BANORA POI NT UPGRADE ALLI ANCE

BLAST MANAGEMENT PLAN












BANORA POINT UPGRADE ALLIANCE


BLAST MANAGEMENT PLAN (BMP)




Revision - 4
28/06/11
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.0 INTRODUCTION.............................................................................................1
1.1 PURPOSE......................................................................................................1
1.2 OBJ ECTIVES................................................................................................1
2.0 SCOPE OF WORKS..........................................................................................2
2.1 Main Cutting – Sexton Hill............................................................................2
3.0 DEFINITIONS...................................................................................................3
4.0 REQUIREMENTS, APPROVALS AND GUIDELINES.................................4
4.1 APPROVALS & NOTIFICATIONS.............................................................5
4.2 LEGISLATION.............................................................................................6
4.3 MINISTERS CONDITIONS OF APPROVAL & STATEMENT OF
COMMITMENTS......................................................................................................6
4.4 ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION LICENCE.........................................9
4.5 ENVIROMENTAL ASSESSMENT...........................................................10
4.6 BPUA MODIFICATION REQUEST FOR BLASTING LIMITS..............12
4.7 SCOPE OF WORKS AND TECHNICAL CRITERIA...............................13
4.8 BPUA CONSTRUCTION NOISE AND VIBRATION MANAGEMENT
PLAN (NVMP)........................................................................................................14
4.9 UTILITY AUTHORITIES..........................................................................14
4.9.1 Telstra......................................................................................................14
4.9.2 Water and Sewer......................................................................................15
4.9.3 Country Energy........................................................................................16
4.10 GUIDELINES, STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS.........................17
4.11 PRE-CONDITION BUILDING SURVEYS...............................................18
5.0 PLANNING AND ASSESSMENT.................................................................19
5.1 PRINCIPLES...............................................................................................19
5.2 PROGRAMME............................................................................................20
5.3 DESIGN.......................................................................................................21
5.4 CONSTRUCTION METHODOLOGY FOR MAIN BLASTS..................22
5.5 MONITORING OF MAIN PRODUCTION BLASTS...............................23
5.6 NOISE, VIBRATON & DUST MITIGATION...........................................24
5.6.1 Noise & Vibration Controls.....................................................................24
5.6.2 Dust..........................................................................................................25
5.7 POST BLAST EVALUATION & DOCUMENTATION...........................26
5.8 ALTERNATIVE TECHNIQUES................................................................27
6.0 SAFETY ..........................................................................................................29
6.1 WORK SITE................................................................................................29
6.1.1 Pre-Planning.............................................................................................29
6.1.2 Drilling.....................................................................................................29
6.1.3 Charging...................................................................................................30
6.1.4 Blasting Initiation.....................................................................................32
6.2 TRAFFIC & PEDESTRIAN MANAGEMENT..........................................33
7.0 COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT PLAN.......................................................35
7.1 OBJ ECTIVES OF THE CIP........................................................................35
7.2 AFFECTED STAKEHOLDERS.................................................................35
7.3 TIMEFRAME FOR DISRUPTION............................................................36
7.4 COMMUNITY MANAGEMENT MEASURES........................................36
7.5 STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT AND EXCLUSION ZONE...............36
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7.6 RELOCATION AND MOVEMENTS OF RESIDENTS DURING
BLASTING..............................................................................................................37
7.6.1 Stakeholder notification procedure prior to the blast...............................37
7.6.2 Consultation procedure during the blast..................................................39
7.7 COMMUNICATION TOOLS.....................................................................40
7.8 POINTS OF CONTACT..............................................................................42
APPENDIX A – BLASTING AERIAL PHOTOS......................................................44
APPENDIX B – BPUA MODIFICATION REQUEST FOR BLASTING LIMITS..45
APPENDIX C – UTILITY LOCATIONS...................................................................46
APPENDIX D – MONITORING LOCATIONS........................................................47
APPENDIX E – EVALUATION TEST BLAST........................................................48
APPENDIX F – SUBCONTRACTOR BLAST MANAGEMENT PLAN.................49
APPENDIX G – SAFETY SWMS, PRE-START TOOLBOX, CHECKLIST ..........50
APPENDIX H – BLASTING WORKSITE PROFORMAS.......................................51
APPENDIX I – EXAMPLE EXCLUSION ZONES...................................................52
APPENDIX J – PROCESS CONTROL PLAN...........................................................53
APPENDIX K – TRAFFIC CONTROL PLANS........................................................54
APPENDIX L – BANORA POINT COMMUNITY LOCATION PLAN..................55
APPENDIX M – INITIAL BLAST DESIGNS – SOUTH, CENTRE, NORTH........56





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Distribution List of Registered Copies
Copy
Number
Issued to Date Name
1 Banora Point Upgrade Alliance (BPUA) – Alliance Manager Jason Moran
2 BPUA – Environmental Manager Jenny Butler
3 BPUA – Stakeholder Manager Garry McPherson
4 BPUA – Project Manager Steve Allan
5 BPUA – Safety Manager Derek Billing
6 RTA Interface Manager Peter Borelli
7 RTA Pacific Highway Environmental Manager Scott Lawrence
8 Environment Representative Bill Gardyne
9 DoPI
Kylie Seretis /
Michael Young
10 OEH Craig Dunk
11 Tweed Shire Council David Hannah

Plan Approved By:





J ason Moran J enny Butler Steve Allan
Alliance Manager Environmental Manager Project Manager

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Details of Revision Amendment

Plan Control
The latest version of this plan will be available on the Alliance Intranet System (Banora Point
Sharepoint) for all project personnel. Distribution of the plan will be to those detailed on the
distribution listing above. This distribution will be by “hard copy” or electronically via
‘Sharepoint’ for those using ‘Sharepoint’.

The Environmental Manager will maintain, review and update this plan.

Amendment
Each new revision to the plan will be distributed to all registered copyholders with an
instruction that the superseded copy be destroyed or marked as superseded.

The revision number is included at the end of the document number, which is noted on each
page. When amendments occur, the document or relevant section will be reissued with the
revision number updated accordingly.

The Alliance Manager, Systems Manager or Environmental Manager will approve
amendments by initial in the Approval column below.

The following provides a record of amendments made to this document.

Revision Date Description Page Section Approved
By
Draft 8 Oct 10 Draft for agencies All
Rev 1 29 Oct 10 Rev1 for RTA All J B
Rev 2 26 Nov 10 Rev2 for RTA All SA
Rev 3 13 Dec 10 To DoP for approval All J B
Rev 4 28 Jun 11
To address DoPI’s conditional
approval requirements dated
5.4.11 and to update the MCoA
and EPL conditions based on the
modifications dated 12.4.11 and
3.6.11 respectively.
7, 9-10,
12, 21,
Appendix
F;
Appendix M
4.3, 4.4,
4.6, 5.3,
Appendix
F,
Appendix
M
J B
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1.0 INTRODUCTION
Project Approval 07_0059 for Banora Point upgrade was issued to the Roads and Traffic
Authority (RTA) on 26 February 2009 after consideration and review of the Environmental
Assessment (EA) under Part 3A of the Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979
(EP&A Act) by the Minister for Planning.

The construction of the Banora Point Upgrade project (the Project) requires the excavation of
Sexton Hill. Due to the hard rock in Sexton Hill the excavation process will require blasting.

This Blast Management Plan (BMP) has been prepared to detail the measures Banora Point
Upgrade Alliance (BPUA) will use to ensure compliance with relevant licences and approvals,
reduce adverse impacts to the local community and environment, and manage noise,
vibration and air blast associated with the blasting activities on the Project. This BMP also
details measures to ensure the works are conducted safely and traffic impacts are minimised.

This document supplements the Project’s approved Construction Noise and Vibration
Management Plan (NVMP) in relation to blasting requirements.

1.1 PURPOSE
The purpose of the BMP is to:
 Supplements the NVMP by specifically detailing the proposed method of blasting
and the relevant blasting controls to minimise impacts caused by noise and
vibration.
 Summarise the various specification requirements relating to blasting;
 Present the principles and guidelines for minimising impacts on local residents
and other sensitive receivers;
 Describe the practical measures and best management practices to be included
in the design and implementation of blasting operations;
 Outline the design, pre and post blast evaluations, monitoring and documentation
framework;
 Provide an efficient, simplified and diligent approach to addressing the issues that
may arise from the blasting operations.

