1

390

>RLF

GIFT

OF

George Davidson 1825-1911

.

1-annin PROFESSOR .

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1865." THK AMERICAN PHOTOGRAPHIC ALMANAC.' JOSEPH H. M." ETC. LONDON: TRUBNER & CO. THE TANNIN PROCESS.DRY PLATE PHOTOGRAPHY. f PROFESSOR OP NATURAL PHILOSOPHY. MADE SIMPLE AND PRACTICAL FOR OPERATORS AND AMATEURS. No. . Madidam vestem permutare. OR. 88 WHITE STREET. AND EDITOR OP " HUMPHREY'S JOURNAL OP PHOTOGRAPHY. BY JOHN TOWLER." . . AND CHEMISTRY IN HOBART COLLEGE AUTHOR OP " THE SILVER SUNBEAM. D. ." "THE PORCELAIN PICTURE. PUBLISHER. MATHEMATICS. LADD.

according to Act of Congress. in the year 1865. In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District of New York. LADD. by JOSEPH H. .Entered.

LANDSCAPE .68 CHAPTER VI. . DRY AND WET SILVER BATH PLATES.21 31 CHAPTER CHAPTER CHAPTER II. . . . PHOTOGRAPHY ETC. NEGATIVE PRO- CESSES. OR.. PAGE. INTRODUCTION . .41 54 IV. REQUIRING NO . TURES. . III. WITH COLLODIO-BROMIDE OF SILVER 92 . PREPARING THE PLATES . AND INTENSI- FYING THE PLATES . 13 CHAPTER I. . BY THE DRY PROCESS 84 CHAPTER VIII. CONTACT-PRINTING ON GLASS 13 CHAPTER VII: OPAL PICTURES. COATING THE PLATES WITH COLLODION SENSITIZING THE PLATES . .. CHANGING BOXES.TR TABLE OP CONTENTS. DEVELOPING. PREPARATION OF TRANSPARENT POSITIVES BY THE TANNIN PROCESS. . CHAPTER V. AND PHOTO-MINIA. EXPOSING. . OR .

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therefore. in fine. and pronounced finished when the . and the two modes of printing. controlled. printing the image is invisible perceive its existence . THE peculiar advantages of Dry Plate Photography are but little understood by the ordinary photographic are understood operator and. eye is satisfied. neque perficttur. we have therefore a in the latter case. With a small quantity . the image appears gradually. In solar printing albumen on paper. direct solar printing and printing by development. to bestow his attention on artist whose are invisible. there is a difficulty in withdrawing the . when these advantages and recognized. built upon faith.INTRODUCTION. There is a striking analogy between the two processes. . I are Nihil siccisfaucibus recte suscipitur. They equally our guides in dry plate photography. a structure. and finally assumes all the necessary vigor the operation of printing can be watched. beneath a negative. of this we are firmly convinced by an experience that has never But with developmentnone of our senses can ' met with an exception lively faith in the result to the rule. results are so easily and quickly obtained. and depend entirely upon the educated experience of the workman and the accuracy of his workmanship. wet and dry. . experience and faith become our guides. it is a latent image . of experience the eye becomes the sole guide. from the general routine of the wet process. flash out as it were in a moment for adoption or condemnaa process whose results tion.

alone is required. The reason is almost self-evietc. fix. each in order to expose. modify all such deductions. wash the plate. and applicable on certain occasions. The author of the follow- ing instructions in dry plate photography adheres tenaciously to the wet process. and stow it away in a safe . The practical operator will find the dry process much more advantageous than the wet process in taking photographs of public buildings. machinery. the place in question to mount them on tripods for to place the collodion bottle. Even if the operator should possess a portable tent. . steam engines. the bottle conoperation . architectural structures. taining the developer. before the actinic impression is complete. To hug or drag a portable tent and camera to dent. fine. an adage taken advantage of by the intelligent wet process advocates but adages. but he recommends this process as the only one to be adopted under the cir- cumstances in question. and the bottle holding the fixing solution.14 is INTRODUCTION. like nostrums. a week. the water bottle. gentlemen's residences. . when exposed to the view. all works of art and beauties of nature in still in his in life own city or immediate neighborhood. country seats. the dry process is to be preferred from sheer necessity for the dry tannin plate may be exposed without deterioration for a whole day. shipping.. are not universal in their application times and circumstances . Whenever a wet plate becomes dry by evaporation. but he is not only willing to recog- nize advantages peculiar to the dry process. and until the necessary impression has been obtained. or a month. in the cases just enumerated the dry plates are to be preferred in every instance whenever a picture of a single building. farm houses. admits its pre-eminence in general practice . monuments. . develop. .

and a changing box. In this case the whole burden consists of a camera. The amateur photographer and the tourist will inva- riably give preference to the dry process. which are quite sufficient for an actinic impression. 15 place where no accident can befal it to pack up again all these paraphernalia and retrace. requires but one operator. or the steamboat at the landing. each one remote from the rest. . the energetic tourist has time and facilities by this process to carry away a picture. wet traps he can accomplish nothing of the kind neither the train nor the steamer waits for any man beyond the appointed four or five minutes. but not to mount and remount a photographic While other indifferent travelers step on shore or on land to straighten their legs or wet their dark chamber. which trate his diary or give pictorial may serve to illus- beauty to his corre- spondence. With the . a visible reminis- cence of towns and harbors. The dry process. Even while the train stops at the station. The same advantage is manifest on the side of dry plate photography whenever an indefinite number of views have to be taken in a city. the homeward path all these operations contrast very distinctly with that of carrying on the shoulder a small camera already screwed to its tripod.INTRODUCTION. in the cases enumerated. the picture taken before an accumulation of human youngis sters can stop up the aperture of the lens or diversify the scene on the collodion plate with innumerable ghosts. and ready for operation the camera moment the goal is attained. The wet process would require at least two. with bag and bag. tripod. The lowered. The camera came and is gone before the inquisitive have had time to ascertain the cause of your appearance and departure. gage. the view adjusted in focus.

now marches to the desired point. whistles. opal or porcelain pic- and photo-miniatures are very easily and beautifully prepared on dry plates. the stories and hisThis tories arising from scenes visited or renowned. in the long evenings. clothed in white raiment. has become one of the most enchanting operations in photography. source of innocent and instructive pleasure is inexhaustit can be ible. adjusts the lens to focus. . has already discriminated the beauties he wishes to depict before he dismounts. or a few spirals of magnesium wire. and poet. counts the time. . transparent stereographs. This is taking pic- Finally. philosopher. ing the summer season the season for trips and excursions negatives accumulate to a great extent. or the light from a small piece of burning phosphorus. in the midst of such vivid illustrations. is quite intense enough to produce the required Duractinic effect on a dry plate in a few minutes. as it were. tures on the wing. and recount to them. its enchantment can not be described understood only by those who have participated in it. impossible to take them at To print on glass. transparent positives. . take imis now pressions of each by the dazzling jet of light from the argand burner on the table. that all is. tures. to bring the negatives from their niches. and come irksome without employment when homes be- the time. our tourist. and in some instances where means of wet plates. when nature lies until the dreary winter buried in sepulchres. it is sometimes more easily than on wet plates. with our wife and children around us. as an evening recreation by gaslight. by on dry plates. and is already again in his seat before his neighbors have had time to slacken their crural extensors or modify their pharyngial passages. with quick eye. and remain on hand unprinted arrives.16 INTRODUCTION. This light.

be able in the evening. and drawn emwood. Thus. 17 A serted that friend of ours.INTRODUCTION. It is our belief that such instruc- tion can be given. gible jto a : pyreal air. washed at the tap like an ordinary negative. the other day. or in the final washing. he will be carried away with the ravish" Into ing pastime. the same substratum of albumen. We presume to teach the best method but we flatter ourselves with the belief that the method here explained will be as successful in the hands c * others as it is invariably in our own. in all earnestness asif the dry process did not exist. from the tendency of the film to peel off in the very midst of the development. or some equivalent process. naturally on the single condition . do is the best method^nor do we . is coated with the same collodion. to prosecute gaslight photography on dry plates . we hope to be able to enlist many of our practical men to take up this useful and beautiful branch of the photographic art. sensitized in the same silver bath. and with Milton he will exclaim the heaven of heavens I have presumed. or from the want of success in securing a picture. he should forego photography and procure himself a lathe with a slide rest and eccentric chuck. the plate is prepared exactly in the same manner as for the wet process it receives ." Photographers in general have hitherto been deterred from trying experiments with dry plate photography from the circuitous mode of preparing the plates. and take to turning cycloidal gyrations in box- Such an expression as this is totally unintellicommon operator with the wet plate process. Let him. If we can teach a method very little shall deviate of preparing dry plates that from that of preparing wet plates. with his dear ones around him. and in not maintain that this other respects treated in a very simple way. however.

With such simoper plicity of operation failure can scarcely occur. any desire of your own to diminish the time you will fail assuredly if you do. and will then condemn a good process. The want of success with the exception on the edges. and exposure. that is. The dry plate requires a long exposure and learn now that over-exposure is no injury. because there are means of controlling its effects. but it increases in the same ratio the chances of and although we ourselves are delighted with failure . Do not be beguiled by any assertion of dry plate. exposed dry plate. if a given lens with a given stop. . tirely obviated . all that our scholars are obedient and observant of rules the we prescribe. . but there are no means of remedying an underothers. has all along conduced to hurl beginners into the trouble alluded to. plate and the aim of dry plate photographers. Be convinced that the sensitiveness of a dry plate is far inferior to that of a wet plate. even this substratum can be omitted. that where light has failed wonderful task. light. called. will produce a picture on a wet plate in twenty seconds. the same lens will require. and most probfour minutes' exposure would be no injury to the ably result sought. being to shorten the time of exposure. five or six times less. The tendency of the film to split up or peel off is en- The developer. or of exposure . too.18 INTRODUCTION. as it is is. in securing a picture on a dry has arisen principally from impatience and hurry. itself to of getting a picture on a film perform it's part of the It is true that the alkaline developer. has a tendency to shorten the long exposure. by the previous substratum of dilute albumen and when the pupil is sufficiently advanced and experienced. is the ordinary pyrogallic develor intensifier of the wet plate. under the same conditions on a about two minutes at least.

than by the same cause during a short exposure on a wet plate furthermore. has set us to or . But we have before observed that the province of dry along plate photography is properly with still life. but rather as a means to be adopted if we know beforehand that the time of exposure. that a cause which would be ruinous to a wet plate would be scarcely perceptible on a dry Thus. motion. Having these few introductory remarks. was too short. our own experience . 19 the results of the alkaline developer. where the wind and the waves have no influence in producing Keeping. we recommend it to our scholars not as a normal practice. would certainly . a carriage moving slowly along the street. one of the most successful of amateur dry plate photographers in the city of New York. which manifestly shows that there is no more disturbance produced by the wind during a long exposure on a dry plate. Hull. v dry plate limits. its photography within prescribed no hesitation in asserting and believing that the results of success with this process will be more numerous than with the wet process. but our friend. which we deemed . as well as with an alkaline treatment of the dry plate previous to exposure. ever circumstances. is most certain. and where success therefore. and that the labor required to produce these results will be much less we have made by the former process than by the latter. proves indisputably. whereas. spoil the picture on a wet plate. Mr. by producing a feeble image of the vehicle as it moved plate. by whatin- Our older and more experienced readers may be clined to think that a long exposure gives room for great disturbances in the picture by means of the wind waves such an idea is very natural. rights on this score by the results of his experience.INTRODUCTION. on the dry plate the result most probably would be imperceptible.

and which we hope to improve by teaching : Discimus docendo. in order to institute a right sort of feeling on the subject and acquaintance with it at the outset. we shall now proceed to our pleasant task of once more im- parting instruction on a subject which forms a part of our practice. necessary.20 INTRODUCTION. .

than by using although we the old plates over again . IT is desirable in dry plate photography to make use of flattened plate-glass. and the ordinary mode of cleaning glass. must inevitably be imperfect. as never to use a plate that has already been once coated with the sensitive substances. Some dry plate photographers are so particular in regard to their glass. because it would be a great loss ofc time and material to go to the trouble of preparing a dry plate. nine times out of ten. With common tained. glass this condition can seldom or never be atThe glass must be free from all sorts of flaws or imperfections. of the required length and breadth. they may be coated several times in succession without any detriment to success. which is intended to receive the picture. must be accurately in contact in every part. and the sharp edges are carefully filed or ground off on a grindstone. in our opinion. with such imperfections staring you in the face. because it will frequently happen that you may desire to take transparent copies of your negatives on dry plates. The latter method is . with the diamond. PREPARING THE PLATES. and know beforehand that the result. Each plate is cut. are willing to admit that better results are more likely to be obtained by such a precaution. but if old plates be cleaned in manner hereafter described. Jn faces. This degree of refinement and care is. this case. that is.CHAPTER I. the two sur- the surface of the negative and that of the dry plate. unnecessary.

furthermore. so far : prepared has the following V appearance Other changing boxes. by reason of a different construction. and then back again into the changing box after exposure. Each one is then taken out. The / plate. which lar shape. again immersed and washed.of The plates at this stage are now immersed in a pail of clean water. on the contrary. washed on either surface with a clean sponge. so as to present no impediment to the sliding of the plate out of the changing box into the plate-holder. When plates have been used before. Be careful in . a glass or porcelain vessel containing twenty parts of water and one part of nitric acid. and are still covered with collodion and varnished. A stronger bath of nitric acid at a low tem- perature will subserve the same purpose. and turned by a treddle in a lathe. For some of the changing boxes in the market it is neces- by is conveniently at hand. until the two surfaces are perfectly transparent and clean.22 DRY PLATE PHOTOGRAPHY far the neatest J OR. as in the preparation wet plates. to cut off the four corners of the plate. sary. consists in coating one surface with a solution of albumen. . when it will be found that the collodion film and varnish will immediately separate from the glass. if a grindstone Such a grindstone as is used by jewelers and dentists. and then immediately submitted to the next operation. is exceedingly well adapted for this purpose. Finally the plate is well agitated in fresh water. another treatment In this case the negatives are placed in is necessary. and most expeditious. and raised to the boiling temperature. and then grind them round. do not require anything more to be done to the plates than to cut them into a rectanguand to abrade the edges. and left there for half an hour or so. as hereafter described.

