# TRIBHUVAN UNIVERSITY

**Report on Gear Cutting
**

Prepared By:

Satyan Shrestha 067 / DME / 621 4 Mar 2013

THAPATHALI ENGINEERING CAMPUS Department of Mechanical Engineering Kathmandu, Nepal

Table of Contents

Introduction Types Terminology Indexing Procedure Calculations Appendix

Introduction A gear is a rotating machine part having cut teeth, or cogs, which mesh with another toothed part in order to transmit torque. Two or more gears working in tandem are called a transmission and can produce a mechanical advantage through a gear ratio and thus may be considered a simple machine. Geared devices can change the speed, torque, and direction of a power source. The most common situation is for a gear to mesh with another gear; however, a gear can also mesh with a non-rotating toothed part, called a rack, thereby producing translation instead of rotation. The gears in a transmission are analogous to the wheels in a pulley. An advantage of gears is that the teeth of a gear prevent slipping. When two gears of unequal number of teeth are combined, a mechanical advantage is produced, with both the rotational speeds and the torques of the two gears differing in a simple relationship. In transmissions which offer multiple gear ratios, such as bicycles and cars, the term gear, as in first gear, refers to a gear ratio rather than an actual physical gear. The term is used to describe similar devices even when the gear ratio is continuous rather than discrete, or when the device does not actually contain any gears, as in a continuously variable transmission.

Types of Gear There are four basic types of gears; spur, helical, bevel, and spiral bevel. See Figure 1. Spur gears are the most common. A spur gear has teeth that are uniformly spaced around the outer surface. The teeth are aligned in a direction that is parallel to the gear axis. A spur gear is designed to mesh with another spur gear on a parallel shaft. Spur gears impose only radial (perpendicular to axis) loads on gear shafts as opposed to helical, bevel, and spiral bevel gears which impose both radial and thrust (axial) loads on gear shafts. The profile of the contact surface of spur gear teeth is in the form of an involute curve. An involute curve is the path that the end of a string takes when it is being unwound from a cylinder. The shape is easy to manufacture and is an efficient way to transmit power between two gear teeth because of the tendency to maximize rolling and minimize sliding. The efficiency of spur gears is in the high 90% range and approaches that of anti-friction bearings. Helical gears are like spur gears except that the teeth are positioned at an angle to the gear axis of rotation. This angle, called the helix angle, is normally 10° to 30 °. Helical gears are stronger and operate more quietly than comparable size spur gears. Helical gears are less efficient than spur gears and impose thrust as well as radial loads on shafts making bearing selection more complex. Double helical gears or "herringbone" gears impose radial loads only on shafts and bearings. Bevel gears are like spur gears except that the basic configuration is conical in shape. Bevel gears are used to transmit motion between two shafts that are not parallel. Two shafts that are at a 90° angle are connected by bevel gears. Bevel gears, like spur gears, operate at efficiencies in the high 90% range. Bevel gears are used in automotive vehicles, aircraft, and

machine tools. Spiral bevel gears have teeth that are cut at an angle similar to the way helical gear teeth are cut. Spiral bevel gears operate at lower efficiencies than bevel gears. Spiral bevel gears whose axes do not intersect are called hypoid gears. Hypoid gears are used in automotive rear axles to lower the drive shaft and increase passenger space. Figure 1 Types of Gears

Terminology The gear tooth is a component of a mechanical power transmission system that does not lack for descriptive terminology. The pitch circle is a circle on the face of a gear that passes through points that are radially half way up the working depth of the teeth. See Figure 2. It is a basic dimension from which many other features of the teeth are referenced. The pitch circle diameter is a dimension on each of two gears in mesh that when divided by each other equal the ratio. Diametral pitch which is a measure of tooth size equals the number of teeth divided

by the pitch diameter. The radial dimension from the pitch circle to the tip of the tooth is called the addendum. The radial surface from the pitch circle to the very bottom of the tooth is called the dedendum. The curved surfaces of the two gear faces are in the form of involute curves. The slope of the involute curve at the pitch diameter is called the pressure angle. Lower pressure angle teeth have steeper sides than high pressure angle teeth while higher pressure angle teeth are wider at the base and narrower at the tip. The various terms are listed below and shown on Figure 2: Pinion is the smaller of two gears in mesh. The larger is called the gear regardless of which one is doing the driving. Ratio is the number of teeth on the gear divided by the number of teeth on the pinion. Pitch Diameter is the basic diameter of the pinion and gear which when divided by each other equals the ratio. Diametrical Pitch is a measure of tooth size and equals the number of teeth on a gear divided by the pitch diameter in inches. Diametrical pitch can range from 1/2 to 200 with the smaller number indicating a larger tooth. See Figure 3. Module is a measure of tooth size in the metric system. It equals the pitch diameter in millimeters divided by the number of teeth on a gear. Module equals 25.400 divided by the diametral pitch. Module can range from 0.2 to 50 with the smaller number indicating a smaller tooth. Pitch Circle is the circumference of the pitch diameter. Circular Pitch is the distance along the pitch circle from a point on one gear tooth to the same point on an adjacent gear tooth as shown on the sketch at the bottom of Figure 3. Addendum of a tooth is its radial height above the pitch circle. The addendum of a standard proportion tooth equals 1.000 divided by the diametral pitch. The addendum of a pinion and mating gear are equal except for the long addendum design where the pinion addendum is increased while the gear addendum is decreased by the same amount. Dedendum of a tooth is its radial depth below the pitch circle. The dedendum of a standard proportion tooth equals 1.250 divided by the diametral pitch. The dedendum for a pinion and mating gear are equal except in the long addendum design where the pinion dedendum is decreased while the gear dedendum is increased by the same amount. Whole Depth or total depth of a gear tooth equals the addendum plus the dedendum. The whole depth equals 2.250 divided by the diametral pitch. Working Depth of a tooth equals the whole depth minus the height of the radius at the base of the tooth. The working depth equals 2.000 divided by the diametral pitch.