1.2 OBJECTIVES
The objectives of the BMP are to:
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 Present the quality, safety, environmental and community procedures relating to
blasting activities;
 Minimise the impacts from the blasting operations;
 Ensure vibration, airblast overpressure and dust is controlled within prescribed
limits;
 Protect the amenity of the residents and other building occupiers;
 Protect the amenity of passive recreation areas;
 Ensure the community is consulted and complaints are minimised;
 Prevent damage to adjacent public utilities, structures and buildings.

2.0 SCOPE OF WORKS

Rock excavation requiring blasting will be restricted to the main cutting through Sexton Hill.
Alternate methods to blasting are planned for the southern interchange excavation although
minor blasting may be required if they are not successful.

BPUA will appoint a specialist Drill and Blast contractor to undertake these works and an
independent blasting consultant to review and monitor the blasting operations and its effect
on the local community.

2.1 Main Cutting – Sexton Hill

The main cutting is located between CH84500 – CH84750 (refer Figure 2-1 and Appendix A),
and it is expected that 35,000m3 of material will be blasted from this location. This material
will mainly comprise of basalt and agglomerate. The maximum depth of the cutting is 23.0m.
The hard rock that requires blasting ranges from 3m to 13m below existing ground level. The
lens itself varies from 2m to 5m thick. It is anticipated that this will take 25 to 35 Blasts
(depending on vibration results) with an anticipated duration of approximately 6 months.
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Figure 2.1. Blast Location


3.0 DEFINITIONS

Blast, Blasting The firing of explosive materials for such purposes as
breaking rock or other material, or moving material.
Flyrock Rocks propelled from the blast area by the force of an
explosion.
Ground Vibration Movement of the ground by elastic waves emanating from a
blast, measured by particle velocity.
Particle Velocity A measure of the intensity of ground vibration, specifically the
velocity of motion of the ground particles as they are excited
by the wave energy.
Airblast/Overpressure An airborne shock wave resulting from detonation of
explosives. An airblast may be caused by overburden
movement or the release of expanding gas into the air.
Sensitive Receiver People, property, environment and infrastructure susceptible
to the effects from blasting.
Stemming Inert material placed into the drill hole on top of or between
separate charges of explosive material. Used to confine the
explosives.
Burden The distance from the drill hole to the nearest free face
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Overburden Material of any nature lying on top of a deposit that is to be
blasted.
Spacing Distance between drill holes.
Subdrill The practice of drilling holes below floor level or working
elevations to ensure breakage of rock to work elevation.
Bench A horizontal ledge from which holes can be drilled vertically
down into the material to be blasted.
Drill Hole A hole drilled into the material to be blasted for the purpose to
contain the explosive charge.
Initiation Detonation in an explosive material.
Muckpile The pile of broken material resulting from a blast.
Misfire A blast, drill hole or explosive material that failed to detonate
as planned.
Particle Velocity A measure of ground vibration and is the velocity of motion of
the ground particles as they experience wave energy resulting
from a blast.
Primer Initiates other explosives by either containing a detonator or
detonating cord attached to the detonator.
Shotfirer The qualified person responsible for the loading and firing of a
blast.
Blast Controller Coordinates and takes overall control of the blasting and
associated activities on the day of the blast. It is anticipated
that the BPUA General Forman/Foreman/Project Engineer
will be the blast controller
Blast Guard Controls access at designated areas to ensure the blast area
is clear of members of the public and the workforce leading
up to and at the time of the blast.

4.0 REQUIREMENTS, APPROVALS AND GUIDELINES

The following sections summarise the requirements and guidelines relevant to blasting works
as contained in the Ministers Conditions of Approval, the RTA’s Statement of Commitments,
the Environmental Protection Licence, the Environment Assessment and the Scope of Works
and Technical Criteria (SWTC).

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4.1 APPROVALS & NOTIFICATIONS
In order to commence blasting operations the impacts of the operations and who will
be affected need to be considered. The following stakeholders have been considered
for notification.
 Department of Planning and Infrastructure (DoPI) – No formal application or
permit is required although the Project’s NVMP requires a Blast Management
Plan to be submitted to DoPI for review and approval. This document will
satisfy this requirement.
 Office of Environment and Heritage (OEH) – No formal application or permit
is required. A copy of this Blast Management Plan will be submitted to OEH
for comment. BPUA’s Environmental Work Method Statement for the
blasting operations has been reviewed by OEH.
 RTA – No formal application or permit required other than review of this
Document.
 Tweed Shire Council (TSC) – No formal application or permit is required
although the Blast Management Plan has been requested for information by
the BPUA designated representative.
 Work Cover – no formal notification process other than involvement of local
Work Cover Representative.
 Police and Emergency Services – no permit required except notification of
the works.
 Bus Operators – One bus stop will be affected during the traffic closures and
as such our blasting times will be set to avoid peak bus use times. The bus
companies will be informed of the blasting times.
 Utility companies – service providers such as Telstra have been consulted
with in regards to vibration restrictions and these restrictions have been
designed into the trial and main blasts. Refer to section 4.8 below for further
details.
 Sensitive Receivers - Consultation to all sensitive receivers located within
1km of the blast location will be conducted via letter box drops informing
them of the blasting works including day of the week, time of the day, number
of blasts etc. A warning siren will be utilised immediately prior to the blasts as
a reminder for the local residents. Consultation will also be made with
affected educational institutions to ensure that blasts are not timetabled
during examination periods, unless prior arrangements acceptable to the
affected institutions are made. Community consultation is further discussed in
Section 7 of this BMP.
 General public - Traffic alerts and the VMS will be utilised to advise the
broader community including motorists either side of the border. The traffic
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alerts will also be sent to the stakeholders who have requested to be included
on the weekly traffic alert and construction activity database. Refer to Section
7 of this BMP for further details.

4.2 LEGISLATION
The key environmental legislation relating to blasting, and the noise and vibration
management include:
 Environment Planning and Assessment Act (1979);
 Protection of the Environment Operations Act 1997, and Amendment Act 2005;
and
 Local Government Act (1993).

The relevance of these Acts to the Banora Point Upgrade is detailed in the BPUA’s
Construction Environmental Management Plan (CEMP).
4.3 MINISTERS CONDITIONS OF APPROVAL & STATEMENT OF
COMMITMENTS

The Project Conditions of Approval (CoA) issued by the Minister of Planning in
February 2009 and subsequently modified in April 2011 that relate to blasting include:
CoA
#
Minister’s Condition of Approval
Reference
in BMP
2.10
Blasting associated with the construction is only permitted during the following hours:
i. 9:00 am to 5:00 pm, Mondays to Fridays, inclusive;
ii. 9:00 am to 1:00 pm on Saturdays; and
iii. at no time on Sundays or public holidays.
This condition does not apply in the event of a direction from police or other relevant
authority for safety or emergency reasons to avoid loss of life, property loss and/or to
prevent environmental harm.
Section
5.7
2.11
The Proponent shall consult with affected educational institutions and ensure that noise-
generating construction works in the vicinity of the institutions are not timetabled during
examination periods, unless other arrangements acceptable to the affected institutions are
made at no cost to the affected institutions.
Section
4.1 & 7.7
2.13
The Proponent shall ensure that airblast overpressure generated by blasting associated with
the project does not exceed the criteria specified in Table 1 when measured at the most
affected residence or other sensitive receiver.
Table 1: Airblast Overpressure Criteria:
Airblast Overpressure Allowable Exceedance
Section
5.3
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[dB(Lin Peak)]
115 5% of total number of blasts over a 12 month
period
120 Never

2.14
The Proponent shall ensure that ground vibration generated by blasting associated with the
project does not exceed the criteria specified in Table 1 when measured at the most
affected residence or other sensitive receiver.

The following exclusions apply to the application of this condition:
a) any agreements reached may be terminated by the landowner at any time should
concerns about the increased blasting limits be unresolved;
b) the blasting limit agreed to under any agreement can at no time exceed a maximum Peak
Particle Velocity vibration level of 15 mm/s; and
c) the provision to increase applicable blast criteria in agreement with the relevant
landowner do not apply where the property is a heritage property.
A copy of the written agreement shall be provided to the Department prior to the
commencement of any blasting at the higher limits.
Section
5.3
6.4
d)
A Construction Noise and Vibration Management Plan to detail how construction noise
and vibration impacts would be minimised and managed. The Plan shall be developed in
consultation with the DECC and include, but not necessarily be limited to:
i. details of and an indicative schedule for construction activities;
ii. identification of noise and/or vibration generating construction activities that would
affect sensitive receivers, particularly residential areas;
iii. procedures to ensure overpressure and vibration criteria are met during blasting,
including a suitable blast program supported by test blast results;
iv. a detailed description of the reasonable and feasible actions and measures to be
implemented to ensure compliance with the relevant noise and vibration
criteria/objectives;
v. procedures for notifying sensitive receivers of construction activities likely to affect
their noise and vibration amenity, as well as procedures for managing noise
complaints; and
Section
5.7
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vi. a description of how the effectiveness of these actions and measures would be
monitored during the proposed works, clearly indicating how often this monitoring
would be conducted, the locations where monitoring would take place, how the
results of this monitoring would be recorded; and, procedures to be followed should
non-compliance against any of the documents identified in Condition 1.1 or this
management plan be detected.