and the surfaces are rendered beautifully clean. As soon as the salt is dissolved. ceive the substratum of albumen. The plates are raised from this bath in like manner. . and of sulphuric acid. and placed on the draining racks to dry. tion of fresh crystals of bichromate the surfaces are intended to be polished afterward otherwise each is ready as soon as it is washed to re. for a long time it may be strengthened from time to time by the addi. 1 ounce. the bath is ready to receive the old plates these are allowed to remain several hours in the bath. The . gether in a bottle. 3d manipulating with a strong solution of this acid to avoid getting the acid on the hands or clothes this .THE TANNIN PROCESS. if . and is prepared as follows : Bichromate of potash Sulphuric acid . Carey Lea's bath for removing collodion films or im- object is purities from glass plates is most excellent .. and frequently we throw in new plates of glass. then add to the froth six ounces of pure rain or distilled water and one drachm of ammonia. Shake the mixture very intimately towhich must contain at least twice the . Water 16 ounces. which separates the films and removes extraneous substances from the surfaces. and beat it well up into a froth. easily attained by using slips of glass for raising the plates out of the bath. 1 ounce. whereby all rust appears to be removed. This bath is highly to recommended. which is prepared as follows : Separate the white of a single egg from the yolk. we use it invariably in our laboratory for the purpose in question.. by means of slips of glass they are then allowed to drain for a moment. and finally thoroughly washed in pure water. bath can be used over and over again.

they must be blown away to the opposite side of the vessel before you begin to . if left on the film. as a held for the reception of collodion. It is preferable to avoid this coloration. The first part of the solution. and then downward toward the hand. Should it so happen. The vessel. driving before it the moisture still adhering to the surface. This arises filtered might be probably from the fact that the sizing of the paper is dissolved by the ammonia. is either fixed on a pneumatic holder. and is allowed to flow. through coarse filtering paper. that is. is poured back again into the filter. The plate having been well washed. which would be injurious in the subsequent operations. only in this case the solution assumes a very slight tinge of straw color in passing through the paper. between the thumb and forefinger. that the albumen solution contains a quantity of these air bubbles. or held by one corner. into the vial containing the solution. The solution is next filtered through a tuft of cotton wool it . to the amount of about an ounce. or by not allowing the solution to fall more than half an inch or so before it reaches the vessel beneath. and the filtra- tion is allowed to proceed to the conclusion.24 quantity of material. which receives the filtrate at this stage is carefully washed out with clean water. too. about a pint measure. and passing off at the nearest right-hand It frecorner. sidewise to the distant left-hand corner. this may partially be avoided by dipping the beak of the glass filter into the solution. because it probably has taken down with it a few fibres of cotton. by using only a clean tuft of cotton inserted in the neck of the filter. as already described. quently happens during filtration that innumerable small air bubbles are formed on the surface of the fil- trate. however. The albuplate men solution is then poured upon the extreme rightis hand corner.

but simply to moisten slips the under surface completely. and gradually and slowly incline the plate all down upon it the solution. and then reared away to dry on the rack. flat porcelain dish.THE TANNIN PROCESS. carrying thus bubbles before end rests upon the dish it sinks. visible after all the obviate as plate evenly and of action combined with uniformly requires gentleness the preceding directions a quick and boisterous de- operations are ended. To coat the . we will describe one which we use our- . a slip of glass of about half an inch in : width. has been already washed and polished. The solution in it as must not be high enough on the now lies to cover the plate as of glass. if you once get them upon the plate. raised out of the solution. it is advisable to place the spout of thus to vessel near the surface of the plate. a process which is likely to produce an uneven film and to generate a fresh crop of bubbles. which if left on the film will produce transparent circles in the picture. allowed to drain by resting one corner on one of the glass slips in the dish. in order upon the much as possible the generation of these offensive bubbles. by The plate is now gently means of another slip of glass. meanor will not succeed at all. In pouring the solution the plate. until. is the following Place at the bottom of a clean. along either end. and one which is generally used when the plates 'are dried and polished. 25 pour the solution upon the plate otherwise. so as just to cover the slips of Now taking in the hand a plate of glass which glass. . There are various ways of making these drying racks . and then pour into the dish a sufficient quantity of the albumen solution. you can rarely get rid of them without flowing the plate two or three times. Another mode of coating plates. the other the other slip of glass. let one end rest upon one of the slips of glass. finally.

A of these racks will be found very useful. After being carefully polished with sand-paper. When the albumen film . they are coated with two or three coats of varnish. is quite dry. indispensable hence the minuteness of the description. in fact. but triangular struction is to place the albumen or collodion film on < the side looking toward the inclined side of the den- from any injury the edge were perpendicular. which would inevitably ensue without them. OR. and thus save himself much trouble afterward. figure of the drying rack will show how the four pieces are to be tacked together. it is hard and is transparent and the albumenized surface almost . the collodion film would be sure to suffer. in order that the operator jnay construct or have con. It has the following appearance : It is constructed of four pieces of half inch stuff. it will be prevented if from friction whereas. structed a proper number at the beginning.36 DRY PLATE PHOTOGRAPHY . dentations. number tation. selves. of the follow16 inches long. and when dry are ready for use. whereby . It will be observed that the dentations upon which the plates rest are not The the object of this conrectangular. and contains 28 ing shape and size .

Resting the projecting end against the edge of the polished plate. by means of silk on. By taking care to place the albumenized surface always toward the inin recognizing collodion. and resort to the following expedient for subserving the same purpose. In consequence of this we recommend you for some time to follow the plan here described of coating the glass with albumen but . Procure a camel's hair pencil and a handle to insert Tie the pencil to the handle. The object of the projecting end of the handle is to prevent the pencil from making too brpad a streak if the latter is three-six. in such a manner that the handle and the pencil lie side by side. Now dip this end of the combination into the albumen solution . press gently upon it and proceed from one end to the other. The same albumen solution is used here as before and let me remark. clined plane of the dentation you will have no trouble which surface has to be coated with This film of albumen adheres with great tenacity both to the glass and to the collodion which is afterward poured upon it.THE TANNIN PROCESS. leaving thus a streak of the albumen along the surface. as soon as you are quite conversant with all the manipulations of dry plate photographic manipulations. tion. to prevent decomposi. the end of the former projecting about it a quarter of an inch beyond the hairs of the latter. * indistinguishable from the glass. that where the solution is to be preserved for future use it is well to throw into the vial a few particles of camphor. and thus prevents the collodion film from ever slipping or peeling off. but with more care. and allowing the wet pencil to touch the surface of the plate. . thread. you may abandon this plan. a small quantity will adhere to the pencil.

Before the plates are coated with this liquid. It is certainly not so conveni- now . The solution is poured upon the surface gently by like collodion. and. the mixture is filtered several times through fresh fil- tering paper. are frequently used instead of ent then as albumen. such. slices to aid the solution . etc. The plates thus prepared with a streak of albumen on each edge are reared as before on the drying rack. for instance. the protection to the collodion film will be sufficiently assured. consequently. The latter we have used and become because it is thoroughly disgusted with it. The india-rubber solution is made by soaking a grain of this substance in sheets in one ounce of benzole for a The india-rubber is cut up into very small and the mixture is shaken every now and then for the same purpose. of fermentation. we advise our readers to pursue the plan prescribed. Varnish each edge of the plate in the same way all round. artificial heat. as india-rubber dissolved in benzole or in chloroform. so apt to undergo a sort which the collodion picture develops The former solutions may be recommended merely as a variety in the manipulation.28 DRY PLATE PHOTOGRAPHY . day or two. so that there may be no mistake in coating the unvarnished side after- ward with collodion. When convenient. and in the same manner in reference to the albumenized edges and the inclined plane of the dentations. and then allowed to cool again. Other solutions. Some photographers postpone edges until the plates sensitized. too. as also solutions of gelatine. and exposed. they are thoroughly dried over a flame. or at the stove. by in a most horrid manner. this varnishing of the have been coated with collodion. OR. and the film is dried and the plate is then put away . when the solution will he found ready for use. teenths of an inch in width.

recommended The following same purpose : .. . tion in the found advisable to coat the gelatine film with one of the india-rubber solutions just described. To obviate the troubles which arise from the use of a gelatine substratum. . and the operation is thereby impeded. . have mentioned a number of the solutions used We in the preparation of dry plates. grains.. Soak the gelatine dissolve for by heat. if a solution of gelatine or of albumen is employed. then filter several times through a The plates may be coated with this solumanner already recommended for the albumen solution. . . . but do ncft use any other ourselves than the one first described. For this purpose the plates are polished after they . and to produce at the same time a very tenacious film. and a few hours in the water. . . . : Prepared gelatine . the plates soon dry and are quickly ready to be coated with collodion whereas. Amber Chloroform . Water .. India-rubber . 1 " . 5 drops. The solution of gelatine recommended is for this purpose prepared as follows . the albumen solution and even this we frequently dispense with excepting to varnish the edges before the plates are coated with collodion. that is. Glacial acetic acid .20 . Soak. dissolve. the films do not dry so quickly. . and filter as before.THE TANNIN PROCESS. grains. . 8 ounces.2 . for the . The plate is fixed in the vise in such a manner that the upper sur- . for the 29 solution is also next operation..4 drachms. it has been moist filter. have been carefully washed and dried. - . Where india-rubber solution is used. This solution dries more readily than the preceding.

if . if necessary. and the room must be kept as free as possible from dust. Cut out the plates and abrade the edges. When the surface is dry. by means of a large velvet cork covered with Cantonflannel. follow minutely the following order 1. we are now ready for the next operation in order. or varnished around the edges. then polish the 4. with a moist sponge. breathe again upon the surface and polish attained. If the edges. face stands slightly above the ledges of the vise that holds it. the extraneous powder with a piece of clean Canton-flannel. 3. In all these operations the utmost c^anliness is re- quired.30 DRY PLATE PHOTOGRAPHY. Finally. or wash-leather. alone are to be varnished place the plates in the draining stand to dry. and a few drops of alcohol are poured upon the dust the mixture is intimately rubbed over every part . Place them in the bichromate bath. the film of breath is uniform and free from lines or curves. or. Wash them thoroughly. to sum up our instructions in this chapter.. then sprinkling the floor with water. and then the surface is well polished with a large cork covered with soft chamois leather. and placed in readiness on the drying rack. plates and varnish the edges as described. 2. This is effected by first dusting and spong- ing the shelves. The plates being all covered on one surface with a substratum of albumen. and coat with the albumen solution. the glass is properly polished if not. Fiis rubbed off nally. : with the chamois rubber repeat the until uniformity in the breath film has been operation it . little rotten-stone is then dusted upon the A surface. . etc. breathe upon the surface .

Iodide of ammonium Iodide of 120 grains (. It is not maintained that the most sensitive film can be obtained by any of them . 10 ounces. 80 grains. and introduce them into the ether. collodion sold by any of our large photographic establishments in the city will be suitable for the preparation of dry plates. all but we have used which is seldom the case. The collodion must now be filtered. and is then ready for use. Separate the cotton into small tufts or flocks. Pyroxyline 2. then pulverize the salts in a clean mortar and dissolve them in the alcohol finally. Before you proceed to coat a prepared plate with this collodion it is necessary first to try its working powers. shake intimately. and find that dry plates can be prepared with them that will answer the purposes intended. more Jf \ i . ' Ether No. 1. and set the solution aside for a day or two to settle. 40 grains.required. 10 ounces. Pyroxyline Iodide of . . : Alcohol . 60 grains. add the two mixtures together. cadmium Bromide of cadmium 40 grains. If we manufacture our own collodion. Bromide of cadmium 120 grains 100 grains. . 10 ounces. of them. Alcohol 10 ounces. Ether No. we use the following formula COLLODION FOR DRY PLATES./- ammonium OR.CHAPTER THE negative II. . .

When the collodion film is opaque after drying. the resulting picture. it is suitable for the preparation of a dry plate. and it is better not to lose your time in the preparation of plates which it is known to dry on the plate. allow the film If when dry the film is transparent and almost und?stinguishable from the glass. After you have ascertained that the collodion is capable of producing a shining. there is no doubt a suffi. most likely. and see whether it flows easily over the plate. the pyroxylme. and possesses at the same time a sufficient amount of consistency as to form a tolerably thick film without producing a reticulated surface if this be so. the . One of these experiments is intended to ascertain whether the collodion is bromo-iodized to a proper extent for the purpose. on the other hand. and after allowing the film to set. Should the latter. Coat an ordinary polished plate with the collodion. beforehand will not yield the best results. will not be normally good. is in fault. If. collodion indicates a proper condition for working well . however. if you know certainly that the alcohol and ether are as nearly absolute as can ordinarily be obtained. If the assumes a cream color in the solution. immerse film soon it in the silver bath. on the contrary. If. coat a small plate with the collodion in question. be be dilute. Having obtained a proper degree of consistency. To make the test. will produce the opalescence alluded to. it is necessary to proceed further. ciency of pyroxylme in the collodion. in such a condition. on a plate prepared with such collodion. the film will not be suitable for a dry plate. transparent film. and make two other presufficient to liminary experiments previous to coating the plates with collodion. the collodion flows almost like alcohol or water.32 DRY PLATE PHOTOGRAPHY J OR. they of themselves. the dry film is opaque or opalescent.

man if not. and wash. The film now can be examined . if 33 the film remains bluish after several minutes' immersion. The first thing you have now to do is to filter the collodion. however. in such a condition. The blueness of the film just alluded to.THE TANNIN PROCESS. the defect is attributable to the salts. are not in proper proportion in reference to the different If the collodion has the requisite degree of consistence. as it filters through. and pour the collodion into the funnel. as a consequence. if the . and render it more consistent and glutinous. both more cotton and more of the salts. which may contain fibres of the cotton. Add. coat with collodion. The other experiment is now to see whether the collodion produces those acicular specks or pinholes. which are the very bane of a good photographer. Place rather pinholes are absent you are a lucky loosely in the neck of the funnel a small piece of clean and dry cotton-wool. which is supposed to be supported on a retort stand. a fresh. whose quantity and relative proportions have to be so modified until the desired effect is attained. and hence of more of the bromo-iodizers. this is an indication either that there is too small a quantity of pyroxyline. as indicated by the first test-trials. the Bear in mind. A clean bottle are poured back into the collodion on the filter. whereas. or otherwise in such a way as to enable you to collect the collodion in a bottle beneath. expose. that ammonia salts have a tendency to make the collodion more thin. sensitize the film. is placed beneath to receive the clear col- . Consequently fix. more generally is owing to a want of more pyroxyline. develop. while the cadmium salts have an opposite tendency. piece of glass is placed over the funnel to prevent the evaporation of the ether. or that the bromo-iodides salts used. you must proceed a few steps further. The first portions of the filtrate. too. or in too small a quantity combinedly.

