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**Chair of Modelling and Simulation
**

Ship dynamics in waves

(Ship Theory II)

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Nikolai Kornev

Rostock

2012

2

Contents

1 Ship motion in regular sea waves 11

1.1 Coupling of diﬀerent ship oscillations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

1.2 Classiﬁcation of forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

1.3 Radiation force components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

1.3.1 Hydrodynamic damping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

1.3.2 Added mass component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

1.4 Hydrostatic component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

1.5 Wave exciting force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

1.6 Motion equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

1.7 Haskind’s relation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

1.8 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

2 Free oscillations with small amplitudes 31

2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

2.2 Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

3 Ship oscillations in small transverse waves (beam see) 37

3.1 Hydrostatic forces and moments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

3.2 Hydrodynamic Krylov - Froude force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

3.3 Full Krylov - Froude force and moment . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

3.4 Force and moment acting on the ship frame in accelerated ﬂow 42

3.5 Full wave induced force and moment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

3.6 Equations of ship heave and roll oscillations . . . . . . . . . . 43

3.7 Analysis of the formula (3.27) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

3.8 Sway ship oscillations in beam sea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

3.9 Ship oscillations at ﬁnite beam to wave length ratio and draught

to length ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

3.10 Eﬀect of ship speed on rolling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

3

4 Ship oscillations in small head waves 55

4.1 Exciting forces and ship oscillations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

4.2 Estimations of slamming and deck ﬂooding . . . . . . . . . . . 58

5 Seasickness caused by ship oscillations 61

6 Ship oscillations in irregular waves 65

6.1 Representation of irregular waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

6.1.1 Wave ordinates as stochastic quantities . . . . . . . . . 66

6.1.2 Wave spectra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

6.2 Calculation of ship oscillations in irregular waves . . . . . . . 72

7 Experimental methods in ship seakeeping 75

7.1 Experiments with models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

7.2 Seakeeping tests with large scale ships . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

8 Ship oscillation damping (stabilisation) 85

8.1 Damping of roll oscillations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

8.1.1 Passive means . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

8.1.2 Active stabilizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

8.1.3 Passive Schlingerkiel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

8.1.4 Active rudders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

8.1.5 Damping of pitch oscillations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

9 Parametric oscillations 95

10 Principles of Rankine source method for calculation of sea-

keeping 101

10.1 Frequency domain simulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

10.2 Time domain simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106

4

List of Tables

2.1 Frequencies and periods of diﬀerent oscillation types . . . . . . 33

2.2 Referred damping factors for diﬀerent oscillation types . . . . 34

5

6

List of Figures

1.1 Ship motion with 6 degree of freedom (from [1]) . . . . . . . . 12

1.2 Displacement of the center of eﬀort due to change of the ship

draught (from [2]) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

1.3 Illustration to derivation of damping coeﬃcient . . . . . . . . 19

1.4 Added mass and damping coeﬃcient of the semi circle frame

at heave oscillations. Here A is the frame area. . . . . . . . . . 20

1.5 Added mass and damping coeﬃcient of the box frame at heave

oscillations. Here A is the frame area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

1.6 Added mass and damping coeﬃcient of the semi circle frame

at sway oscillations. Here A is the frame area. . . . . . . . . . 21

1.7 Added mass and damping coeﬃcient of the box frame at sway

oscillations. Here A is the frame area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

1.8 Added mass and damping coeﬃcient of the box frame at roll

(heel) oscillations. Here A is the frame area. . . . . . . . . . . 22

1.9 Mirroring for the case ω →0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

1.10 Mirroring for the case ω →∞ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

3.2 Illustration of hydrostatic force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

3.3 Illustration of hydrostatic moment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

3.4 Ship as linear system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

3.5 Response function versus referred frequency . . . . . . . . . . 46

3.6 Phase displacement versus referred frequency . . . . . . . . . . 47

3.7 Ship oscillations in resonance case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

3.8 Oscillation of a raft with a big metacentric height . . . . . . . 48

3.9 Illustration of the frame in beam waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

3.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

3.11 Reduction coeﬃcient of the heave oscillations . . . . . . . . . 52

3.12 Sea classiﬁcation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

4.1 Illustration of the ship in head waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

4.2 Position of ship at diﬀerent time instants in a head wave . . . 58

7

4.3 Curves y = ±z

max

and y = z(x) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

4.4 Sample for a real ship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

5.1 Inﬂuence of the vertical acceleration on the seasickness de-

pending on the oscillation period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

5.2 Inﬂuence of the vertical acceleration on the seasickness de-

pending on the oscillation period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

5.3 Number of passengers suﬀering from seasickness on a cruise

liners depending on vertical accelerations . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

5.4 Adaption to seasickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

6.1 Irregular seawaves, 1- two dimensional, 2- three dimensional.

(Fig. from [3]) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

6.2 Proﬁle of an irregular wave. (Fig. from [3]) . . . . . . . . . . . 66

6.3 Representation of irregular wave through the superposition of

regular waves. (Fig. from [3]) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

6.4 p.d.f. of the wave ordinate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

6.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

7.1 Determination oft he inertia moment I

zz

. . . . . . . . . . . . 77

7.2 Determination of I

xx

and z

g

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

7.3 Heel test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

7.4 Method of forced rolling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

7.5 Seakeeping test at MARIN ([4]) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

7.6 Scetch of the MARIN Seakeeping basin ([4]) . . . . . . . . . . 82

7.7 Wave generator of MARIN Seakeeping basin ([4]) . . . . . . . 82

7.8 Method of wave detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

7.9 Ship motion during large scale tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

8.1 U-tube stabilization system of Frahm of the second type . . . 86

8.2 Free surface Type passive Roll stabilization systems of Flume . 87

8.3 Free surface Type passive Roll stabilization systems of Flume . 87

8.4 Active stabilizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

8.5 Passive Schlingerkiel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

8.6 Active rudders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

8.7 Damping of pitch oscillations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

8.8 Damping of pitch oscillations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

8.9 [5] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

8.10 [5] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

8.11 [5] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

8.12 [5] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92

8.13 [5] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92

8

8.14 [5] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

8.15 [5] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

8.16 [5] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

9.1 Ship oscillations during parametric resonance . . . . . . . . . . 97

9.2 Conditions for parametric resonance appearance . . . . . . . . 97

9

10

Chapter 1

Ship motion in regular sea

waves

1.1 Coupling of diﬀerent ship oscillations

The ship has generally six degrees of freedom which are called as surge ζ,

sway η, heave ζ, heel (or roll) ϕ, yaw ϑ and pitch ψ (see Fig.1.1) for expla-

nation of each oscillation motion). In this chapter we consider ﬁrst the case

of the ship with zero forward speed. Generally, diﬀerent ship oscillations are

strongly coupled. There are three sorts of coupling:

• hydrostatic coupling

• hydrodynamic coupling

• gyroscopics coupling

The hydrostatic coupling is illustrated in Fig.1.2. If the ship draught is

changed, the center of eﬀort of vertical hydrostatic (ﬂoating) force is mov-

ing usually towards the ship stern because the frames in the stern are more

full than those in the bow region. The displacement of the center of eﬀort

towards the stern causes the negative pitch angle. Therefore, the heave os-

cillations cause the pitch oscillations and vice versa. With the other words,

the heave and pitch oscillations are coupled.

Hydrodynamic coupling can be illustrated when the ship is moving with ac-

celeration in transverse direction (sway motion). Since the ship is asymmetric

with respect to the midships, such a motion is conducted with appearance

of the yaw moment. Therefore, the sway and yaw oscillations are hydrody-

namically coupled.

11

According to gyroscopic eﬀect, rotation on one axis of the turning around

the second axis wheel produced rotation of the third axis. This rule can be

applied to the ship. For instance, if the ship performs rolling motion and

the transverse force is acting on the ship, it starts to perform the pitch os-

cillations. The gyroscopic eﬀects are present in the equation system (1.13).

They are represented in ”’i-th”’ force equation by products V

j=i

ω

m=j=i

and

by products ω

j=u

ω

m=j=i

in the ”’i-th”’ moment equation.

In this chapter we consider the ship oscillations with small amplitude. For

such oscillations the coupling mentioned above can be neglected.

Figure 1.1: Ship motion with 6 degree of freedom (from [1])

Figure 1.2: Displacement of the center of eﬀort due to change of the ship

draught (from [2])

12

1.2 Classiﬁcation of forces

According to the tradition used in ship hydrodynamics since almost a hun-

dred years, the forces acting upon the ship are subdivided into hydrostatic

forces, radiation and diﬀraction forces. This subdivision can be derived for-

mally utilizing the potential theory. The potential theory is still remaining

the theoretical basis for the determination of wave induced forces, since the

most contribution to these forces is caused by processes properly described

by inviscid ﬂow models.

Let us consider the plane progressive waves of amplitude A and direction ψ

w

are incident upon a ship, which moves in response to these waves. The ship

oscillation caused by waves can be written in the form

ζ

j

= ζ

0

j

sin ωt, j = 1, 2, ...6. (1.1)

The corresponding speeds of ship oscillations U

j

, j = 1, 2, ...6 are:

U

j

=

dζ

j

dt

= ζ

0

j

ω cos ωt, j = 1, 2, ...6. (1.2)

and accelerations:

a

j

=

dU

j

dt

= −ω

2

ζ

0

j

sin ωt, j = 1, 2, ...6. (1.3)

Here ζ

0

j

are small ship oscillations amplitudes and ω is the frequency. Within

the linear theory the ship oscillation frequency is equal to the incident wave

frequency. In what follows we use the linear theory and assume that the both

waves and ship motion are small. The total potential ϕ can be written, using

the superposition principle, in the form:

ϕ(x, y, z, t) =

6

j=1

U

j

ϕ

j

(x, y, z) + Aϕ

A

(x, y, z) cos ωt =

=

_

6

j=1

ζ

0

j

ωϕ

j

(x, y, z) + Aϕ

A

(x, y, z)

_

cos ωt

(1.4)

where

• ϕ

j

(x, y, z) is the velocity potential of the ship oscillation in j-th motion

with the unit amplitude ζ

0

j

= 1 in the absence of incident waves,

13

• ϕ

A

(x, y, z) is the potential taking the incident waves and their interac-

tion with the ship into account.

The ﬁrst potentials ϕ

j

(x, y, z) describes the radiation problem, whereas

the second one the wave diﬀraction problem. The potentials ϕ

j

(x, y, z)

and ϕ

A

are independent only in the framework of the linear theory assuming

the waves and ship motions are small. Within this theory ϕ

A

is calculated

for the ship ﬁxed in position.

The potentials must satisfy the Laplace equation ∆ϕ

j

= 0, ∆ϕ

A

= 0 and

appropriate boundary conditions. The boundary conditions to be imposed

on the ship surface are the no penetration conditions (see also formulae 3.18

in the Chapter 3 [6]):

• for radiation potentials

∂ϕ

1

∂n

= cos(n, x);

∂ϕ

2

∂n

= cos(n, y);

∂ϕ

3

∂n

= cos(n, z);

∂ϕ

4

∂n

= (y cos(n, z) −z cos(n, y));

∂ϕ

5

∂n

= (z cos(n, x) −x cos(n, z));

∂ϕ

6

∂n

= (x cos(n, y) −y cos(n, x)).

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

(1.5)

• for wave diﬀraction potentials

∂ϕ

A

∂n

= 0 (1.6)

where n is the normal vector to the ship surface, directed into the body,

(x, y, z) are the coordinates of a point on the ship surface. The r.h.s. of the

conditions (1.5) is the normal components of the ship local velocities caused

by particular oscillating motions.

The diﬀraction potential ϕ

A

is decomposed in two parts

ϕ

A

= ϕ

∞

+ ϕ

p

(1.7)

which ϕ

∞

is the potential of incident waves not perturbed by the ship pres-

ence and ϕ

p

is the perturbation potential describing the interaction between

14

the incident waves and the ship. The potential of regular waves ϕ

∞

is known

(see Chapter 6 in [6]). The boundary condition for ϕ

p

on the ship surface is

∂ϕ

p

∂n

= −

∂ϕ

∞

∂n

(1.8)

Away from the ship the radiation potentials ϕ

j

and the diﬀraction perturba-

tion potential ϕ

p

decay, i.e. ϕ

p

−−−→

r→∞

0, ϕ

j

−−−→

r→∞

0.

On the free surface the linearized mixed boundary condition (see formula (6.17)

in [6]) reads

∂

2

ϕ

∂t

2

+ g

∂ϕ

∂z

= 0 on z = 0. (1.9)

Substituting (1.4) in (1.9) yields for ϕ

j

(x, y, z) and ϕ

A

(x, y, z):

−

ω

2

g

ϕ

j

+

∂ϕ

j

∂z

= 0 on z = 0.

−

ω

2

g

ϕ

A

+

∂ϕ

A

∂z

= 0 on z = 0.

(1.10)

It is obvious from (1.10) that ϕ

j

(x, y, z) and ϕ

A

(x, y, z) depend on ω.

Additionally in the wave theory the radiation condition is imposed stating

that the waves on the free surface caused by the potentials are radiated away

from the ship. The potentials introduced above can be found using panel

methods.

The force and the moment on the ship are determined by integrating the

pressure over the wetted ship surface. The pressure can be found from the

Bernoulli equation written in the general form:

p +

ρu

2

2

+ ρgz + ρ

∂ϕ

∂t

= C(t) (1.11)

Here the potential is the potential of the perturbed motion. The constant C(t)

which is the same for the whole ﬂow domain is calculated from the condition

that the pressure on the free surface far from the ship is constant and equal

to the atmospheric pressure:

p

a

= C(t) (1.12)

Substituting (1.12) in (1.11) gives:

15

p −p

a

= −

ρu

2

2

−ρgz −ρ

∂ϕ

∂t

(1.12a)

Remembering that the ship speed is zero and perturbation velocities as well

as the velocities caused by incident waves are small we neglect the ﬁrst term

in (1.12a):

p −p

a

= −ρ

_

∂ϕ

∂t

+ gz

_

(1.13)

Together with (1.4) it gives

p −p

a

= ρ

_

6

j=1

ζ

0

j

ωϕ

j

(x, y, z) + Aϕ

A

(x, y, z)

_

ω sin ωt −ρgz (1.14)

The forces and the moment are then calculated by integration of p −p

a

over

the wetted ship area

F =

_

S

pndS,

M =

_

S

p(r ×n)dS. (1.15)

The normal vector direction in (1.15) is into the body. The vertical ordi-

nate z of any point on the wetted area can be represented as the diﬀerence

between the submergence under unperturbed free surface ζ and free surface

elevation ζ

0

. Substituting (1.14) in (1.15) one obtains

F = −ρg

_

S

nζdS + ρg

_

S

nζ

0

dS

+ ρ

6

j=1

ζ

0

j

ω

2

sin ωt

_

S

nϕ

j

dS+

+ ρ(Aω sin ωt)

_

S

n(ϕ

∞

+ ϕ

p

)dS

(1.16)

Four integrals in (1.16) represent four diﬀerent contributions to the total

force:

• the hydrostatic component (the ﬁrst term) acting on the ship oscillating

on the unperturbed free surface (in calm water),

16

• the hydrostatic component arising due to waves (the second term),

• the damping and the added mass component (the third term) and

• the hydrodynamic wave exciting force (the fourth term).

The moment is expressed through similar components.

The third term describes the force acting on the ship oscillating in calm water.

The last term arises due to incident waves acting on the ship. Within the

linear theory keeping only the terms proportional to the amplitude A and

neglecting small terms of higher orders proportional to ∼ A

n

, n > 1 one can

show that the integration in the last term can be done over the wetted area

corresponding to the equilibrium state. Thus, the last term describes the

force induced by waves on the ship at rest.