The blasting requirements in RTA’s Statement of Commitments include:

Objective Ref Commitment Reference in BMP
Noise
CN11
Reasonable and feasible mitigation that seeks to
achieve airblast overpressure and vibration
criteria will be developed and implemented.
Section 5.3
CN12
Site-specific noise and vibration management will
be undertaken once blast requirements are
confirmed (if required), including identifying
appropriate buffer zones.
Section 5.7.1
CN13
Air blast overpressure and vibration will be
measured from test blasts to establish
appropriate propagation characteristics for the
site and increase the accuracy of blasting
predictions.
Section 5.3
CN14
Surveys will be undertaken at critical properties
before and after any blasting activities to identify
any potential damage.
Section 4.11
CN15
Blasting vibrations and air blast overpressure will
be monitored during construction.
Section 5.6
CN16
All reasonable attempts will be made to contact
sensitive receivers located within 500 metres of a
blast location. The contact will be made at least
48 hours before a blast and advice given to the
receiver will include a schedule of blast time(s)
and a telephone number and contact name.
Section 4.1& 7
Limit impacts on
sensitive receivers
associated with
blasting activities
during construction
and, where
necessary, comply
with relevant
standard to reduce
airblast
overpressure and
vibration levels to
an acceptable
level.
CN17
Alternative techniques to blasting will be
considered in areas where criteria cannot be
achieved, and applied as appropriate.
Section 5.9
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Objective Ref Commitment Reference in BMP
Address and
resolve any
complaints
regarding noise
and/or vibration
impacts

CN19
A complaints resolution procedure will be
implemented to ensure that complaints are
thoroughly investigated and appropriate controls
implemented as appropriate (see Commitment
C4).
Section 7
Minimise
construction noise,
vibration and
blasting impacts
on sensitive
receivers
CN20
Construction hours will normally be limited to
between 7am and 6pm Monday to Friday and
between 7am and 1pm Saturday. No work will
take place outside these hours or on public
holidays without prior discussion with and/or
notification of local residents and the Department
of Environment and Climate Change.
Note – these hours are for general
construction work and do not include
blasting which has its own specific working
hours outlined in CoA 2.10.
Section 5.7
Land Use and Property

L4 Property inspections will be conducted, subject to
landowner agreement, on all structures within
200 metres of proposed blasting locations, within
50 metres of construction activities that generate
vibration impacts and at any other locations
identified in the risk assessment.
Section 4.11

4.4 ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION LICENCE

The OEH have issued an Environment Protection Licence (EPL) for the Project, No. 13226.
The EPL conditions relating to blasting are detailed below.
EPL # EPL Condition
Reference
in BMP
L7 Blasting Limits
L7.1
The airblast overpressure level from blasting operations at the premises must not
exceed 120dB (Lin Peak) at any time at any noise sensitive locations. Error margins
associated with any monitoring equipment used to measure this are not to be taken
into account in determining whether or not the limit has been exceeded.
Section 5.3

L7.2
The airblast overpressure level from blasting operations at the premises must not
exceed 115dB (Lin Peak) at any noise sensitive locations for more than five per
cent of the total number of blasts over each reporting period. Error margins
associated with any monitoring equipment used to measure this are not to be taken
Section 5.3

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into account in determining whether or not the limit has been exceeded.
L7.3
Ground vibration peak particle velocity from the blasting operations at the premises
must not exceed 10mm/sec at any time at any noise sensitive locations, unless
agreements have been obtained from the affected receivers. Error margins
associated with any monitoring equipment used to measure this are not to be taken
into account in determining whether or not the limit has been exceeded.
Section 5.3

Blasting Hours
O3.5
Blasting operations at the premises may only take place between 9:00am and
5:00pm Monday to Friday and 9:00am and 1:00pm Saturday. (Where compelling
safety reasons exist, the EPA may permit a blast to occur outside the above hours.
A prior written request for approval of any such blast must be made to the EPA)
Section 5.7
M10 Blasting Monitoring
M10.1
To determine compliance with condition(s) L7.1, L7.2 and L7.3:
a) Airblast overpressure and ground vibration levels experienced at the following
noise sensitive locations must be measured and recorded for all blasts carried out
in or on the premises;
•and electronically recorded at the most affected residence or noise sensitive
location that is not owned by the licensee or subject a private agreement between
the owner of the residence or noise sensitive location and the licensee for all blasts
carried out in or on the premises; and
b) Instrumentation used to measure the airblast overpressure and ground vibration
levels must meet the requirements of Australian Standard AS 2187.2-2006.
Note: A breach of the licence will still occur where airblast overpressure or ground
vibration levels from the blasting operations at the premises exceeds the limit
specified in conditions L7.1 to L7.3 at any “noise sensitive locations” other than the
locations identified in the above condition.
Section 5.6
and 5.7

4.5 ENVIROMENTAL ASSESSMENT

The Environmental Assessment for the Pacific Highway Banora Point Upgrade
prepared by Parsons Brinckerhoff for the RTA (EA February 2008) details the
following:
 The assessment approach applied in the noise and vibration assessment took
into account the guidelines listed in the Environmental Assessment requirements
(where relevant) as follows:
o The Australian and New Zealand Conservation Council’s (ANZECC 1990)
Technical Basis for Guidelines to Minimise Annoyance Due to Blasting
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Overpressure and Ground Vibration – for guidance on airblast overpressure
and vibration criteria. (Section 11.1, Page 127).
 Some blasting is likely to be required for the purpose of hard rock cutting at
Sexton Hill. Potential airblast overpressure and ground vibration impacts of this
activity were assessed using the method detailed in Section 4.3.4 of Technical
Paper 6 (Section 11.4.5, Page 138).
 Table 11-7 summarises the estimated maximum charge mass per delay and
separation distances required to achieve the applicable criteria. It should be
noted that this procedure is only an estimation procedure. In order to obtain an
accurate prediction, site specific testing is essential.

The above predictions indicate that airblast overpressure is the more stringent
criterion. Given the close proximity of residential properties, site-specific testing and
blasting management strategies would be essential to ensure that the criteria are
achieved. Given the proximity of residential properties, alternative construction
techniques would be preferred wherever possible. Proposed blasting management
measures are described in section 11.5.2. (Section 11.4.5, Page 139).

 The following blasting management measures would be implemented to minimise
construction impacts at adjacent sensitive receivers: (Section 11.5.2, Page 144):
o Site-specific noise and vibration predictions would be undertaken when the
blast designs and geotechnical information are confirmed. Appropriate buffer
zones would be identified to ensure that airblast overpressure is limited to
acceptable levels. Blasting designs would be selected to ensure that the
criteria are achieved at residential properties surrounding the project.
(Section 11.5.2, Page 144).
o Blasting vibrations and airblast overpressure would be monitored throughout
the project. (Section 11.5.2, Page 144).
o Airblast overpressure and vibration would be measured from a series of test
blasts in order to establish appropriate propagation characteristics for the site
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and to increase the accuracy of blasting predictions. (Section 11.5.2, Page
144).
o Surveys would be undertaken of all critical properties, before and after
blasting activities, to ensure that no damage is occurring to structures located
on the property. (Section 11.5.2, Page 144).
o Time restrictions would be considered to ensure minimum impacts on
residents. (Section 11.5.2, Page 144).
o Consultation with residents would be considered with regard to the timing of
blasting activities. (Section 11.5.2, Page 144).
o A complaints resolution procedure would be implemented so that complaints
are thoroughly investigated and blasting activities ceased or modified where
appropriate. (Section 11.5.2, Page 144).
o Alternative construction techniques would be used in areas where the criteria
cannot be achieved using the above management strategies. (Section 11.5.2,
Page 144).
It must be noted that the results from the blast evaluation show that considerably less
explosive can be used to remain below the 5mm/s restriction. By comparison,
approximately 2.5 times the distance will be required to achieve <5mm/s than what is
stated in the EA.
4.6 BPUA MODIFICATION REQUEST FOR BLASTING LIMITS

A submission requesting a modification of the blasting limits from that above is
included in Appendix B of this Blast Management Plan. DoPI approved this
modification on 12 April 2011.