of the consequent coagulation of the collodion itself around the cotton in the neck of the filter. and by evaporation. and wash out the bath very carefully. which is added to the collodion in the funnel to make up for that portion which is lost This mode of filtering is somewhat debecause of the loss of ether by evaporation. The collodion is completely isolated from the air. become completely deprived of both of pyroxyline and the bromo- Another experiment is now made. and . It is advisable to filter the collodion at least twice . by which the collodion can pass downward through the cotton. DRY PLATE PHOTOGRAPHY . OR. will . as a general rule. you must add a few ounces of rain or distilled water to the silver bath. the be found to work well. to see whether the pinholes still exist or not if they are still present. and then finally add a quantity of the crystals of the nitrate of silver. in the neck of the filter. fective. If the acicular plagues are still present. which obviate this defect altogether. filter once more. can be purchased. all these operations have been performed. Return the filtered solution. by this means it will undissolved particles iodizing salts. proportionate to the number of ounces of water first After poured into the solution. try the collodion once more. excepting that portion which is contained in the filter and receiver and an arrangement is made . whereby the filtration is Collodion filters frequently impeded or entirely stopped.34 lodion. filter the silver solution. and the bottle previously used is thoroughly rinsed out with ether. Such filters are almost indis- pensable in every photographic establishment. while an equivalent quantity of air from the receiver beneath passes upward to take its place. and may be relied upon to perform the operation for which they are constructed. to produce a precipitate. as before. collodion.

as also those of Major Russell. it is a sure indication that the alkali is still present. . .4 ounces. is first purified of a certain quantity of gummy substance which it contains. " . The mixture is kept boiling for a couple of hours. . the former being preferred. The water is firs-braised to the boiling temperature the potash is . The late Mr. the cotton is taken out and thrown into up . or alkali. . The absence of all alkaline reaction is in the shown by red litmus paper. . : FORMULA FOR PURIFYING COTTON FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF Carded cotton Potash Rain-water . of this chapter you may skip over. . in order to remove every trace of the alkali. 2 ounces. After this operation of boiling. The cotton. . then dissolved. a sufficient quantity of water being added from time to time to make in a glazed porcelain or glass vessel and the whole is frefor the loss by evaporation quently stirred with a glass spatula. Glover made several excellent experiments in reference to the manufacture of pyroxyline for For those who may feel inclined the tannin process. by the following expedient PYROXYLINE. which remains unchanged wash water. being thus perfectly freed from the sun. . a running stream of water.10 pints.THE TANNIN PROCESS. and read at ing part your leisure. or washed in several changes of water. . and the cotton introduced. is artificial dried perfectly by the heat of the by . . . which The remainconsists in sensitizing the collodion film. to prepare this article themselves we insert Glover's formulas. either Egyptian or American. If this paper turns slightly blue. 35 and you may now proceed to the next operation. The clean and pure cotton of commerce.

300 grains. GLOVER'S FORMULA FOR PREPARING PYROXYLINE. turns red. of 145. 10 minutes. 2 drachms. As soon as^iey are all in the liquid. . Time . more . which remains blue in . water bath is prepared. Temperature . the cotton. gr. . into a pail of water. .. . Sulphuric r. the vessel is covered up. Hardwich's method of preparing cotton for the preparation of pyroxyline. into the acids. . or less rapidly. according to the quantity of acid still .37) . DRY PLATE PHOTOGRAPHY This is . 1.. 145 Fahr. and not matted together. and thrown by this immersion the largest proportion of the acids in the altered cotton is removed. (prepared by the above .845) Nitric acid (sp. gr. . Water Cotton formula) . that is. one by one. and allowed to stand at the given temperature for ten minutes. . which has previously been divided up into light tufts. To the last change of water about ten grains of bicarbonate of soda are added. The remaining parts of the acids is removed by working around the cotton in a running stream of water. is At the expiration of this time the cotton taken out by means of two glass rods or spatulas. . 5 ounces. 1. Every trace of acidity must be removed and the entire absence of acidity is indicated by means of blue litmus paper.. which is placed in the water bath. or in several changes of fresh water. in which the water is raised to the temperature of 145 and maintained at The acids and water are mixed together in this heat. . is introduced quickly. the wash-water the paper. as the temperature of the mixed acids has lowered to that of this bath. OR. . . A As soon a separate vessel.cid (sp. however. 10 ounces. . and thoroughly immersed.36 heat.

. It is preferable to dry pyroxyline in the sun rather than by artificial heat.805 sp. the pyroxyline is divided up into ounces and carefully packed in card-board or tin boxes for future use. Collodion. and placed on a large sheet of paper to dry in the sun. Collodion prepared from cotton prepared accord. iodide of ammonium and six grains work well. Thus a high temperature produces a porous film and the same effect can be produced by a larger proportion of water in the acids. . it is now denominated pyroxyline.THE TANNIN PROCESS. which is modified by the temperature of the acids in which the cotton is immersed. Alcohol (. This pyroxyline is taken out of the water. . Pyroxyline ammonium Iodide of cadmium Bromide of cadmium Iodide of 2 . 6t| grains. in the film Both these conditions depend in a great measure upon the nature of the pyroxyline. and flows For this collodion two grains of easily over the plate. .10 ounces. and has increased in weight . separated into small tufts. in order to avoid explosions. a longer immersion and a lower temperature. . ing to Glover's formula is very sensitive. 120 grains. . but such a film is not so sensitive as & porous film. present. of the cadmium salts to the ounce will The formula which Major Russell uses dion in the tannin process is for his collo: the following THE TANXING PROCESS. is well adapted for the tannin process . 20 grains. which produces a dense and horny film. . . 52| grains. gr.) Ether . has combined with some of the elements of nitric acid. which have been very disastrous even in experienced hands. of The cotton by this process has become altered. . 10 ounces. . When thoroughly dry.

intensification. or in quality of negative with a landscape subject when both were exposed long enough for the darkest parts. but simply bromized collodion is strongly recommended as being in most cases preferable . as it will bear over-action of light better. He remarks on this subject as follows Bromo-iodized collodion will produce good results. OR. which naturally has to be kept in a dark or non-actinic place. collodion contains all. My own experiments. as marked out by Major Russell himself. which* are so common an annoyance when iodide. " it has been tried. the bromized collodion will produce a better negative when the subject presents great con- Above trast. to have no tendency while the in the excit- ing bath to form needle-shaped crystals. it is was and incapable of the requisite easily obtained. and to depend Mr. The de- fect alluded to is manifest also. different to be particularly suitable kinds In a great number of trials with of collodion. even when the latter was used in a much less sensitive collodion. . "Bromized collodion seems for use with tannin. such as sky and dark objects. in trying to reproduce these results. Sayce's latest solely on the bromide of silver. and shows no tendency to produce blurring along the edges of the strongly lighted parts of the subject. There seems to have been lately a desire to set aside the iodides altogether in dry plates. to some degree. which appear to have been crowned with decidedly successful results. experiments. have not been so successful . true. but exceedingly faint. have been founded entirely on bromide of silver diffused through the collodion. : in the bromide process.38 DRY PLATE PHOTOGRAPHY. the latter is about twice as sensitive as the former and seems. so far as . the iodide and bromide in no one instance approached the bromide in sensitiveness. and various modes of treatment. a picture.

narrow bottle. and keeping is it there for 20 minutes. . . If the plete . " The addition of a few drops of astrong alcholic solu- tion of bromine* to an ounce of the collodion seems to be an improvement but bromine can only be used with a quick-setting collodion. by Major Pyroxyline . Second. 8 grains.4 drachms. . remaining treatment the The same as already described. shake up until the solution of the pyroxyline and the bromide is comthen allow to settle clear and decant. but may be made 125 to work correctly in this respect by using cotton immersed in the mixed acids at a temperature of Fahr. . probably almost any sample intended for the wet prois Two : used cess will answer. make the . Put the whole in a tall. to excite in a strong bath. * Take equal parts by volume of bromine and alcohol to alcoholic solution recommended. Bromide of cadmium Alcohol (.THE TANNIN PROCESS. ." He further on remarks. or if the pyroxyline is of a kind likely to give too little setting power. " 39 precautions are necessary when bromide alone First.) Ether " ." . . is The gain in weight by such a proceeding about 50 per cent. but the collodion will retain an acid reaction. not to use a very slow-setting collodion .5 grains. a larger proportion of ether should be used. gr. The yellow color given by the bromine will probably soon disappear. as it tends still more than bromide to retard the setting. . and keep the plate in long enough. that collodion made with Glover's pyroxyline does not set quickly enough. 4 drachms.805 sp. The bromized Russell " is collodion recommended composed as follows : . alcohol is weaker.

than to produce the same result from the iodides or bromo- besides this. The reader. is advised at present to adhere to the collodion formulas given at the beginning of the chapter. it is much more difficult to obtain intensity by the former than by the latter . probably owing to the fact that bromide of silver alone is employed in the production of the image. DRY PLATE PHOTOGRAPHY. requires a longer time to reduce the bromides in the collodion into bromide of silver. therefore.40 . Although bromized collodion may be more sensitive than bromo-iodized collodion. by . lacks vigor. it iodides. or to make use of the collodions prepared our first-class photographic establishments. the drawback new of preparing image it is easily brought This is out. but in our hands. The same want of intensity appears in to be the dry Sayce's process plates without the silver bath . hitherto.

and washed in several * changes of water. Divide the bath into two halves and saturate one effected them with well-washed iodide* of silver. 32 ounces. To sensitize the plates for the . manner : Pure crystallized nitrate of silver Distilled or rain water . This is by mixing with this half an excess of iodide of the solusilver. dry process is a com- by reason of much formality. the precipitate. the tannin solution. is separated from the nitrate of potassa. has deterred many operators from having any thing to do pound operation and. with the process. . first Three solutions are required in the place namely.CHAPTER III. prepare it in the following . SENSITIZING THE PLATES. . SILVER SOLUTION OR BATH. but the best conditions can not always be thus obtained. when settled. The best acid new results are always obtained with a strong bath it is true. . and shaking the mixture thoroughly tion is then filtered and mixed with the other half for use. A stronger solution of silver can be kept on hand of . wet process will be suitable for the dry process. and a solution of any of the bromides. If convenient to have a separate bath for the for the answers dry process.that any silver solution that . 1 drachm. the silver bath. Add to a solution of twenty grains of iodide of potassium nitrate of silver in solution as long as there is any precipitate . Acetic acid 4 ounces.

film is coated.. that cover it Keep the bath up when not in a place free from dust. half an ounce of alcohol to the solution. bered that our it tends to diminish the sensitiveness in at least such is the received opinion. known. 16 ounces. but as yet we are not in There is. no doubt. . . after it has been kept in solufor by this means the tion some time and filtered impurities have time to settle. 4 drachms. every variety of tannin may be used. arid the sensitiveness depends upon the tannin solution with which the is. in use . 4 drachrns. TANNIN SOLUTION. tration can be repeated several times. own part this respect. removed by which must be is used for the A larger . however. and then the bath for use again. Distilled or rain Commercial tannin water Loaf Sugar . for strengthening the bath when required. . After complete* this time it may be filtered through moist filtering paper.. For we do not think it has much influence in some degree. condition to say which removed. . and with almost equal advantage. is is the best this much.42 ready DRY PLATE PHOTOGRAPHY. is Shake the mixture well until the solution and put it aside for a day or two.. and when it beether.. moved by because all the free acid is entirely rethe subsequent operations. a difference in the various specimens of tannin in commerce. and by filtration are . OR. boil it until filter comes saturated with alcohol and these ethereal solutions have evaporated. The filadd By use this solution receives particles filtration every time it preparation of a fresh quantity of dry plates.. More acetic acid can be used with advantage in the dry process than in the wet process but it must be remem. Finally. of dust.

if it is or remains blue or bluish. after heating the plate to drive away the moisture and allowing it to cool. or the time of immersion has been too short.THE TANNIN PROCESS. It appears from the recent experiments of Poitevin on the sensitizing properties of tannin. remove any adhering particles of its surface. coat this dust from surface with collodion in the usual manner . . and then. which necessitates filtration. The film jiiust now have a uniform. . or whose edges have been varnished with albumen. and the proper reductions have been effectuated. 43 or a smaller proportion of tarmin than that indicated in the formula may be employed without making much difference perceptible in the results. Bromide of cadmium Distilled or rain water . where it is allowed to remain until all apparent greasiness of surface has been removed. BROMIDE SOLUTION. the collodion is in fault. Keep the plate in the solution until the desired condition has been attained. as long as the solution to plates are immersed sufficiently long in the If the althe proper degree of sensitiveness. by means of a broad. 6 ounces. . after the collodion has set sufficiently. the latter is apt but after filtration we to grow mouldy on the surface . . produce cohol be omitted in the tannin solution. flat camel's hair pencil. cream-like appearance .1 drachm. have not observed that such a solution has been in any way impaired in its sensitizing properties. that has been already coated with albumen. The alcohol therefore seems to be added simply to prevent a film of mouldiness. that this operation of producing either the iodide or bromide of silver . We are now ready for the Take from the rack a plate sensitizing operation. the plate is immersed in the silver bath.

return to the first plate. and allowing the residue to drain into the stock bottle. such as nitrate of cadmium and of ammonia. we recommend that the collodion plates be . first plate. at least it is so supposed. in the same manner as you would a negative. raise it from the silver bath. with the film- side upward. and immerse the plate in the silver solution. The final operation consists with the solution of tannin. and then place it in a large flat dish of rain or distilled water. free from all oiliness. allow it to drain. The film is again washed under the tap to remove all traces of the bromide solution or the resulting nitrate of cadmium. in the collodion film but until this maybe performed in the light of day we are quite certain as to the practicability of plan. silver solution in the dark or non-actinic Supposing the color of the collodion film is cream-like and uniform. from the film. now in coating the film This can be done either by pouring the solution two or three times backward and forward over the film. For thip purpose flow tion over the film a sufficient quantity of the bromide solutwo or three times. immersed in the room. This washing aims to remove all the free nitrate of silver and the other soluble nitrates. that is. and wash the film under the tap. While the reduction is thus going on in the silver bath. In the mean while proceed as with the . take it out of the dish of rain-water. or by immersing the plate on a . By washing alone this aim can not be thoroughly effected.44 DRY PLATE PHOTOGRAPHY J OR. and coat a second plate with collodion allow the film to set. and return the residue into the stock bottle for future use. and consequently the next operation is silver into intended to convert any trace of remaining nitrate of bromide of silver.

