Application of biomaterials in Dentistry
1. 2. 3. 4. Impression materials to copy contours of gums Bases ,liners, and varnishes for cavities Appliances and denture to replace grinding surfaces. Cavity filling: Dental amalgam is an alloy made of liquid mercury and other solid metal particulate alloys made of silver, tin, copper, etc. The solid alloy is mixed with (liquid) mercury in a mechanical vibrating mixer and the resulting material is packed into the prepared cavity. 5. Gold and gold alloys are useful metals in dentistry as a result of their durability, stability, and corrosion resistance. Gold fillings are introduced by two methods: casting and malleting. 6. Metals (Ti and its alloys, Co–Cr alloys, stainless steels, Au, Ag, Pt, etc.) are used in dental root implants and also Alumina is used for same purpose. 7. Bioactive or surface reactive ceramics are used:
a. For correcting periodontal defects. b. In replacing subperiosteal teeth. 8. Ti-Ni alloys are used for making dental arch wire. 9. Ceramics are used as dental crowns.

10. Dental composite resins are very commonly used to restore posterior teeth as well as anterior teeth. B. Poly-l-lactide (PLLA) is used as surgical meshes to facilitate wound healing after dental extraction. Stress strain behavior of bone:

Poly(dioxanone) v. AUGMENT or REPLACE any tissue. The Young’s modulus is a measure of the intrinsic stiffness of the material. Cranio-facial reconstruction 4. partially implanted or totally external). It should be noted that strength. 5. b. The height of the curve is the ultimate strength. Filling Defect of the soft tissue 3. Surgical Suture . C. It is important to keep this distinction in mind because intrinsic strength and ultimate load can show different trends in drug or genetic studies. When load is converted to stress and deformation converted to strain by engineering formulas. is an intrinsic property of bone. vi. Thoracic and abdomen rebuilding 2. C. 6. Applications are: 1. 2. these strength values are independent of the size and shape of the bone. 7. a. because ultimate load will vary with bone size. the relationship between stress and strain in bone follows a curve called the stress–strain curve. Examples of such materials which are widely used are: a. The maximum stress and strain the bone can sustain are called the ultimate strength and ultimate strain. Poly-lactic acid (PLA) and its isomers and copolymers ii. Post-yield strain is inversely proportional to the brittleness of the bone. The yield point represents a transition. Poly-caprolactone (PCL) iv. 4.1. The area under the stress–strain curve is a measure of the amount of energy needed to cause material failure. c. Poly-lactide-co-glycolide. 3. organ or function of the body. B. Biocompatible materials and its applications Biocompatible material: A. Poly-glycolic acid (PGA) iii. That is. This property of a material is called energy absorption or modulus of toughness or just toughness. TREAT. Synthetic or natural material used in intimate contact with living tissue (it can be implanted. 10. Biocompatible materials are intended to interface with biological system to EVALUATE. The slope of the stress–strain curve within the elastic region is called the elastic or Young’s modulus (E). respectively. The force required to break the bone is different from the intrinsic strength. as it is defined by the stress–strain curve. Synthetic polymers: i. 8. especially if the drug or gene affects the size of the bone. above which strains begin to cause permanent damage to the bone structure. 9.

Mg is an element that exists naturally into the body. Advantages of Biocompatible materials 1. • Magnesium alloys degrade too fast in biological environment and they dissolve in the body. More physiological repair Possibility of tissue growth Less invasive repair Temporary support during tissue recovery Gradual dissolution or absorption by the body afterwards. Applications are: 1. Mini plates and screws 2. which may be toxic A biocompatible device must be fabricated from materials that will not elicit an adverse biological response. The degradation time of the material should match the healing or regeneration process. The deterioration of ceramic biomaterials takes place when water penetrates it. Orthopedic prosthesis 3. Degradation due to physiological pH levels inside host. In metallic biomaterials degradation/deterioration takes place due to corrosion only. Even the fatigue strength of Alumina (bio inert) reduces when it comes in contact with water. 4. 2. ii. D. Polymer biomaterials are degraded by a combination of hydrolytic scission and enzymatic (esterase) action producing glycolic acid which can either enter the citric acid cycle of body or is excreted in urine and can be eliminated as carbon dioxide and water. 5. Absorbable mini plates and screws b. Surgical tools D. 5. 2.5. 3. Ca and rare earths are the main elements used. Absence of teratogenicity (ability to cause birth defects) 4. Fundamental to care about degradation product concentration. Biocompatible material features 1. • Polymers degrade slower than magnesium alloys. Zn. Magnesium alloys based: i. Li. 4. Absence of carcinogenicity (the ability or tendency to produce cancer) 2. Effects of degradation and corrosion Degradation: 1. Absence of immunogenicity (absence of a recognition of an external factor which could create rejection) 3. not permitting the correct vascular remodeling. Al. . and then it is good tolerated. E. 3. Absence of toxicity. Mg. Vascular prosthesis 6.

