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Benzoic Acid

Conc. .5-1% - oral prep.

Treatment of superficial fungal infections

Resistance by some organisms, in some cases involving metabolsism of the acid resulting in complete loss of activity Activity decreases with increasing pH and ionization Activity decreases with increasing pH and ionization

Soric Acid ACIDS and ESTERS

Most effective at pH 4 or below Gums, mucilages, syrups

Sulphur dioxide, sulphites and metabisulphites Esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens)

ALCOHOLS Disinfection, antiseptic Ethanol

Extensive use as preservative in the food and beverages Frequently used as preservatives of emulsions, creams and lotions where two phases exists Overall cidal activity drops sharply below 50% conc. Widely used as disinfectant and cosmetics Presence of water is important 60-95% are bactericidal 70% - disinfectant (skin, cleaning instruments or surfaces, 90% - active against fungi and most lipid containing viruses incl. HIV Popular choice in pharmaceutical preparations of cosmetics as solvent or preservative Mixture with other

Wide range of fungi

But les so against bacteria. Esp the pseudomonads which may utilize them as carbon source

Bactericidal against vegetative forms icl. Mycobacterium spp.

Not sporocidal Bcaillus cereus Burkholderia cepacia Not recommended for cleaning class II recirculating safety cabinets Ethanol vapours are flammable Bacillus cereus

Isopropyl Alcohol

disinfectants (formaldehyde) are more effective than alcohol alon Typical conc.: 6070% Acceptable alternative to ethanol for preoperative treatment and is also employed as preservative or cosmetics Typical conc.: 2% Used as antimicrobial preserative Has antimicrobial and weak anesthetic properties Typical conc.: .5% Apploed as a preservative in injections and eye drops Typical conc.: .25.5% Usually employed with other agents Typical conc.: 1%

Slightly greater activity than ethanol Limited-spectrum

Twice as toxic Less active against viruses, particularly non-enveloped viruses

Preservatives: Aralkil alcohol

Benzyl alcohol

Use in cosmetics is restricted


Unstable Decompositions occurring at acid pH during autoclaving Alkaline solutions are unstable at room temp. Greater activity against Gram-negative organisms



More active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa Combined with preservatis such as the hydroxybenzoates to broaden the spectrum of activity Broad spectrum Incl. Pseudomonas spp.


Typical conc.: .01.1%

When exposed to light alkaline pH, special if accompanied by an increase in temperature, solutions decompose, turning yello or brown Potentially carcinogenic Selective pressure Barrier to penetration Should be activated - Activated have limited shelf life (2 weeks) Degredation

Glutaraldehyde Aldehydes

Mycobacteria Bacterial Spores Broad spectrum (rapid kill)

Barrier to penetration: Peptidoglycan Mycolarabinogalactan Mycobacterium chelonae Methylbacterium mesophilicum Atypical mycobacteria Potentially carcinogenic when inhaled Degredation Pseudomonas aeruginosa Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Klebsiella oxytoca Formaldehyde-releasing agents Treatment of peritonitis Extensive antibacterial and antifungal properties Selection of insusceptible bacteria Barrier to penetration: Reduction in number and size of porins Chlorhexidine Applied as preoperative antiseptic Gram positive Gram Negative Reduction in activity will occur in presence of blood and other organic material Gram negative are less sensitive than Gram-positive organism Biguanides Infective at ambient temps against bacterial spores and M. Tuberculosis Limited antifungal activity EFFLUX Pseudomans ssp. Burkholderia cepacia Flavobacterium meningosepticum Serratia marcesens Rastonia picketii

Ortho-phtalaldehyde Formaldehyde Can be either used in the liquid or the gaseous tate for disinfection.

Complete kill of M. Tuberculosis Mycobacteria Bacterial Spores

Achromobacter xyloxidans WITH CETRIMIDINE - Pseudomonas multivorans - Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Polyhamethylene biguanides Ophtahalmic solutions Broad spectrum - Gram positive - Gram negative Low toxicity

Chlorine Hypochlorites (bleach)

Oldest and most useful chlorine disinfectants

(Rapid kill) Wide spectrum of microorganisms including fungi and viruses Mycobacteria Bacterial Spores

Corrosive Suffer inactivation by organic matter and can be unstable

Organic chlorine compound Chloroform Halogens Iodine

For disinfection and antisepsis Preservative of pharmaceuticals

nArrow spectrum

Wide spectrum - Gram negative - Gram positive - Bacterial spores - Mycobacteria - Fungi - Viruses

Marked reduction in concentration may occur volatilization Staining of skins and fabric coupled with possible sensitizing of skin and mucous membranes POVIDONE IODINE Burkholeria cepacia Pseudomonas putida POLYXAMER-IODINE Pseudomonas Aeruginosa


Mycobacteria Bacterial Spores Primary employed as preservatives Mercury toxicity Risk of hypertensitivity or local irritation Degredation

Heavy metals

Mercurials -Thiomersals -phenyl mercuric nitrate / acetate

Hydrogen peroxide and peroxygen compounds

Mycobacteria Bacterial Spores


Effux Degredation Barrier to penetration Pseudomonas spp.

Pseudomonas aeruginoasa Alcaligenes faecalis Phenol (Carbolic acid) Clear soluble fluids, black fluids and white fluids Used as a surgical antiseptic Standard for comparison with other disinfectants in tests such as Rideal-Walker test Synthetic phenols -p-chloro-m- cresol - p-chloro-m- xylenol Bisphenols Preservative Skin disinfectant It has been incorporatedint o medicated soaps, lotions, and solutions, and is also included in household products such as plastics and fabrics Mosteffective against microorganisms at nneutral slightly alkaline pH and becoe virtually inactive below pH 3.5 Exhibit greates activity against gram positive bacteria Gram negative are more resistant Liimited antifungal activity Antimicrobial activity is weak and is reduced by the presence of organic matter Bacterial resistane developing to triiclosan Mycobacteria No longer plays any significant role

Caionic surface-active agents Quaternary ammonium compounds - Benzalkonium chloride - Cetrimide

No useful sporicidal activity Narrow spectrum limits its usefulness

Surface-active agents

QAC: Selective pressure Extracellular induction of components Efflux Barrier to penetration: Peptidoglycan Mycolarabinogalactan Reduction in number and size of porins Bukholderia cepacia Serratia marcescens achromobacter xyloxydans Pseudomonas aeruginosa BENZALKONIUM CHLORIDe Pseudomonas spp Achromobacter spp Enterobacter spp Enterobacter aerogenes Pseudomonas kingie Burkholderia cepacia Serratia marcescens

MYCOBACTERIUM CHELONAE Mycobacterium abscessus Diamidines Antimicrobial agents ineye drops (0.1%) for amoebic infection and for tropical treatment of minor infections Used to stain bacteria for microscopic examination HAVE STATIC ACITIVTY Compound most frequently used is dequalinum chloride, a bisquaternary ammonium derivative of 4aminoquinaldinum which was formulated as lozenge for treatment of oropharnygeal infection Not mentioned in the book The activity is reduced by acid pH in the presence of blood and serum


Not mentioned in the book

Slow acting and mainly bacteriostatic

Other antimicrobials


Not mentioned in the book

Not mentioned in the book