Blast Evaluation trials were carried out on site to determine the actual site attenuation
characteristics. These enable us to accurately predict vibration levels specific for our
site rather than using industry standard values. This greatly improves our ability to
accurately predict vibration levels at the closest residence and significantly reduces
the risk of exceedances. Our vibration modelling now includes these characteristics
and has been subject to a 95% confidence interval.

To maintain 95% of blasts below 5mm/s and 5% up to 10mm/s would result in
significant secondary breakage due to the rock not fragmenting sufficiently to allow
free excavation. The evaluation blasts confirmed this by predicting the maximum
charge weights possible while maintaining 5mm/s. There are some areas of the rock
lens that can not be blasted due to the proximity to adjacent houses and will need to
be rock hammered out.

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By increasing the number of blasts that can exceed 5mm/s while planning and
modelling to not exceed 10mm/s at 95% confidence we can significantly increase
fragmentation which will dramatically reduce the amount of overall vibration
experienced by the resident i.e. significantly less rock breaking which will be a greater
impact to the community.

All blasts will be designed to remain below the 10mm/s vibration restriction on 95% of
occasions. The range of peak vibration will vary depending on the variable
geotechnical conditions and is shown in the figure below.
0.0 mm/s 2.5 mm/s 5.0 mm/s 7.5 mm/s 10.0 mm/s 12.5 mm/s 15.0 mm/s

The targeted average level of vibration will be 5mm/s. It is expected that 95% of the
blast patterns will generate less than 10mm/s at the nearest property. 99% of the
blast patterns will generate less than 12mm/s and all blasts are predicted to generate
less than 15mm/s.

If an exceedance is recorded while blasting using the modelled 95% confidence
interval, we will notify the OEH, DOPI, RTA and the BPUA Environmental
Representative. An NCR will also be generated and issued to record the planned
changes to our subsequent blast designs.

4.7 SCOPE OF WORKS AND TECHNICAL CRITERIA

Criteria from the Scope of Works and Technical Criteria include:

 Prior to the commencement of the Alliance Works, pre-condition (dilapidation)
surveys will be completed on properties likely to be affected from any of the
Alliance Works and Temporary Works. These surveys will be used to determine
the condition of existing infrastructure and to then determine the extent of any
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damage that may have been caused by the Alliance Works. The limits of these
re-condition surveys are as follows:
o All Properties within 200m radius from Wilson Park Land Bridge for potential
blasting in the Alliance Works (SWTC)

Compliance with the above requirement is detailed in Section 7.7.

4.8 BPUA CONSTRUCTION NOISE AND VIBRATION
MANAGEMENT PLAN (NVMP)

The approved NVMP specifically excludes the detailed management of blasting and
the control of associated noise and vibration. The NVMP contains the same
requirements for blasting operations as stated in the CoA and the EPL and as such
have not been duplicated in this section. Some additional mitigation measures for
blasting activities detailed in the NVMP include:
 Videotaping of blasting activities in close proximity to residents will be
undertaken.
 Obtain appropriate weather data by taking measurements as soon as practicable
prior to blasting, and from the data predict whether air blast overpressure levels
are likely to be increased above the levels expected under adverse weather
conditions.

This BMP supplements the NVMP by specifically detailing the proposed method of
blasting and the relevant blasting controls to minimise impacts caused by noise and
vibration.

4.9 UTILITY AUTHORITIES
4.9.1 Telstra

Telstra have two services running along the alignment, namely the Copper Cable and
Optical Fibre. BPUA have been advised by Telstra, (see Appendix C) that the
maximum allowable ground vibration is 50mm/sec (PPV peak particle velocity).

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Figure 4.8.1 Underground Telstra Services

4.9.2 Water and Sewer

Water and sewer services (see Appendix C) are located along sections of the
proposed alignment. BPUA have been advised by Tweed Shire Council that for the
assets within a 50m zone of the blast there is no such maximum value as long as the
integrity of the asset is maintained. TSC require notification of the blast schedule so
they can review these assets. For assets outside of this zone the maximum allowable
ground vibration is 20mm/sec (PPV peak particle velocity).

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Figure 4.8.2 Underground Waternain I nstallation

4.9.3 Country Energy

Country Energy services are located along sections of the proposed alignment.
Clarification is currently being sought from Country Energy in relation to the maximum
allowable ground vibration. Adoption of 50mm/s limit in line with telecommunication
and power assets of other authorities is the expected criteria. BPUA have previously
been advised that an appropriate limit is 50mm/s.
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Figure 4.8.3 Above Ground Country Energy Asset


4.10 GUIDELINES, STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS

The key Guidelines and Standards relevant to blasting management include:

 Standard RTA Specifications:
o BPUA R44 Earthworks
o BPUA G36 Environmental Protection (Management Systems)
o BPUA G5 Environmental Protection Requirements.
 Environmental Noise Management Manual – RTA 2001.
 Environmental Noise Control Manual Chapter 171 Construction Site Noise – EPA
1994.
 Environmental Noise Control Manual Chapter 174 Vibration in Buildings – EPA
1994.
 Department of Environment, Climate Change & Water, Interim Construction
Noise Guidelines, 2009.
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 Technical Basis for Guidelines to Minimise Annoyance due to Blasting Over
Pressure and Ground Vibration September 1990 – Australian and New Zealand
Environment Council (ANZECC).
 Australian Standard AS2187.0 2006 – Explosives – Storage, Transport and Use
Part 0 – Terminology.
 Australian Standard AS2187.0 2006 – Explosives – Storage, Transport and Use
Part 1 – Terminology.
 Australian Standard AS2187.1 2006 – Explosives – Storage and Use Part 2: Use
of explosives.
 Australian Standard AS2187.2 2006 – Explosives – Storage, Transport and Use
– Part 3: Pyrotechnics – Shopgoods fireworks –Design, performance and testing.
 Australian Standard AS2187.4 2006 – Explosives – Storage, Transport and Use
– Part 4 Pyrotechnics – Outdoor Displays.
 EPA ENCM Chapter 154 – Blasting Vibration Limits.
 NSW Dept of Mineral Resources – Blasting Limits.
 Environmental Noise Management – Assessing Vibration: a technical guideline,
February 2006 - OEH (previously DECCW).
 Explosives Regulation 2005.
4.11 PRE-CONDITION BUILDING SURVEYS

Pre-blast building condition inspections have been conducted on all structures that
are located within 200m of the proposed blasting works at the Sexton Hill cutting, in
accordance with SoC No. L4. These reports have been undertaken to establish the
condition of all existing infrastructure which could be affected by blasting works.
Copies of these reports have been issued to the RTA Representative, the Project
Verifier and the owner and/or occupier. Following completion of the project,
additional surveys will be conducted as required on buildings to identify any potential
damage.
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5.0 PLANNING AND ASSESSMENT

Detailed planning is the key to ensuring a safe and efficient blast. Monitoring and
assessment is required to drive continual improvement in the blasting process and to show
compliance with various standards and conditions. The following sections outline BPUA’s
approach to planning and assessment.

5.1 PRINCIPLES

The principles and guidelines for minimising the impact on local residents and other
sensitive receivers from noise and vibration are detailed in the following sections. All
blasts on this project will be restricted blasts. Restricted blasts control every
parameter of a blast design to optimise the fragmentation achievable when blasting in
close proximity to sensitive receivers while minimising noise, vibration and fly rock.

BPUA will be undertaking 3 distinct types of blasting on the project. They are:
1. A Blast Evaluation – this includes drilling 11 holes in 3 locations, 3-4 holes per
location, throughout the cutting and firing a small charge in each hole. These will
be from the existing surface level and some 15m deep. Monitors are set up in
multiple areas in and around the cutting. The blasts are typically spaced 15
minutes apart to allow for vibration data gathering and design modification of the
next blast hole. This evaluation is carried out to accurately model ground
vibrations in accordance with Section 11.5.2 of the Environmental Assessment
and was completed on 3/8/2010. Refer to section 5.4 below for further details.
2. Trial Blast: This is our first blast on site that creates fragmentation of the rock that
allows for excavation. The trial blast is designed using the data from the blast
evaluation and aims to comfortably achieve below vibration restrictions. It is a
scaled down version of a typical main blast. This will be approximately 20-25
holes and have a slightly reduced charge weight to further improve our
confidence of the blast design and geological conditions.
3. Main Blasting: these are typically blasts of approx 2,000m3 bcm conducted after
the blast evaluation and trial blast have been completed. These are the blast
utilised to assist excavation of the rock in the cutting. The hard rock that requires
blasting ranges from 3m to 13m below existing ground level. The lens itself varies
from 2m to 5m thick.

