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# EXPERIMENT NO: REGULATION OF ALTERNATOR BY EMF AND MMF METHODS

AIM:
To predetermine the voltage regulation of the given non-salient pole alternator at any load by EMF and MMF methods at different power factors and plot percentage voltage regulation Vs Power factor curve.

Apparatus Required :

Serial no 1.

Item Voltmeter

Type and range 0-600V (MI) 0-50V (MC) 0-5A (MC) 0-2A (MC) 0-5A (MI) 230ohms, 1.7A 1500ohms, 1.2A 14ohms, 12A 0-10000 RPM (Digital)

Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1

2.

Ammeter

3.

Rheostat

4.

Tachometer

## Tabular Observation: OCC: Serial no.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. SCC: Serial No. 1. Field Current Ifsc amp Short circuit current Isc amp

## PROCEDURE: a) OPEN CIRCUIT TEST

1. Wire up the circuit as shown in figure.
2. Set the field rheostat of the motor to minimum resistance and that

## of the alternator to maximum resistance position.

3. The rheostats in the armature circuit of the motor are set for

## maximum resistance position.

4. The TPST switch is kept open and the DC motor is started using 3-

point starter.
5. Using the field rheostat /armature rheostats of motor, the alternator

## is driven at rated speed.

6. Adjust the field current of alternator and corresponding to each field current record the terminal voltage on open circuit. 7. The experiment is repeated until about 120% of rated voltage is obtained. Throughout the experiment the speed must be maintained at rated speed value.
8. Plot the phase value of open circuit voltage against field current to

## b) SHORT CIRCUIT TEST

Repeat steps 1 to 5 6. Close the TPST and adjust the field rheostat of the alternator so that rated current flows through the short circuited armature winding.
7. Note down the corresponding field current(Ifsc) 8. The Short Circuit Characteristic curve is drawn, as a straight line

passing through the points (0,0) and (Ifsc,I) where I is the rated current .

## c) ARMATURE (STATOR) RESISTANCE MEASUREMENT

The armature resistance is found out by voltmeter-ammeter method. The effective armature resistance may be taken 1.2 times that of obtained value.This is to take skin effect into account.
S NO. Nature of pf PF Rated Voltage/Phase V Volt Generated volt/Phase Eo volt %REGN(EoV)/V)*100

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

0. 0 0. 2 0. 4 0. 6 0. 8 1. 0

7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

0. 8 0. 6 0. 4 0. 2 0. 0

Resistance Measurement: S No. Current through Phasewindin g Idc amp Voltage drop Vdc volt Resistance Rdc Vdc/Idc Effective Armature RES/Phase R=1.2Rdc

## MODEL CALCULATION: EMF METHOD:

Synchronous impedance = Zs =Rated voltage per phase/short circuit corresponding to rated votage (Same field current) ohms Armature resistance per phase Synchronous reactance / phase For P.f 0.8 lagging, Rated voltage/phase volts Full load current Amps Generated voltage E0 = ((Vcos+IR)2+(Vsin+IXS)2)1/2 = I = = V = R = Xs = = ohms (Z2-R2)1/2=

= Volts/ph For P.f 0.8 leading, E Voltage regulation = 0.8 = %for leading P.f0.8
0

## Volts/ph = ((E0_V)/V)*100% %for lagging P.f

MMF METHOD:
Field current If for rated voltage on o.c Field current Ifsc for rated current under sc AMP Field current Ifo for rated voltage on full load P.f 0.8 lag/ 0.8 lead =(If2+Ifsc2-2IfIfsccos(90+))1/2 = 0.8 = P.f 0.8 E0(for Ifo from OCC) = = Voltage regulation = = =((E0-V)/V)*100 %for P.f 0.8 lag %for P.f 0.8 lead for 0.8 P.f lag for 0.8 P.f lead AMP for leading AMP for lagging P.f = = AMP

Result:

Inference:

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Model graph: