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Chapter
Conflict: A Modern Perspective Types of Conflict Managing Conflict Negotiation Conflict Management and Negotiation: A Contingency Approach

Managing Conflict and Negotiation

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Conflict

Conflict One party perceives its interests are being
opposed or set back by another party

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The Relationship between Conflict Intensity and Outcomes
Positive

Figure 14-1

Outcomes

Neutral

Negative

Too little conflict Low

Appropriate conflict Moderate Intensity

Too much conflict High

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Functional vs. Dysfunctional Conflict
Functional Conflict
serves organization’s interests

Dysfunctional Conflict threatens

organization’s interests

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Antecedents of Conflict
Incompatible personalities or value systems Overlapping or unclear job boundaries Competition for limited resources Interdepartment/intergroup competition Inadequate communication Inderdependent tasks Organizational complexity

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Antecedents of Conflict Cont.
Unreasonable or unclear policies, standards, or rules Unreasonable deadlines or extreme time pressure Collective design making Decision making by consensus Unmet expectations Unresolved or suppressed conflicts

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Desired Conflict Outcomes
1) 2) 3)

Agreement: strive for equitable and fair agreements
that last

and trust for the future solving

Stronger Relationships: build bridges of goodwill Learning: greater self-awareness and creative problem

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Conflict Handling Styles

High Integrating Concern for others Obliging

Compromising

Low

Dominating High Concern for self

Avoiding Low

4

Intergroup Conflict
Changes within groups Increased group cohesiveness Rise in autocratic leadership Focus on activity Emphasis on loyalty Changes between groups Distorted perceptions Negative stereotyping Decreased communication

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Figure 14-2

Minimizing Intergroup Conflict
Level of perceived intergroup conflict tends to increase when:
• Conflict within the group is high • There are negative interactions between groups • Influential third-party gossip about other group is negative

Recommended actions:

• Work to eliminate specific negative interactions between groups • Conduct team building to reduce intragroup conflict and prepare employees for cross-functional teamwork • Encourage personal friendships and good working relationships across groups and departments • Foster positive attitudes toward members of other groups • Avoid or neutralize negative gossip across groups or departments

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Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR)Techniques
Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR)
Facilitation Conciliation Peer review Ombudsman Mediation Arbitration

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avoiding costly lawsuits by resolving conflicts informally or through mediation or arbitration

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Negotiation

Negotiation give-and-take process between conflicting

interdependent parties Distributive negotiation: Single issue; fixed-pie; win-lose. Integrative negotiation: More than one issue; win-win.

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An Integrative Approach: Added-Value Negotiation
Separately Step 1: Clarify interests
identify tangible and intangible needs

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Figure 14-6

Step 2: Identify options
Identify elements of value

Step 3: Design alternative deal packages
Mix and match elements of value in various workable combinations Think in terms of multiple deals

Step 4: Select a deal
Analyze deal packages proposed by other party

Step 5: Perfect the deal
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An Integrative Approach: Added-Value Negotiation
Jointly Step 1: Clarify interests
Discuss respective needs Find common ground for negotiation

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Figure 14-6 cont.

Step 2: Identify options
Create a marketplace of value by discussing respective elements of value

Step 3: Design alternative deal packages Step 4: Select a deal
Discuss and select from feasible deal packages Think in terms of creative agreement

Step 5: Perfect the deal
Discuss unresolved issues Develop written agreement Build relationships for future negotiations

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Questionable/Unethical Tactics in Negotiation
Lies Puffery Deception Weakening the opponent Strengthening one’s own position Nondisclosure Information exploitation Change of mind Distraction Maximization
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