1.3 Radiation force components

Let us consider the second term of the force

F

2

= ρ

6

j=1

ζ

0

j

ω

2

sin ωt

_

S

nϕ

j

dS (1.17)

Each component of this force is expressed as

F

2i

= ρ

6

j=1

ζ

0

j

ω

2

sin ωt

_

S

n

i

ϕ

j

dS = −

6

j=1

c

ji

dU

j

dt

(1.18)

As shown by Haskind [17], the hydrodynamic coeﬃcient c

ji

is represented as

the sum of two coeﬃcients:

c

ji

= µ

ji

−

1

ω

λ

ji

The term −

1

ω

λ

ji

has been introduced to take the fact into account that the

force due to inﬂuence of the free surface depends not only on ω

2

but also

on ω. The force is then

F

2i

= −

6

j=1

_

µ

ji

−

1

ω

λ

ji

_

dU

j

dt

= −

6

j=1

µ

ji

a

j

−

6

j=1

λ

ji

U

j

_

t

s

= t −

π

2ω

_

(1.19)

17

As seen from (1.19) the ﬁrst component of the force is proportional to the

acceleration a

j

whereas the second one is proportional to the velocity U

j

.

The ﬁrst component is called the added mass component, whereas the sec-

ond one- the damping component.

Using the Green’s theorem, Haskind derived the following symmetry condi-

tions for the case zero forward speed:

c

ji

= c

ij

⇒

_

µ

ji

= µ

ij

λ

ji

= λ

ij

1.3.1 Hydrodynamic damping

There are two reasons of the hydrodynamic damping of the ship oscillations

on the free surface. First reason is the viscous damping which is proportional

to the square of the ship velocity ∼ C

Dj

ρU

2

j

2

S. Within the linear theory this

term proportional to the amplitude (ζ

0

j

)

2

is neglected. The main contribution

to the damping is done by the damping caused by radiated waves. When

oscillating on the free surface the ship generates waves which have the me-

chanic potential and kinetic energy. This wave energy is extracted from the

kinetic energy of the ship. Ship transfers its energy to waves which carry it

away from the ship. With the time the whole kinetic energy is radiated away

and the ship oscillations decay.

Similarly to the added mass one can introduce the damping coeﬃcients. The

full mechanic energy in the progressive wave with the amplitude A is (see

chapter 6.4 in [6])

E =

1

2

ρgA

2

(1.20)

per wave length.

The energy transported by waves through sides 1 and 2 (see Fig. 1.3) per

time unit is

δE = 2

1

2

ρgA

2

U (1.21)

where U is the wave group velocity. The damping coeﬃcient is deﬁned as

δE = λ

ij

U

2

j

(1.22)

18

Figure 1.3: Illustration to derivation of damping coeﬃcient

where λ

ij

is the coeﬃcient of damping in i-th direction when the ship oscil-

lates in j-th motion. U

2

j

is the time averaged square of the ship oscillations

speed. Obviously, U

2

j

=

(

ωζ

0

j

)

2

2

and

δE = λ

ij

_

ωζ

0

j

_

2

2

(1.23)

The group velocity (see formulae (6.39) and (6.40) in [6]):

U =

c

2

=

1

2

_

g

k

=

g

2ω

(1.24)

since kg = ω

2

(see formula (6.21) in [6]). Equating (1.21) and (1.23) one

obtains with account for (1.24)

ρgA

2

U = λ

ij

_

ωζ

0

j

_

2

2

⇓

ρgA

2

g

2ω

= λ

ij

_

ωζ

0

j

_

2

2

⇒ λ

ij

=

ρg

2

ω

3

_

A

ζ

0

j

_

2

(1.25)

The damping coeﬃcient λ

ij

depends on the square of the ratio of the wave

amplitude to the ship oscillation amplitude causing the wave.

The damping coeﬃcient of slender body can be found by integration of damp-

ing coeﬃcients of ship frames along the ship length

19

B

22

=

L/2

_

−L/2

λ

22

dx, B

33

=

L/2

_

−L/2

λ

33

dx, B

44

=

L/2

_

−L/2

λ

44

dx,

B

55

=

L/2

_

−L/2

x

2

λ

33

dx, B

66

=

L/2

_

−L/2

x

2

λ

22

dx

(1.26)

The damping coeﬃcients of diﬀerent frames are shown in Fig. 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7

and 1.8 taken from [2]. Solid lines show results obtained from the potential

theory. Generally, the results show the applicability of the potential theory

for calculation of damping coeﬃcients. The accuracy of prediction is not

satisfactory for the box B/T=8 in heave and B/T=2 in sway because of the

ﬂow separation at corners which has a suﬃcient impact on hydrodynamics

in these two cases. The agreement for λ

44

is not satisfactory (see Fig. 1.8)

because of dominating role of the viscosity for this type of damping. For the

semi circle frame the damping coeﬃcient in roll is zero λ

44

= 0 within the

inviscid theory. One hundred per cent of the roll damping is due to viscosity.

Usually λ

44

are determined using viscous ﬂow models. It is remarkable,

that the damping coeﬃcients depend on the frequency and amplitude (see

Fig. 1.8).

Figure 1.4: Added mass and damping coeﬃcient of the semi circle frame at

heave oscillations. Here A is the frame area.

1.3.2 Added mass component

When the ship oscillates, the force acting on the ship contains the component

associated with the added mass like in every case of accelerated body motion.

20

Figure 1.5: Added mass and damping coeﬃcient of the box frame at heave

oscillations. Here A is the frame area.

Figure 1.6: Added mass and damping coeﬃcient of the semi circle frame at

sway oscillations. Here A is the frame area.

Figure 1.7: Added mass and damping coeﬃcient of the box frame at sway

oscillations. Here A is the frame area.

The diﬀerence with the case of the motion in unlimited space is the presence

of the free surface. The added mass µ

ij

have to be calculated with account

for the free surface eﬀect. For their determination the panel methods can be

21

Figure 1.8: Added mass and damping coeﬃcient of the box frame at roll

(heel) oscillations. Here A is the frame area.

used. The problem is suﬃciently simpliﬁed in two limiting cases ω →0 and

ω →∞. The boundary condition (1.10) can be written in the form:

∂ϕ

j

∂z

= 0 for ω →0,

on z = 0.

ϕ

j

= 0 for ω →∞.

(1.27)

The conventional mirroring method can be used for the case ω →0 (Fig. 1.9).

The mirroring frame is moving in the same direction for surge, sway and yaw.

For the heave, roll and pitch the ﬁctitious frame is moving in the opposite di-

rection. At the free surface, these tricks make the normal components of the

total velocity induced by the actual and the ﬁctitious frames zero, i.e.

∂ϕ

j

∂z

= 0

on z = 0.

In the case ω → ∞ the tangential component of the total velocity should

be zero, since ϕ

j

= 0 ⇒ ϕ

j

=

x

_

−∞

∂ϕ

j

∂x

dx = 0 ⇒

∂ϕ

j

∂x

= 0 on z = 0. The

modiﬁed mirroring method is implemented for the case ω → ∞ (Fig. 1.10).

The ﬁctitious frame is moving in the opposite direction for surge, sway and

yaw. For the heave, roll and pitch the ﬁctitious frame is moving in the

same direction as that of the original frame. These tricks make the normal

components of the total velocity induced by the actual and the ﬁctitious

frames zero, i.e.

∂ϕ

j

∂z

= 0 at the free surface on z = 0.

Using mirroring method the added mass can be found using the panel with-

out explicit consideration of the free surface since it is taken into account by

ﬁctitious frames.

The added mass of slender body can be found by integration of added mass

22

Figure 1.9: Mirroring for the case ω →0

Figure 1.10: Mirroring for the case ω →∞

of ship frames along the ship length

A

22

=

L/2

_

−L/2

µ

22

dx, A

33

=

L/2

_

−L/2

µ

33

dx, A

44

=

L/2

_

−L/2

µ

44

dx,

A

55

=

L/2

_

−L/2

x

2

µ

33

dx, A

66

=

L/2

_

−L/2

x

2

µ

22

dx

(1.28)

The added mass of diﬀerent frames are shown in Fig. 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7 and 1.8

taken from [2]. Like in case of damping coeﬃcients the results of the potential

theory are not acceptable for roll added mass because of dominating role of

the viscosity. As seen from Fig. 1.4 - Fig. 1.8 the added mass depend on the

23

frequency ω.

1.4 Hydrostatic component

Let us the ship is in the equilibrium state. The ship weight is counterbalanced

by the hydrostatic lift. Due to small heave motion the equilibrium is violated

and an additional hydrostatic force appears. The vertical component of this

additional hydrostatic force can be calculated analytically from (1.16) for the

case of small heave motion

∆F

ζ

=

_

_

_

−ρg

_

S

cos(nz)zdS

_

_

_

T+ζ

−

_

_

_

−ρg

_

S

cos(nz)zdS

_

_

_

T

= −ρgA

WP

ζ

(1.29)

where ζ is the increment of the ship draught, A

WP

is the waterplane area

and T is the ship draught in the equilibrium state. The roll and pitch hy-

drostatic moments for small change of the roll and pitch angles are

M

ϕ

= −ρg∇

0

GM

γ

ϕ, (1.30)

M

ϑ

= −ρg∇

0

GM

L

ψ, (1.31)

where

ϕ and ψ are the roll and pitch angle respectively,

GM

γ

is the transverse metacentric height,

GM

L

is the longitudinal metacentric height and

∇

0

is the ship displacement.

1.5 Wave exciting force

The wave exciting force

F

per

= ρωAsin ωt

_

S

n(ϕ

∞

+ϕ

p

)dS contains two com-

ponents. The ﬁrst component, determined by the integration of the incident

potential ϕ

∞

, ρωAsin ωt

_

S

nϕ

∞

dS is referred to as the hydrodynamic part of

the Froude-Krylow force. This force called as the Smith eﬀect is calculated by

the integration of wave induced pressure as if the ship is fully transparent for

24

incident waves. The full Froude-Krylow force contains additionally the hydro-

static force arising due to change of the submerged part of the ship caused by

waves (the second term in (1.16)). The second component ρωAsin ωt

_

S

nϕ

P

dS

takes the diﬀraction eﬀect (the contribution of the scattering potential ϕ

p

to

pressure distribution) into account. As shown by Peters and Stokes the

Froude Krylov force is a dominating part of the wave induced forces for os-

cillations of slender ships in directions j=1 (surge), 3 (heave) and 5 (pitch).

1.6 Motion equations

The linearized decoupled motion equations of the ship oscillations are written

in the form

added mass damping hydrostatic wave exciting

force forces forces forces

m

¨

ξ = −A

11

¨

ξ −B

11

˙

ξ +F

ξ,per

(t),

m¨ η = −A

22

¨ η −B

22

˙ η +F

η,per

(t),

m

¨

ζ = −A

33

¨

ζ −B

33

˙

ζ −ρgA

WP

ζ +F

ζ,per

(t),

I

xx

¨ ϕ = −A

44

¨ ϕ −B

44

˙ ϕ −ρg∇

0

GM

γ

ϕ +M

ϕ,per

(t),

I

yy

¨

ψ = −A

55

¨

ψ −B

55

˙

ψ −ρg∇

0

GM

L

ψ +M

ψ,per

(t),

I

zz

¨

ϑ = −A

66

¨

ϑ −B

66

˙

ϑ +M

ϑ,per

(t).

(1.32)

The weight is not present in the second equation of the system (1.32) be-

cause it is counterbalanced by the hydrostatic force at rest. The additional

hydrostatic force −ρgA

WP

ζ is the diﬀerence between the weight and the full

hydrostatic force. The system (1.32) is written in the principle axes coordi-

nate system [7].

1.7 Haskind’s relation

One of the most outstanding results in the ship oscillations theory is the

relation derived by Max Haskind who developed in 1948 the famous linear

hydrodynamic theory of ship oscillations. Haskind shown how to calculate

the wave induced hydrodynamic force utilizing the radiation potentials ϕ

j

and the potential of incident waves ϕ

∞

. The determination of the diﬀraction

potential ϕ

p

what is quite diﬃcult can be avoided using this relation which

is valid for waves of arbitrary lengths.

25

The Green’s formula for two functions Φ and Ψ satisfying the Laplace equa-

tion is

_

S

w

_ _

Ψ

∂Φ

∂n

−Φ

∂Ψ

∂n

_

dS = 0, (1.33)

where S

w

is the ﬂow boundary (wetted ship surface plus the area away from

the ship, see the sample in Chapter/Section 3.2). Particularly, the rela-

tion (1.33) can be applied to radiation potentials ϕ

j

. Since the potential ϕ

p

satisﬁes the Laplace equation and the same boundary conditions as the ra-

diation potentials ϕ

j

, the Green’s formula (1.33) can also be applied to ϕ

j

and ϕ

p

_

S

w

_ _

ϕ

p

∂ϕ

j

∂n

−ϕ

j

∂ϕ

p

∂n

_

dS = 0 (1.34)

The last term in (1.16) is the wave induced force

F

ζ,per

= ρ(Aω sin ωt)

_

S

n(ϕ

∞

+ ϕ

p

) dS =

XAsin ωt

where

X = ρω

_

S

n(ϕ

∞

+ ϕ

p

) dS. Taking (1.5), (3.34) and (1.8) into account

we get

X

j

= ρω

_

S

w

_

(ϕ

∞

+ ϕ

p

)

∂ϕ

j

∂n

dS (1.35)

_

S

w

_

ϕ

p

∂ϕ

j

∂n

dS =

_

S

w

_

ϕ

j

∂ϕ

p

∂n

dS ⇒X

j

= ρω

_

S

w

_

_

ϕ

∞

∂ϕ

j

∂n

+ ϕ

j

∂ϕ

p

∂n

_

dS

∂ϕ

p

∂n

= −

∂ϕ

∞

∂n

χ = 90

◦

⇓

(1.36)

X

j

= ρω

_

S

w

_ _

ϕ

∞

∂ϕ

j

∂n

−ϕ

j

∂ϕ

∞

∂n

_

dS (1.37)

The formula (1.37) is the Haskind’s relation. As seen the wave induced force

can be calculated through the radiation and free wave potentials avoiding

26

the determination of the diﬀraction potential ϕ

p

.

The calculation of the integral (1.37) is a complicated problem because the

incident waves don’t decay away from the ship and the integral (1.37) should

be calculated over both the surface far from the ship and the ship wetted

surface. Note that the potential ϕ

∞

does not decay away from the ship. The

method of the stationary phase [8] allows one to come to the following force

expression using the Haskind’s relation (1.37):

F

i,per

= B

ii

˙

ζ

i

, where B

ii

=

k

8πρg(c/2)

2π

_

0

|X

i

(χ)|

2

dχ

Here c is the phase wave velocity (celerity) and χ is the course angle.

Let us consider the slender ship B(x, z) ∼ 0 in a beam wave (χ = 90

◦

).

The wetted area is approximately equal to the projection on the symmetry

plane y = 0, S

wetted

= [0, L]

[0, T].

X

j

= ρω

_

S

w

_ _

ϕ

∞

∂ϕ

j

∂n

−ϕ

j

∂ϕ

∞

∂n

_

dS ≈ ρω

_

S

w

_

ϕ

∞

∂ϕ

j

∂n

dS

∂ϕ

3

∂n

= cos(n, z) =

∂B

∂z

⇒X

3

≈ 2ρωω

_

S

w

_

ϕ

∞

∂B

∂z

dS

The coeﬃcient 2 arises due to the integration over two boards y = +B(x, z)

and y = −B(x, z). Using the potential of an Airy wave (see formulae (6.18)

in ([6]) estimated at y = 0 one can ﬁnd the potential ϕ

∞

:

ϕ =

Ag

ω

e

kz

sin(ky −ωt) ⇒ϕ

∞

= −ge

kz

/ω

For the case of a vertical cylinder for which the vertical force does not depend

on the wave course angle χ the damping coeﬃcient B

33

takes a very simple

form [8]:

B

33

=

2ρg

(c/2)

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

0

_

−T

e

kz

∂B

∂z

dz

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

2

(1.38)

27

1.8 Exercises

1. Schwimmender Balken

(a) Ist die Schwimmlage des Balkens stabil?