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Each blast will be specifically designed and the maximum charge weight (MIC)
selected such that no one detonation will cause vibration levels to exceed the target
goals. This MIC is the critical factor in controlling the impacts to local residents and
sensitive receivers and changes depending on distance, geology and velocity of
detonation.

Once the maximum charge weight has been determined for each blast the other
parameters are carefully selected to control distribution of this explosive in the hole to
maximise fragmentation, to control the direction of initiation to further reduce vibration
effects, to control hole size and stemming material to reduce ejection risks, to control
the positioning of the explosives in decked holes and to control the potential for fly
rock generation. No explosives will be temporarily stored onsite overnight.

Once the above parameters have been determined the blast will be designed to not
exceed any vibration limits, to be as safe as possible, and to fragment the rock as
much as possible

5.2 PROGRAMME

It is currently anticipated that blasting will need to commence in the Sexton Hill cutting
early J uly 2011 with rock levels confirmed higher than expected following additional
geotechnical bore holes.

The current program is to undertake one to two blasts per week yielding
approximately 2,000 bcm per week. Analysis of the seasonal traffic peak volume
data suggests the best time to close the Pacific Highway to enable safe blasting is
between 12:00pm and 12:30pm and between 1:00pm and 1:30pm on Monday’s,
Tuesday’s and Wednesday’s. Therefore the BPUA intends to undertake all blasting
activities on Monday’s, Tuesday’s and Wednesday’s between 12:00pm and 12:30pm
and between 1:00pm and 1:30pm. There will only be one blast per day and the day
and time will be notified to the community as per our communication procedure.

All preliminary checks and setup of the blast site will be completed prior to these
times so blasting is as close as possible to the advertised half hour blast window.

The number of production blasts is anticipated to be 20-30 (depending on vibration
readings) excluding the initial evaluation test blasts. The duration of main blasting
activities will be approximately 6 months from commencement.
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5.3 DESIGN

The design for each of the blasts will be undertaken by BPUA’s specialist drill and
blast subcontractor. BPUA has engaged an independent blasting and blast vibration
expert J ohn Heilig and Partners to review the blast design, blast methodology and to
undertake monitoring and analysis of the vibration results to continuously improve the
noise and vibration control and ensure compliance with restrictions. J ohn Heilig and
Partners have extensive experience in blasting in urban areas including Ballina
Bypass Alliance, Airport Link and Northern Busway, North-South Bypass Tunnel
(NSBT) as well as multiple international projects.

Initial blast designs and relevant blasting criteria for blasts at specific blast locations
have been developed and are shown in Appendix M. Vibration and airblast results
from the evaluation blasts, trial blasts and each production blast will be used to
accurately model the expected vibration levels and blast design for each subsequent
blast. This continual improvement will ensure we decrease the probability of
exceeding any limits by continuously improving our model and data set. Predicted
airblast overpressure levels are to be calculated prior to blast based on the current
weather conditions. If predicted levels are likely to be exceeded at neighbouring
dwellings cease or restrict the blast.

The blast design will specify the:

 MIC (Maximum Instantaneous Charge);
 Burden;
 Spacing;
 Depth;
 Inclination of holes;
 Hole diameter;
 Subgrade drilling;
 Stemming;
 Powder Factor;
 Type of explosives;
 Initiation Sequence;
 Sensitive structures;
 Volume of blasted material;
 Distance to sensitive receivers; and
 Expected levels of vibration and airblast at sensitive receivers.

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Once the vibration modelling and blasting parameters for each blast have been
determined these are run through a blasting program that determines the best
initiation sequence to provide further opportunity to modify vibration and also control
relief which can impact in vibration as well.
In accordance with RTA Specification BPUA R44, a Hold Point will be submitted prior
to each of the blasts. This hold point will include the blast design details provided by
the drill and blast subcontractor.

5.4 CONSTRUCTION METHODOLOGY FOR MAIN BLASTS
The trial and main blasting (subject to approval of a Blast Management Plan) will be
carried out following the sequence of activities below:
1. Design of each blast to achieve the intended result including compliance with all
environmental and safety requirements. The blast design shall be developed to
produce the required cross section at each location and may include line drilling.
The depth of each blast will be determined and may include localised deepening
for drainage etc. Explosive type should give consideration to factors that may
affect the blast such as predicted wet weather.
2. Coordination of blast designs and program to ensure issues associated with
materials handling, excavation of OTR, site access, haul roads, stockpiles are
taken into consideration.
3. Marking out of blast pattern.
4. Drilling of blastholes. This will likely require a minimum of 2 drill rigs. Accurate drill
logs will be recorded for each hole. The holes will be drilled to a depth that is
agreed as below the basalt lens and then stemmed back up to the explosive and
charge to control vibration.
5. Dipping, priming and loading of blastholes with suitable primers, detonators and
explosives to suit the requirements of the blast design. Again the explosive type
will give consideration to factors that may affect the blast such as predicted wet
weather. It is anticipated that the basalt lens will require deck loading to ensure
only one pass of blasting is required, minimising the number of blasts.
6. Stemming of blastholes. Stockpile of appropriate stemming material will be
provided at each site in close proximity. A method of ensuring each blasthole is
sufficiently filled with stemming shall form a hold point for each blast, i.e. an
actual quantity vs design quantity check. Filling of blastholes with stemming
material is to be carried out by competent workers.
7. Connection of all detonators, delays etc. as required by the blast design. It is
noted that electronic detonators may be required for blasting on the project due to
the environmental and safety constraints.
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8. Supply and installation of blast protection measures to eliminate ‘fly rock’ or
ejection of material from the shot area for each blast. The control measures will
be reviewed and inspected of prior to each blast. Existing over burden (approx
3m) and potentially blast mats will be used to control flyrock for the project.
9. Supply of documentation from subcontractor a minimum of 48 hours prior to each
blast for review, including all details from section 5.3 above. The documentation
shall also include safety considerations and environmental measures such as
methods of monitoring vibration and locations of monitoring equipment.
10. Coordination in relation to the shot being fired to manage the clearing of each
area, stopping of traffic etc.
11. Firing of the shot. It is anticipated that the BPUA General Forman/Foreman/
Project Engineer will be the blast controller and will take overall control of each
blast.
12. Any rectification measures required as a result of a miss-fire, including overnight
security if required. Misfire rectification procedures vary between subcontractors
however they will be documented in detail in the Drill and Blast subcontractors
safety management plan.
13. Supply of documentation following each blast including drill sheets, checklists,
monitoring results, video of blast etc. as detailed in Specification R44.

5.5 MONITORING OF MAIN PRODUCTION BLASTS

Vibration and air blast monitoring will be conducted by Dr J ohn Heilig of Heilig and
Partners. J ohn has vast experience in blasting monitoring and control in dense urban
environments such as Banora Point as detailed earlier.

Blast monitoring instrumentation will be installed and maintained in accordance with
relevant Australian Standards (eg. AS2187.2 - 1993). Monitoring units will be
calibrated annually to standards that are traceable to Australian Physical Standards
held by the National Measurement Laboratory (CSIRO Division of Applied Physics).

Blast monitoring equipment will consist of a computer and display unit connected by
cable to a geophone transducer which senses vibration, and to a microphone with
low-frequency measurement characteristics which senses air blast overpressure.
Vibration and overpressure levels are monitored concurrently upon detection of a
trigger, and the data is processed and stored in the computer memory.

The blast monitoring system proposed for this project utilises the instrumentation
available from INSTANTEL.

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The proposed system will include a relocatable near-field unit placed within close
proximity to the blast area and additional blast monitoring units located at the most
affected residence or noise sensitive location, in accordance with the MCoA and EPL
requirements. The locations of the vibration monitors will be in accordance with the
blast evaluation monitoring (Appendix D). Additional monitoring will be provided at
the affected structures in proximity to the blast sites during construction (if required).
These affected structures are likely to be pile walls RW07 and RW08, the Landbridge
and Laura Street Bridge. Concrete pours at these locations will be coordinated with
the blasting to ensure no adverse quality impacts.

In addition to the above, each blast will be recorded using digital video equipment to
record any surface movement and minor ejections.