Clearance equals the whole depth minus the working depth. The clearance equals the height of the radius at the base of the tooth. Pressure Angle is the slope of the tooth at the pitch circle.

Figure 2 Gear Tooth Terminology

**Indexing is an operation of dividing a periphery of a cylindrical workpiece into equal number
**

of divisions by the help of index crank and index plate. This may be accomplished by the following indexing methods: direct, simple , angular and differential.

Universal Dividing Head 1-shaft; 2-index crank; 3-indexbcrank pin; 4-index plate; 5-housing; 6-swivel block of housing; 7-lock; 8-driving dog; 9-spindle; 10-plate for direct indexing; 11-tailstock

Procedure For Machining a Spur Gear of 56 teeth with the module of 1.5 1. First of all, all necessary gear data are calculated. 2. Gear blank is turned to proper outside diameter (57 mm.) 3. Gear blank is firmly pressed onto mandrel 4. Index head and footstock is mounted, and the alignment of the index centers is checked 5. Dividing head is set so index pin fits into hole on 27-hole circle and sector arms set for 3 holes 6. Mandrel (and workpiece) is mounted, with large end toward indexing head, between index centers 7. Table is moved close to column to keep setup as rigid as possible

8. A cutter having 1.5 module is mounted on milling machine arbor over approximate center of the gear It is to be sured to have cutter rotating in direction of indexing head

9. Gear blank is centered with cutter by either of the following methods: 1. Place square against outside diameter of gear With pair of inside calipers or rule, check distance between square and side of cutter Adjust table until distances from both sides of gear blank to sides of cutter are the same

2. More accurate method of centralizing cutter is to use gage blocks instead of inside calipers 10. THE CROSS-SLIDE IS LOCKED 11. Milling cutter is started and work is run under cutter 12. Table is raised until cutter just touches work 13. Graduated feed collar on the vertical feed is set to zero 14. Move work clear of cutter by means of the longitudinal feed handle 1. Table is raised to 2/3 depth of tooth 2. Knee clamp is locked 15. All gear teeth are slightly notched on end of work to check for correct indexing 16. Rough-out first tooth and set automatic feed trip dog after cutter is clear of work 17. Return table to starting position 1. Clear end of work with cutter 18. Cut remaining teeth and return table to starting position 19. Loosen knee clamp, raise table to full depth of .270 in., and lock knee clamp 20. Finish-cut all teeth

Calculations: As a practical , we had made a spur gear of 56 teeth with the module of 1.5, and the required calculations are

a. OD (N 2) x M 38 x 1.5 57 mm b. Whole depth of tooth 2.2 mod ule =3.3mm

c. Thickness = 10×module (theoretically minimum) d. Pitch Circle Diameter = No. Of teeth × Module=54 e. Indexing (using Cincinnati standard plate)

40 40 3 1 1rotation and 3holes on 27 hole circle N 36 27

**Appendix Formula for calculating metric gear
**

To Obtain Addendum (A) Knowing Normal Module Module Pitch diameter

and number of

Rule Addendum equals module Multiply module by

Formula A=M CP = M x 3.1416

Circular pitch (CP)

**teeth Outside diameter
**

and number of

**Multiply pitch diameter by CP = M x and divide by number of teeth Multiply outside diameter by
**

and divide by number of

3.1416 N

CP =

teeth Module and outside diameter Chordal thickness (CT)

teeth minus 2 Divide 90 by number of teeth. Find the sine of this angle and CT = PD x sin multiply by the pitch diameter. Multiply module by and divide by 2 Divide circle pitch by 2 Multiply module 0.166 mm Multiply module 1.166 mm

CT =

OD x 3.1416 N-2 90 N

Module

**Circular pitch Clearance (CL) Dedendum (D) Module Module Pitch diameter
**

and number of

CT =

CP

2

M x 3.1416 2

CL = M x 0.166 D = M x 1.166

**teeth Module (M) Circular pitch Outside diameter
**

and number of

Divide pitch diameter by the M = Module Divide circular pitch by Divide outside diameter by number of teeth Divide pitch diameter by the Module Multiply pitch diameter by

and divide product by

PD

N CP M= 3.1416 OD

M=

teeth Pitch diameter and module Pitch diameter and circular pitch Number of teeth and module Pitch diameter and module Module and number of teeth Outside diameter and module Number of teeth and outside diameter Whole depth (WD) Centre-to-centre distance(CD) Module Pitch diameters

Number of teeth (N)

N2 PD N= M PD x 3.1416

N=

Outside diameter (OD)

Pitch diameter (PD)

circular pitch Add 2 to the number of teeth and multiply sum of module Add 2 modules to pitch Diameter Multiply module by number of Teeth Subtract 2 modules from outside diameter Multiply number of teeth by outside diameter and divide product by number of teeth plus 2 Multiply module by 2.166 mm Divide the sum of the pitch diameters by 2

CP

OD = (N + 2) x M OD = PD + 2M PD = M x N PD = OD – 2M PD =

N x OD N2

WD = M x 2.166

CD =

PD PD

1 2

2