We prefer washing the plates at the tap. probably. and free from all further outlay. operations of washing in any of the stages too long . having collected impurities in the form of dust. the operation of be gentle. after it has sufficiently drained. A simple plan of draining and drying the plates is to rear each upon . because there is always sufficient time to perform the whole operation before another plate is ready. . move the tannin and down in the solution for about a rninute. plate up then raise it out.THE TANNIN PROCESS. to the fact that the surface bromide or iodide of silver is removed by the mechanical friction of the water let. place it in the drying chamber. and. which has been already described. and because the act is simple. will be liable to contaminate the plates that are draining by capillary attraction. may be used here but in this case it must have been varnished with two or three coats of good varnish. effective. and dried every time it has to be used otherwise. therefore. you can examine the plate in the if the latter be ready. and while the plate is in the tannin bath. The latter plan is more convenient . We find it to be a disadvantage to prolong the silver solution this is owing. the parts upon which . and proceed with each successive plate in the same manner. etc. and thus allowed to remain for more than half an hour in the water. The cause may be the same in both cases the mechanical removal of the fine pulverulent bromide or iodide of silver from the surface of the collodion. and must be washed carefully. by disintegrating them from their attachment to the . matrix.. But we have. the plates rest. as we have just described. furthermore. observed washing that the results are still worse if the plate is made to pass through several changes of water in separate dipping baths. to immersing them in a series of baths. The drying rack. 45 dipper in a vertical bath containing the tannin solution.

cubical in shape and one inch along each side. to receive pieces of glass tubing. Along the middle of this either .46 DRY PLATE PHOTOGRAPHY . Apertures of the same size as those already mentioned are bored in the centre of one surface and proceed to within an eighth of an inch or so from the . and in such a way that there is an equal por- and below it. each piece then of the stone. The author . at the same time. On the bottom board at end in the middle is screwed a small cubical block one inch high and stretching from each of these and screwed firmly to them is a piece of wood half an inch thick and one inch wide. The holes in which the tube are fixed are one inch and one quarter tion of the tube above apart. Drying chambers in question. at the distance of one inch each from the end . holes are cut. and to renew the paper as soon as the excess of fluid has drained off. may be broken off with little tubes are either filed The edges facility. has such a chamber. by filing a circle round the tube . each one inch in length these pieces of glass tube are easily cut from a glass rod. The number of these will correspond with the number of holes in which the glass tubes are fixed. and at the top and bottom. one corner. The next part of the construction is to prepare a number of small blocks of wood. standing on a piece of clean blotting paper. opening on either side. and cemented there by means of shell-lac. OR. may be constructed for the purpose by means of which the plates are thoroughly prevented from coming in contact with any thing that might in any way tend to soil them while. which essentially is an oblong box. or ground on a grindon the They are finally inserted in the holes longitudinal cross-bar. all access of light is shut out. but closed in at the two ends.

and so that the opening of the glass tube in the block of wood at the other end looks downward and exactly overhead and corresponding to a glass tube beneath. each block of wood admits of being pressed upward to the amount of one inch and. of a plate to be drained and dried is inserted into the open cavity of the little tube the plate is then lowered until the opposite diagonal corner of the plate rests . are thus situated in the same perpendicular The distance between the nearest exstraight line. or even thicker. tremities of these two tubes must be about half an inch or three-quarters of an inch less than the length of the diagonal of the glass plates you use for the dry process. a piece of inch stuff is screwed. the one above and the other below. the upper corner Owing . one-eighth of an inch in diameter. These pieces are also fixed in their places by means of melted shell-lac. and drill holes through the flattened parts passage of small screws. to the flexibility of the wire. arid to that surface through which the hole does not penetrate but nearly for the reaches. A piece of wire is now screwed firmly to each block. when so pressed upward.THE TANNIN PROCESS. film is upon the open cavity of the tube below. opposite surface. These apertures are for the reception of similar pieces of tubing to those above mentioned. The collodion always turned away from the hand and placed . The two glass tubes. and three inches in Flatten out either end of each wire on the length. This piece naturally projects downward into the box to the amount of one inch. To the under surface of this projection the opposite end of each wire just mentioned is screwed. On the upper part of the box and in the inside. Now same side. cut off pieces of brass wire. and along a line running Jongitudinally and parallel with the middle.

the two side doors are left open. The plates may thus be preserved until they are wanted. and bottom of such a cupboard are hollow cavities. while at the same time all light must be carefully excluded. from the fact that the plate comes in contact only with these two pieces of tubing in four small points. . which steam is admitted from a small steam kettle situated close by. end of the box which it is it faces. and may be caught in a proper receptacle below. it seems improbable that stains can thus be produced. In this position the prepared plates are left in the dark or an equivalent portion of time. The steam as it condenses is caught below and the hot water thus procured is poured back again into the into . The sides.48 parallel to the DRY PLATE PHOTOGRAPHY J OR. it accumulates. or on blotting paper and. but the upper side or lid prevents the deposition of dust from above. and then the side lids are adjusted in their places. in which the water is kept briskly boiling by means of a lamp or small charcoal fire. if uniform . ^team-boiler from \ii&e to time as . but there is as long as the operation is any irregularity in the temper- ature on different parts of the same plates. or It is are dried by artificial heat. and furnished with ventilating tubes to allow air to pass in arid steam out. it will be manifested by a corresponding irregularity in the collo- dion film when you come to the development of the image. From the nature of the construction evident that the plate when so placed will be kept in its position by the elastic also that the drainings pressure of the wire above . Plates are best dried in a steam-tight cupboard made of tin plate. from each glass will pass down each little tube. While the plates are draining and dry. top. room over night immaterial whether the plates are allowed to dry spontaneously in a drying chamber as just described. ing.

in order to avoid mistakes on exposure otherwise it might easily happen. Such a paper frame is placed upon the collodion side of the glass over this comes another prepared plate. Upon the whole. or in small boxes furnished with tity are placed at grooves on two opposite sides for their reception. 49 a drying chamber must also be furnished with pieces of glass tubes to hold the plates. is placed last. film. . less. or some equivalent vented. to be described hereafter. but more thoroughly and uniformly than they can be spontaneously. dry plates are packed in a different manner. Rectangular pieces of thick paper are cut out. similar to the boxes prepared for melainotype plates. plates are packed differently for transportation In the latter case a proper quan- once in the changing box. arrangement. that the bare surface of the glass might be exposed instead of the collodion . then another rectangular piece of paper and so on until a dozen or a score are thus placed completely together. leaving thus a sort of paper frame of about a quarter of an inch thick in width all round. This appendage of plates is ROW folded up in several . the size of the glass plate. For transportation or manufacturing purposes. we prefer this plan of drying plates by artificial heat for the plates are dried not only . An unprepared glass plate. . Dry and for present use. or a prepared plate turned collodion si^e downward. quickly. The inside of these pieces are also cut away. The plates are always packed with the film in a fixed and given direction. whereby capillary attraction can be prePlates may thus be dried in five minutes or and are thus immediately ready for packing away or for use.THE TANNIN PROCESS. collodion side upward . These boxes must be quite impervious to light.

avoid stains that might arise from impurities from the hands. and it has been our opinion that the picture was less intense in those cases where the film had been so treated. Furthermore. too. that the shelves on which the plates are reared up. the plates are liable to tributed to the collodion. See. it is necessary to throw away every piece of paper that has been already used. while coming in contact with different fluids. bromide of potassium. When the holder is not used. the operations previously described. are well cleaned (even . lates in comparative darkness. even the light of a In all moment lamp or candle will be injurious. the silver bath. While performing the different manipulations deTo scribed. But the same caution must be applied to keep this clean. a loss of time. if the plates are dried spontaneously by rearing them on one corner on pieces of bibulous paper.50 DRY PLATE PHOTOGRAPHY . such as nitrate of silver. AVe do not think this operation necessary in fact. though there is not the same amount of danger of stains to be derived from the holder as from the hands. it is advisable hands thoroughly after the preparation of each plate otherwise the last fluid used (tannin) may come in contact directly with nitrate of silver on the film. to rinse the . and tannin. which is frequently at- has been finally coated with the tannin solution. and this will certainly produce a stain. from the that the plates are sensitized. coverings of orange-colored paper. it is absolutely necessary to exclude actinic light. OR. or developer. the hands must be kept rigorously clean. the pneumatic holder will be found very convenient. Some authors recommend the film to be washed after it The author manipuWithout this caution fogging. and finally stored away in small boxes made on purpose for their reception. it entails .

The discovery. coated with a soluand dried before exposure. and are quite dry. the edges of the sensitive film are now. or in patches. or a chloride. as well as the asserted fact that a solution of an iodide. when poured upon a collodion plate just removed from . a bromide. and the plate in other respects is good. When the plates have been prepared as above described. that tannin is a sensitizer. whereas. because this sort of varnish is apt to spread in radiations into the film to a considerable distance. . the surface. these may be removed by a soft. dried) before Let all to prepare your be neat and rigoryour operations you begin ously clean. if be best to throw such a plate aside particles of matter merely are deposited on it will . free is and with specks. of a uniform cream-like plate from stains and pulverulent deposit. especially if a very thin varnish is employed. flat camel's hair pencil. THE PREPARATION OF DRY PLATES IN COMMON DAYLIGHT. all previous coating of the surfaces or varnishing of the edges of the plate may be omitted but in this case. or troubled hue. the plates are dried. 51 washed and dry plates. that is. they ought to present a bright and polished surface. and to destroy the sensitiveness of the adjoining parts of the film. Considerable fricbe applied without endangering the collodion As soon as you become expert in the manipulation of dry plates. dull (not polished) in appearance. If you use spirit varnish for this purpose. may tuft of cotton-wool.THE TANNIN PROCESS. bluish all over. made by Poitevin about two years ago. when tion of albumen. or by means of a tion film. If a at this stage streaky. it is preferable to post- pone varnishing the edges until the plates have been exposed.

away from it has to be kept in the access of light until ex- . which may be placed in any convenient place in the laboratory. are said to be no longer sensitive to light. at dry. When the film has the proper and is free from all streaks of oil. one or both. and is then reared away to The plates. which can easily be made sensitive by coating it with the tannin solution. tannin when required. We shall briefly describe the operations. but in any convenient and comfortable place where light has free access the plates are prepared up to this stage. remove the plate from the bath. Clean the plates as usual. and this is effected. or posed. ready to be sensitized with . in a Thus all the great measure. in ordinary daylight. This operation is intended to desensitize the film . and let it remain there for a few seconds. and wash it under the tap in distilled or rain water. and allow them to dry. The same end may be attained by pouring the solution of bromide of potassium two or three times over the surface of the washed collodion color of creaminess. film. in all probability. destroys sensitiveness. washed. in order to be used when required. and immerse them in the silver bath. Flow over the collodion. as already described. containing about four grains of the salt to the ounce of water. Immerse it now in a bath of bromide of potassium. but they contain a collodion film containing iodide and bromide of silver. and coat them with a solution of albumen.52 the silver bath and washed. by the removal of it all free nitrate of silver. to remove the resulting nitrate of potassa. and then stored away in a dry condition. by converting into bromide of silver. to coating the plates with tannin need operations up not be performed in a dark room. is finally The plate this stage. has led to the attempt to prepare tannin dry plates. After the film is thus made sensitive all dark room.

posed in the ordinary result way as a wet plate. light for a by reason We they do desensitize the film and. will suppose. in the same journal. because we are not yet assured of the extent of its reliability. Professor Himes and Mr. We . With all due respect sitive plate such authorities.THE TANNIN PROCESS. 53 first was proposed J. What is the when ? a plate the iron developer is poured upon such a The whole surface becomes immediately black ! the plates are sensitized with the tannin solution. that or chloride afterward. when compared with the effects of nitrate of silver in place of the tannin. we can not help thinking that. however. Nicol have both produced respectable negatives a result which is very When anomalous and inexplicable. bromide. a change will take place in the film of the free nitrate of silver. however. if we remember to Nicol. which can not easily be undone by any coating of an iodide. if a senfrom the silver bath be once exposed to moment. furthermore. by Professor Himes. that such a plate be immersed again in the silver bath and ex. in the British Journal of Photography. do not describe the above method for general practice. This plan of preparing dry plates right. and followed up by Mr.

on an average. much longer exposure than the wet process from our own experiments we make the deduction that this a exposure. ? and adopt the alkaline developer in general practice sort of fogginess. Furthermore. is at least six times longer with the former than with the latter. finished negative. remarks refer to the ordinary acid developer. while an over-exposed tannin plate can be controlled. Let the operator. There seems to be a mania in photographers to aim rather to shorten the time of exposure than to get good results and. admitted that the dry process requires . therefore. EXPOSING. that an under-exposed tannin plate is irremediable. With the alkaline developer the time of exposure is about twicelthat with the wet process. Our preceding velopment. . There are two modes of development the acid deand the alkaline development. be thoroughly imbued with the idea that a tannin plate is slow in receiving the impression but when once the . Then why not abandon the acid developer at once. and the image developed accordingly. many tannin plates turn . As a rule. AND INTENSIFYING THE PLATES.where it is known that the exposure has been necessarily short. we pracyet tice the acid development. and resort to the alkaline only in special cases.CHAPTER IT is universally IV. it can be developed. out to be so much trash. Because the alkaline developer is apt to produce a which detracts from the beauty of the and because many photographers as have failed to succeed with it. let him understand this fact. DEVELOPING. owing to this morbid desire or aim. impression is made. FIXING.

