheme. The above rules are encoded in a high-level macro language. A utility can modify the rules or simply change specific parameters, according to its own setting criteria. The algorithms include more thorough fault studies than would be practicable manually. They automatically test the operation for varied fault conditions, accounting for infeed and mutual coupling. For example, if the protected line is mutually coupled to other circuits, the mutual coupling causes the zone 1 ground element to overreach. So the setting of zone must be reduced to maintain a preset safety margin. One possible setting is to limit the reach to 80% of the smallest apparent impedance for a solid single-lineground fault on the remote bus. The smallest apparent 4 impedance is calculated first with all lines in service. Then the calculation is repeated with grounding of the coupled lines, one at a time, with infeed removed. As explained earlier, the settings determined by these setting rules are in primary quantities, in terms of the line impedance. These have to be converted to relay specific secondary tap settings. Further, special adjustments, if needed, have to be made. For example, if the zone 1 element is being used in the vicinity of a series capacitor, then its reach may have to be adjusted to prevent overreaching for faults near the capacitor.

Different relays have different methods for dealing with this problem. Some use a polygonal characteristic with a separate directional element for determining the fault direction. The directional element is usually polarized by the prefault memory voltage and is immune to voltage inversions caused by faults near the series capacitor. Another relay uses a mho circle for measuring the distance to a fault. A separate directional element is not 4.3 Relay Setting Example

used since the mho element is inherently directional. The mho element operation is determined by comparing the phase angle difference between an operate signal and a polarizing signal. To prevent zone 1 overreach, the operate signal (a voltage) must exceed the setting of a voltage level detector. The setting example in the next section uses the mho circle relay with voltage level detector.

LINE 2

LINE 1

Figure 3: One-line Diagram of Protected Region. The protected line is the line marked with the label LINE 1 in Figure 3, between buses 8160 TSD 500kV and 4100 PDD . It is mutually coupled to the line marked with the label LINE 2 and to five other circuits not shown in the figure. At bus 4100 PDD , there is a pair of mutually coupled lines going to bus 4000 IPZ 500kV . At each line end, a series compensation capacitor, with MOV is present. The actual capacitive reactance of each capacitor is specified in Figure 3. For faults in the vicinity of the series capacitors, near bus 4100 PDD , the zone 1 element at bus 8160 TSD 500kV on LINE 1 , can overreach, unless special methods are employed to reduce the reach. The automated setting algorithm is first applied on the relay. The relay includes separate elements for phase and ground distance protection. The zone 1 phase distance element, based on the rules in Table 1, is set at the lesser of 80% of the protected line impedance and 80% of the apparent impedance for a remote end threephase fault. The positive sequence line impedance between buses 8160 TSD 500kV and 4100 PDD is 55.61 @ 86.39. Choosing 80% of this value gives a zone 1 phase distance reach of 44.488 @ 86.39. Now, beyond the far-end bus, 4100 PDD , we have two series capacitors. Faults at bus 4105 FCT_BC_05 or 4106 FCT_BC_06 will most likely cause voltage inversion at the relay at bus 8160, causing it to over-reach. In fact, in this example, even with a reach down to 24% of the line impedance (13.5), the zone 1 element still operates for a fault 5 just beyond the series capacitor at bus 4106 FCT_BC_06 . The equation for operation is
90 arg [ IOP Z VOP ] arg [ VPOL ] 90 (7)

where Z is the reach of the relay, IOP and VOP are the operating current and voltage in the loop being measured and VPOL is the polarizing voltage. The relay under consideration uses the prefault memory voltage as VPOL. This causes an expansion in the operating characteristic of the zone, back to the source impedance. This causes the relay to operate. Please see Figure 4 below. The apparent impedance seen by the relay is the X mark with the label A . Even though the fault is outside the zone 1 circle, the element still operates because of the prefault memory polarization. The actual dynamic characteristic of the element is denoted by the curve R1 . Clearly, the apparent impedance to the fault is within the dynamic characteristic and the relay overreaches. To avoid this overreach, the relay uses a voltage level detector, whose value must be exceeded by the operate signal [IOP.Z VOP]. Only then the phase angle comparison with VPOL, as in equation (7) is allowed. The basic reach of the relay is set to the positive sequence impedance of the entire line. The value of the voltage detector setting depends on the protective level voltages of the MOVs protecting the series capacitors at the remote bus. In the above example, there are two MOVs at the remote bus 4100. The maximum of the

two MOV protective level voltages is used to determine the level detector setting.

easily simulated. This tool is invaluable for finding miscoordinations in the protection settings. 5 CONCLUSIONS

3-PH Fault is applied at this bus Part of the Dynamic Characteristic

An iterative MOV computation procedure, based on phase coordinates, has been presented in this paper. The method is based on the linearized model proposed in [1]. Solution in the phase domain allows the treatment of any type of fault in the rest of the network. Also, coupling between sequences does not affect the computation. The MOV conduction is represented as a series fault across the capacitor. Therefore, the system impedance matrices need not be recomputed in each iteration. The iterative procedure has been incorporated into a protection simulation environment. This environment is used to automatically determine the settings of complicated distance relays. By systematically applying the utility-specified setting rules on the results of various short-circuit studies, the raw (primary) settings of relays can be determined. Some modifications of the raw settings have to be made to account for special cases like series compensation with MOVs. Finally, a unique stepped-event analysis allows the user to place an arbitrary fault anywhere in the network and simulate the response of the protective devices to detect miscoordinations. 6 REFERENCES

Apparent Fault Impedance

Figure 4: Operation of the zone 1 phase distance element for a three phase fault at bus 4106. The zone 1 reach has been set to 24% of the line impedance, but the element still shows operation for a fault on the far-side bus of the series capacitor. The additional step of determining the level detector setting is specific to the relay model being used in this example and therefore cannot be a part of the generic setting rules outlined in Table 1. With the refinements for series compensation in place, the relay element is checked for both internal and external faults, and for resistive fault coverage. 4.4 Stepped Event Analysis

The final validation of the previously determined settings requires simultaneous checking of all relays in the protected region. The protection simulation environment includes a tool known as the steppedevent method for evaluating the response of the entire protection system from the time a fault occurs until it is isolated by the last breaker operation. A series of steady-state fault calculations is performed in steps from the initial fault application through various breaker operations until fault clearing. At each step, the response of protective devices around the fault is evaluated to determine when the next breaker trip signal would be given. The stepped-event procedure continues in this manner until either the fault is cleared or no further breaker operations are predicted. Singlepole tripping, and pilot protection schemes can be

[1] D. L. Goldsworthy, A linearized model for MOV-protected series capacitors , IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 2, pp. 953958, 1987, [2] M. Coursol, et al, Modeling MOV-protected series capacitors for short-circuit studies, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 8, pp. 448453, 1993. [3] J. Mahseredjian, et al, Superposition technique for MOV-protected series capacitors in shortcircuit calculations, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 10, pp. 1394-1400, 1995. [4] F. L. Alvarado, et al, A Fault Program with Macros, Monitors, and Direct Compensation in Mutual Groups, IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. 104, pp. 1109-1120, 1985. [5] D. M. MacGregor, A. T. Guiliante, R. W. Patterson, Automatic Relay Setting, 28th Annual Western Protective Relay Conference, Spokane, Washington, October 2001. [6] P. F. McGuire, et al, A Stepped-Event Technique for Simulating Protection System Responses, VI Seminrio Tcnico de Proteo e Controle, Natal, Brazil, 1998. [7] F. L. Alvarado, Formation of Y-Node Using the Primitive Y_Node Concept, IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. 101, pp. 4563-4571, 1982. 6