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Bisesh Shrestha Period 4 130212 Homework #15B (130122): Chapter 53 (due Tuesday 130122) Total points: 40 for Attempt

on all questions (Bullet Points) (Individual) Concept Map: 10 Points (Group) Chapter 53: Community Ecology Objectives Interspecific Interactions and Community Structure 1. List the categories of interspecific interactions and explain how each interaction may affect the population densities of the two species involved. Mutualism = by density, both species go up. Parasitism or Predation= by density, one species go up, one species go down. Competition = by density, both species go down. Commensalism = both species remain constant. Benefits but don't harm nor help each other in the process. Mutualism = fungi and roots work together to help plants growth. Parasitism or Predation = virus is thriving in human, but the host (human) is losing immunity. Leopard is hunting gazelle. Competition = by density, both species go down. Lion and hyenas compete for foods. Commensalism = both species remain constant. 2. State the competitive exclusion principle. One species is less capable and becomes extinct. One species undergoes an evolutionary or behavioral shift The competitive exclusion principle states that no two species can coexist if they occupy the same niche and compete for the same resources. 3. Define an ecological niche and restate the competitive exclusion principle using the niche concept. Ecological Niche: Both the biotic and abiotic resources used by a species Two species can coexist in the same place if there are or is a significant difference(s) in their niches. 4. Distinguish between fundamental and realized niche. Fundamental Niche: A species' ideal environment Realized Niche: A species' actual environment 5. Explain how interspecific competition may lead to resource partitioning. Interspecific competition (when species compete for a resource in short supply) may lead to resource partitioning (differentiation of ecological niches) so that more species can live in one area, then if all of those species didn't have different ecological niches 6. Define and compare predation, herbivory, and parasitism.

Predation : Interaction where one species (the predator) kills and eats the other (the prey) Herbivory : Interaction in which an herbivore eats parts of a plant or alga Parasitism : Interaction where one organism (the parasite) derives nourishment from another organism (its host) which is harmed in the process 7. Give specific examples of adaptations of predators and prey Predators: -Feeding Adaptions: Claws, Teeth, Fangs, Stingers, and Poison Prey: -Defensive Adaptations: Hiding, Fleeing, Self-Defense, and Alarm Calls -Cryptic Coloration (Camouflage): Makes prey difficult 8. Explain how cryptic coloration and warning coloration may aid an animal in avoiding predators. Cryptic Coloration: It will confuse a harmful creature/The prey would not be able to see it/The predator would not want to attack a rock Warning Coloration: Makes it seem as if the creature is poisonous 9. Distinguish between Batesian mimicry and Mllerian mimicry. Batesian Mimicry: A palatable or harmless species mimics an unpalatable or harmful model (Snakes start rattling like a rattlesnake) Mullerian Mimicry: Two or more unpalatable species resemble each other 10. Describe how predators may use mimicry to obtain prey. Predators may use mimicry to act like a harmless creature, so when the prey comes closer to the "harmless" creature, the predator will attack 11. Distinguish among endoparasites, ectoparasites, and parisitoids. Endoparasites: A parasite that lives inside of another organism Ectoparasites: A parasite that lives outside or on the surface of another organism Parisitoids: Any or various insects whose larvae are parasites that will eventually kill their host 12. Distinguish among parasitism, mutualism, and commensalism. Parasitism : One organism (the parasite) derives nourishment from another organism (its host) which is harmed in the process Mutualism : An interspecific interaction that benefits both species Commensalism : One species benefits and the other is apparently unaffected 13. Explain the relationship between species richness and relative abundance and explain how both contribute to species diversity. Species richness, the total number of different species in the community, is connected with relative abundance, which is the proportion each species represents of the total individuals in the community