THE TANNIN PROCESS. on an average. the impression can be made. the negatives are. finished. or even two minutes. an exposure of about three minutes will. in all probabilFor an ordinary landscape ity. an hour will not be too long an exposure with tannin plates and yet we recollect very forcibly that at one time. on an average. We recollect instances three minutes by the requisite instances as these. in the infancy of our acquaintance with the tannin process. finished. that more negatives can be taken on a tour by the dry than by the wet process. while those by the dry process have to be developed at some future . comparatively speaking. . arid that the tannin plate has been quite recently prepared. in a given time. A minute and a half. half an hour before it is . scape photography before they have balanced accounts. It is evident. 55 Suppose you desire to take a negative of a public edifice. secondly. be right. would be an advantage. edifice supposed to take the public above mentioned by the wet process in about is The lens used ten seconds. and this exposure in such to obtain an impression . the exposure may be at least one minute. on an average. minutes may appear egregiously long to portrait twenty photographers but let them not be deterred from landlocalities became . that the negatives can be examined before leaving the ground. therefore. and reflecting good actinic colors. twenty minutes or half was found where we gave an exposure of wet process. in ten minutes. The difference in favor of the wet process is. and fresh ones taken if the first are defective and. firstly. we attempted to obtain pictures on tannin plates in those with an exposure of at most two minutes. or in a condition to be carried from the field with the dry process. well lighted. With the wet process in the field. . each negative will require. and An exposure of utterly disgusted with tannin.

which has a . 5. such as buildings. Either acetic or citric acid may be used for this purpose.56 time. upon which written the time of exposure. where the exposures are necessarily shorter than the times above mentioned. have. but their absence in the dry process can scarcely be called disadvantages. two acid developers. is Affix on each negative a small ticket. ships. OR. A Give three minutes for a well-lighted landscape. and stepping out at the it is quired in deep ravines or shady groves. 2. When different stations to take views. 4. because hands of all photographers. quarter of an hour to twenty minutes will be retraveling on cars. mark the negatives with some sign by which you know that they are to be developed by -the alkaline developer. either of which We can be used. etc. tendency to produce a bluish tone. therefore. The above maybe advantages on the side of the wet process. the simplest of the two. ACID DEVELOPMENT. Let a minute or a minute and a half be the minimum exposure for a well-lighted object. ferent in the more to The color of the finished negative is diftwo cases with acetic acid the hue inclines the red than with citric acid. expose in accordance with the above rules where possible . TO DEVELOP WITH ACETO-PYROGALLIC ACID. the restraining influence of some other acid. RULES FOR EXPOSURE. Pyrogallic acid is the developer used in the tannin Its action alone is much too energetic without process. Make the solutions in stock bottles : is This method acetic acid is in the . 3. 1.

to restrain its action. If the picture flashes out rapidly. as much as out. .30 . a stereoscopic plate. Place these bottles on a shelf in the dark room con- When a picture has to be developed.. Of No.15 . at this stage. . after it has first been made uniformly moist by dipping the plate in a dish of clean water. Well-exposed pictures have always. and after it does commence if the progress is slow. . . drops. Acetic acid . . .successful when the action of the developer does not instantly appear. and proceed until the shadows are sufficiently intense. . because a rapid action is merely another mode of expression for heavy deposit.4 3 drachms. for instance. water +. or too little acetic acid be used. . drops. Avoid.18 1 . . 1 ounce. it will be necessary to make a fresh quantity. Shake the mixture well and pour it upon the collodion film. . ACID PYROGALLIC. the exposure has been too long. which is generally quite granular condition to be avoided. ounce. make the following solution : veniently at hand for use. . o f ( Nitrate of silver Distilled or rain . as. . 1 ounce. 3 are to be added to the The picture is most developer. a rich reddish tone when developed with the aceto-pyrogallic acid. The developer soon turns red if much silver is added. . 1 Rain or distilled water Of No. As soon as the picture is completely and the developer has become red. . 3. in which case a few drops of No. 2 . 57 No >j 1 i ( Py!?^ Acetic acid a id .THE TANNIN PROCESS.. . No. rapidity of action in the developer. possible. grains. grains.

Intensity is 3. and proceed pouring on and off until the picture is thoroughly out. . Distilled or rain . . 1. pyrogallic acid. . water . 10 grains. to the volatility of pyrogallic acid in a concentrated solution of alcohol. Of No. Ether . 3 drachms. 40 grains. . it must be restrained by the addition of a drop or two of No. 1 ounce. ounce. Distilled water . by dipping the plate into then make the following mix. 7 . . Five minims of this solution contain one grain of . . and not to prepare a large quantity at a time. stock solutions f No. Absolute alcohol .. it is preferable to use Owing a more diluted solution. 2. if the action is too rapid. a dish of clean water ture : Moisten the film as before. For this purpose the following more manageable formulas~are better adapted. No 3 i ( Citric acid . . and at the same time are in other respects : . Shake the mixture. add more of the alcoholic pyrogallic acid. by reason of the inadequate exposure. 2 or 3 drops. This is the plate of the more general mode of developing a tannin two for which purpose make the following j : .. 1 ounce. 2 . . and pour it upon the moistened film.96 / 1 . ] I Pyrogallic acid. grains. . . J Citric I acid . 1 2 drops. . . .58 TO DEVELOP WITH CITRO-PYROGALLIC ACID. . No. If the action is slow. . f Nitrate of silver ' . .60 . Distilled water . grains. Of No. .2 drops. On the contrary. produced by the citro-nitrate of silver.

bromide solution previously recommended and used in preparing the tannin plates.. or the Selle's new intensifier employed. ( Distilled or rain water . 4 I Pyrogallic acid Alcohol Water . Distilled or rain water . add more of No. to have a drachm glass ready at hand for this measuring. . 2. 4. and then proceed again with the developer. a stereoscopic picture is to be developed. The same solutions can be used as for the development to produce the desired effect. 3 if there is a tendency to fogging. XT and the following solutions f -\ IN 0. The full intensity can be brought out.$''*-. 1 pint. " . If.THE TANNIN PROCESS. which prints well. after the image appears... 1. man- ner one grain of citric acid. No. Sixteen mmims of this solution contain in like ''''. . after a little practice. but we find it generally more convenient to re-intensify after the image has been fixed and well washed. add more of No. 2. . If the image comes out slowly. before fixing . 59 30 grains. XT o f Nitrate of silver . take an ounce vial and pour into it half an ounce of the distilled water. add more pyrogallic acid if there is a want of intensity. Sixteen minims of this solution contain one grain of It will be necessary and convenient pyrogallic acid. previously mixed with one qr two drops of No. A. 1. 2 drachms. 4 ounces. V-Vi-v'10 grains ^^1 1 Rain or distilled water V>* 1 . for instance. : ... . Shake the mixture well and then pour it upon the moistened plate. Citric acid * '" . 3. ten minims of No. or wash the plate gently and flow it with the . to this add live minims of No. may be brown . ( No. This solution produces a reddish negative. 4 drachms. 4 drachms.

to flow the exposed plate just before development with a mixture of equal portions of alcohol and water. o ( ( Ferridcyanide of potassium Distilled or rain water . 10 grains. and mix a fresh quantity for the turbidity is owing to a oily . This alcoholic solution renders the film more porous.10 . To avoid this it has been recommended. are apt to produce in the development irregularities that are exceedingly disagreeable after all the trouble that has been taken in the preparation of the plates.60 DRY PLATE PHOTOGRAPHY SELLE'S INTENSIFIER. 1 ounce. v- i ( Sulphate of uranium Distilled or rain . Pyrogallic acid solution should always be filtered immediately before use. iq. gelatine. it is advisable to throw it away. and retains it on the glass. otherwise any particles of matter that may chance to be present. is finally which must be somewhat deeper than come more transparent from the required. and then to gently wash off the apparent markings of this mixture with water before pouring on the developer. because the shades beeffect of the varnish. OR. and flow the developed and well-washed plate with the mixture. grains. the image will soon redden and assume sufficient intensity. more or less. . Take one drachm of each of these solutions. or gutta-percha. With a substratum it is unnecessary. if the solution becomes in any degree turbid. . . During the development. and we always pursue the plan oursel 7es in the cases here comprehended. from retaining the acid in a more concentrated form CAr en in the midst of the dilution. If the prepared tannin plates have not received a substratum of albumen. there is always. . ( water 1 ounce. a tendency in the film to split up and peel off. mix them well together.

in such a condition. especially when the plate has been under-exposed . The upper disc is two inches in diameter. We will suppose the fluid on the plate accumu. lates right over one of the three screws.THE TANNIN PROCESS. The plate is placed upon the stand. it is evident this side is lower .. A and three screws perforate inches apart . As the amateur or practical operator becomes more 3 . giving it a granular appearance . 61 decomposition. circle is turned in the lower disc three inches and a half from the centre. . are frequently deposited on the negative. by which particles of silver. The development of a tannin picture by any of the acid solutions just given is sometimes protracted. the stand is not level. but is retained in an equal film upon its whole surface. in order to raise it. on which the plates may be placed and left with the developing solution in the upon thin it until A leveling the proper intensity has been attained. by which means much time and labor are spared. By means of a number of leveling stands several negatives can be developed at the same time. this circle at points seven the ends of the screws are filed flat. and the surface of the plate is horizontal. For this purpose leveling stands are constructed. the lower four inches . the length of the axis four inches. etc. in such a case as this it becomes tedious to retain the plate hand during so long an operation. reproduced on the paper print. and this same appearance is. and requires no adjustment but if the developer flows toward one corner. and the developer is poured upon it if the latter does not run off the plate. the stand is level. and must be adjusted by means of the screws. turn round the screw forward until the adjustment is made. stand may be constructed of two discs of wood and an axis between them. the combination having the appearance of a spool or bobbin.

Such a sheet can be pressed out very thin on a plate of glass. frequent examples of blurring or halation of the negative will be met with. as if the light had been inflected or diffracted. by rendering the rays reflected from the posterior surface of the plate non-actinic. etc. that is. hemisphere. mountains. such as used by dentists for making artificial palates. light is whereby only orange-colored turned back upon the collodion film. of the size of the stereoscopic plate. if not totally. they make no impression. question. light impinging upon the first surface coincides by reflection with that which impinges on the collodion film . in which there is an encroach- ment of the high lights around the edges. for instance. .. and con- sequently give. or other con- venient material. but had been broken around these corners and edges. impinge on light.62 DRY PLATE PHOTOGRAPHY J OR. A plate whereas. being non-actinic. to be the best. and. The rays of collodion film. This encroachment depends in a great measure upon the direction of the light . rise to the encroachment alluded to. which is effected by placing behind the plate during exposure a piece of orange-colored blotting pap^r. the rays which are reflected from the second n-ot fall surface and again impinge upon the collodion film do upon the parts they passed through. the sun be located in the hemisphere behind the it seldom or ever occurs but if in the opposite . But the position of the sun's rays is not the only cause of the trouble in of glass has two reflecting surfaces .. cer- tain forms of development will occur around the edges of trees. The author is finds a thin layer of the red sheet of rubber. after penetrating the this orange-colored film. etc. had not proceeded in straight lines. This sort of blurring is obviated in a great measure. for if camera. and thus kept ready for use to be placed in apposition with the back of the tannin plate when exposed. and more acquainted with landscape photography.

( Alcohol . although permay not wish to practice the latter mode in . preference to the former. ALKALINE DEVELOPMENT. times will occur in which the latter will have to be resorted to in spite of every precaution to the contrary. the same result can be obtained in about ten or twelve seconds. FIXING SOLUTION FOR TANNIN NEGATIVES. . Prepare the following solutions : DILUTE ALCOHOL. . first in strength being kept up when rain water and then in a dilute solution of common salt. and an exposure of four seconds will produce a given result. .THE TANNIN PROCESS. 1 Distilled or rain water 2 ounces. . he may try his hand haps he at the alkaline development for.or citro-pyrogallic acid. developer. 5 ounces. however.. 2 ounces. but not so short as with the wet process. Some operators prefer the alkaline development the majority. the by the addition of fresh crystals Great care must be taken to remove required. before the plates are submitted to the action of the intensifier or put away to dry. diaphragm. . If by the wet process. 10 ounces. . with a tannin plate and the alkaline developer light. with a given lens. As soon as the operator is quite at home in all the manipulations of the acid development. . The time of exposure with this developer is much shorter than by the acid . Water . . this salt from the film by washing thoroughly. This solution can be used over and over again. 63 Hyposulphite of soda . adhere to the old reliable process of aceto..

. 2 with seven drachms of water. i Distilled or rain water 1 ounce. flow over the surface a sufficient quantity of 'Jie dilute alcohol No. 1. 6. . and then let the solution drain back again into the vial afterward gently wash the film until the oily streaks disappear.. .*.. j I Pyrogallic acid Alcohol .. grains.30 . . . C * ' Nitrate of silver . In a two-ounce vial mix one drachm of the alkaline solution No. .. SOLUTION OF CITRIC ACID. 4 ounces. grains. .48 (Water One drachm of V V grains. 4 drachms. NITRATE OF SILVER SOLUTION. 1 pint. 3 ounces. now pour it back again into the vial. j * ' Citric acid . water . I Distilled or rain * No. ( Carbonate of ammonia . SECOND OPERATION.. As soon as the plate is removed from the holder.. Sixteen minims of this solution contain one grain of pyrogallic acid. and add thereto five minims of the alco- .10 . ALKALINE DEVELOPER.:. and the water flows uniformly over the surface of the collodion.: -^ .. . . this solution contains two grains of the carbonate of ammonia. Water . 4 drachms.-.. ' . . PYROGALLIC ACID SOLUTION.. 2 drachms. . Distilled or rain water FIRST OPERATION. 3. f No. . and cover the plate with this mixture ... .. .64 DRY PLATE PHOTOGRAPHY J OR.

. add two or three up and pour it minims more of No. the exposure has been too short. No. If by this addition the picture does not appear in a minute or less. .. and then flow it with the following solution. ) previously mixed. Such normal result but the picture may flash out red is the almost immediately. too long. 5 Water Pour . Pour off the alkaline developer and wash the plate gently. in order to remove all alkalinity : Solution of citric acid No. receiving more and more detail. With the normal condition proceed as follows : THIRD OPERATION. at this stage. if the exposure has been long enough. . although eventually a picture may be brought out. and to remedy this. sequent treatment. following Distilled . wash off the developer imand use only the acid developer in the submediately. this solution : away.. 3 Citric acid. until finally it is perfect in this respect. and. although far from being intense . 5 minims. and flow the plate with the 4 drachms. 5 Nit. perfect in and requiring only intensification. . holic solution of pyrogallic acid No. The picture will soon begin to appear. If it is slow in appearing. 3. water . it will fail to contain the requisite amount of detail it to entitle it to be called satisfactory .10 minims. 65 Shake the mix- ture well upon the plate. In this case the exposure has been all its parts. it is a faint reddish colored negative.. Pyrogallic acid. But we will suppose the picture begins to appear almost immediately. No.THE TANNIN PROCESS. 30 minims. and proceeds gradually. c . No. 3. ) f silver. will be a black and white picture. 3 drachms. 4 2 to 3 minims. in fact.