Nickel: Affects skin . 9. Corrosion of Metallic Implants If two dissimilar metals are present in the same environment. titanium alloys. c. 3. Premature degradation of a biomaterial than its expected life leads to its removal process by surgery which ultimately increases the cost and patient’s morbidity (disease). Corrosion of an implant in the clinical setting can result in symptoms such as local pain and swelling in the region of the implant. The noble metals are immune to corrosion and would be ideal materials if corrosion resistance were the only concern. Cobalt: Anemia B inhibiting iron from being absorbed into the blood stream. 8. 6. e. corrosion. 2. Not allowed or disadvantageous after surgery. Thrombogenicity and long term endothelial dysfunction (for cardiovascular applications). the dissolution of metal leads to erosion which in turn eventually leads to brittleness and fracture of the implant. 2. and excretion of excess metal ions. 5.Effects of degradation: 1. cobalt chromium alloys. catalysts and additives during degradation. cracking or flaking of the implant as seen on x-ray films.such as dermatitis b. Chromium: Ulcers and Central nervous system disturbances. cp-titanium. Effects of Corrosion in Human Body Due to Various Biomaterials: a. Metals which are in current use as biomaterials include gold. If the mechanical stress is repeated then fatigue stress corrosion takes place such as in the femoral stem of the hip joint and hip nails made of stainless steels. and silver-tin-mercury amalgam. Galvanic corrosion can be much more rapid than the corrosion of a single metal. Corrosion also plays a role in the mechanical failures of orthopaedic implants. Stress shielding. Chronic inflammatory local reactions. the one which is most negative in the galvanic series will become the anode. 4. As a material starts to corrode. and bimetallic (or galvanic) corrosion will occur. When an implant is subjected to stress. 4. 7. 5. with no evidence of infection. type 316 stainless steel. Physical irritations. 3. Repeated surgeries may be required. 10. Gold is widely used in dental restorations and in that setting it offers superior . d. Effect of corrosion: 1. Polymeric biomaterials can have substances that may be issued in the body like monomers (toxic). Aluminum: Epileptic effects and Alzheimer’s disease. nickel–titanium alloys. Vanadium: Toxic in the elementary state. accumulation of metal in tissues (for internal fixation applications). Degradation under physiological pH conditions can locally reduce the biocompatibility near the implant surface. Inability to adapt to growth. the corrosion process could be accelerated due to the mechanical energy.

insufficient strength. Even these types of stainless steel are vulnerable to pitting and to crevice corrosion around screws. often corrodes and is the most active (corrosion prone) material used in dentistry. however. Titanium is a base metal in the context of the electrochemical series. used in orthopaedic applications as a result of its high density. therefore. the transpassive potential is easily exceeded. however. are passive in the human body. which contain molybdenum. Cobalt–chromium alloys. and 317. Stainless steels contain enough chromium to confer corrosion resistance by passivity. . They do not exhibit pitting corrosion. Ti offers superior corrosion resistance but is not as stiff or strong as steel or Co–Cr alloys.performance and longevity. The phases of dental amalgam are passive at neutral pH. They are widely in use in orthopedic applications. The passive layer is not as robust as in the case of titanium or the cobalt chrome alloys. Amalgam. like titanium. 316L. it forms a robust passivating layer and remains passive under physiological conditions. due to inter phase galvanic couples or potentials due to differential aeration under dental plaque. Gold is not. Titanium implants remain virtually unchanged in appearance. Only the most corrosion resistant of the stainless steels are suitable for implants. These are the austenitic types—316. and high cost.

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