(b) Bleibt die Schwimmlage stabil, wenn die H¨ ohe h des Balkens 0, 15 m

betr¨ agt?

(c) Ab welcher Balkenh¨ohe wird die Schwimmlage instabil?

2. ([8]) Berechnen Sie die maximale elektrische Leistung einer Turbine,

die die ganze mechanische Energie einer Welle umwandelt. Die Welle

hat eine H¨ ohe von 1 m, eine L¨ange von 100 m und eine Breite von 1 km

in Richtung des Wellenkammes.

3. Hinter dem bildet sich ein station¨ ares Wellensystem.

Wie groß ist die Geschwindigkeit der Querwellen, wenn die Schiﬀs-

geschwindigkeit 10 m/sek betr¨agt?

4. Welche L¨ange haben die Querwellen hinter einem Schiﬀ, das sich mit

der Geschwindigkeit von 10 m/sek bewegt?

Wie groß ist die Wellenfrequenz?

5. Die Querwelle hinter einem Schiﬀ hat die Amplitude 1 m. Sch¨ atzen Sie

den Widerstand des Schiﬀes!

Benutzen Sie das Bild 6.12 aus dem Buch von Newman.

28

6. ([8])Das Modell eines Schiﬀes wird in einer sehr breiten Schlepprinne

mit der Geschwindigkeit 1 m/s 100 geschleppt. Die Modell¨ ange betr¨ agt 5 m.

Nach 100 Metern wird das Modell gestoppt. Wie viel Querwellen

beﬁnden sich in der Schlepprinne, wenn die Reﬂektion von Schlepprin-

nenseiten nicht auftritt?

Hinweis: Das Schiﬀ wird als Superposition von zwei Punktst¨orungen

betrachtet: Bug und Heck. Der Bug erzeugt die Welle. Das Heck

erzeugt die Welle. Gesamtes Wellenbild wird als Summe betrachtet:

Benutzen Sie die Formel (6.21) und die Aufgaben 2 und 3.

7. F¨ ur eine fortschreitende Welle mit der Amplitude 6 m und der L¨ ange 200 m

berechnen Sie die Phasengeschwindigkeit und die maximale Geschwindigkeit

der Wasserteilchen.

In welchen Punkten ist diese Geschwindigkeit maximal?

8. Task:

Develop the theory of vertical oscillations of a very sharp cone with

the draught T=10m and the diameter of 1m in regular and irregular

waves using the Haskind’s relation (1.38). The added mass A

33

can be

neglected.

29

30

Chapter 2

Free oscillations with small

amplitudes

2.1 Introduction

Let us consider a ship in the equilibrium position at calm water condition.

The ship has zero forward speed. If a perturbation acts on the ship, it

performs oscillating motions in three directions:

• heave,

• roll (heel),

• pitch.

Yaw, surge and sway motions did not arise at calm water conditions. The

reason is the presence of restoring hydrostatic forces in heave, roll and pitch

directions.

The motion equations of the free oscillation read:

(m + A

33

)

¨

ζ + B

33

˙

ζ + ρgA

WP

ζ = 0,

(I

xx

+ A

44

) ¨ ϕ + B

44

˙ ϕ + ρg∇

0

GM

γ

ϕ = 0,

(I

yy

+ A

55

)

¨

ψ + B

55

˙

ψ + ρg∇

0

GM

L

ψ = 0.

(2.1)

In ship theory the equations (2.1) are written in the normalized form:

¨

ζ + 2ν

ζ

˙

ζ + ω

2

ζ

ζ = 0,

¨ ϕ + 2ν

ϕ

˙ ϕ + ω

2

ϕ

ϕ = 0,

¨

ψ + 2ν

ψ

˙

ψ + ω

2

ψ

ψ = 0,

(2.2)

31

where

ν

ζ

=

B

33

2 (m + A

33

)

, ν

ϕ

=

B

44

2 (I

xx

+ A

44

)

, ν

ψ

=

B

55

2 (I

yy

+ A

55

)

(2.3)

are damping coeﬃcients and

ω

ζ

=

_

ρgA

WP

m + A

33

, ω

ϕ

=

_

ρg∇

0

GM

γ

I

xx

+ A

44

, ω

ψ

=

¸

ρg∇

0

GM

L

I

yy

+ A

55

(2.4)

are the eugen frequencies of non damped oscillations.

The equations (2.2) are fully independent of each other. The solutions of the

equations (2.2) written in the general form:

¨

ξ + 2ν

˙

ξ + ω

2

ξ = 0 (2.5)

is given as:

ξ = Ce

pt

(2.6)

Substitution of (2.6) into (2.5) yields the algebraic equation

p

2

+ 2νp + ω

2

= 0 (2.7)

which solution is

p

1,2

= −ν ±

√

ν

2

−ω

2

(2.8)

If the system has no damping the solution is

p

1,2

= iω →ξ = Ce

iωt

= C(cos ωt + i sin ωt) (2.9)

The system oscillates with the constant amplitude and frequency ω. That is

why the frequency ω is referred to as the eigenfrequency.

For real ships the damping coeﬃcient is smaller than the eigenfrequency ν < ω

and the equation (2.8) has two solutions:

p

1

= −ν + i

√

ω

2

−ν

2

= −ν + i¯ ω,

p

2

= −ν −i

√

ω

2

−ν

2

= −ν −i¯ ω,

(2.10)

In turn, the solution of the diﬀerential equation is

ξ = Ce

−νt

e

±i¯ ω

= Ce

−νt

(cos ¯ ωt ±i sin ¯ ωt) (2.11)

32

It describes damped oscillations with decaying amplitude which decrease is

governed by the factor e

−νt

, e

−νt

−−−→

t→∞

0. The rate of the decay is charac-

terized by the damping coeﬃcient ν. The frequency of damped oscillations

is

¯ ω =

√

ω

2

−ν

2

< ω (2.12)

Due to damping the frequency of the oscillations is shorter whereas the period

is longer:

T =

2π

¯ ω

=

2π

√

ω

2

−ν

2

(2.13)

Since ω ∼ ν

T =

2π

¯ ω

=

2π

√

ω

2

−ν

2

≈

2π

ω

(2.14)

From (2.12) and (2.14) we obtain the frequencies for diﬀerent types of oscil-

lations which are listed in the table below:

Table 2.1: Frequencies and periods of diﬀerent oscillation types

Oscillation Eigenfrequency Frequency of Period of

damped oscillations oscillations

Heave ω

ζ

=

_

ρgA

WP

m+A

33

¯ ω

ζ

=

_

ω

2

ζ

−ν

2

ζ

T

ζ

= 2π

_

m+A

33

ρgA

WP

Rolling ω

ϕ

=

_

ρg∇

0

GM

γ

I

xx

+A

44

¯ ω

ϕ

=

_

ω

2

ϕ

−ν

2

ϕ

T

ϕ

= 2π

_

I

xx

+A

44

ρg∇

0

GM

γ

Pitch ω

ψ

=

_

ρg∇

0

GM

L

I

yy

+A

55

¯ ω

ψ

=

_

ω

2

ψ

−ν

2

ψ

T

ψ

= 2π

_

I

yy

+A

55

ρg∇

0

GM

L

The damping is characterized by the logarithmic decrement which is the

logarithm of the ratio of the oscillation amplitude at the time instant t to

that at the time instant t+T, i.e.

ξ(t)

ξ(t + T)

=

e

−νt

e

−ν(t+T)

= e

νT

(2.15)

The logarithm of the ratio (2.15) is

ln

ξ(t)

ξ(t + T)

= ln

e

−νt

e

−ν(t+T)

= lne

νT

=

2πν

¯ ω

(2.16)

The ratio

ν

¯ ω

is called as the referred damping factor ¯ ν. The decay of the oscil-

lation amplitude is equal to this factor multiplied by 2π. Referred damping

factors for diﬀerent types of oscillation can be found from this deﬁnition. The

results obtained under assumption ω ∼ ν → ¯ ω ≈ ω are listed in the table 2.2.

33

If the metacentric heights GM

γ

and GM

L

are getting larger, the periods T

ϕ

=

2π

_

I

xx

+A

44

ρg∇

0

GM

γ

and T

ψ

= 2π

_

I

yy

+A

55

ρg∇

0

GM

L

as well as the damping factors ¯ ν

ϕ

=

B

44

2

√

(I

xx

+A

44

)ρg∇

0

GM

γ

and ¯ ν

ψ

=

B

55

2

√

(I

yy

+A

55

)ρg∇

0

GM

L

decrease. Therefore, the

smaller are the metacentric heights the larger are the oscillations periods

and the less oscillations are necessary to decay. The time of decay depends

only on damping and doesn’t depend on the metacentric height.

Table 2.2: Referred damping factors for diﬀerent oscillation types

Oscillation Referred damping factor

Heave ¯ ν

ζ

=

B

33

2

√

(m+A

33

)ρgA

WP

Rolling ¯ ν

ϕ

=

B

44

2

√

(I

xx

+A

44

)ρg∇

0

GM

γ

Pitch ¯ ν

ψ

=

B

55

2

√

(I

yy

+A

55

)ρg∇

0

GM

L

2.2 Exercise

1. ϕ

0

is the roll angle at t = 0. Find the number of periods N of free roll

oscillations necessary to reduce the amplitude oscillations by factor e

−a

.

What is inﬂuence of the metacentric height on N?

2. The period of undamped oscillations is T. The referred damping fac-

tor ¯ ν is 0,2.

Calculate the period of damped oscillations!

Calculate the reduction of the amplitude within the period of damped

and undamped oscillations!

3. Typical periods of roll and pitch oscillations for diﬀerent ships are [9]:

Ship T

ϕ

, sec T

ψ

, sec

tanker 9 ... 15 7 ... 11

ice breaker 8 ... 12 3 ... 5

trawler 6 ... 8 3 ... 4

big cruise liner 20 ... 28 10 ... 12

container ships (20000 −30000 t) 16 ... 19 7 ... 9

Explain why T

ϕ

> T

ψ

.

34

4. The periods of oscillations can be estimated from the following simple

empiric formulae [9]

T

ζ

≈ 2.5

√

T, T

ψ

≈ 2.4

√

T, T

ϑ

≈ cB/

_

GM

γ

,

where T and B are draught and beam. The empiric coeﬃcient c is

equal approximately 0, 8...0, 85 for big cruise liners.

Calculate the change of the period of roll oscillations of a cruise liner if

a load with mass 1 ton is elevated in vertical direction from 10 m from

the keel line to the 1 meters from the keel line! The ship displacement

is 20 000 t and the beam is 30 m.

35

36

Chapter 3

Ship oscillations in small

transverse waves (beam see)

The formalism developed in this chapter is based on the following assump-

tions:

• waves are regular,

• waves amplitudes related to the wave lengths are small. Wave slope is

small.

• wave length is much larger than the ship width,

• The ship has zero forward speed.

From the ﬁrst two assumptions it follows, that the collective action of waves

on ship can be considered through the superposition principle. Therefore,

the theory can be developed for the interaction of the ship with a single wave

with given length and amplitude. The eﬀects of diﬀerent waves are then

summed. For the case of small waves the oscillations are decoupled. The

hydrodynamic, hydrostatic and gyroscopic coupling eﬀects are neglected.

The perturbation forces (see the last column in the equation system (1.32))

arise due to wave induced change of the hydrostatic forces and due to hy-

drodynamic eﬀects caused by orbital motion in waves. The orbital motion

causes the hydrodynamic pressure change which results in the wave induced

hydrodynamic forces.

In each frame, the pressure gradient induced by waves is assumed to be

constant along the frame contour and equal to the pressure gradient at the

centre A on the free surface. When considering the roll and pitch oscillations

37

in transverse waves it is additionally assumed that the ship draught change ζ

and the ship slope relatively to the free surface are constant along the ship.

The wave ordinate is given by the formula derived for the progressive wave

(see Chapter 6 in [6])

ζ

0

= Asin (ωt + kχ) (3.1)

where A is the amplitude, χ is the wave propagation direction and ω is the

frequency.

In this section the incident waves are perpendicular to the ship (see Fig.3.1).

The wave propagation direction is in η direction, i.e. χ = η. The waves induce

roll and heave oscillations. The curvature of the free surface is neglected, the

free surface is considered as the plane performing angular oscillations and

translational oscillations in vertical direction.

Figure 3.1:

3.1 Hydrostatic forces and moments

The hydrostatic forces during the heave oscillations are calculated neglecting

the wave surface slope. The hydrostatic force acting on the ship with draft

increment ζ in the wave with the ordinate ζ

0

(see Fig.3.2) is

F

hydr

ζ

= −ρgA

WP

(ζ −ζ

0

) = −ρgA

WP

(ζ −Asin ωt) (3.2)

where η = 0 at the point A. Since the wave slope is neglected, the de-

pendence of ζ

0

on ζ is not considered. The ﬁrst part −ρgA

WP

ζ is the

38

Figure 3.2: Illustration of hydrostatic force

restoring hydrostatic force which is already present in (1.32). The second

part ρgA

WP

Asin ωt is the wave induced hydrostatic force.

The additional hydrostatic moment is determined from the analysis of the

Figure 3.3.

Figure 3.3: Illustration of hydrostatic moment

The relative slope of the ship to the free surface is ϕ−α, where α is the wave

39

surface slope

α =

dζ

0

dη

¸

¸

¸

¸

η−0

= Ak cos ωt =

ω

2

g

Acos ωt = α

A

cos ωt (3.3)

α

A

is the amplitude of the angular water plane oscillations. The hydrostatic

pressure increases linearly in direction perpendicular to the free surface plane.

Therefore, the restoring moment is the same as in the case if the free surface is

horizontal and the ship is inclined at the angle ϕ−α. The restoring moment

is known from the ship hydrostatics

M

hydr

ϕ

= −ρg∇

0

GM

γ

(ϕ −α) = −ρg∇

0

GM

γ

(ϕ −α

A

cos ωt) (3.4)

The ﬁrst part −ρg∇

0

GM

γ

ϕ is the restoring hydrostatic moment, whereas the

second part ρg∇

0

GM

γ

α

A

cos ωt is the wave induced hydrostatic moment.

3.2 Hydrodynamic Krylov - Froude force

Hydrodynamic forces arise due to wave induced hydrodynamic pressures.

From the Bernoulli equation the pressure is (see (1.13)).

p = −

ρu

2

2

−ρgz −ρ

∂ϕ

∂t

+ p

a

(3.5)

The constant pressure p

a

does not need to be considered since being inte-

grated over the ship wetted surface results in zero force and moment. The

ﬁrst term in (3.5) is neglected within the linear theory under consideration.