14. Distinguish between a food chain and a food web.

Food Chain: The path of energy and nutrients from the non0living environment, through the living environment, and back to the non-living environment Food Web: A branching food chain with complex trophic interactions 15. Describe two ways to simplify food webs. Simplify by isolating a portion of a community that interacts very little with the rest of the community, or group species with similar trophic relationships in a given community into broad functional groups. 16. Summarize two hypotheses that explain why food chains are relatively short. The Energetic Hypothesis: Length of food chain is limited by inefficient energy transfer The Dynamic Stability Hypothesis: Long food chains are less stable than short ones 17. Explain how dominant and keystone species exert strong control on community structure. Describe an example of each. Dominant: Most abundant and exert powerful control over the occurrence and distribution of other species; They are either possibly the most competitive in exploiting resources or are most successful at avoiding predators (Ex. Humans) Keystone: Not necessarily abundant in a community; They exert strong control by their ecological roles and niches (Ex. Sea Stars) 18. Describe and distinguish between the bottom-up and top-down models of community organization. Botton-Up Model: Unidirectional influence from lower to higher topic levels Top-Down Model: Influence is opposite (Predation controls community organization because predators limit herbivores, which limit plants, which limit nutrient levels through their uptake of nutrients during growth and reproduction Disturbance and Community Structure 19. Define stability and disturbance. Disturbance: An event that changes a community, removes organisms from it, and alters resource availability Stability: the tendency of a community to reach ad maintain a relatively constant composition of species in the face of disturbances. 20. Provide examples of how disturbance may increase or decrease species diversity. They can increase or decrease species diversity though natural events, such as storms, fires, floods, drought, overgrazing, and human activity. A high level of disturbance is generally the result of a high intensity and frequency of a disturbance, which would most likely decrease species diversity. 21. Give examples of humans as widespread agents of disturbance. Deforestation Pollution Excessive Hunting Fishing

22. Distinguish between primary and secondary succession. Primary Succession: Where no soil exists when succession begins (Volcanoes and the Beginning of the Earth) Secondary Succession: Begins in an area where soil remains after a disturbance (Glacier Retreating) 23. Describe how species that arrive early in succession may facilitate, inhibit, or tolerate later arrivals. Evapotranspiration: Evaporation of water from soil plus transpiration of water from plants 24. Explain why species richness declines along an equatorial-polar gradient. Species richness generally declines along equatorial-polar gradients because the greater age. Biogeographic Factors Affect Community Biodiversity 26. Define the species-area curve. Species-Area Curve: Quantifies the idea that, all other factors being equal, a larger geographic area has more species 27. Explain how species richness on islands varies according to island size and distance from the mainland. Because of their isolation and limited size, islands provide excellent opportunities for studying and testing the biogeographic factors that affect the species diversity communities. 28. Define and contrast the following pairs of hypotheses: Integrated Hypothesis: If something happens to one, something is going to happen to another Individualistic Hypothesis: Only live together for abiotic factors Rivet Model: Suggests that all species in a community are linked in a tight web of interactions Redundancy Model: Proposes that if a species is lost, other species will fill the gap

Vcocabularies for Concept Map aposematic coloration Batesian mimicry biomanipulation biomass bottom-up model character displacement coevolution commensalism community competitive exclusion cryptic coloration disturbance dominant species dynamic stability hypothesis ecological niche ecological succession ectoparasite endoparasite energetic hypothesis evapotranspiration facilitator food chain food web herbivory host individualistic hypothesis integrated hypothesis intermediate disturbance hypothesis interspecific interaction interspecific competition invasive species keystone species Mllerian mimicry mutualism nonequilibrium model parasite parasitism parasitoidism pathogen predation primary succession redundancy model relative abundance resource partitioning rivet model secondary succession species diversity species richness species-area curve top-down model trophic structure

Word Roots crypto- hidden, concealed (cryptic coloration: a type of camouflage that makes potential prey difficult to spot against its background) ecto- outer (ectoparasites: parasites that feed on the external surface of a host) endo- inner (endoparasites: parasites that live within a host) herb- grass; -vora eat (herbivory: the consumption of plant material by an herbivore) hetero- other, different (heterogeneity: a measurement of biological diversity considering richness and relative abundance) inter- between (interspecific competition: competition for resources between plants, between animals, or between decomposers when resources are in short supply) mutu- reciprocal (mutualism: a symbiotic relationship in which both the host and the symbiont benefit)