But if the tannin picture is somewhat fogged.. fixing. If the film is but slightly fogged. because it soon penetrates the collodion film. sufficient quantity of the solution of cyanide of potasThis is very rapid in its action on the iodide of With cautious silver. OR."|L CYANIDE OF POTASSIUM SOLUTION. in the following manner.. . Make the following solutions : TINCTURE OF IODINE. . 1 ounce. in which cyanide of potassium is brought into play : CLARIFYING A TANNIN NEGATIVE. and then seems to disorganize the stratum of albumen or gelatine beneath it. etc.. sium. are also precisely the same. and . 1 drachm. The washing. grains. Cyanide of potassium in solution is not to be recom- mended as a fixing agent. No 2 I ^ van ^ e f potassium. (Rain-water . and flow over it a entirely vanished. manipulation. and rendered tolerably passable. .. . from this stage. flow it with 4 drachms of water containing 20 minims of tincture of iodine for a short time. such an expedient may be resorted to with in advantage but in general it produces harsh negatives which the finest markings have been destroyed... until its color has almost Wash the film. as already described. and soon clarifies the negative. it maybe clarified in a great measure. 1 Alcohol . Shake the mixture well. This dilute solution of iodine may be used several times in succession.66 DRY PLATE PHOTOGRAPHY . and to pro- duce bubbles and other irregularities in the film that deteriorate the picture. and proceed exactly in the same mariner as with the acid developer. XT i f Iodine .30 . 4 ounces. . . .

. however.THE TANNIN PROCESS. without all intermediate gradation to give harmony to the subject. then washed and treated with the cyanide solution. will not be too strong. iodine is A stronger solution of the tincture of necessary to remove stains from the corners of negatives even that in the undiluted form of No. 6T nothing but lights and shades remain in stern contrast. 1 . must be taken does not flow any further upon the negative than the place is requisite by the extent of the stain it . as before. that is Care.

and constructed as to contain a given number of dry plates. without endangering the If the plates have been well as already described in a previous chapter. and put together ourselves. There is no end to . and we have found all the wonderful things we imagine. Plans. like from ideas. to allow a single plate to be withdrawn from its receptacle in the changing box. have been devised for the manufacture of what are denominated changing boxes. can be separated from the terior. concoct it. after exposure.CHAPTER V. passing through the Cape of Good Hope. this expedient is very inconvenient rest in a dark room in traveling. probably. wonderfully appropriate and everlastingly strong. round the earth on a parallel of latitude to the place of beginning. without ever coming into the light. and. into the plate-holder for exposure . therefore. a difficulty regarding the develop dry plates. transportation of the dry plates. to be transferred back again into its receptacle in the changing box. CHANGING BOXES FOB LANDSCAPE PHOTOGRAPHY. which are so . Up to the present time we have been using a changing box of our own invention and construction. and transferred. from the meridian. will bear change of locality to any extent. and the separation of a single plate from the package. THE tourist having now learned how to prepare and is desirous of making practical apof his knowledge. But now arises in his mind. as long as light is not admitted into the inA plate. right sensitiveness of the rest. consequently. they packed. plication for the first time. and frequently impracticable.

3* it . the overhead motion.. unless it be to open a gate for our betters . juxta-position with our own. is easy. the chest of drawers. But attest to the permanency of home-fabrications. It seems to strike us forcibly that Nelson Wright. We must acknowledge (and we certainly at the beginning were . christened "Fury. determined not to make any such admission) that the is very appropriate. of New York. or elsewhere. The operation. Imagine Barnum's giant and Tom Thumb walking arm in arm together. to drive through. the slide rest. or Mount Etna and a funeral mound collocated side by side such is the contrast between the two boxes. the eccentric chuck. is very appropriate for the ends in view. and have lately been experimenting with the new comer." is a vigorous tug . replaced in its former position. who is the sole proprietor of John and Jacob Stock's patent changing box for dry plates. Our own changing box. such fabrications are not always the best and if they were. The model locomotive still we made little in 1832. each of which can be taken out and placed in the plate-holder. But the box is somewhat cumbersome. which we placed in . Esq. All the paraphernalia of a photographic tour may now be carried new changing box very compact . and performs all that it promises. the spinning-jenny. must either have seen or heard of our conception and construction he sent us one of his patent boxes.THE TANNIN PROCESS. and very strong it will contain twenty-five dry plates. we have no time to work mechanically for our neighbors. the fringe-loom. and again . too. as previously observed. the 69 wear and tear it will endure. as they meet our view at every moment. without any access of light. We have put away our own invention for awhile. and hundreds of other ebullitions of the untired brain and the never- flagging hand. the French bedstead. very strong.

within. As the name in this implies. the one for containing a given number light two parts of dry plates. protected against the and the other the holder or . a concentration of separate states in a unity. into which the end of the plate-holder slides. an incision similar to the preceding. The accompanying figure represents the changing box. multum in parvo. which slides endwise in a groove on the top of the second lid of the box. box contains plates this rack of brass is pressed upward by means of a spring beneath against a projecting tooth or cog fitted upon the side of the upper . twelve or eighteen grooves for the reception of so many dry plates. as it should be. surmounted by the plate-holder. Such an arrangement is . one for either hand the camera and holder in one hand. there are arrangement. truly a all the DESCRIPTION OF THE PATENT DRY PLATE BOX AND SHIELD.Oil. which is sufficiently large to allow a dry plate to slip easily through. and the changing box and tripod in the other. for shield. and as this end slides into its place it opens a brass door. containing on two opposite sides. exposing each plate when required. sliding door. On this upper slide is fixed a brass groove. The changing box itself is in the form of a rectangular prism. and is closed on the top by means of two doors On one side at the top is found a rack furnished with as many dents as the sliding in opposite directions. is . beneath which closes an incision immediately above a dry plate. with ease in two small packages.

THE TANNIN PROCESS.

71

found on the end of the plate -holder, and coincides in By pressing down position with the former incision. the spring rack, the upper plate may be slidden so that
the tooth

may catch in each indentation, which thus the incision successively over each dry plate bebrings neath. But the plate beneath can not escape until the
under
slide is

drawn out as
on
its

far as it

can be drawn, and

until a spring
for a

motion backward.

upper surface rises and stops its When in this position the passage
;

dry plate is clear and by inverting the box with the plate-holder on its end, the dry plate immediately above the open incision will fall down and through
these incisions into the plate-holder beneath, where it is secured by means of a cross-bar on the back of the
plate-holder,

which presses down a door that closes up the incision at the end, and pushes the plate firmly forward upon the ledges of the groove in which it slides.

As soon

as this door is closed and the changing

box

inverted, or turned right side up, the spring on the under slide on the top of the changing box is pressed down, which allows the under slide to be pushed back
into its place so as to close up all avenues for light When this is done the plate-holder is re*to enter. moved from its connection with the changing box, and
is ready to be transferred to the camera for exposure. After exposure the connection is again made, the under slide again drawn out to its extremity, and the exposed

plate is allowed to drop

The same order

down into its former position. observed with each plate. In the figure the under slide is marked 3, the upper one 2, and the plate box 1. The collodion film of each plate looks always in the
is

same To

direction
fill

;

toward the number

3.

the box with plates the screw at the end 2 is

72

DRY PLATE PHOTOGRAPHY
is

;

OR,

removed, the rack
are

pressed down, and the two slides

drawn

out.

have seen other forms of changing boxes, but we give preference to this one, by reason of its compact form, its superior adaptability for the purposes in view, and the absence of any liability to get out of order from

We

common wear and

tear.

CHAPTER
PREPARATION OP TRANSPARENT

VI.

POSITIVES

BY THE TANNIN

PROCESS, OR CONTACT-PRINTING ON GLASS.

CONTACT-PRINTING on glass is one of the most attractive applications of photography ; it is attractive because the results are among the finest specimens of the art ; it
is

attractive, too, because the operation
all

can be perartificial

formed at

seasons of the year, and by
;

as

well as solar light

it is

an amusement in winter, and
It is,

a recreatiion during the evenings after business.
finally,

an easy operation. Negatives are required in this mode of printing of the same nature and perfection as for printing on paper, with this single condition, an indispensable condition that the negative plate be perfectly fiat or horizontal. Ground plate-glass, must, therefore, be the receptacle of the negative film for all operations of printing on glass
f

by the dry process.
need scarcely remark, that negatives for this sort of printing must be clear, bright, vigorous, full of detail, and, if we may be allowed to be pleonastic, totally free from fogging
;

We

for these are the conditions of

every

good negative, and without them no good print can be
obtained either on paper or glass. The varnish with which such negatives are coated must be quite free from all particles of dust or other
substance, which,

when dry upon

the film, might cause

inequalities that would prevent perfect contact between the negative and the positive films. The edges, too, of

the negative, on which the collodion arid varnish have passed off from the plate, are frequently elevated by a

The best precaution. either by scratching off or by cutting with the diamond. here no varnish has been used. sufficiently large to exclude all access of light to the negative as long as the frame thus lies in apposition with the board. the elevated ridges can easily be removed by abrasion or the diamond. or by abrading the elevated part by means of a pen-knife. evident that the removal of the ridge.74 DRY PLATE PHOTOGRAPHY J OR. and must be re- moved by cutting off a slip of glass on one side and end by means of the diamond. Open the door and place the negative on the supporting flanges. if it contain any small particles. The ordinary printing frame is employed for this sort of printing but do not forget this difference in its employment the glass to receive the print is never brought . it is . as also the . required in the preparation of the negative plates. tannin film. without any detriment to the film afterward but if the edges of the tannin plate have alone been varnished. the film being upward dust the film with a broad camel's hair pencil. therefore. would expose the film to slip off in the subsequent treatment with the developer. then. The same conditions are also necessary in the prepared tannin plates but tions. and to obviate the ridges in question by a skillful manipulation. this ridge will also prevent contact between the plates. Perfect contact is absosuch precaulutely required between the two films . Supposing. are also absolutely . ridge of one or both these media . : out into the light in order to be placed upon the negative. . is to use rather a thin collodion in the preparation of the tannin plates. and. but is laid upon the negative in the dark room. very gently. ceed as follows : all is ready for printing. if a substratum of albumen has been employed. consequently. you pro- Lay the printing frame upon a flat piece of wood.

THE TANNIN PROCESS.

75

The tannin plate is next laid down upon the negative, the two films being in contact this operation must be so as to avoid all friction which carefully performed,
;

might injure the tannin film. Place, finally, upon the back of the tannin plate a piece of soft yellow, red, or orange-colored cloth, and close the door with the pressure springs. The orange-colored cloth is intended to destroy all effects of reflection of actinic light from the
posterior surface of the tannin plate. The next operation is to expose the plate either to solar or artificial light. Carry the frame, supported on

the thin board, out of the dark
for instance,

room

into the light, as

open door looking to the north, where diffused light alone can reach, because direct
to all

Now

solar light is much too powerful and unmanageable. lift up the printing frame from the board and ex-

pose the negative to the sky for half a second, a second, or more, according to the brightness of the light or the density of the negative. Probably an exposure for one
to learn the length a plate or two exby exposing perimentally; afterward you can judge pretty accurately as to the exact length of exposure required under given
sufficient.

second will be

You have

of exposure required

circumstances. The printing frame is again laid upon the thin board, and carried back again into the dark

room.

The treatment of the plate from this point is in every the plate is respect the same as already described simply a tannin plate already exposed and ready for
;

development.

But the exposure can be effected by means of gaslight, magnesium
is

in the
light,

evening and
or the light

from a piece of burning phosphorus.
available, this is

Where

gaslight

most pleasant to

by far the cheapest, the easiest, and operate with and because it is not
;

76
so rapid in its action, the operation is much more manageable than by solar diffused light, and consequently

the operator produces better results with such an exposure.

The gaslight for such work is better when it issues from an argand burner, and is surrounded by a thin ground glass or milk-white globe or shade. This arrangement makes the

The negative is light uniform. exposed to such a light in such a way and on such a side or position where there is no object to produce shadows.

The length of time to give the exposure has to be learned by experience begin with eight or ten seconds, and try a few plates by way of experiment. From the fact that any amount of exposure can be given without the
;

is

slightest detriment to the picture, the acid development always to be recommended in preference to the alka-

line development.

The mode of operating with
phosphorus light
is in all

either a

respects the
;

magnesium or a same as with a

but the production gaslight, as regards the exposure of the light, so as to yield the best effects, depends upon the substance used. Magnesium wire or coils and mag-

nesium lamps can be obtained already in the very best conditions for producing the effect require I. As regards phosphorus, few have ever used it. We, probably, were the first to recommend its use, more as a curiosity than anything else. A small piece of phosphorus of the size of a pea is lighted on a piece of brick, and while burning the negative is exposed. Such a piece will generally burn long enough to produce the requisite The cloud of vapor arising from the oxactinic effect.
idation of the phosphorus diminishes or clouds the brilliancy of the flame ; this can be remedied by waving

a handkerchief in such a direction as to produce a gentle
draft of air, so as to drive the phosphoric vapor from the exposed plate.

away

THE TANNIN PROCESS.

77

We have also obtained very good results with a kerosene lamp, the brilliant flame being covered, as was the case with the gas flame, with a ground glass
shade or globe. This being the case, it is evident that, for practical operations in printing on glass by dry plates, either gaslight or kerosene light will be the

most convenient and the least expensive. To print stereoscopic transparent positives, extra

in-

struction has to be given. In the ordinary negative, every part of the image is inverted, right is left, and up is down but the effect of contact-printing, either on glass
;

or paper, rectifies this inversion, and places the figure in its right position. This rectification in the stereo-

graph is also^fcmplete in regard to each picture singly, but the right-hand picture by printing is transferred to
the left side, and vice versa.

From

this fact it is evi-

dent that a

common

used for such work.

stereoscopic negative can not be How, then, are we to proceed ?

There are two ways of proceeding in order to put the negative in a right position. They are as follows
:

FIRST METHOD.

the median line.