The second term results in force and moment considered above in the sec-

tion 3.1. The remaining term p

unst

= −ρ

∂ϕ

∂t

is responsible for hydrodynamic

eﬀects caused by waves. If the interaction between the ship and incident

waves is neglected (Krylov - Froude formalism) the potential can be written

as the potential of uniform unsteady parallel ﬂow:

ϕ = u

ζ

(t)ζ (3.6)

where u

ζ

(t) is unsteady velocity of the ﬂow in the wave

u

ζ

(t) =

dζ

0

dt

(3.7)

Since the unsteady pressure p

unst

= −ρ

∂ϕ

∂t

= −ρζ

∂u

ζ

∂t

is zero at ζ = 0 the

total pressure is equal to the atmospheric pressure p = p

a

(see (3.5)). The

gradient of the hydrodynamic pressure in vertical direction reads:

∂p

unst

∂ζ

= −ρ

∂

∂ζ

_

∂ϕ

∂t

_

= −ρ

∂

∂t

_

∂ϕ

∂ζ

_

= −ρ

∂u

ζ

(t)

∂t

= −ρ

¨

ζ

0

= ρω

2

Asin ωt

(3.8)

40

The unsteady pressure at the point ζ < 0 is then:

p

unst

(ζ) = p

unst

(ζ = 0) −

ζ

_

0

∂p

unst

∂z

dz =

0

_

ζ

∂p

unst

∂z

dz

The force caused by p

unst

on each frame is calculated by the integration of

the pressure over the frame wetted area

dF

dyn

ζ

=

_

p

unst

cos(nζ)dC =

_

_

_

0

_

ζ

∂p

unst

∂z

dz

_

_

cos(nζ)dC =

=

_

_

_

0

_

ζ

ρω

2

Asin ωtdz

_

_

cos(nζ)dC = ρω

2

Asin ωt

_

ζ cos(nζ)dC

(3.9)

Here the normal vector is the inward normal vector.

Since the integral

_

ζ cos(nζ)dC is equal to the frame area taken with the

opposite sign, i.e. −A

f

, the hydrodynamic force caused by waves takes the

form:

dF

dyn

ζ

= −ρω

2

Asin ωtA

f

(3.10)

Being integrated along the ship length this force gives the force acting on the

whole ship length

F

dyn

ζ

=

L

_

0

dF

dyn

ζ

dξ = −

L

_

0

ρω

2

Asin ωtA

f

dξ =

= −ω

2

Asin ωt

L

_

0

ρA

f

dξ = −mω

2

Asin ωt = m

¨

ζ

0

(3.11)

The hydrodynamic moment acting on the ship frame

dM

dyn

ϕ

=

_

p

unst

(η cos(nζ) −ζ cos(nη))dC =

= ρω

2

Asin ωt

_

ζ(η cos(nζ) −ζ cos(nη))dC

(3.12)

Within the linear theory considering small ship slopes the last integral in (3.12)

is zero, i.e.

dM

dyn

ϕ

= 0 →M

dyn

ϕ

=

L

_

0

dM

dyn

ϕ

= 0 (3.13)

41

3.3 Full Krylov - Froude force and moment

The full Froude Krylov force takes the form:

F

l

ζ

= ρgA

WP

Asin ωt −mω

2

Asin ωt = ρgA

WP

Asin ωt + m

¨

ζ

0

(3.14)

The ﬁrst term is caused by hydrostatic eﬀect, whereas the second one by

hydrodynamic eﬀects. The second term is referred in the literature to as the

Smith eﬀect.

The full Froude Krylov moment contains only the wave induced hydrostatic

component:

M

l

ϕ

= ρg∇

0

GM

γ

α

A

cos ωt (3.15)

3.4 Force and moment acting on the ship frame

in accelerated ﬂow

These forces are determined using the concept of the relative motion. Let

us ζ

j

is a ship displacement in j-th direction. As it has been explained in pre-

vious chapters, the force acting on the body moving with the acceleration

¨

ζ

j

in a liquid at rest is equal to the product of added mass with the acceleration

taken with opposite sign, i.e. −A

jj

¨

ζ

j

. If the liquid moves with the accelera-

tion

¨

ζ

jL

relative to motionless body, the force acting on the body is towards

the acceleration direction, i.e. A

jj

¨

ζ

jL

. If both body and liquid move with ac-

celerations the total force is −A

jj

(

¨

ζ

j

−

¨

ζ

jL

). Similarly, the damping force can

introduced being proportional to the relative velocity −B

jj

(

˙

ζ

j

−

˙

ζ

jL

). The

ﬁrst components of both forces −A

jj

¨

ζ

j

and −B

jj

˙

ζ

j

are already represented

by the ﬁrst and the second columns in the motion equations (1.32). The sec-

ond components A

jj

¨

ζ

jL

and B

jj

˙

ζ

jL

represent the hydrodynamic forces due

to interaction between the incident waves and ﬂoating body. Remembering

that

˙

ζ

jL

= ωAcos ωt and

¨

ζ

jL

= −ω

2

Asin ωt we obtain the lift force caused

by the interaction between the ship and incident wave:

F

2

ζ

= −A

33

ω

2

Asin ωt + B

33

ωAcos ωt (3.16)

In roll oscillations the ship moves with the angular velocity ˙ ϕ and angular

acceleration ¨ ϕ. The free surface oscillates with the angular velocity ˙ α and

acceleration ¨ α. Taking α from (3.3) we obtain the roll moment caused by

the interaction between the ship and incident wave:

M

2

ϕ

= −A

44

ω

2

α

A

cos ωt −B

44

ωα

A

sin ωt = −A

44

ω

4

g

Acos ωt −B

44

ω

3

g

Asin ωt

(3.17)

42

3.5 Full wave induced force and moment

In the section 1.5 we divided the wave induced forces into the Froude Krylov

part and the interaction force. Commonly, the Froude Krylov force is the

dominating part of the wave induced forces.

To calculate the full wave induced force we have to note that the Smith eﬀect

is already represented in the force A

jj

¨

ζ

jL

+B

jj

˙

ζ

jL

. All hydrodynamic eﬀects

are taken into account. Only the hydrostatic part of the Froude Krylov force

should be added to A

jj

¨

jL + B

jj

˙

ζ

j

L to get the full wave induced force:

F

ζ,per

=

_

ρgA

WP

−ω

2

A

33

¸

Asin ωt + B

33

ωAcos ωt (3.18)

The full moment is the sum of (3.15) and (3.17):

M

ϕ,per

=

_

ρg∇

0

GM

γ

−A

44

ω

2

_

ω

2

g

Acos ωt −B

44

ω

3

g

Asin ωt (3.19)

3.6 Equations of ship heave and roll oscilla-

tions

Substitution of all forces derive above into the original diﬀerential equations

results in two following decoupled ordinary diﬀerential equations

(m + A

33

)

_

¨

ζ −

¨

ζ

0

_

+ B

33

_

˙

ζ −

˙

ζ

0

_

+ ρgA

WP

(ζ −ζ

0

) = −m

¨

ζ

0

(3.20)

(I

xx

+ A

44

) ( ¨ ϕ − ¨ α) + B

44

( ˙ ϕ − ˙ α) + ρg∇

0

GM

γ

(ϕ −α) = −I

xx

¨ α. (3.21)

The solution of both equations can be represented as the sum ζ = ζ

inh

+ζ

free

ϕ = ϕ

inh

+ ϕ

free

, where ζ

free

and ϕ

free

are free heave oscillations:

ϕ

free

= Ce

−ν

ϕ

t

(cos ¯ ω

ϕ

t ±i sin ¯ ω

ϕ

t), ζ

free

= Ce

−ν

ζ

t

(cos ¯ ω

ζ

t ±i sin ¯ ω

ζ

t) satis-

fying the homogeneous equations:

(m + A

33

)

¨

ζ + B

33

˙

ζ + ρgA

WP

ζ = 0

(I

xx

+ A

44

) ¨ ϕ + B

44

˙ ϕ + ρg∇

0

GM

γ

ϕ = 0.

When the free oscillations decay ϕ

free

, ζ

free

−−−→

t→∞

0, the solutions of the

equation (3.20) and (3.21) tend to the solutions of inhomogeneous equations:

(m + A

33

)

¨

ζ + B

33

˙

ζ + ρgA

WP

ζ = A

33

¨

ζ

0

+ B

33

˙

ζ

0

+ ρgA

WP

ζ

0

(I

xx

+ A

44

) ¨ ϕ + B

44

˙ ϕ + ρg∇

0

GM

γ

ϕ = A

44

¨ α + B

44

˙ α + ρg∇

0

GM

γ

α.

(3.22)

43

The inhomogeneous equation (3.21) is written in terms of relative roll an-

gle ϕ

(r)

= ϕ −α in the normalized form:

¨ ϕ

(r)

+ 2ν

ϕ

˙ ϕ

(r)

+ ω

2

ϕ

ϕ

(r)

=

ω

2

1 + k

ϕ

α

A

cos ωt, (3.23)

where k

ϕ

= A

44

/I

xx

. The solution of (3.23) is seeking in the form

ϕ

(r)

= ϕ

(r)

A

cos (ωt −δ

ϕ

) (3.24)

Substituting (3.24) into (3.23) and separating terms proportional to cos ωt

and sin ωt gives two equations:

ϕ

(r)

A

_

(ω

2

ϕ

−ω

2

) cos δ

ϕ

+ 2ν

ϕ

ω sin δ

ϕ

¸

=

ω

2

1 + k

ϕ

α

A

(3.25)

ϕ

(r)

A

_

−2ν

ϕ

ω cos δ

ϕ

+ (ω

2

ϕ

−ω

2

) sin δ

ϕ

¸

= 0 (3.26)

It follows from (3.25) and (3.26)

_

ϕ

(r)

A

_

2

_

_

ω

2

ϕ

−ω

2

_

2

cos

2

δ

ϕ

+ 4ν

2

ϕ

ω

2

sin

2

δ

ϕ

+ 4ν

ϕ

ω sin δ

ϕ

_

ω

2

ϕ

−ω

2

_

cos δ

ϕ

¸

=

ω

4

(1 + k

ϕ

)

2

α

2

A

_

ϕ

(r)

A

_

2

_

_

ω

2

ϕ

−ω

2

_

2

sin

2

δ

ϕ

+ 4ν

2

ϕ

ω

2

cos

2

δ

ϕ

−

−4ν

ϕ

ω cos δ

ϕ

_

ω

2

ϕ

−ω

2

_

sin δ

ϕ

¸

= 0.

The sum of two last equations

_

ϕ

(r)

A

_

2

_

_

ω

2

ϕ

−ω

2

_

2

+ 4ν

2

ϕ

ω

2

cos

2

δ

ϕ

_

=

ω

4

(1 + k

ϕ

)

2

α

2

A

allows one to ﬁnd the ratio ϕ

(r)

A

/α

A

ϕ

(r)

A

α

A

=

ˆ ω

2

ϕ

/ (1 + k

ϕ

)

_

_

1 − ˆ ω

2

ϕ

_

2

+ 4ˆ ν

2

ϕ

ˆ ω

2

ϕ

, (3.27)

where ˆ ω

ϕ

=

ω

ω

ϕ

and ˆ ν

ϕ

=

ν

ϕ

ω

ϕ

. Eigenfrequency ω

ϕ

and damping coeﬃcient ν

ϕ

are given by formulae (2.3) and (2.4). The phase of the response relative to

that of the input (phase displacement) is found from (3.26):

δ

ϕ

= arctg

_

2ˆ ν

ϕ

ˆ ω

ϕ

1 − ˆ ω

2

ϕ

_

(3.28)

44

Similar solutions are obtained for the heave oscillations:

ζ

(r)

A

A

=

ˆ ω

2

ζ

/(1 + k

ζ

)

_

(1 − ˆ ω

2

ζ

)

2

+ 4ˆ ν

2

ζ

ˆ ω

2

ζ

(3.29)

δ

ζ

= arctg

_

2ˆ ν

ζ

ˆ ω

ζ

1 − ˆ ω

2

ζ

_

(3.30)

with k

ζ

= A

33

/m, ˆ ω

ζ

=

ω

ω

ζ

and ˆ ν

ζ

=

ν

ζ

ω

ζ

.

3.7 Analysis of the formula (3.27)

The formula (3.27) can be rewritten as follows:

ϕ

(r)

A

α

A

=

ϕ

A

−α

A

α

A

=

ˆ ω

2

ϕ

/ (1 + k

ϕ

)

_

_

1 − ˆ ω

2

ϕ

_

2

+ 4ˆ ν

2

ϕ

ˆ ω

2

ϕ

or

ϕ

A

α

A

= 1 +

ˆ ω

2

ϕ

/ (1 + k

ϕ

)

_

_

1 − ˆ ω

2

ϕ

_

2

+ 4ˆ ν

2

ϕ

ˆ ω

2

ϕ

(3.31)

The physical meaning of terms in (3.31) is obvious from the following expres-

sion

amplitude of ship roll oscillations

amplitude of wave angle oscillations

= 1 + enhancement (3.32)

Since the function

ˆ ω

2

ϕ

/(1+k

ϕ

)

(

1−ˆ ω

2

ϕ

)

2

+4ˆ ν

2

ϕ

ˆ ω

2

ϕ

is positive

ˆ ω

2

ϕ

/(1+k

ϕ

)

(

1−ˆ ω

2

ϕ

)

2

+4ˆ ν

2

ϕ

ˆ ω

2

ϕ

> 0 the ship

roll amplitude is larger than the the amplitude of the angular water plane

oscillations α

A

, i.e.

ϕ

A

α

A

> 1.

Figure 3.4: Ship as linear system

45

The ship can be considered as a system with the waves as input and the

resulting motion as the output (Fig.3.4). As seen from (3.31) this system is

linear for small amplitude oscillations. In terms of linear system theory the

formula (3.31) reads

output

input

= 1 + enhancement (3.33)

The linear system is time invariant. The output produced by a given in-

put is independent of the time at which the input is applied. The function

1 + enhancement which characterizes the system response in the frequency

domain is called the frequency response function.

The enhancement function

ˆ ω

2

ϕ

/(1+k

ϕ

)

(

1−ˆ ω

2

ϕ

)

2

+4ˆ ν

2

ϕ

ˆ ω

2

ϕ

goes to zero if referred frequency

becomes zero. At very large frequencies ω →∞,

ˆ ω

2

ϕ

/(1+k

ϕ

)

(

1−ˆ ω

2

ϕ

)

2

+4ˆ ν

2

ϕ

ˆ ω

2

ϕ

→1/ (1 + k

ϕ

).

The enhancement is maximum in the resonance case ˆ ω

ϕ

=

ω

ω

ϕ

=

1

√

1−2ˆ ν

2

ϕ

⇒

ω =

ω

ϕ

√

1−2ˆ ν

ϕ

. Strictly speaking the resonance frequency ω =

ω

ϕ

√

1−2ˆ ν

2

ϕ

is not

equal to the eigenfrequency ω

ϕ

, i.e. ω > ω

ϕ

. Since ˆ ν

ϕ

is small, this discrep-

ancy can be neglected ω ≈ ω

ϕ

. Typical dependence of the ratio

ϕ

(r)

A

α

A

on the

referred frequency is presented in Fig. 3.5.

Figure 3.5: Response function versus referred frequency

Typical dependence of the phase displacement on the referred frequency is

presented in Fig. 3.6.

46

Figure 3.6: Phase displacement versus referred frequency

The phase displacement is equal to π/2 in the resonance case ˆ ω

ϕ

= 1 for

every damping. For ˆ ω

ϕ

=

ω

ω

ϕ

→ 0 the phase displacement disappears. For

ˆ ω

ϕ

=

ω

ω

ϕ

→ ∞ the phase displacement tends to π. The largest relative

roll angle occurs in the resonance case either at wave crests or at wave

troughs (Fig. 3.7). Indeed, the magnitude of the relative roll angle in the

resonance case ϕ

(r)

= ϕ

(r)

A

cos

_

ωt −

π

2

_

= ϕ

(r)

A

sin ωt attains the maximum

ϕ

(r)

A

at sin ωt = ±1. It corresponds to wave crest ζ

0

= Asin ωt = A and wave

trough ζ

0

= −A.

Figure 3.7: Ship oscillations in resonance case

At very large metacentric height GM

γ

→ ∞ the eigenfrequency is also get-

ting large ω

ϕ

=

_

ρg∇

0

GM

γ

I

xx

+A

44

→∞. The referred frequency for a limited wave

frequency ω ∼ ∞ tends to zero ˆ ω

ϕ

=

ω

ω

ϕ

→ 0. The relative roll angle am-

plitude and phase displacement are zero. The ﬂoating body moves together

with the free surface as shown in Fig. 3.8 like a raft.