5.6 NOISE, VIBRATON & DUST MITIGATION
5.6.1 Noise & Vibration Controls
Drilling Activities:
Drilling works are only to occur 7:00am to 6:00pm Monday to Friday; or 8:00am to
1:00pm Saturday.

Noise from the drilling operations need to be minimised as much as possible. As such
the following controls need to be implemented as a minimum:
 Drilling rigs are to be fitted with appropriate silencers (noise control kits) and are
to be maintained in an efficient condition.
 Drilling rigs are to be switched off when not in use.
 Noise levels of the drill rigs will be monitored before commencing work to
determine noise mitigations required.
 Temporary noise barriers are to be installed directly near the drilling rigs. The
existing noise hoarding will also provide some additional benefits. No gaps must
be present in the temporary noise barriers including between the ground and the
bottom of the barrier.
 Ensure drill rig remains within the cut batter whenever possible to contain noise
within the cutting.
 Broad-band reverse alarms to be used.
 Respite periods are to be considered depending on effectiveness of above
controls.
 The drilling location will be at least 3m below the crest of the cutting so will be
buffered by the cutting wall.

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Blasting Activities:
Blasting works will be limited to approved work hours Monday to Friday 9am-5pm and
Saturday 9am to 1pm. As stated in Section 5.2, BPUA intends to undertake the blasts
on the same three days per week and at the same time of day to ensure consistency
in blast days and times to reduce community confusion and disruption. .

The vibration results from the evaluation blast have been used to calculate the K
value for the trial and main blasts for the south, central and northern end of the
cutting. The results also allow more accurate modelling and pricing of the drill and
blast works. The report from the blast evaluation is attached in Appendix E.

As stated above in Section 5.3, the blasts will be designed to ensure the limits for
vibration and airblast overpressure are not exceeded. The blast design will vary the
explosive quantity depending on the proximity of the blast to the sensitive receiver,
effectively creating a buffer zone. Vibration and airblast results from the trial blast and
each additional blast will be modelled and the results used to design the next blast to
ensure a minimum number of blasts without exceeding the limits.

Predicted airblast overpressure levels will be calculated prior to the blasts based on
the current weather conditions. If predicted levels are likely to be exceeded at
neighbouring dwellings cease or restrict the blast. The 3m of overburden is also a key
method of controlling airblast overpressure

As detailed in Section 5.6, airblast overpressure and ground vibration levels will be
measured and electronically recorded at the most affected residence or
noise/vibration sensitive location that is not owned by the RTA or subject to a private
agreement for all blasts carried out.

All noise and vibration complaints will be recorded and actioned as detailed in Section
7 of this BMP.
5.6.2 Dust
Trucks entering and leaving the premises that are carrying dust generating loads (eg.
Stemming material) must be covered at all times except during loading and
unloading.

Water carts will be used as required during the drilling operations. In addition, drill rigs
that utilise water and dust collectors will be used on site.

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Blast protection measures to eliminate ‘fly rock’ or ejection of material from the shot
area will be installed for each blast. The control measures will be reviewed and
inspected prior to each blast. Existing over burden (approx 3m) and potentially blast
mats will be used to control flyrock for the project. The blast lens is also within the
water table which should minimise any potential dust issues.

Dust monitoring will occur during blasting activities in accordance with the Project’s
Air Quality Management Plan.
5.7 POST BLAST EVALUATION & DOCUMENTATION

The performance of each blast will be reviewed to consider the safety and
environmental outcomes, the impact on traffic and effectiveness of the traffic
management, assessment of blast muckpile to verify that there has been no misfire,
and inspections of the blast area and surrounding work area for evidence of flyrock.

The intent of the review is to check that the blast performed as per the design and to
seek areas for improvements in future blasts.

Blast report pro-formers will be completed detailing explosives usage, timing plans
and environmental monitoring results. Fragmentation and heave performance are
also to be evaluated and any comments on the blast will be documented. In
accordance with RTA Specification BPUA R44 all the following details will be
recorded:

 Date, Identification number and time of blast;
 Location, number and diameter of blast holes loaded;
 Depth of each drill hole loaded;
 Inclination of drill holes;
 Burden(s) and spacings;
 Types and amounts of explosives used;
 Maximum instantaneous charge (MIC);
 Initiation Plan;
 Length and type of stemming in each blast hole;
 Ground vibration and noise levels at measuring locations.
 Video footage to record any surface movement and minor ejections.

These records will be signed off by the shotfirer. A copy of the records will be filed in
BPUA’s Quality Management System (QESE).

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Should either air-blast overpressure or peak particle velocity be exceeded, the
Environmental Manager will investigate the exceedance and consult with the shot-
firer and Project Engineer to implement strategies to minimise re-occurrences prior to
the next blast. In the event of an exceedance the following will be documented:
 the date, time and nature of exceedance;
 review blast procedures and preparation to determine the cause (likely
cause) of the exceedance;
 identify actions taken to date to avoid exceedances;
 identify proposed measures to address the exceedance;
 amend blast procedures as a result of any proposed mitigation measures;
 document and file this investigation report onsite.

OEH and DoPI will be notified of any exceedances in the EPL monthly compliance
report and the 6 monthly compliance reports. All monitoring results will also be
discussed at the monthly Environmental Review Group meetings. In cases where the
exceedeances have the potential to cause harm to the environment or community,
reporting will be as per the MCoA 1.4.
5.8 ALTERNATIVE TECHNIQUES

There are 7 alternative techniques have been investigated. They are:
1. Boulder Buster – Water / CO2 compression
2. Bright Star – Expanding Gels
3. Cardox – CO2 shell
4. Piston Cartridge
5. Super Wedge
6. Rock Breaker
7. Slender/tapered Moil

These alternatives are cost prohibitive to use across the main cutting although will be
applicable in localised areas sensitive to vibration.

Following extensive reviews, meetings and discussions with suppliers of the above,
only the super wedge and slender moil option will be progressed further for boulders,
trimming back to piles and potentially in the southern interchange cutting.
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Figure 5.9.1 Superwedge


Figure 5.9.2 Slender/tapered Moil





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6.0 SAFETY

Blasting is a high risk activity and as such, safety is of extreme importance. This includes the
safety of people, property, environment and infrastructure. The safety procedures to be
implemented in this Project will be described in the Drill and Blast Subcontractors
Management Plan (Appendix F) and will be generally as below. Safe Work Method
Statements (SWMS), pre-start toolboxes and Safety Inspection checklists and Observations
will be completed prior and during the works as required (Appendix G).

6.1 WORK SITE

A summary of the safety measures that will be implemented during the various stages
of the blasting operation are given below.
6.1.1 Pre-Planning

Pre-planning includes the details outlined in Sections 5.3 Design and 5.4 Pre-
blast Evaluation of this Management Plan. Pre-planning will ensure that all
the safety aspects of the blasting are considered in the design and that
everyone involved is aware of the risks associated with the blasting works.

BPUA surveyors will set-out the perimeter of the blast from which the
subcontractor will mark drill holes. This perimeter is key as it sets the
exclusion zone limits. The exclusion area will be a minimum of 50m around
the blast location. Further details on the exclusion area procedures are
provided below in section 6.2.
Existing boreholes, test holes and piezometric holes will be identified and
marked on the exclusion zone drawing. These holes will be assessed by the
Blasting Consultant (J ohn Heilig) and appropriate measures put in place to
control any water ejection from these.

6.1.2 Drilling

The drilling will be undertaken by suitably qualified operators. The area
where drilling and subsequent blasting is required will be marked off, allowing
access only to the blasting team. The drilling should be completed prior to
any charging commencing, and where drilling must be performed during
charging, there must be six (6) metres between these two activities. The drill
operator will be briefed on the blast design and pattern requirements by the
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shotfirer prior to the commencement of drilling. This briefing will be
conducted and recorded as a toolbox meeting. The driller will keep a drillers
log and give this to the shotfirer prior to any loading of charges commencing.
This includes position, angles and depths of each hole. The driller will notify
the shotfirer of any unexpected subsurface voids or changes in rock strata on
the blasting works proformas (Appendix H).
Figure 6.1.2 Drill Rig in Operation

6.1.3 Charging

Charging and initiation setup will cease upon the approach of electrical
storms. The shotfirer and the Alliance supervisor will monitor the weather
conditions regularly throughout, on a daily basis, to discern the likelihood of
storm events. All personnel will be removed from the area and charging will
not recommence until electrical storm has passed. The blast area will have a
boundary erected around it, allowing entry by authorised personnel only. The
blasting area will be kept free of all obstructions and hazards and there will
be strictly no smoking permitted.