Cut the ordinary stereoscopic negative in two through Cut off from the right side of the righthand picture, and from the left of the left-hand picture,

same

a slip of glass, so as to make either negative of the a size, and to contain the same amount of detail
;

from the top and bottom of either negative, so as to reduce them at once to the
slip of glass

may also

be cut

off

regular stereoscopic size. Having made these excisions, invert the negatives, and place the right-hand picture on the left side, and vice versa, and bring the middle

edges into contact, and the top and bottom edges into Fix them in their position, on a piece of coincidence. well-cleaned glass, by cementing small pieces of glass

dition to be printed from. they require great nicety of manipulation.78 DRY PLATE PHOTOGRAPHY J OR. etc. We We suppose the reader is already in possession of a copying camera. by means of the camera and two lenses. is somewhat circuitous. The other method of preparing a stereoscopic negative suitable for contact-printing. The negative is turned wrong side up. effected by sliding The operation of focusing backward and forward the body is is of that camera which to contain the sensitized plate. For the operation in question there are two steroscopic lenses fixed in the end of one of the cameras. so as to hold them They are now in a con- SECOND METHOD. and the sensitized plate is placed in that of the other. of two cameras attached firmly together endwise. and then obtaining a negative from the positive (in which all lateral inversion has been removed) by means of a camera and a single lens. so as to receive the light from a white cloud or the illumined sky through the negative. and at equal distances from the lens. and are very instructive. will now desfjjfre minutely the two operations . to one of which is screwed a lens or a pair of lenses. above. side. which consists. This produces a negative in the right condition. The negative to be copied is placed in the position of one of the ground glasses. consisting. as circumstances require. in producing a transparent positive of the negative. below. and on either from changing their position. is When the image on the ground glass sharp and every- . and the film looks toward the lenses. The compound camera is raised and inclined. first. or may consist. The two ground glasses are placed four times the focal length of the lens or lenses apart. making use of the wet process.

measure the size of the image on the ground glass and compare it with that on the negif the two coincide in magnitude. The two lenses are now removed. is to produce a transparent positive as follows : Positive film upward. which will be a negative. draw out the negative slightly and push in the effect is produced. When the equi-distant foci are once found. now adjusted . still facing the spectator. while a sensitized An implate is placed in the shield of the camera. is. The effect produced by copying with the two boxes . to invert each picture laterally. secondly. by The position of the two images on the the dry profilm be- . with the collodion film looking toward the lenses. and a single orthoscopic lens placed in the middle in their stead and the . until the desired now taken. both facing the side picture and R L observer on the surface of glass nearest the eyes. but if the image is larger on the ground glass. has the following appearance. firstly. transparent positive takes the place of the negative in the front camera facing the lens. A copy is ground glass. they are marked on the two cameras for future observation. where well defined.THE TANNIN PROCESS. in a pression proper condition for contact-printing cess. The negative as it stands in the camera. every thing is ative . Negative film upward. so that the appearance on the film of the positive. is now taken. where represents the right the left picture.

by contact. this is the correct position . resulting negative will produce. as already described for the first method. which will be a from this. a translucent or ground-glass behind and a transparent one in front. and still in its true position as to right and left. as well as the negative plate. that the impression by both methods are on the front of the glasses. a positive print. place it in the printing frame and take an impression with a dry plate. will require two extra plates. when mounted. therefore protects the film from injury in front. and right side. which. This can be effected either from the cut or uncut negative. or as it would lie on paper or glass to receive the rays of light for an impression would be as follows : in evident that the right picture is on the left picture on the left side. in which there has been a transposition of the two pictures. nevertheless. the plate itself. . the film looking outward.80 DRY PLATE PHOTOGRAPHY OR. while the ground glass protects it behind. The different forms which the original negative undergoes are represented : by the following figure . it is which and the but it will be observed. are as thin as possible and compatible. To avoid this bulk and weight we devise means by which the positive picture shall be beneath the plate. not inverted vertically. together they appear voluminous and heavy. Taking the cut negative. a negapositive The tive is taken by a single lens by the wet process. which will be in the right position on the back of the plate . hind the negative. These glasses.

place the In the first . Positive by contact. film behind the plate. Images transposed. from the cut and : A transposed original negative. and the pictures will be similarly located as by the preceding method. when varnished. film in front. . second method to accomplish the same object with the cut and transposed original negative is as follows Take a positive. or in front of the plate. But the same result can be obtained more easily without cutting the glass more easily. because the glass There are two methods by is not required to be cut. by the wet process. Negative by one lens. the film being turned away from the lens from this positive. film upward. . The figures and transformations will stand as indicated below : Original negative. then take a positive by means of two lenses with the wet process . film looking ontward. film behind. Images transposed by cutting the plate film in front. this negative will be in a proper condition. film upward. and by means of a dry tannin plate. which this end can be obtained. take a negative . place let the film of the original negative look outward from the camera.THE TANNIN PROCESS. 81 Original negative. etc. film behind the plate. Positive taken with a single lens. in two. Negative by contact-printing.

let the film of the original negative be outward. Place this positive in the shield. Secondly. Positive by means of one lens. the film looking inward. and take a transparent positive by the wet process by means of one lens. Positive In front. film Negative by means of one lens. film behind.82 DRY PLATE PHOTOGRAPfiY . and take a negative with one lens. as circumstances require. Negative by means of two lenses. ing. film behind. is far Although this delightful branch of photography . The various configurations are as here indicated below : Original film looking outward. OR. film in front. and by means of two lenses and the wet process take a negative it will be exactly similar to the preced. the film being either in front of the glass or behind it. A careful attention to the preceding stereoscopic forms. will enable any photographer to produce stereoscopic negatives endowed with the necessary conditions for the preparation of glass transparencies on tannin plates. and the accompanying text. as will appear from the configurations : Film of original negative looking outward. the film looking inward. by means of two lenses. positive in the shield. as before.

. . we ther. therefore. proceed at once to the next chapter for we suppose the mode of mounting stereoscopic trans- parencies requires no description or explanation. 83 from being exhausted.THE TANNIN PROCESS. We shall. lest the patience of our readers are afraid to proceed any furbecome exhausted.

of photographs on opal or porcelain plates coming daily more and more into vogue . Wharton Simpson. The negative and dry tannin plate are placed in contact. and then one surface is flowed with pure water. and either a mat or vignette is in order to circumscribe the picture. There are several ways of accomplishing the task but we will limit ourselves to two. respects the plates undergo the same treatment as already given in complete detail while describing the preparation of a tannin plate. which. it becomes our duty to give succinct methods of performing the operation. and the other by the collodio-chloride process of G. and after- ward with In all other the albumen solution previously described. are first thoroughly cleaned and polished. the one by means of tan- nin plates. by practice. and the dark slide behind is closed . known to be successful . and since these beautiful pictures can be prepared quite sucis THE preparation cessfully on dry plates. if the pictures are to be obtained by contact-printing if by means of . The ordinary printing frame can be used in making these glass prints. Porcelain plates with ground and flat surfaces are alone to be employed in this department. the ordinary porcelain In either case the plates. are . placed over the negative All the precautions . plate may be used instead. OPAL OR PORCELAIN PICTURES AND PHOTO-MINIATURES BY THE DRY PROCESS. OPAL PICTURES ON TANNIN PLATES. the conjugate copying camera.CHAPTER VII. as usual.

rould be may be much sooner ransparent parts. the hair and other parts of the . loth in the preparation of the plates and in the process f development. and toning. keep the lights quite in all cases before the slightest fogs stop above The citro-pyrogallic acid is to be preferred as a eveloper. Either the acid or alkaline developer may be employed. . make se of every precaution to avoid any cause that would roduce stains. of xtraneous matter from the picture. otherwise the markings of the photograph rill suffer. Wash and f fix the print in a solution of hypo-sulphite and again thoroughly wash. fixing. by means of the soda. but.THE TANNIN PROCESS. in fact. without the paper moderators less time will effect the urpose. point of a stile or penknife blade. e careful that the tincture is not f poured on any part the picture. all things. and then with dilute cyanide of potassium. A piece The f tissue paper may cover the complete opening. but allow the light to pass without iterruption through the shades and halftones. The most persistent stain may thus be amoved : . whereby these parts printed than the adjoining half To avoid this inequality paper ints or dark shades. . and wash out from the face and corners of the plate by them first with a solution of tincture of iodine -eating iiarp le stains i water. Develop until the picture is thoroughly rought out st in. intensifying. jrms are cut out which cover up the lightest or most egative too transparent.. mgth ry a few seconds with a of the exposure has to be learned by practice free exposure to a white cloud . 85 squired in the preparation of a porcelain picture must e observed here thus. Now examine the print and remove all particles. lear.

chloride of 1. more In fine. 1 drachm. still moist.86 DRY PLATE PHOTOGRAPHY J OR. and the intensity becomes graduthe print as soon as you think the tone begins to change backward. Finally. the film is washed. and in all other respects but color satisfactory. Na L j { Terchloride of gold Distilled or rain (K1S) . flow it quantity of the gold solution. dilute solution of nitric acid 20 drops to 4 drachms A of water is sometimes used for removing stains upon the film. . T. and warmer than before. and watch the change of color in the film. 2 ounces. 2 grains. This color will be a slate blue at a certain point. The picture being bright. and thus purifying the lights or whites. preparation practiced by our . . Martin. Now flow over the film a drachm or two of the mercury solution. solution of bi. by this problack. MERCURY SOLUTION. This grade action sets ally less. the next operation is to communicate to it the desired tone. Wash makes the shades and details of the print bright. mercury Citric acid . TONING OF THE OPAL TANNIN PICTURE. PORCELAIN PICTURES BY THE COLLODIO-CHLORIDE PROCESS SIMPSONTYPE. ceeding the picture will be so far complete. sharp. Esq... Distilled or rain 10 ounces. colored. H. and varnished. in the of porcelain pictures on opal glass. We can suggest no improvement to the process friend. dried. water 1 grain. Of a saturated No. when an apparent retro- The film being well washed and with a sufficient in. water . For this purpose make the following solutions : GOLD SOLUTION...

. intimately diffused through the mixture. The fine powder of chloride of silver.. add the four drops of castor-oil. . 4 drops. The fine emulsion is de- .. (SiS').. grains. The nitrate of silver is pulverized and dissolved in the smallest possible quantity of water to this solution add two or three drachms of the alcohol.. and add the former drop by drop to the latter. Finally. Add the remaining part of the alcohol to the mixture of ether and pyroxyline.. . forms the sensitizing vehicle it is.. in fine. Carry these two solutions into the dark room. .. By the end of this time particles of undissolved cotton and other matter will have subsided. SENSITIVE COLLODION. and put away to dry. with the collodion.. Pyroxyline 12 grains 3 grains... . and then flowed with the albumen solution already described. which. Pulverize the chloride of cal- cium and dissolve it in this plain collodion.THE TANNIN PROCESS. gives rise to this emulsion. Nitrate of silver Citric acid Castor-oil . . .. The cotton is first divided into small tufts and then immersed in the ether. and shake the mixture until the cotton is dissolved. and shake the mixture intimately and put aside for a moment. An emulsion is thus formed by the double decomposition of the two salts in contact nitrate of silver and chloride of calcium. Ether Alcohol . .. Chloride of calcium .16 . 1 1 ounce. and set the mixture aside for a day or two to settle. ounce. 87 The porcelain plates are ground flat on one surface. shaking the mixture well after each addition. 4 grains. the sensitive collodion.

as already described in the preparation of porcelain pictures "on tannin plates.. in order to remove all it is then immersed in an old . toning bath. the negative and the sensitive plate. the plates arc taken out from the fuming chamber and exposed to the air for a few minutes. .88 DRY PLATE PHOTOGRAPHY J OR. Print deeper than is is ultimately required. The plate is free nitrate of silver gently washed. After this . It must be preserved in the dark room and kept quite excluded from the light. carefully washed. because the intensity diminished in the subsequent operations. spect the printing as it proceeds. are placed with their two films in perfect contact by means of Shive's opal printing frames. antl allow the film to dry comWhen dry the plates are fumed for about pletely. three minutes at the ordinary temperature in the heat of summer less fuming will be sufficient. and afterward with the acid and dilute solution of bi-chloride of mercury. This latter mode will be found is an advantage. canted for use.. Water 10 ounces. and then exposed to the This frame allows the operator to inlight of the sun. The two plates. sharp and vigorous. The negative may be such a one as is used for print- ing on albumen paper. somewhat TONING THE PORCELAIN PICTURE. or flowed with a dilute solution of chloride of gold. and fixed in a bath of hypo-sulphite of soda as follows The plate now Hypo-sulphite of soda . They are now ready for exposure. The castor-oil is introduced in order to permit the process of printing to be carried on to any extent without any risk of bronzing. Coat the dry albumenized plates with the emulsion or sensitized collodion. : 1 ounce.

By means pinion motion they can be brought nearer to the glass. we mean. The camera for taking photo-micrographs is furnished with two lenses. THE PREPARATION OF PHOTO-MICROGRAPHS BY MEANS OF TANNIN PLATES. and mountains of large dimensions. and the plate is again washed and dried. one for taking the photograph on the sensitized plate. and the other on the opposite side of the ground-glass. for every ground surface. of a rack and receive the picture to be copied this picture is vertical. 89 all stains are then It is finally washed thoroughly removed by methods already given. is sufficiently rough for this delicate opera- The first step to be taken is to take out this piece of . or still better a Grunow's one-inch objective will be suitable Both these lenses are fixed perfor a focusing lens. and the line of collimation of the two lenses is coincident. . French objective. for focusing the image. cavities. pendicular on opposite sides to the ground-glass. We have spoken of the ground-glass . The objectives made very well adapted by Grunow for his microscopes are An ordinary for the preparation of photo-micrographs. whose focal length is one inch. or made to recede from the There is a place in front of the lens proper to glass.THE TANNIN PROCESS. how- ever. when viewed by the focusing glass. would exhibit ridges. The surface of a piece of plate-glass tion. The picture is now ready for coloring and varnishing. and have a focal length of a quarter of an inch or more. the piece of polished glass which takes its place . . upon which no microscopic picture could possibly be discerned. the shield which holds and its plane parallel with the ground-glass. The lens proper must be well corrected.

photograph. in its shield before the front lens. reflection. to polish it. or engraving to be copied. This is effected by sliding the plate-holder. It is evident from this that if there were a picture produced by arrangement. These photo-micrographic cameras are generally so constructed as to take a number of photographs on the same plates. and then scatter a little dust by shaking a book from the book-shelf close by it. and to illumine this with the bright rays of sunlight. By such an arrangement . and thus easily distinguishable. the front lens on the surface containing the dust. This is done by lens to or from the glass until the picture quite sharp and well defined. horizontally. so that it illumines a small circle of the plate-glass when is pointed to the sun's rays whether direct or after it . Although no dust can be seen by the naked eye. and vertically by the same means through three motions. OR. The third step is to place the negative of the picture. from the fact that the is illuminated circle of light produced by the front lens visible by the focusing glass. We know that the two lenses line of collimation. of a graduated rack and spring eight motions.90 DRY PLATE PHOTOGRAPHY . by means for instance. it would now be magnified by the focusing lens. you will find sufficient has been deposited upon the glass when it is examined carefully with the back ob- on its surface. plate-glass. is to adjust the focusing glass itself accomplished by causing the lens to approach or recede from the plate of glass until the fine particles of dust on the surface next to the front lens are perfectly well defined. This adjustment must be is This made with the utmost accuracy. The second step to focus. jective. or the axis of the coincide. and afterward to obtain an image of this picture moving the is on the plate of glass. Now bring the front lens into its place.

the picture is laid upon the melted balsam. eacli of which is afterward mounted on the end of a Stanhope lens made for the purpose. It is then with collodion. 91 twenty-four photographs can be taken on the same The slip of glass to receive these minute photoplate. which could not be ef- fected by the wet process. The development. silver solution. toning. do not vary in any point from what has already been minutely explained. and excite wonder. A dry plate is much superior to a wet plate for this pur- and tannin. when it is ready for the exposure. afterward dried. pose. from the drying of the film. because it allows a large number of photographs to be taken on the same plate. each one when magnified by the lens being of a size equal to that of a common card-picture. graphs is very thin. such produce the liveliest pleasure toys. it is divided up by a diamond into separate small pictures. may contain a copy of all the illustrious generals of our country. The slip of glass containing the picture is cemented to the end of the lens by a small particle of Canada balsam.. which are too small for the naked eye. by coating it first with albumen. When productions seldom fail to well photographed. although . The color and transparency of the balsam are indistinguishable from the substance of the Stanhope lens. etc. which.THE TANNIN PROCESS. It is treated in all respects like any other tannin plate. causes the glass to adhere with great firmness. charming productions. Such photo-micrographs. They are indeed. on cooling. But the operator will need a pair of very powerful spectacles to watch the development. which melts by heat . etc. fixing. When the transparent positive is complete and dry.