Similar results are obtained from analysis of the heave oscillations formu-

47

Figure 3.8: Oscillation of a raft with a big metacentric height

lae (3.29) and (3.30).

3.8 Sway ship oscillations in beam sea

The equation describing the sway oscillations is (see the second equation in

the system (1.32)):

m¨ η = −A

22

¨ η −B

22

˙ η + F

η,per

(t) (3.34)

The wave exciting force F

η,per

(t) consists of two components of hydrostatic

and hydrodynamics nature. As seen from Fig. 3.9 the hydrostatic force is

F

hyd

η

= −ρg∇

0

α = −ρ∇

0

ω

2

Acos ωt = −mω

2

Acos ωt (3.35)

Figure 3.9: Illustration of the frame in beam waves

The horizontal oscillations of the wave surface can be presented in harmonic

48

form (see formula (6.23) in [6]):

˙ η

0

(y, z) = Aωe

kz

cos(ky −ωt),

˙ η

0

(0, 0) = Aω cos(ωt) ⇒η

0

(0, 0) = Asin(ωt)

¨ η

0

= −Aω

2

cos ωt

(3.36)

The hydrodynamic component of the wave induced force is written in the

similar form as (3.16):

F

2

η

= A

22

¨ η

0

+ B

22

˙ η

0

(3.37)

Substitution of (3.37) and (3.35) into (3.34) gives:

m¨ η = −A

22

¨ η −B

22

˙ η + m¨ η

0

+ A

22

¨ η

0

+ B

22

˙ η

0

(3.38)

or

(m + A

22

)(¨ η − ¨ η

0

) + B

22

( ˙ η − ˙ η

0

) = 0 (3.39)

The solution of the equation is written in the form:

(η −η

0

) = Ce

λt

(3.40)

which substitution into (3.39) allows one to ﬁnd λ

λ = −

B

22

m + A

22

(3.41)

The parameter λ is positive. Therefore, (η−η

0

) = Ce

λt

−−−→

t→∞

0 ⇒η −−−→

t→∞

η

0

.

As soon the transitional process is ﬁnished, the ship oscillates together with

the wave

η = η

0

= Asin ωt (3.42)

3.9 Ship oscillations at ﬁnite beam to wave

length ratio and draught to length ratio

The analysis presented above was carried out for the case of a very long wave,

i.e. both the beam to length ratio B/L and the draught to length ratio T/L

are small. The results for roll oscillation obtained for the case B/L ≈ 0,

T/L ≈ 0 are extended to the case B/L ∼ 0(1), T/L ∼ 0(1) using reduction

coeﬃcients. According to this traditional in shipbuilding approach the wave

amplitude is multiplied with the reduction coeﬃcient κ, i.e.

A

red

= κA (3.43)

The ship oscillations at B/L ∼ 0(1), T/L ∼ 0(1) are smaller than these at

B/L ≈ 0, T/L ≈ 0 due to two reasons

49

• Hydrostatic force is smaller because the submerged volume is smaller

due to wave surface curvature,

• Hydrodynamic force is smaller because the velocities caused by the

orbital motion are not constant as assumed above. They decay with

the increasing submergence as ∼ exp(−kz).

The ﬁrst reduction factor is mainly due to the ﬁnite beam to length ratio

B/L ∼ 0(1).

Let us consider ﬁrst the reduction coeﬃcient for the heave oscillations. The

factor κ

Bζ

considers the reduction of the hydrostatic force due to the ﬁnite

beam to length ratio. To estimate κ

Bζ

the ﬁxed ship is considered at the time

instant ωt = π/2 when the wave crest is in the symmetry plane (Fig. 3.10).

Figure 3.10:

The free surface ordinate

ζ

0

= Asin

_

π

2

+ kη

_

= Acos kη

The hydrostatic force obtained in the previous analysis is

R

0

= ρgAA

wp

(3.44)

50

whereas the actual one is calculated by the integral:

R

true

= ρgA

_

A

wp

cos kηdξdη = 2ρgA

L/2

_

−L/2

B(ξ)/2

_

0

cos kηdηdξ =

=

2ρgA

k

L/2

_

−L/2

sin

kB(ξ)

2

dξ

(3.45)

Using the Taylor expansion for sin kB(ξ)

sin

kB(ξ)

2

=

kB

2

−

(kB)

3

48

+ ...

the ﬁnal formula for R

true

takes the form:

R

true

=

2ρgA

k

L/2

_

−L/2

sin

kB(ξ)

2

dξ ≈

2ρgA

k

L/2

_

−L/2

_

kB/2 −

(kB)

3

48

_

dξ =

= ρgAA

wp

−

ρgAk

2

24

L/2

_

−L/2

B

3

dξ = ρgAA

wp

_

1 −

k

2

2

I

A

wp

_

,

(3.46)

where

A

wp

=

L/2

_

−L/2

Bdξ, I =

1

12

L/2

_

−L/2

B

3

dξ,

The reduction of the hydrostatic force can be taken by the following coeﬃ-

cient into account:

κ

Bζ

=

ρgAA

wp

_

1 −

k

2

2

I

A

wp

_

ρgAA

wp

= 1 −

k

2

2

I

A

wp

(3.47)

The second reduction factor is mainly due to the ﬁnite draught to length ratio

T/L ∼ 0(1). The factor κ

Tζ

considers the reduction of the hydrodynamic

force due to the ﬁnite draught to length ratio. The reduction coeﬃcient is

given here without derivation:

κ

Tζ

= 1 −χ

_

2π

T

L

_

+

χ

2(2 −χ)

_

2π

T

L

_

2

−

χ

6(3 −2χ)

_

2π

T

L

_

3

(3.48)

51

where χ is the coeﬃcient of the lateral area χ = A

LA

/(LT).

The total reduction coeﬃcient κ

ζ

is calculated as the product of κ

Bζ

and κ

Tζ

neglecting their mutual inﬂuence:

κ

ζ

= κ

Bζ

κ

Tζ

(3.49)

The formula (3.49) is valid at

L

B

> 4,

L

T

> 8. For heave calculations one can

use the formula (3.29) with Aκ

ζ

instead of A.

Reduction coeﬃcient of the roll oscillations can be calculated from the ex-

pression gained from regression of experimental data:

κ

ϕ

= exp

_

−4.2 (Rˆ ω

ϕ

)

2

_

, R = χω

ϕ

_

_

BTχ

r

γ

/GM

γ

2πg

_

1/2

(3.50)

Here r

γ

is the metacentric radius. Amplitude of roll oscillations is found

from (3.31) with α

A

κ

ϕ

instead of α

A

. A sample of the reduction coeﬃcient

for a real ship is presented in Fig. 3.11.

Figure 3.11: Reduction coeﬃcient of the heave oscillations

3.10 Eﬀect of ship speed on rolling

In the previous chapters the ship speed was assumed to be zero. If the ship

moves in waves with speed v in x-direction the following modiﬁcations should

be made in theory

52

Figure 3.12: Sea classiﬁcation

• the added mass A

ij

and damping coeﬃcients B

ij

depend on the en-

counter frequency

ω

e

= ω −ω

2

v cos ϕ

wave

g

where χ is encounter angle (Fig. 3.12)

• reduction coeﬃcient x (3.43) depends on ω

• In the hydrodynamic theory one uses time derivative in ship coordinate

system

∂ϕ

∂t

which can be expressed through the time derivative in the

inertial reference system

∂ϕ

∂t

0

as

∂ϕ

∂t

0

=

∂ϕ

∂t

−v∇ϕ

The formulae (3.27 - 3.30) can be used also in the case v = 0 with the

substitution ω

e

instead of ω.

53

54

Chapter 4

Ship oscillations in small head

waves

4.1 Exciting forces and ship oscillations

Let us consider the ship oscillations in small head waves coming from the

stern (ψ

wave

= 0

◦

), where ψ

wave

is the wave course angle. The wave ordinate,

wave orbital motion velocity and acceleration are:

ζ

0

= Asin(ωt −kξ) (4.1)

˙

ζ

0

= ωAcos(ωt −kξ) (4.2)

¨

ζ

0

= −ω

2

Asin(ωt −kξ) (4.3)

Figure 4.1: Illustration of the ship in head waves

Within the linear theory of ship oscillation the ship is considered at rest. The

perturbation force acting on the section AB (Fig. 4.1) can be represented as

the sum of

• the hydrostatic Froude Krylov force ρgB(ξ)ζ

0

(ξ),

• the hydrodynamic force A

33

¨

ζ

0

(ξ) + B

33

˙

ζ

0

(ξ)

55

dF

ζ,per

dξ

= A

33

¨

ζ

0

(ξ) + B

33

˙

ζ

0

(ξ) + ρgB(ξ)ζ

0

(ξ) (4.4)

Here we used the principle of relative motion (see section 3.4) for a ship

frame. Integrating

dF

ζ,per

dξ

over the ship length we obtain the whole wave

induced force F

ζ,per

. If the ship is symmetric with respect to the midship

B(ξ) = B(−ξ), A

f

(ξ) = A

f

(−ξ), A

33

(ξ) = A

33

(−ξ), B

33

(ξ) = B

33

(−ξ), the

terms with sin(kξ) are neglected and the formula for F

ζ,per

is simpliﬁed to:

F

ζ,per

= −ω

2

A

_

L

A

33

cos kξdξ · sin ωt + ωA

_

L

B

33

cos kξdξ · cos ωt+

+ A

_

L

ρgB(ξ) cos kξdξ · sin ωt = A

_

L

_

ρgB(ξ) −ω

2

A

33

_

cos kξdξ · sin ωt+

+ ωA

_

L

B

33

cos kξdξ · cos ωt = F

ζ,per

sin (ωt −δ

ζ,per

)

(4.5)

where

F

ζ,per

= A

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

_

_

L

(ρgB(ξ) −ω

2

A

33

) cos kξdξ

_

_

2

+ ω

2

_

_

_

L

B

33

cos kξdξ

_

_

2

,

δ

ζ,per

= −arc tan

_

_

ω

_

L

B

33

cos kξdξ

_

L

(ρgB(ξ) −ω

2

A

33

) cos kξdξ

_

_

;

(4.6)

The wave exciting moment is calculated by multiplication of

dF

ζ,per

dξ

with the

arm ξ:

M

ψ,per

= −

_

L

ξ

dF

E,ζ

dξ

dξ

= A

_

L

_

ρgB(ξ) −ω

2

A

33

_

ξ sin kξ · cos ωt−

−ωA

_

L

B

33

ξ sin kξ · sin ωt = M

ψ,per

sin (ωt −δ

ψ,per

)

(4.7)

56

where

M

ψ,per

= A

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

_

_

L

(ρgB(ξ) −ω

2

A

33

) ξ sin kξdξ

_

_

2

+ ω

2

_

_

_

L

B

33

ξ sin kξdξ

_

_

2

,

δ

ψ,per

= −π + arc tan

_

_

_

L

(ρgB(ξ) −ω

2

A

33

) ξ sin kξdξ

ω

_

L

B

33

ξ sin kξdξ

_

_

;

(4.8)

Substitution (4.5) and (4.7) in the third and sixth equations of the sys-

tem (1.3.2) gives:

m

¨

ζ = −A

33

¨

ζ −B

33

˙

ζ −ρgA

WP

ζ + F

ζ,per

sin (ωt −δ

ζ,per

) (4.9)

I

yy

¨

ψ = −A

55

¨

ψ −B

55

˙

ψ −ρg∇

0

GM

L

ψ + M

ψ,per

sin (ωt −δ

ψ,per

) (4.10)

⇓

(m + A

33

)

¨

ζ + B

33

˙

ζ + ρgA

WP

ζ = F

ζ,per

sin (ωt −δ

ζ,per

) (4.11)

(I

yy

+ A

55

)

¨

ψ + B

55

˙

ψ + ρg∇

0

GM

L

ψ = M

ψ,per

sin (ωt −δ

ψ,per

) (4.12)

Dividing both equations by the coeﬃcient of the ﬁrst term one obtains:

¨

ζ + 2ν

ζ

˙

ζ + ω

2

ζ

ζ = f

ζ

sin (ωt −δ

ζ,per

)

¨

ψ + 2ν

ψ

˙

ψ + ω

2

ψ

ψ = f

ψ

sin (ωt −δ

ψ,per

)

(4.13)

where

f

ζ

=

F

ζ,per

m + A

33

, f

ψ

=

M

ψ,per

I

yy

+ A

55

, ν

ζ

=

B

33

2(m + A

33

)

, ν

ψ

=

B

55

2(I

yy

+ A

55

)

,

ω

ζ

=

_

ρgA

WP

m + A

33

, ω

ψ

=

¸

ρg∇

0

GM

L

I

yy

+ A

55

.

Solution of (4.13) is seeking in the form

ζ = ζ

A

sin

_

ωt −δ

ζ,per

−δ

per

ζ

_

, ψ = ψ

A

sin

_

ωt −δ

ψ,per

−δ

per

ψ

_

. (4.14)

After some simple manipulations the amplitudes of the heave and pitch oscil-

lations as well as the phase displacements are obtained from (4.13) and (4.14):

ζ

A

=

f

ζ

_

(ω

2

ζ

−ω

2

)

2

+ 4ν

2

ζ

ω

2

, δ

per

ζ

= arc tan

_

2ν

ζ

ω

ω

2

ζ

−ω

2

_

(4.15)

57

ψ

A

=

f

ψ

_

(ω

2

ψ

−ω

2

)

2

+ 4ν

2

ψ

ω

2

, δ

per

ψ

= arc tan

_

2ν

ψ

ω

ω

2

ψ

−ω

2

_

(4.16)

In the resonance case the phase displacement is equal to π/2, i.e.

δ

per

ζ

= π/2 in case ω

ζ

= ω and δ

per

ψ

= π/2 in case ω

ψ

= ω.

4.2 Estimations of slamming and deck ﬂood-

ing

Results of ship oscillations obtained in the previous section can be used for

practically useful estimations. For instance, we can estimate the slamming

and deck ﬂooding. Using the relations derived above

ζ

0

= Asin(ωt −kξ), ζ = ζ

A

sin(ωt −δ

ζ,per

−δ

per

ζ

), ψ = ψ

A

sin(ωt −δ

ψ,per

−δ

per

ψ

)

(4.17)

one can display the ship positions in head waves as shown in Fig. 4.2

Figure 4.2: Position of ship at diﬀerent time instants in a head wave

Let us represent the formulae (4.17) in the form:

ζ

0

= Asin ωt cos kξ −Acos ωt sin kξ

ζ = ζ

A

sin ωt cos

_

δ

ζ,per

+ δ

per

ζ

_

−ζ

A

cos ωt sin

_

δ

ζ,per

+ δ

per

ζ

_

ψ = ψ

A

sin ωt cos

_

δ

ψ,per

+ δ

per

ψ

_

−ψ

A

cos ωt sin

_

δ

ψ,per

+ δ

per

ψ

_

.

(4.18)

The local change of the draft is:

z(x) = ζ

0

−ξ + xψ = f

1

(x) cos ωt + f

2

(x) sin ωt (4.19)

where

f

1

(x) = Acos kξ + ζ

A

sin(δ

ζ,per

+ δ

per

ζ

) −xψ

A

sin(δ

ψ,per

+ δ

per

ψ

)

f

2

(x) = Asin kξ −ζ

A

cos(δ

ζ,per

+ δ

per

ζ

) + xψ

A

cos(δ

ψ,per

+ δ

per

ψ

)

(4.20)

58

Figure 4.3: Curves y = ±z

max

and y = z(x)

A sample of the curve y = z(x) is shown in Fig. 4.3. The maximum draft is

then

z

max

(x) =

_

f

2

1

(x) + f

2

2

(x) (4.21)

The curve y = +z

max

(x) shows the contour of maximum wave elevations

along the ship board in the symmetry plane whereas the curve y = −z

max

(x)

the minimum wave elevations. Both curves are symmetric with respect to

the equilibrium water plane.