The set up prior to the blasting initiation involves the loading of the primer,
loading the charges, connecting the shot, and clearing the areas.

Loading of the primer will be undertaken by the shotfirer or a person under
the supervision of the shotfirer. The primers and detonators will be kept
separate at all times until loading of the drill holes. The drill holes will be
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checked to ensure there are no blockages and drilled to the correct depth.
The depth of the drill hole will be recorded on the loading sheet. The primer
is first to be lowered into the drill hole, in a manner to prevent damage to it or
the attached detonator.
Figure 6.1.3.a Loading the Explosive Column

Once the primer is in place, the remaining explosive column is loaded. Care
is taken to protect the leg wires of the detonators. The loading of bulk
explosive materials into the drill hole will be checked to ensure that there is
no blockage, or if it has passed though a crevice or cave in the drill hole
diverting the explosive. The quantity of explosive loaded into each hole will
be recorded on the charging sheet (Appendix H). This will prevent excessive
loading of the drill hole due to comparisons with the blast design figures. If a
cartridge of explosive becomes lodged in the borehole, care must be taken to
remove or fix the situation. A retrieval tool can carefully be used; however
excessive force, as well as the drill steel or the drill should never be used to
force an explosive charge past an obstruction.

When the entire column is loaded, the charge must be confined in the drill
hole with an adequate amount and type of stemming. The amount of
stemming required will be specified in the blast design. The stemming size
will also be determined by the hole diameter used. Like the loading of the
explosive, stemming will be conducted by the shotfirer or a person under the
supervision of the shotfirer. It will be placed into the drill hole in a controlled
manner to prevent bridging, and the quantity monitored to ensure the entire
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hole is filled. The stemming height will be recorded for each hole (Appendix
H).
Figure 6.1.3.b Stemming the Explosive Column


6.1.4 Blasting Initiation

When the shot has been loaded the detonator leads will be connected in the
sequence detailed on the approved blast design. It is anticipated that
electronic detonators will be required to effectively control the vibration from
the blasts. This sequence will be checked by a BPUA Engineer following the
shotfirers check and any issues recorded on the loading initiation sheet
(Appendix H). The blast should be detonated as soon as possible. Reducing
the time a loaded and connected shot is left in reduces the time of hazardous
exposure for employees on site, and also reduces the chances of any one
entering the site and becoming in danger from the blast. The main concern
at time of detonation is that the area is completely clear and access
controlled. Plans to show this exclusion zone can be seen in Appendix I. A
Process Control Plan will be followed to ensure all items requiring an action
have been completed prior to blasting (Appendix J ). The blast controller will
coordinate blasting of the shot and take overall control on the day of the
blast.

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6.2 TRAFFIC & PEDESTRIAN MANAGEMENT

To ensure the safety of local and highway traffic, all of the blasts will require a full
road closure of the Pacific Highway. This road closure may result in delays up to 15
minutes in duration, generally between 12:00pm and 12:30pm and between 1:00pm
and 1:30pm, once or twice per week on Mondays, Tuesdays and Wednesdays. The
blast evaluation trials showed no adverse effect on traffic at the proposed times even
with 3 trials carried out with an hour between each trial.

Traffic controllers will implement this road closure at a safe distance (both from the
blast site and to ensure safe stopping sight distance) and at a suitable road grade to
allow traffic flow to resume quickly. The clear distance for where the traffic is to be
stopped is such that the travelling public will not be able to view the blasting
operations.

Once the traffic control has stopped highway traffic, BPUA scout vehicles will drive
from either ends tailing the last vehicles to ensure and provide confirmation that the
area is clear. Queue managers will be positioned at each end of the project to
monitor and control this queue if required. There will be multiple advance warning
signs and queue managers at each end to facilitate the build up of traffic if required.
VMS boards, both mobile and permanent (e.g. Tugun Bypass), will be utilised for
advance warning also.

The southbound (SB) off ramp onto Minjungbal Drive and the SB lane of Minjungbal
leading to Darlington Drive will remain open. The SB on ramp from Minjungbal will be
closed to traffic. The local roads (Laura Street, Short Street, Terranora Road) are
located in the middle of the closures. These roads will be closed as required
depending on blast location and a BPUA Traffic Scout/s and Pedestrian Scout/s
placed at the intersection of the Pacific Highway and the local roads. Right turns out
of Terranora Road onto SB Pacific Highway will be permitted while the traffic is
stopped via traffic controller hand directions. Right turns out of Laura Street onto
northbound (NB) Darlington Drive Link will be permitted while the traffic is stopped via
traffic controller hand directions. These roads all have fairly low volumes of traffic and
will have clear advance warning signs to advise users of the planned stoppages.
Traffic Control Plans for these closures are detailed in Appendix K.

A traffic control setup using a rolling stop has been trialled and will be implemented
(Appendix K). It entails adjacent slow moving scout vehicles travelling at 40 km/h
concurrently on both lanes of the Pacific Highway Southbound and Northbound;
starting a calculated distance away from the traffic control road closure. The objective
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is to clear the stopped traffic in front of the scout vehicles allowing the blast to occur
with minimal traffic delays on the Pacific Highway.

The Shared User Path and other minor footpaths also run through the blasting
exclusion zones and will require blast guards to be positioned to stop and control
access into the exclusion zone during the firing sequence.

There will be a number of back yards, balconies, veranda’s and pools that will need to
be monitored and ensured are cleared of people during the blasting operations.
Some residents will need to stay indoors during the blasts. Details of how BPUA will
manage this process are contained in Section 7 of this Management Plan. Hold
points for this will be included on the process control plan (Appendix J ).

Locations for ALL traffic controllers, Blast Guards, The Blast Controller, exclusion
zones, properties needing to be cleared, pools, balconies etc will be clearly identified
on a specific plan for each blast and provided to each member of the blast control
team (Appendix I and K).

Traffic control plans for each location have been developed and will be submitted for
RTA review and approval. Once approved, a Road Occupancy Licence would be
requested and obtained for the closure of the Highway during the blasting operations.


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7.0 COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT PLAN

This Community Involvement Plan (CIP) for blasting outlines the proposed tasks and activities
that will be undertaken by the BPUA Community Relations Team to minimise the impact of
blasting on the local community and other road users.

7.1 OBJECTIVES OF THE CIP

The objectives of the CIP are to:

 Provide all residents and stakeholders with advanced information of the effects,
management (including implementing mitigation measures), constraints, and
duration of blasting;
 Provide a community wide awareness of the blast periods and times; and
 Ensure effected residents and stakeholders are notified and remain indoors
during blasting operations or are outside of the designated safety exclusion zone
during blasts.
7.2 AFFECTED STAKEHOLDERS

The following groups have been identified as stakeholders who may be affected by
the blasting works:

 Property owners who live adjacent to, or in the vicinity of, the blast areas;
 Banora Point residents;
 Directly affected businesses;
 Wider community, including residents and businesses, such as Tweed Heads
South;
 Road users including;
o local traffic
o through traffic
o truck traffic
o bus companies – local and long distant
o cyclists
o pedestrians
 Emergency services (in the unlikely event of an accident);
 Tweed Shire Council;
 Department of Lands;
 Educational Facilities;
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 Trucking Association;
 Gold Coast (Tugun) Airport; and
 Utility workers on nearby easements.


7.3 TIMEFRAME FOR DISRUPTION

Blasting will occur once per day generally between 12:00 – 12:30pm and 1:00 –
1.30pm and be once or twice per week on Monday’s, Tuesday’s or Wednesday’s.

7.4 COMMUNITY MANAGEMENT MEASURES

The following measures are required to mitigate safety risks to the public from
blasting:

 Ensure designated Banora Point residents are given the option of being
temporarily relocated or asked to remain indoors during blast periods i.e. clearing
backyards, pools, balconies;
 Stop traffic on Pacific Highway during blast periods and carry out rolling traffic
stop. This may result into delays up to 15 minutes;
 Stop local roads traffic where required during blast periods. This may result into
delays up to 15 minutes;
 Stop pedestrian and cyclist traffic for up to 15 minutes during blast periods.

7.5 STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT AND EXCLUSION ZONE

Banora Point residents are considered a significant stakeholder group that may be
impacted by the blasting at Sexton Hill (Appendix L).

The Alliance recognises that the community may be impacted by blasting activities
and continues to commit to a policy of ‘no surprises - if we know it is going to impact
them they will be forewarned’.