NEGATIVE PROCESSES WITH COLLODIO-BROMIDE OF SILVER. and expense in the preparation of the negatives/' PREPARATION OF THE COLLODION.60 . and which now upward of two years and a half. is : prepared as follows Bromide of cadmium Bromide of ammonium Pyroxyline Ether Alcohol . . . in crystals. . DRY AND WET PLATES REQUIRING NO SILVER BATH . Prepare this plain collodion in the above proportions.use of a silver bath. 5 ounces. was owing to some omission or neglect on our part. but these were not so intense as we should wish them. probably. he has used for The collodion recommended by Mr. 20 grains. accompanied by a considerable saving* of labor. . Sayce. says he has experimented upon upward of two hundred plates without making. . grains. put to a thorough test ourselves we have not we have simply tried them and obtained pictures by them. . time.60 grains. and always with "unvarying certainty and cleanliness. in any quantity desired. take of nitrate of silver. 5 ounces. B.CHAPTER VIII. OR. for the author of these processes. . or filter when required for use. Sayce. . J. and put it aside for a number of days to settle . THE processes presented in this chapter . then decant. 120 grains. Now. . The want of intensity.

The edges of the plates to be used are first varnished either with a solution of one grain of india-rubber dissolved in one ounce of benzine. the back is then wiped with a clean cloth and the plate is inverted in the plate-holder and exposed. and the heat renders the film more quicker the water flows freely over the film. the plate is placed in a dish of water until the greasy appearance has vanished. 93 and reduce the tar . In the course of an hour or two the clear or fine emulsion on the upper portion is decanted off and is ready for use. and . WET PROCESS WITH THE COLLODIO-BROMIDE OF SILVER. water is preferable. to flow collodio-bromide in the usual way. and put in a dark cupboard to settle. ancj water.THE TANNIN PROCESS. DEVELOPMENT OF THE COLLODIO-BROMIDE FILM. . Warm When the plate is withdrawn from the dish or bath. As soon as the film has set sufficiently. because it is in its action. stirring the mixture the while as the silver The mixture is solution is poured into the collodion. and when the plates are dry. finally. dissolve it in the smallest quantity and mix with the above quantity of collodion. The exposure is some- what longer than that required by the ordinary wet process. then shaken up intimately. in a dark all room. Take the plate from moisten the film with a 4* its shield in little the dark room. A commended by them with the us. or with the albumen solution recommended in the previous chapters for giving to tannin plates a substratum previous to the collodion safer plan will be to use the substratum as refilm. allowed to drain a moment or two . salt to an impalpable powder in a mor- of water. sensitive.

it is immersed in a dish or pail of water . The image appears quickly.. 100 grains. . it is our opinion that the hyposulphite fixing solution will be preferable. or with an albumen solution. The plates are previously prepared. 100 grains. in this solution. Prepare a solution of cyanide of potassium as follows : Cyanide of potassium . with the collodio-bromide. . 4 ounces. and in every respect similar to that produced by a negative according to the ordinary wet collodion process. . 5 ounces. The picture is afterward methods already known. as hot as the hand can bear. 100 grains. . Water Immerse the washed plate soon dissolve off the unaffected which will bromide of silver. containing twenty grains to the ounce of distilled water.94 DEVELOPER. Proto-sulphate of iron Glacial acetic acid . as recommended in the preceding wet Each plate is then coated in the dark room process. When the substratum is albumen. DRY PROCESS WITH THE COLLODIO-BROMIDE OF SILVER. add two drops of a solution of nitrate of silver. containing 15 grains to . . in this way proceed with all the plates. Water To three drachms of this solution. when the film has set sufficiently. intensified by any of the FIXING THE IMAGE. and afterin the tannin solution. either with an india-rubber solution round the edges. . . Having a dish filled with hot water. and. take out each plate in rotation and immerse ward it in the bath for about thirty seconds.

very little or no intensification at all is necessary.THE TANNIN PROCESS. which Mr.. and the bath is ready for use. The steam chamber recommended in a previous chapter. . . 50 grains. 2 ounces. may Mr. 95 the ounce of water. taken After immersion in the tannin bath. ... I Distilled or rain water . DEVELOPMENT OF THE COLLODIO-BROMIDE PLATE. filter Dissolve the tannin in one portion of the water and dissolve the gallic acid by heat in another portion. No j- 2 ^ ar^ onate -f f ammonia . mix it with the tannin grape sugar and filter once more finally. . . 100 grains. ( Pyrogallic acid Absolute alcohol < . 20 ounces. : .. the alcohol is added. and then dried evenly and quickly in any convenient and suitable manner. or in the following solution.. 2 ounces. then add the filtered.. . . 1 ounce. . ^r * ( Bromide of potassium . 4 ounces. . 96 grains. jr Prepare the following solutions Alcohol . Sayce asserts that the exposure of a collodiobromide plate is one half shorter than that required by a bromo-iodized plate. grains. f . when tion for three minutes. .. Water Grape sugar Alcohol . 1 Distilled or rain water o ( 40 grains. If the plate is allowed to remain in the above soluand. 10 ounces. each plate is out.40 1 Distilled or rain water . 100 minims. well filtered. . Sayce finds superior to the preceding : Tannin Gallic acid . 50 grains. . . . after a proper exposure. allowed to drain. be used here with advantage.

. and may be developed until the shadows become slightly tinged. Distilled or rain water . . . .. . 4 2 drops. Pour a film. The picture is afterward intensified by flowing the following solution : it with No. grains. 1 ounce. 2 4 drachms. ? drachms. and then pour it over the and keep the solution in motion. 5. we have finished the task imto cause the film to split marked. Then place the water and move it about gently until the oily appearance has vanished. 15 grains. : Shake up the mixture well.. so sufficient quantity of it. .. \ Citric [ . dear reader.3 . The plate is now thoroughly washed with water on both sides. minims.. ward with a dilute solution of acetic acid. 2 drops of glacial acetic acid to 1 ounce of water. and afterplate. Now prepare the following mixture No. . 3 No. as to cover No... . 3 3 drops. the plate is well washed and immersed in the fixing bath recomagain When mended for the wet process. 5 Water . No. . And now... the shades are sufficiently dense. As before reshould prefer the use of the hyposulphite fixing solution in this process. but have not the experience to assert that it is decidedly better.96 f Nitrate of silver acid No. 1 upon the exposed and then return it into the bottle plate in a dish of clean for future use..30 .. No. washed thorThe author of the process says that a strong solution of the cyanide of potassium is preferable to a weak solution. The image ought to appear very soon.. 3 minims. . It is finally oughly and set aside to dry. which has a tendency up on drying... we ..

because communicated is. hear again from us there is no possibility of satisfying our publisher he is ever crying out." and as long as we have a laboratory to work in. Deo volente. It be found useful to you in struction is to be hoped the work will the in- many ways. more. In a month or two you will. ever craving after fresh food. in general. in the condition of our publisher. and fingers to write. but never satisfied. 91 posed upon ourselves. more. brains to concoct.THE TANNIN PROCESS. dios! A . : ." and we hope you may remain . of a very varied character and the result of successful practice. you " may expect more. viva voce or by letter "More.

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ADVERTISEMENTS. .

F. ALBANY. and it kept bright as at first. M. one of them while it was covered up \vlth C.HUMPHREY'S COLLODION GILDING. and in no instance have had caus to complain but. It is the best article I ever used. to meet every requirement.YORK. 299* Washington Street. a evere snow-storm. M. J. DEAR SIR: Having found "Humphrey's Collodion Gilding. . GARDNER. I am pleased with it. above any method heretofore in use. It is a rare discovery. GREY. It adds at least one half to the beauty of an Ambrotype. Y. and as being Yours truly. It gives & rich lustre to Drapery. April 6th. S. at all times. on " manuthe contrary. I will. FIN LEY. and will bear exposure in the hot sun. durable Varnish for protecting Collodion Pictures better than any other preparation I am acquainted with. W. Chemist. " " Humphrey's Collodion Gilding is the best Varnish I ever used. on a roof facing the sun. It is the best article ever used for FINISHING Pictures. it. and two hard frosts. KEEN. 1S62. G.. N. SILSBEE. Truly yours. M. as it gives a surface almost equal in Hardness to th. but the only perfect protection and finish for the surface of the collodion plate. I exposed a glass picture finished with It. Respectfully yours. DEAR SIR: We would say that the sample of "Humphrey's Collodion Gilding" which you furnished us with has given entire satisfaction. For Sale by all Stock Dealer* . CHILTON. J. GUKNEY. RYDER. and will preserve Glass Nega1*** for *U time." as prepared by you. brother photographers as the best article for preserving Glass Negatives aijd Ambrotypes.D.. Icannot afford that I was using. LAWRENCE. March '2 1st. CHILTON. It Is IMPKRISHABLE. for one week. " 1 nave experimented upon a sample of Humphrey's Collodion Gilding. M. and we do -unhesitatingly pronounce It the best article we have ever used for the Protection of Glass Negatives and Positives. whether positive or negative. pleased with Humphrey's Collodion Gilding. am Put up la Six Ounce Bottles. to be without it in my establishment. W.. rain. I W. NEW-York. JAMES R. Boston. M. I remain Your obedient servant. gives a Brilliant finish.D. DE SHONG. fully worthy of their confidence. and is not affected by Moist tself. N. Atmosphere. the well-known Chemist. . DEAR SIR : " Humphrey's Collodion Gilding " settles the long-contested point sis to the durability of collodion pictures.it of the Glass It is Easy of Application. snow. It is the best article known to preserve Ambrotypes or Negatives. CERTIFICATES. DEAR SIR: For some time past I have used " Humphrey's Collodion Gilding" with the most eminent success. ONE OF THE MOST VALUABLE IMPROVEMENTS since the application of the Collodlon FHm as a vehicle of producing Photographic Images. W. to the combined influence of the hot sun. Y. nor by Pure Water. find it all that it has been represented. I take pleasure in recommending it to others at one of the most desirable articles for preserving Glass Pictures. market. etc. NEW-YORK. take pleasure in recommending it to my Wishing you the success you so justly deserve. Respectfully yours. G1LLETT. put up no pictures without is L. I I consider it imperishable. CANANDAIGUA. J.t preserves Positives and Negatives from injury by Light. April 6th. CASE & CO. and 'find it better than any of the varnishes I have before used. C." and find the nature of its composition to be such as to render it a very desirable article... March 8 1st. I It is the only varnish that suitable for Melainotypei have tried all others in 11. It will answer the requirements of a transparent. and I have tried all kinds. THOMPSON. and is being rapidly brought into use ly the first Ambrotypers and Photographers in America. I consider it not only the best. Your "recently improved facture surprises me. . NEW. April Sth. M. From JAKES R. DBAR SIR: I have given " Humphrey's Collodion Gilding" a trial. for I did not think it possible for any improvement to be made over Please forward half-a-dozen bottles without delay. is HUMPHREY'S COLLODION GILDING..

Towler. 100 pages. Gage. Dry Plate Photography. The Porcelain By Picture. The Daguerreotype Operator. Price. With full and explicit Directions for Taking Card Pictures and Vignettes. Address JOSEPH H. Price. Price. 400 pages. By S. Practical Manual of the Collodion Process. containing the Most Approved Methods of Producing these Pictures. Price. giving a for Producing Positive and Negative Pictures on Glass and Paper. Three* Dollars. 30 cents.50. By F. The best work on Photography ever issued. B. Price. A Practical Work. The Tannin Process made Simple and Practical for Operators and Amateurs. NKVV YORK. How to Make By Prof. Robert Hunt. Price. With Practical Photography on Glass and Paper. 50 cents.VALUABLE PHOTOGRAPHIC BOOKS!! SENT PREPAID OK RECEIPT OF FRIGE. LADD. Price. it. $1. O. $1. Price. or. Towler. Instructions Price. P. $2. 50 cents. The American Photographic Almanac for 1865. for 1S66. 12mo. $1. 50 cents. Photography on Collodion. Back volumes Two Dollars each. Box 34UO. . $1. D. literature. and other valuable processes. full Illustrated. The Silver Sunbeam. Method Hunt's Treatise on Photography. Last year's volume. Humphrey's Journal of Photography. M. Fourth Edition. $1. A most invaluable collection of Photographic such as can be had in no other form. With 12mo. Humphrey. 100 pages. 266 pages. 12mo. Photographic Book Publisher. By Prof. Only a few left. The Carte de Visite Process. By John Towler. Towler. D. The American Photographic Almanac Prof. 50 cents. Giving ( By Details of the Calotype. 150 pages. positive Rules for Obtaining Intense Negatives with Certainty. All the above sent post paid on receipt of price. Price.

NEW-YO .JOSEPH H. LADD li slier.

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the last date stamped below. DUE on REC'D LD JAN 17 '64-0 AM U69 1957 (B399sl6)476 *I(MOT-Sr.'48 JUL 1 S 1985 .UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY BERKELEY Return This book is to desk from which borrowed.

C.YB GENERAL LIBRARY - I M 35 BERKELEY U. BDOOfllbOSl M542349 .

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