• Deck ﬂooding takes place if z

max

(x) > H, where H is the board height.

• Slamming takes place if z

max

(x) > T

There three zones limited by curves y = ±z

max

(x) can be distinguished along

the ship board (see Fig. 4.3):

• Allways dry area (white),

• Allways wetted area (red),

• Intermediate area (orange).

A sample of ﬂooding curves for a real ship is given in Fig. 4.4

59

Figure 4.4: Sample for a real ship

60

Chapter 5

Seasickness caused by ship

oscillations

Symptoms of the seasickness are giddiness (Schwindelgef¨ uhl), headache (Kopf-

schmerz), sickness (

¨

Ubelkeit) and vomiting (Erbrechen). The seasickness

is the reason of work capacity reduction, memory decline (R¨ uckgang der

Ged¨ achtnisleistung), motion coordination (Bewegungskoordinierung), reduc-

tion of muscular strength, etc. Diagram of Sain Denice (Fig. 5.1) shows the

inﬂuence of the vertical acceleration on the seasickness depending on the

oscillation period.

For the irregular sea state the similar diagram was proposed by Krappinger

(Fig. 5.2) who estimated the percentage of people suﬀering from the seasick-

ness depending on the root mean square deviation and frequency.

According to standards developed in US Navy the oscillations have no sig-

niﬁcant eﬀect on the work capacity if the amplitude of the roll oscillations

is under eight degrees, the amplitude of pitch oscillation is below three de-

grees, the vertical accelerations does not exceed 0.4 g whereas the transversal

accelerations 0.2 g. The upper limit of the roll angle for the deck works is

20 degrees which corresponds to the reduction of the work capacity of about

50 percent.

At present the seasickness has insuﬃciently been studied in medical science.

As shown in the study by Vosser, the seasickness is developed at a certain

level of overloads and then can remain even the ship oscillations decay. It

is shown in diagram 5.3 presenting the number of passenger on a cruise

liner n

δ

/n suﬀering from the seasickness during eighty hours of the journey.

At the journey beginning the vertical acceleration

¨

ζ/g was less than 0.1 and

only 16 percent of passenger were sick. As soon as the vertical acceleration

61

Figure 5.1: Inﬂuence of the vertical acceleration on the seasickness depending

on the oscillation period

attained 0.4g more than 80 percent of passengers were sick. In spite of the

ship oscillation decay after 30 hours of the way the number of sick passen-

gers is not reduced. On the contrary this number is slightly increased during

the next 24 hours. Only after 36 hours the seasickness retreated. The next

diagram 5.4 illustrates the fact that the adaption to seasickness is relatively

weak.

Diathesis to seasickness depends on the individual properties of organisms.

There are many people who had never had problems with seasickness. How-

ever there are experienced seamen who suﬀers from this sickness the whole

professional life.

62

Figure 5.2: Inﬂuence of the vertical acceleration on the seasickness depending

on the oscillation period

Figure 5.3: Number of passengers suﬀering from seasickness on a cruise liners

depending on vertical accelerations

63

Figure 5.4: Adaption to seasickness

64

Chapter 6

Ship oscillations in irregular

waves

6.1 Representation of irregular waves

The irregular waves can be both two dimensional and three dimensional (Fig. 6.1).

Figure 6.1: Irregular seawaves, 1- two dimensional, 2- three dimensional.

(Fig. from [3])

A feature of the irregular waves distinguishing them from regular ones is

the non-recurrence of their form in time (Fig. 6.2). The following relations

between wave lengths L and wave heights h are recommended in practical

calculations for swell:

Within the linear theory the irregular waves can be represented as the super-

position of regular waves with diﬀerent amplitudes, frequencies and course

angles, as shown in Fig. 6.3.

65

Figure 6.2: Proﬁle of an irregular wave. (Fig. from [3])

h = 0.17L

3/4

Zimmermann,

h = 0.607L

1/2

British Lloyd,

h = 0.45L

0.6

det Norske Veritas.

6.1.1 Wave ordinates as stochastic quantities

The wave ordinate is the stochastic function with a certain probability density

function (see Fig. 6.1). The p.d.f. distribution of the real irregular wave

ordinates is Gaussian. i.e,

p.d.f. =

1

_

2πD

ζ

e

−(ζ−ζ

0

)

2

/(2σ

2

)

, (6.1)

where ζ

0

is the mathematical expectation (in our case ζ

0

= 0), σ is the

standard deviation:

σ

2

= (ζ −ζ

0

)

2

= D

ζ

(6.2)

D

ζ

is the dispersion. Probability P(ζ

1

< ζ < ζ

2

) of the event, that the

ordinate lies in the range between ζ

1

and ζ

2

is then

P(ζ

1

< ζ < ζ

2

) =

ζ

2

_

ζ

1

p.d.f.(ζ)dζ =

1

_

2πD

ζ

ζ

2

_

ζ

1

e

−ζ

2

/(2σ

2

)

dζ =

1

√

π

ζ

2

/

√

2D

ζ

_

ζ

1

/

√

2D

ζ

e

−t

2

dt

(6.3)

The last integral is known as the probability integral

ϕ(x) =

2

√

π

x

_

0

e

−t

2

dt (6.4)

66

Figure 6.3: Representation of irregular wave through the superposition of

regular waves. (Fig. from [3])

satisfying the following properties

ϕ(−x) = −ϕ(x), ϕ(−∞) = −1, ϕ(∞) = 1 (6.5)

Using the probability integral, the probability P(ζ

1

< ζ < ζ

2

) takes the form

P(ζ

1

< ζ < ζ

2

) =

1

2

_

ϕ

_

ζ

2

_

2D

ζ

_

−ϕ

_

ζ

1

_

2D

ζ

__

(6.6)

The probability P(−∞< ζ < ζ

2

) = P(ζ < ζ

2

) is the probability of the event

that ζ does not exceed ζ

2

:

P(ζ < ζ

2

) =

1

2

_

1 + ϕ

_

ζ

2

_

2D

ζ

__

(6.7)

The probability P(ζ

1

< ζ < ∞) = P(ζ

1

< ζ is the probability of the event

that ζ larger than ζ

1

:

P(ζ

1

< ζ) =

1

2

_

1 −ϕ

_

ζ

1

_

2D

ζ

__

(6.8)

67

Figure 6.4: p.d.f. of the wave ordinate

In the probability theory is shown that the p.d.f. of the amplitude of a

stochastic quantity having the Gaussian p.d.f. distribution satisﬁes the Raleigh

law:

p.d.f.(ζ

a

) =

ζ

a

D

ζ

e

−ζ

2

a

/(2D

ζ

)

(6.9)

The probability that the amplitude is larger than ζ

∗

is

P(ζ

a

> ζ

∗

) =

∞

_

ζ

∗

ζ

a

D

ζ

e

−ζ

2

a

/(2D

ζ

)

dζ

a

= e

−ζ

∗2

/(2D

ζ

)

(6.10)

When evaluating the wave height an observer determines the middle height

of one third of the highest waves. This height is referred to as the signiﬁcant

wave height and designated as h

1/3

.

Dependence between the dispersion and the signiﬁcant wave is

D

ζ

= 0.063h

2

1/3

(6.11)

6.1.2 Wave spectra

Irregular waves are considered as the superposition of inﬁnite number of

regular waves of diﬀerent frequencies, amplitudes and course angles (Fig. 6.3).

68

According to this concept the wave elevation ζ(x, y, t) is represented in form

of Fourier - Stieltjes integral:

ζ(x, y, t) = Real

__

dA(ω, χ)exp[−ik(x cos χ + y sin χ) + iωt + δ(ω, χ)]

(6.12)

Here ω is the wave frequency, k is the wave number k = ω

2

/g, χ is the

wave course angle and δ(ω, χ) is the phase angle. The quantity dA(ω, χ, t) is

the function of the amplitude corresponding to the wave propagating at the

course angle χ < χ < χ + ∆χ with the frequency ω < ω < ω + ∆ω. The

mean square elevation is obtained from time averaging the quadrat of the

elevation:

ζ

2

(x, y) = lim

T→∞

1

T

T

_

0

ζ

2

(x, y, t)dt =

=

__

dA(ω, χ)exp[−ik(x cos χ + y sin χ) + iωt + δ(ω, χ)]

__

dA

∗

(ω

1

, χ

1

)exp [−

−ik

1

(x cos χ

1

+ y sin χ

1

) −iω

1

t −δ(ω, χ)] =

1

2

__

dA(ω, χ)dA

∗

(ω, χ)

(6.13)

Here the superscript ∗ stands for the complex conjugate amplitude function.

Rigorous derivation of the formula (6.13) can be found in [10]. Multiply-

ing ζ

2

(x, y) with ρg

ρgζ

2

(x, y) =

ρg

2

__

dA(ω, χ)dA

∗

(ω, χ) (6.14)

and comparing the result with the expression for the energy (6.34) derived

in [6]

E = T

Fl

+ E

p

=

ρgA

2

2

L ×1m

One can conclude that ρgζ

2

(x, y) is the time averaged energy per surface

unit. Using the representation of the integral

__

dA(ω, χ)dA

∗

(ω, χ) = 2

2π

_

0

∞

_

0

S

ζ

(ω, χ)dωdχ (6.15)

we introduce the spectral density of the irregular waves S

ζ

(ω, χ) which is

the contribution of the wave with the frequency ω < ω < ω + ∆ω and the

69

course angle χ < χ < χ + ∆χ to the irregular wave energy. Commonly the

function S

ζ

(ω, χ) is called shortly the wave spectrum.

At present there is no much information on the energy distribution both on

the frequency and the course angle. The typical measurements with buoy

do not provide information about the dependency of wave elevations on the

course angle. In the ship theory is assumed that the irregular waves have a

preferential propagation direction and the wave have long wave crest. The

waves are approximately two dimensional. Such rough sea can fully be char-

acterized by the frequency spectrum S

ζ

(ω) deﬁning as

S

ζ

(ω) =

2π

_

0

S

ζ

(ω, χ)dχ (6.16)

The spectrum of the wave state S

ζ

(ω) shows the distribution of the wave en-

ergy on frequencies. The two dimensional spectrum S

ζ

(ω, χ) can be restored

from the one dimensional one S

ζ

(ω) using the following simple approxima-

tion:

S

ζ

(ω, χ) =

4

3π

S

ζ

(ω) cos

4

χ

To determine the spectrum, the wave ordinates are measured and represented

in Fourier series. The energy ∆E(ω < ω < ω + ∆ω) is calculated as the

squared wave ordinate for each interval of the frequencies ∆ω. The spectral

density of waves is calculated as

S

ζ

(ω) = lim

∆ω→∞

∆E(ω < ω < ω + ∆ω)

∆ω

(6.17)

From the probability theory:

D

ζ

=

∞

_

0

S

ζ

(ω)dω (6.18)

One of the most popular wave spectral densities is the spectrum of Pierson

and Moskowitz (PM):

S

ζ

(ω) =

αg

2

ω

5

exp

_

−β

_

g

Uω

_

4

_

, (6.19)

where α = 0.0081, β = 0.74, U is the wind velocity at the height of 19.4

m over the free surface. The spectrum (6.19) has been obtained by approx-

imation of data measured in 1964 in the North Atlantic region. Fig. 6.5

70

Figure 6.5:

illustrates the PM spectra depending on the wind velocity U.

The mean wave height is

¯

h = 2

∞

_

0

ζ

a

p.d.f.(ζ

a

)dζ

a

= 2

∞

_

0

ζ

a

ζ

a

D

ζ

e

−ζ

2

a

/(2D

ζ

)

dζ

a

= (2πD

ζ

)

1/2

(6.20)

The signiﬁcant wave height is:

h

1/3

=

2

∞

_

ζ

1

ζ

a

p.d.f.(ζ

a

)dζ

a

∞

_

ζ

1

p.d.f.(ζ

a

)dζ

a

(6.21)

where the amplitude ζ

1

is chosen from the condition

∞

_

ζ

1

p.d.f.(ζ

a

)dζ

a

= 1/3 ⇒e

−ζ

2

1

/(2D

ζ

)

= 1/3 ⇒ζ

1

=

_

2D

ζ

ln3 (6.22)

It follows from (6.9) and (6.21):

h

1/3

= 4

_

D

ζ

(6.23)

71

The middle frequency is deﬁned as

¯ ω =

_

¸

¸

_

∞

_

0

ω

2

S

ζ

(ω)dω

∞

_

0

S

ζ

(ω)dω

_

¸

¸

_

1/2

=

_

¸

¸

_

∞

_

0

ω

2

S

ζ

(ω)dω

D

ζ

(ω)

_

¸

¸

_

1/2

(6.24)

Substitution of (6.19) into (6.18), (6.23) and (6.24) results in

h

1/3

= 2

U

2

g

_

α

β

_

1/2

, ¯ ω = (πβ)

1/4

(g/U) (6.25)

6.2 Calculation of ship oscillations in irregu-

lar waves

Using the assumption of small waves we can substitute the superposition of

regular waves into equations (3.20) and (3.21) describing the heave and roll

oscillations. Since the equations are linear the responses of the ship to each

regular wave can be calculated separately. In this case one can obtain the

history of oscillations in time.

However, from point of view of practical applications only the statistical pa-

rameters of oscillations are of importance. To determine them, the ship is

considered as the dynamic system. The seaway is the input which is trans-

formed by the ship into oscillations considered as the output. In the statisti-

cal theory shown, that if the input signal has the Gaussian p.d.f. distribution

the output signal has also the Gaussian p.d.f. distribution. With the other

words, the ship oscillation parameters (roll angle, etc) obey the normal Gaus-

sian law whereas the amplitudes of oscillation parameters satisfy the Raleigh

law. The only unknown value in these distributions laws is the dispersion D.

Let us consider the roll oscillations of a ship with the zero forward speed.

As shown in the previous lectures the ratio of the roll oscillations amplitude

(output signal) to the wave slope amplitude (input signal) is given by the

formula

ϕ

(r)

A

α

A

=

ϕ

A

−α

A

α

A

=

ˆ ω

2

/(1 + k

ϕ

)

_

(1 − ˆ ω

2

)

2

+ 4ˆ ν

2

ˆ ω

2

⇒

ϕ

A

α

A

=

=

ˆ ω

2

/(1 + k

ϕ

)

_

(1 − ˆ ω

2

)

2

+ 4ˆ ν

2

ˆ ω

2

+ 1 = Φ(ω)

72

where

Φ(ω) =

ˆ ω

2

/(1 + k

ϕ

)

_

(1 − ˆ ω

2

)

2

+ 4ˆ ν

2

ˆ ω

2

+ 1 (6.26)

is the so called response function. Since the wave spectral density is propor-

tional to the wave ordinates squared and taking the superposition principle

into account, we obtain the following relation between the spectral density

of the seaway and the spectral density of oscillations

S

ϕ

(ω) = Φ

2

(ω)S

ζ

(ω) (6.27)

or

S

ϕ

(ω) = S

ζ

(ω)

_

ˆ ω

2

/(1 + k

ϕ

)

_

(1 − ˆ ω

2

)

2

+ 4ˆ ν

2

ˆ ω

2

+ 1

_

2

(6.28)

Dispersion of the roll oscillations and the standard deviation are found from

the deﬁnitions (6.2) and (6.18)

D

ϕ

=

∞

_

0

S

ϕ

(ω)dω =

∞

_

0

Φ

2

(ω)S

ζ

(ω)dω, σ

ϕ

=

_

D

ϕ

(6.29)

Similar formulae can be obtained for angular roll velocity and acceleration

D

˜ ϕ

=

∞

_

0

ω

2

S

ϕ

(ω)dω, σ

˜ ϕ

=

_

D

˜ ϕ

(6.30)

D

˜ ϕ

=

∞

_

0

ω

4

S

ϕ

(ω)dω, σ

˜ ϕ

=

_

D

˜ ϕ

(6.31)

The dispersions obtained from (6.29), (6.30) and (6.31) determine fully the

irregular ship oscillations in heavy seaway. Using them the following further

parameters can be calculated

• Most probable amplitude of oscillations corresponding to the maximum

of the p.d.f.(ζ

a

) distribution

ϕ

m

= σ

ϕ

(6.32)

The probability that the roll amplitude exceeds ϕ

m

is 60.6 %.

• Averaged amplitude of roll oscillations (mathematical expectation)

¯ ϕ =

_

π

2

σ

ϕ

≈ 1.25σ

ϕ

(6.33)

The probability that the roll amplitude exceeds ¯ ϕ is 45.6 %.

73

• The probability that the roll amplitude exceeds the value ϕ

∗

:

p(ϕ

A

> ϕ

∗

) = e

−0.5(ϕ

∗

/σ

ϕ

)

2

(6.34)

• Averaged frequency and averaged period of oscillations:

¯ ω

ϕ

=

σ

˜ ϕ

σ

ϕ

,

¯

T

ϕ

=

2π

¯ ω

ϕ

= 2π

σ

ϕ

σ

˜ ϕ

(6.35)

• Number of ship inclinations (semi periods) within the time interval t:

N

t

=

2t

¯

T

ϕ

(6.36)

• Number of ship inclinations within the time interval t provided the roll

angle amplitude is larger than ϕ

∗

:

N

ϕ

∗ = N

t

P(ϕ

A

> ϕ

∗

) =

2t

¯

T

ϕ

e

−0.5(ϕ

∗

/σ

ϕ

)

2

(6.37)

The formulae (6.32) - 6.37) are derived under assumption that the oscillations

obey the Gaussian distribution law.

74

Chapter 7

Experimental methods in ship

seakeeping

7.1 Experiments with models

The seakeeping experiments are performed under condition that the Froude

number of the model Fn

m

and the large scale ship Fn

s

are equal:

F

n

m

= F

n

s

⇒

V

m

_

gD

m

1/3

=

V

s

_

gD

s

1/3

Since the periodic motion are considered, the similarity of Strouhal numbers

should also be satisﬁed:

Sh

m

= Sh

s

⇒

ω

m

L

m

V

m

=

ω

s

L

s

V

s

,

Where ω is the frequency. Unfortunately the similarity with respect to

Reynolds (viscosity eﬀects) and Weber (spray eﬀects) numbers are not ful-

ﬁlled:

Re

m

= Re

s

, We

m

= We

s

.

It is recommended to choose the model length from the condition Re ≥ 10

6

.

If λ is the scale factor:

L

s

= λL

m

The following relations derived from the similarity conditions are valid

75

angles ϕ

s

= λ

0

ϕ

m

linear accelerations

¨

ξ

s

= λ

0

¨

ξ

m

linear velocities

˙

ξ

s

= λ

1/2

˙

ξ

m

periods τ

s

= λ

1/2

τ

m

angular velocities ˙ ϕ

s

= λ

−1/2

˙ ϕ

m

frequencies ω

s

= λ

−1/2

ω

m

angular acceleration ¨ ϕ

s

= λ

−1

¨ ϕ

m

displacement, mass, forces F

s

= λ

3

F

m

inertia moments I

s

= λ

5

I

m

(7.1)

The following parameters of the model are to be determined before experi-

ment:

• weight G

• positions of the center of gravity x

g

, z

g

• metacentric heights GM

γ

, GM

l

• inertia moments I

xx

, I

yy

, I

zz

They should satisfy the similarity conditions:

G

s

= λ

3

G

M

(x

gs

, z

gs

) = (x

gm

, z

gm

) · λ

GM

γ,ls

= λGM

γ,lm

I

xxs

= λ

5

I

xxm

, I

yys

= λ

5

I

yym

I

zzs

= λ

5

I

zzm

.

Since the draught and beam are approximately equal B ∼ T one assumes

that I

yy

≈ I

zz

.

For the determination of I

zz

the model is hanged out as shown in Fig. 7.1.

The model is oscillating in horizontal plane about the vertical axis as shown

in Fig. 7.1. The period of oscillation τ is measured. The inertia moment is

calculated then from formula:

I

zz

= I

yy

=

G

m

a

2

τ

2

4τ

2

l

The additional loads are placed on the ship and they are shifted along the

x-axis as long as the condition

76

Figure 7.1: Determination oft he inertia moment I

zz

I

zzs

= λ

5

I

zzm

Is fulﬁlled.

The inertia moment I

xx

and the center of gravity z

g

is determined using the

setup shown in Fig. 7.2.

To determine z

g

only one load is used, which causes the model heeling. If ϕ is

the heel angle, the distance a calculated from moment equilibrium equation:

a · G

m

· ϕ = Pl ⇒a =

Pl

G

m

ϕ

The gravity center ordinate is then:

z

g

= z

n

−a

The inertia moment I

xx

is determined when the model is forced to roll with

the period τ of free roll oscillations. The moment I

xx

is then calculated as

I

xx

= G

m

((

τ

2π

)

2

−

a

g

)

The similarity conditions

I

xxs

= λ

5

I

xxm

and

zg

s

= λz

gm

77

Figure 7.2: Determination of I

xx

and z

g

are fulﬁlled by vertical and horizontal shifts of loads P.

The metacentric height GM

γ

is determined from heel tests (see Fig. 7.3).

GM

γ

m

=

Pl

G

m

ϕ

The forces arising in roll oscillations are found from free roll oscillations with-

out waves. The model is brought from the equilibrium state and experiences

free decaying oscillations

ϕ = ϕ

0

e

−νϕ

cos ω

1

t,

where ω

1

=

_

ω

2

ϕ

−ν

2

ϕ

. Since ν

2

ϕ

ω

2

ϕ

the frequencies ω

1

and ω

ϕ

are ap-

proximately equal, i.e. ω

1

≈ ω

ϕ

.

Once the period of free oscillations T

ϕ

is measured, the frequency ω

ϕ

=

2π

T

ϕ

and the sum I

xx

+ A

44

are calculated (see table 2.1):

I

xx

+ A

44

=

g∇

0m

GM

γm

ω

2

ϕ

(7.2)

Since the inertia moment is known, the added mass A

44

is found from (7.2).

78

Figure 7.3: Heel test

A

44

=

g∇

0m

GM

γm

ω

2

ϕ

−I

xx

The damping factor ν

ϕ

is determined from the deﬁnition formula (2.16).

ln

ϕ(t)

ϕ(t + T

ϕ

)

=

2πν

ϕ

¯ ω

≈ ν

ϕ

T

ϕ

where the ϕ(t) and ϕ(t + T

ϕ

) are measured.

The damping coeﬃcient B

44

is also calculated from its deﬁnition

B

44

= 2ν

ϕ

(I

xx

+ A

44

).

The results are represented depending on the magnitude of ϕ. Since the

measurements are performed only at ω

ϕ

, the results at ω = ω

ϕ

are not

obtained in these measurements.

For ships with large damping the free oscillations decay very quickly. It causes

big error in data analysis. For this case the method of forced oscillations is

applied. The model is forced to roll using horizontally oscillating load as

shown in Fig. 7.4. The load produce the perturbation moment

M

per

= M

0

sin ωt

The roll oscillations without incident waves are described by the ordinary

diﬀerential equation of the second order:

79

Figure 7.4: Method of forced rolling

¨ ϕ + 2ν

ϕ

˙ ϕ + ω

2

ϕ

ϕ = ω

2

ϕ

M

0

GGM

γ

sin ωt

which has the solution

ϕ = ϕ

0

sin(ωt −ε

ϕ

)

where

ϕ

0

=

M

0

GGM

γ

1

_

(1 − ¯ ω

2

)

2

+ 4¯ ν

2

ϕ

¯ ω

2

(7.3)

¯ ν

ϕ

=

ν

ϕ

_

ω

2

ϕ

−ν

2

ϕ

, ¯ ω =

ω

ω

ϕ

ε

ϕ

= a tan

2¯ ν

ϕ

1 − ¯ ω

2

(7.4)

The measured quantities are M

per

and roll angle ϕ.

The damping factor is calculated from (7.3) at diﬀerent frequencies ω . The

method of forced roll oscillations is very accurate only at ω ≈ ω

ϕ

, i. e. in

the resonance case.

For reliable determination of inertial and damping forces depending on fre-

quency ω it is necessary to apply more complicated setups than these de-

scribed above. A description of these setups can be found in [11].

80

The main purpose of seakeeping measurements in regular waves is the ex-

perimental determination of dependencies

ϕ

A

(r)

α

A

(ω), δ

ϕ

(ω),

ζ

A

(r)

A

(ω) and δ

ζ

(ω)

(see formulae (3.27 - 3.30) and Fig. 3.5, 3.6).

Knowledge of response functions

ϕ

A

(r)

α

A

(ω) and

ζ

A

(r)

A

allows to calculate the

spectra of ship oscillations.

The seakeeping tests in regular and irregular waves Fig. (7.5) are performed

in seakeeping and manoeuvring basin. The seakeeping basins can be open or

closed. In the closed basin the irregular waves are generated using segmented

wave generators consisting of hinged ﬂaps. Each ﬂap is controlled separately

by a driving motor.

The seakeeping basin of MARIN (Fig. 7.6) has dimensions 170 x 40 x 5m.

The wave generator (Fig. 7.7) produces waves with signiﬁcant wave height

of 0,45 m and a peak period of 2 sec. The irregular waves have a prescribed

spectrum. The model is either self propelled (free running test) or carried

by the carriage with the speed up to 6m/sec. Model length range is from 2m

to 8m. Additionally to waves the wind is generated by an adjustable 10m

wide platform with electrical fees. Free running tests are performed such

that the model follows an arbitrary pre-deﬁned track through the basin. The

seakeeping tests in open basin are performed under condition that the free

waves, generated naturally, have desirable heights and periods.

Figure 7.5: Seakeeping test at MARIN ([4])

One of the most important aims of seakeeping tests in irregular waves is the

evaluation of slamming (Fig. 7.5) and ﬂooding.

81

Figure 7.6: Scetch of the MARIN Seakeeping basin ([4])

Figure 7.7: Wave generator of MARIN Seakeeping basin ([4])

7.2 Seakeeping tests with large scale ships

The most reliable evaluation of ship seakeeping performances can be gained

on the base of tests with large scale ships.

The ﬁrst task within framework of such measurements is the determination

of sea state. The wave heights are measured using bues, hydrostatic pressure

sensors, or by stereo photography from airplanes (see Fig. 7.8).

Figure 7.8: Method of wave detection

The aim of these measurements is the wave spectra S

ζ

(ω, χ).

The ship performs tack motions as long as the one hundred full oscillations

82

occur (Fig. 7.9).

Figure 7.9: Ship motion during large scale tests

The time history of all kinematic parameters is documented by diﬀerent

sensors. Fig. 7.9 illustrates the dependence of the roll angle on the time

ϕ(t). The time signals of kinematic parameters are evaluated using Fourier

analysis. After that the spectra of ship kinematic parameters are calculated.

Knowing the spectra, the repones function can be determined from (6.27) as

the ﬁnal aim of the large scale tests:

Φ(ω) =

¸

S

ϕ

(ω)

S

ζ

(ω)

83

84

Chapter 8

Ship oscillation damping

(stabilisation)

8.1 Damping of roll oscillations

8.1.1 Passive means

U-tube Passive Roll stabilization system

ω

ϕ

eigenfrequency of the ship

ω

z

eigenfrequency of ﬂuid oscillations in tank

The Frahm systems ([12]) belong to the resonance type. The duct and air

channel ore selected to fulﬁll the conditions:

ω

ϕ

/ω

z

≈ 1 (8.1)

δ

ϕ

−δ

z

=

π

2

85

Disadvantage: The draught of ship is changed in operations. ω

ϕ

is changed.

But ω

z

remains constant → The system becomes non eﬃcient.

U-tube stabilization system of Frahm of the second type

Figure 8.1: U-tube stabilization system of Frahm of the second type

ω

ϕ

ω

z

≈ 1

Free surface Type passive Roll stabilization systems of Flume

Simpliﬁed mathematical model.

Equation without stabilizer:

A

44

¨ ϕ + B

44

˙ ϕ + g∆

0

GM

j

ϕ = F

ϕϕ

A

44

- eﬀective mass moment of inertia

86

Figure 8.2: Free surface Type passive Roll stabilization systems of Flume

ω

z

is changed in a wide

range due to change of

water level in tank.

Figure 8.3: Free surface Type passive Roll stabilization systems of Flume

B

44

- damping coeﬃcient

F

ϕϕ

- wave induced forces

Equation with stabilizer:

(A

44

+ m

Tϕ

) ¨ ϕ + (B

44

+ N

Tϕ

) ˙ ϕ + (B

Tϕ

+ g∆

0

GM

j

)ϕ = F

ϕϕ

m

Tϕ

- eﬀective mass moment of inertia of water in stabilizer unit

N

Tϕ

- damping coeﬃcient of stabilizer unit

B

Tϕ

- restoring moment coeﬃcient of stabilizer unit

The values m

Tϕ

, N

Tϕ

and B

Tϕ

are related only to the diﬀerence between an

active stabilizer and a condition where the ﬂuid is replaced by a solid mass

corresponding to the frozen liquid.

A

44

¨ ϕ + B

44

˙ ϕ + (tg∆

0

GM

j

)ϕ = F

ϕϕ

−F

Tϕ

m

Tϕ

· ¨ ϕ + N

Tϕ

˙ ϕ + B

Tϕ

ϕ = F

Tϕ

87

Solution:

ϕ = ϕ

A

cos ωt

F

Tϕ

= F

TϕA

cos(ωt −ε

FTϕ

)

F

TϕA

ϕA

=

_

(B

Tϕ

−m

Tϕ

ω

2

)

2

+ (N

Tϕ

ω)

2

ε

Ftϕ

= αtan

N

Tϕ

ω

B

Tϕ

−m

tϕ

ω

2

ϕ

A

destabilized

ϕ

A

=

N

44

_

_

(g∆

0

GM

j

−A

44

ω

2

)

2

+ B

2

44

ω

2

+ B

2

44

ω

2

ϕ

A

stabilized

ϕ

A

=

N

44

_

(g∆

0

GM

j

−A

44

ω

2

+ B

Tϕ

−m

Tϕ

ω

2

)

2

+ (N

Tϕ

+ B

44

)

2

ω

2

8.1.2 Active stabilizer

Figure 8.4: Active stabilizer

8.1.3 Passive Schlingerkiel

p =

S

k

LB

; r

0

=

r

k

B

b

k

l

k

= 0.01...0.02

88

Figure 8.5: Passive Schlingerkiel

Figure 8.6: Active rudders

8.1.4 Active rudders

8.1.5 Damping of pitch oscillations

Figure 8.7: Damping of pitch oscillations

α = k

1

˙

Q

ω

Q

+ k

3

_

˙

Q

ω

Q

_

3

• Utilizes Hoppe/Flume data with data from > 300 vessels seakeeping

test and > 2000 tank model test

89

Figure 8.8: Damping of pitch oscillations

Figure 8.9: [5]

• Database allows unique analysis on vessel-tank combination of existing

vessels

⇒ high accuracy for initial tank design consulting

90

Figure 8.10: [5]

Figure 8.11: [5]

91

Figure 8.12: [5]

Figure 8.13: [5]

92

Figure 8.14: [5]

Figure 8.15: [5]

93

Figure 8.16: [5]

94

Chapter 9

Parametric oscillations

Parametric oscillations arise when one of parameters characterizing the os-

cillating system depends periodically on time. Parametric ship oscillations

arise due to periodic change of the metacentric height:

GM

γ

= GM

0

γ

+ A

GM

cos ωt (9.1)

which is in previous chapters assumed to be constant, i.e.

GM

γ

= GM

0

γ

.

The motion equation of free roll oscillations with variable metacentric height

is:

I

xx

¨ ϕ + A

44

¨ ϕ −B

44

˙ ϕ + ρg∇

0

(GM

0

γ

+ A

GM

cos ωt)ϕ = 0

or:

¨ ϕ + 2ν

ϕ

˙ ϕ + ω

2

ϕ

ϕ = µ

ϕ

cos ωtϕ,

where

ν

ϕ

=

B

44

2(I

xx

+ A

44

)

, ω

2

ϕ

=

ρg∇

0

GM

0

γ

I

xx

+ A

44

µ

ϕ

=

A

GM

ρg∇

0

I

xx

+ A

44

(9.2)

Analyzing (9.2) one can state that change of the metacentric height can cause

the perturbation moment resulting in parametric oscillations.

Physical reason for the appearance of the additional perturbation moment is

the eﬀect of the ship submergence change during roll and vertical oscillations.

The change of the roll angle causes the moment.

95

ρ∇

0

gGM

γ

ϕ (9.3)

The change of the ship draught ξ results in an additional moment

ρg∇

0

A

GM

cos ωtϕ

which is proportional to ζ and ϕ.

The equation (9.2) has no analytic solution in elementary functions. How-

ever, properties of its solution are well known. It can be shown that if the

frequency of perturbation moment ω wave frequency is twice as large as the

free roll oscillation frequency, i.e. ω = 2ω

ϕ

, the parametric resonance takes

places. Since the perturbation moment depends on heave ζ, the parametric

resonance takes place when the frequency of vertical oscillations is approx-

imately twice as large as the frequency of roll oscillations. With the other

words, during semi period of roll oscillations the heave change performs the

full period oscillation as shown schematically on Fig. 9.1. The parametric

resonance is typical for ships with big distance between the center of gravity

and water plane surface (Fig. 9.2).

For parametric oscillation it is necessary that ship is brought from the equi-

librium state by a certain perturbation. The natural reason of such per-

turbation for roll oscillations is beam seaway. However, the parametric roll

oscillation can arise also in head waves. If the ship has a certain roll angle in

head waves, the hydrostatic lift force becomes larger at the wave crest and

smaller at wave valley. This results in a perturbation moment depending on

roll angle.

This kind of parametric oscillations depends on the wave lengths and ship

altitude.

Periodic change of the metacentric height results in asymmetry of roll oscil-

lations. Due to phase displacement between heave oscillations and waves δ

χ

the averaged additional moment is diﬀerent for positive and negative ϕ. In

the resonance case of vertical oscillations ω

χ

≈ ω

ϕ

, the middle roll angle is [9]

ϕ

0

= κ

ϕ

ω

2

g

A

z

g

−T

GM

γ

¸

Aκ

ζ

2ν

ζ

κT

(9.4)

where

z

g

- the position of the center of gravity with respect to keel,

96

T - ship draught,

κ =

v

A

wp

·T

- are reduction factors (see 3.9)

v - ship volume,

A

wp

- water plane surface.

The larger z

g

−T is, the bigger is the middle roll angle ϕ

0

.

For beam sea ϕ

0

is in the direction of waves.

Figure 9.1: Ship oscillations during parametric resonance

Figure 9.2: Conditions for parametric resonance appearance

97

Vertikale Schwingungen und Rollschwingungen

I

xx

¨ ϕ = −A

uu

¨ ϕ −B

uu

˙ ϕ −g∆

0

˙

GM

j

ϕ

u

GM

j

= GM

0

j

− A

GM

cos ωt

. ¸¸ .

Ursache der

parametrischen

Rollschwingungen

I

xx

¨ ϕ = +A

uu

¨ ϕ + B

uu

˙ ϕ + g∆

0

(GM

j

0

+ A

GM

cos ωt)ϕ = 0

¨ ϕ(I

xx

+ A

uu

) + B

uu

˙ ϕ + g∆

0

(GM

j

0

+ A

GM

cos ωt)ϕ = 0

¨ ϕ + 2ν

ϕ

˙ ϕ + ω

ϕ

2

ϕ = µ

ϕ

cos ωtϕ

ν

ϕ

= B

uu

/2(I

xx

+ A

uu

)ω

2

ϕ = g∆

0

GM

0

j

/(I

xx

+ A

uu

)

keine L¨ osung in Elementenfunktionen.

Gleichung wurde gr¨ undlich untersucht.

Wichtige Bedingungen f¨ ur parametrische Resonanz:

Parametrische Resonanz

Frequenz der vertikalen Schwingungen > 2 Frequenz der Rollschwingungen

98

Q

0

= α

e

Zg −T

h

¸

Ax

2ν

ζ

XT

α

e

= xα

0

X =

V

ST

99

100

Chapter 10

Principles of Rankine source

method for calculation of

seakeeping

10.1 Frequency domain simulations

Generally there are two basic methods of simulation of time dependent pro-

cesses. In the ﬁrst method called the simulation in frequency domain the

unsteady process is considered as the sum of the mean part which is time

independent and the periodical part. The mean part can be calculated using

nonlinear strategy, i.e. the seeking parameters depends on ship kinematic

parameters in non linear manner. The periodic part is considered as small

and found from linear theory. This formalism is based on Fourier analysis of

unsteady processes. Each unsteady quantity q is represented in form:

q = q

0

+ ˆ qe

iωt

(10.000)

where

q

0

is the mean value,

q is amplitude and

ω is frequency.

The potential around the ship is represented as the sum of four terms [13]

ϕ = (−V x + ϕ

s

) + (ϕ

w

+ ϕ

I

) (10.1)

where

101

−V x potential of incident uniform ﬂow,

V ship speed,

ϕ

w

potential of incident wave,

ϕ

I

remaining unsteady potential,

ϕ

s

potential of the steady ﬂow disturbance.

The terms in the ﬁrst parenthesis describes the steady ﬂow around the ship

with account of free surface eﬀects. The second parenthesis represent the

periodic ﬂow due to waves. determination of the potential (−V x + ϕ

s

) is

discussed in the wave resistance potential theory. This problem can be solved

utilizing either full nonlinear or linear formalism. Numerical linear method

for two dimensional case is described in Chapter 6.7 (Kornev N., Ship Theory

I, Manuscript, 2008). The boundary conditions for ϕ

I

are linearized. The

following boundary conditions should be satisﬁed [13]:

• no penetration on the hull,

• kinematic boundary condition on the free surface,

• dynamic boundary condition on the free surface,

• decay of disturbances far away from the ship,

• radiation condition.

The Laplace equation and decay condition are automatically satisﬁed within

the Rankine source method. The unsteady potential is decomposed into

radiation and diﬀraction components:

ϕ

I

=

6

i=1

ϕ

i

u

i

+ ϕ

d

(10.2)

where u

i

- ship velocities.

For the sake of simplicity we consider fully linear formalism (ϕ

s

and ϕ

I

are

small). The kinematic and dynamic boundary conditions are used to derive

mixed boundary condition on the free surface.

The dynamic boundary condition written in the inertial reference system ist

(see page 110 in [6]).

∂ϕ

∂t

0

+

1

2

_

_

∂ϕ

∂x

_

2

+

_

∂ϕ

∂y

_

2

+

_

∂ϕ

∂z

_

2

_

+ gz = 0 (10.3)

Its linear version is

102

∂ϕ

∂t

0

+ gz = 0 (10.4)

The relation between the derivative on time in inertia ∂ϕ/∂t

0

and ship ﬁxed

coordinate system ∂ϕ/∂t is

∂ϕ

∂t

0

=

∂ϕ

∂t

−

V ∇ϕ (10.5)

where

V is the speed of the reference system substituting (10.5) into (10.4)

we obtain:

∂ϕ

∂t

−

V ∇ϕ + gz = 0, z = ζ (10.6)

The linearized version of the kinematic boundary conditions (see page 111

in [6]) reads:

∂ζ

∂t

0

=

∂ϕ

∂z

(10.7)

Diﬀerentiating (10.5) on time

∂

2

ϕ

∂t

2

0

+ g

∂ζ

∂t

0

= 0 (10.8)

and substituting (10.7) into (10.8) one obtains

∂

2

ϕ

∂t

2

0

+ g

∂ϕ

∂z

= 0 (10.9)

using relation

∂

∂t

0

=

∂

∂t

−

V ∇

we get

∂

2

ϕ

∂t

2

0

=

∂

∂t

0

_

∂ϕ

∂t

0

_

=

∂

∂t

0

_

∂ϕ

∂t

−

V ∇ϕ

_

=

=

∂

∂t

_

∂ϕ

∂

−

V ∇ϕ

_

− v

∇

_

∂ϕ

∂t

−

V ∇ϕ

_

=

=

∂

2

ϕ

∂t

2

−

V ∇

∂ϕ

∂t

−

V ∇

∂ϕ

∂t

+

V

2

∇

2

ϕ =

=

∂

2

ϕ

∂t

2

−2

V ∇

∂ϕ

∂t

103

The mixed boundary condition in ship ﬁxed system reads

∂

2

ϕ

∂t

2

−2

V ∇

∂ϕ

∂t

+ g

∂ϕ

∂z

= 0 (10.10)

Substituting ϕ = ϕ

0

+ϕ

1

, where ϕ

0

= −V x+ϕ

s

and ϕ

1

= ϕ

ω

+ϕ

I

into 10.10

one obtains

∂

2

ϕ

1

∂t

2

−2

V ∇

∂ϕ

1

∂t

+ g

∂ϕ

1

∂z

+ g

∂ϕ

0

∂z

= 0 (10.11)

Since ϕ

1

= ˆ ϕ

1

e

iωt

10.11 takes the form:

−ω

2

ˆ ϕ

1

−2iω

V ∇ˆ ϕ

1

+ g

∂ ˆ ϕ

1

∂z

+ g

∂ϕ

0

∂z

e

−iωt

= 0

within the fully linear formalism developed here

∂ϕ

0

∂z

= 0 at the free surface.

Therefore the problem is reduced to the problem with respect to ampli-

tudes ˆ ϕ

I

since ϕ

ω

is given

ϕ

ω

= Re(−ic

ˆ

Ae

−ik(xcos µ−y sin µ)

e

iωt

)

−ω

2

ˆ ϕ

I

−2iω

V · ∇ˆ ϕ

I

+ g

∂ ˆ ϕ

I

∂z

= +ω

2

ˆ ϕ

ω

+

+ 2iω

V ∇ˆ ϕ

ω

−g

∂ ˆ ϕ

ω

∂z

;

(10.12)

The no penetration condition yields on the ship hull

n∇ˆ ϕ

(1)

+

ˆ

u ( m−iω

e

n) +

ˆ

α[x ×( m−iω

e

n) +

+n ×∇ϕ

(0)

¸

= 0

(10.13)

where m = (n∇) ∇ϕ

(0)

ϕ

ω

= Re

_

−ic

ˆ

Ae

−kz

e

−ik(xcos µ−y sin µ)

e

iω

e

t

_

u = (u

1

, u

2

, u

3

)

T

describes the translations,

α = (u

4

, u

5

, u

6

)

T

= (α

1

, α

2

, α

3

)

T

the rotations.

The panels are distributed on the hull and on the free surface around the

ship.

To get the boundary conditions for diﬀraction potential, the potentials ϕ

i

are

set to zero in equations (10.12) and (10.13). If the radiation potential, say

ϕ

(3)

, is to be found, the diﬀraction potentials ϕ

d

and ϕ

i(i=3)

are set to zero

in boundary conditions (10.12) and (10.6). The boundary conditions (10.12)

104

and (10.13) are fulﬁlled at centres of each panel.

This results is a system of linear algebraic equations with respect to the

source strengths, which can be solved by Gauss method.

Once the source strengths are known, all potentials and derivatives (veloci-

ties) can be calculated.

The unknown motion amplitudes u

i

are computed from momentum equa-

tions:

m

_

¨

u +

¨

α × x

g

_

= −a ×

G +

_

S

_

p

(1)

−

−

_

Ua

g

+a (x ×a

g

)

__

ndS

(10.14)

m

_

x

g

×

¨

u

_

+ I

¨

α = − x

g

×

_

α ×

G

_

+

+

_

_

p

(1)

− [ua

g

+ α(x × α

g

)]

_

×(¯ x × ¯ n) dS

(10.15)

x

y

center of gravity

G = mg ship weight

I matrix of the moments of inertia of the ship

M =

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

m 0 0 0 mz

g

0

0 m 0 −mz

g

0 mx

g

0 0 m 0 −mx

g

0

0 −m

z

g 0 Q

xx

0 −Q

xz

mz

g

0 −mx

y

0 Q

yy

0

0 mx

g

0 −Q

xz

0 −Q

zz

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

Q

xx

=

_

(y

2

+ z

2

)dm, Q

xz

=

_

xzdm

I =

_

_

Q

xx

0 −Qxz

0 Q

yy

0

−Q

xz

0 −Q

zz

_

_

The harmonic pressure p

(1)

is decomposed into parts due to incident wave,

due to diﬀraction, and due to radiation.

p

(1)

= p

ω

+ p

d

+

6

i=1

p

i

u

i

105

These components can be calculated from the linearized Bernoulli equation:

p

i

= −

_

∂ϕ

i

∂t

+∇ϕ

(0)

∇ϕ

i

_

Two momentum vector equations (10.14) and (10.15) form a linear system

of six equations for the six motions u

i

which is easily solved.

10.2 Time domain simulation

Consideration of nonlinear eﬀects. Seaway is computed as superposition of

elementary waves.

• The wave frequencies ω

j

are chosen such that the area under the sea

spectrum between ω

j

and ω

j+1

is the same for all j. This results in

constant amplitudes for all elementary waves regardless of frequency.

• The frequency interval for simulation is divided into subintervals. These

subintervalls are larger where S

ζ

or the important RAOs are small and

vice versa. In each subinterval a frequency ω

j

is chosen randomly (based

on constant probability distribution). Encounter angles are chosen ran-

domly.

The frequencies, encounter angles, and phase angles chosen before the simu-

lation must be kept during the whole simulations.

106

Bibliography

[1] Brix J. Manoeuvring technical manual. Seehafen Verlag, 1993.

[2] Kleinau D. Theorie des Schiﬀes, Manuskript. University of Rostock,

2001. (in German).

[3] Makov J. Ship oscillations. Kaliningrad, 2007.

[4] http://www.marin.nl/web/Facilities-Tools/Basins/Seakeeping-

Manoeuvring-Basin/Seakeeping-and-manoeuvring-basin-pdf.htm.

[5] Winkler S. Flume passive anti-roll tanks. application on merchant and

naval ships. present at the University of Rostock.

[6] Kornev N. Schiﬀstheorie I, page 162 S.

[7] Kornev N. Ship Theory I (ship manoeuvrability). 2011. Manuscript.

[8] Newman J. Marine hydrodynamics. MIT Press, 1984.

[9] Sisov V. Ship Theory. Odessa, 2004.

[10] Price W.G. and Bishop R.E. Probabilistic theory of ship dynamics.

Halsted, London, 1974.

[11] Vugts J.H. The hydrodynamic coeﬃcients for swaying, heaving and

rolling cylinders in a free surface. Int. Shipbuilding Progress, 15:pp. 224–

276, 1968.

[12] Frahm H. Results of trials of the anti-rolling tanks at sea. Trans. of the

Institution of Naval Architects, Vol.53, 1911.

[13] Bertram V. Practical ship hydromechanics, page 270 p. Butterworth-

Heinemann, 2000.

107

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