It is therefore imperative that residents are notified of the exclusion zone that will be
determined from the evaluation blasts. This has been initially nominated at 50 metres
from the blast centre.

Following the monitoring of the blasts, the safety perimeter may be reduced in size.
This initial 50 metre radius extends to properties in Banora Point. The alliance
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recognises that some residents may be required to stay indoors during the time of the
blast.
The houses that are predicted to be affected by each blast are outlined below. The
houses are within the 50m exclusion zone however to minimise disruption to the
residents and by using overburdens and low charge weights it is deemed appropriate
for the residents to remain indoors as opposed to be evacuated. The 3m of
overburden and stemming will remove the risk of flyrock. We have consulted Orica (a
specialised urban blast subcontractor) and J ohn Heilig and Partners who have both
advised this is appropriate and consistent with other similar projects.

Blast Location Address
Cutting South 41 Bione Ave, 43
Bione Ave
Cutting Centre None
Cutting North 1 Laura St, 12 Laura
St

7.6 RELOCATION AND MOVEMENTS OF RESIDENTS DURING
BLASTING

7.6.1 Stakeholder notification procedure prior to the blast

The key element to controlling the movements of the affected residents is to
ensure that all the affected residents are either indoors or away from their
houses at the time of firing of the blast.

The procedure for ensuring this occurs will be developed in consultation with
the community, but will generally be as follows:

STEP 1: Notify all affected residents within the 1km radius
All residents within a 1km radius of the blasts will be notified of the blasting
activities via a letterbox drop. The letter will inform them of the blasting works
including days of the week, time of the day, number of blasts etc. This
notification will be disseminated at least one week prior to the blasting
commencing and advice given to the receiver will also include details of the
1800 telephone number and BPUA contact details should they have any
concerns.

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STEP 2: Identify and advise residents of temporary relocation, letter and
doorknock prior to blast
The BPUA will ensure designated Banora Point residents are given the
option of being temporarily relocated or asked to remain indoors during blast
periods i.e. clearing backyards, pools, balconies.
The details will be provided in a letter (hand delivered during a doorknock) to
the resident advising that they need to stay indoors or contact the Alliance if
they require temporary relocation during the blasting. The letter will also
include relevant contact information of the Community Relations Team
should stakeholders have any issues/concerns.

Those who have opted for temporary relocation during the blasting will be
notified of transport details. A mini bus or other suitable vehicle would be
used to relocate the residents to BPUA’s site compound (approx 500m north
of blast area). Residents would be escorted to the Community Information
Centre where tea and/or lunch facilities would be provided.


Site compound
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Community information centre,

STEP 3: VMS signs
In addition, VMS signs within the corridor will be continuously updated
advising the next day and time of the blast.
7.6.2 Consultation procedure during the blast

To ensure a consistent and streamlined consultation process during the blast
the Alliance will ensure that following activities are undertaken:

 Blasting will be kept to set days per week (Monday, Tuesday and
Wednesday) to develop some consistency and allow residents to
plan in advance;
 Affected residents will be given the opportunity to make their own
way to the relocation site at a specific time prior to the blast taking
place;
 A roll call will be taken to determine if any required residents are
absent;
 With this information, BPUA staff and blast guards will begin
checking each street / house to ensure those who previously
indicated that they would like to leave their premises have been
picked up in transport provided by the Alliance. They will then be
relocated to the site compound.
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 BPUA staff and blast guards will begin checking each street / house
to ensure all residents who were advised to stay indoors are doing
so.
 A final inspection will then be carried out to confirm the required
residents are accounted for, and this will be advised to the blast
controller;
 The blast siren will sound and the blast will be initiated.
Approximately 15 minutes after this, the all clear will be given and
residents will be able to come outside.
 It will be suggested that pets are contained indoors during the blasts.
 The Community Relations Team will monitor the 1800 number and
manage complaints and follow up on any other enquires in relation to
the works. All complaints will be reported in BPUA’s monthly report to
OEH and DoPI
7.7 COMMUNICATION TOOLS

A range of communication tools will be used throughout the blasting process to
adequately inform stakeholders and to ensure all enquiries, complaints and concerns
are captured and addressed.

The table below outlines the communication tools to be implemented.

Stakeholder

Communication Tool Task
Direct contact with
closest affected
residents
 Face-to-face
meetings at homes
 Phone calls


 Door knocking of residents in nearest
vicinity of the blasts to explain the
constraints and requirements for
safety during blasts, etc.
 Ongoing communication through
phone calls and visits.

All stakeholders  1800 freecall  The 1800 freecall number is
operational 24 hours a day 7 days a
week to answer all project related
enquiries.
All stakeholders  Fact sheet  A fact sheet will be developed
outlining what controlled blasting is,
noise and vibration impacts, blast
times for the project, and traffic
impacts. This will be available at the
Community Information Centre and
during community information
sessions. It will also be placed on the
project website.
All stakeholders  Community
Information Centre
 The Community Information Centre is
open from 7:30 am – 5:00 pm Monday
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to Friday to assist all stakeholders.
 Stakeholders will be encouraged to
visit the centre and speak to a
community engagement consultant
about the blasting works if they have
any queries.
Closest residents  Database
development and
updating
 A list of affected residents has been
developed to allow all resident
information to be captured and
documented.
 The database will capture if a
resident has particular needs, is going
to be holidays etc.
 This list will be used to check off each
person to ensure they remain indoors,
during the blasting.
Banora Point
Residents
 Letterbox drop

A letter will be developed to notify
community of works.

Distribution within a 1km radius includes:
 residents (after direct contact)
 property owners
 businesses and the wider community
where appropriate

An additional letter will be disseminated to
closest affected residents asking that they
stay indoors. The letter will advise of
commencement of blasting period,
proposed schedule and contact details for
further information.
Residents/motorists
/businesses
 Traffic Alert  Advise of traffic stoppages on
highway

Distribution:
 Placed in local newspapers as
required during the blast periods and
on local radio station broadcasts
Additional
stakeholders
 Email

 Summary of blast schedule and traffic
alert.

Distribution:
 Email list which will include bus
companies, trucking organisations,
local residents, other stakeholders.
All stakeholders
Roadside Notice
board and VMS

 Roadside Notice
board, community
information centre
noticeboard and
VMS

 Constant notification of the next blast
activities will be on displayed
message boards. These will be
installed at the community information
centre and at Laura street notifying
residents of the next blast date and
time.
 The message boards will remain in
use throughout the period of blasting
and be continually updated with the
“next blast” information.
 Variable message boards will also be
used on the northbound and
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southbound Pacific Highway.
The 1800 number will also be
displayed on VMS and message
boards.
Emergency
Services and the
TSC
 Email  Advise Emergency Services and TSC
of blast activity.
 There will be allowance for
emergency vehicles right up to the
time of blast and straight after the
blast has been fired – as coordinated
with the Blast Controller and Traffic
Controllers.
 All other vehicles will remain until the
Highway is ‘officially’ re-opened.
Gold Coast Airport  Phone call  Advise of blast activity.
 Give the airlines notification of the
planned blasting works.
RTA Pacific
Highway Traffic
Management
Centre
 Email/ phone call  Road Occupancy would be requested
and obtained
 Informing RTA PHTMC of blasting
works.
 Liaison with RTA PHTMC will be via
the RTA and BPUA Project team.
 Phone calls and emails, along with
ROLs. Weekly forecasts will be
supplied.
Utility Providers  Phone call  Advise of blast activity
 Regularly inform the utility providers
of the planned blasting operations to
ensure that there are no workers in
the vicinity of the cutting on blast
days.
BPUA Project Site
Compound staff
 Email/face to face  Advise of blast activity
 All employees to be notified of the
planned blasting works. Toolbox talks
will be held to discuss the procedures
and requirements of personnel during
the blasting operations.
Educational
Facilities
 Email/ phone call  Initial consultation regarding blast
activity during examination periods
 Ongoing communication through
phone calls

7.8 POINTS OF CONTACT
The Project Information number, 1800 012 611, is displayed on the Project
Information signs at the Northern and Southern ends of the job. The number will also
be displayed on the weekly traffic alert, VMS signs during blasting periods, on the
website, on emails and any other correspondence that is sent to the public regarding
the blasting works.

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The BPUA contact for the blast management will be the Project Engineer who will be
available to answer any questions in relation to blasting works. The Community
Engagement Manager or a member of the community relations team will contact the
Project Engineer directly should they require additional information or to advise of
community complaints or concerns.






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APPENDIX A – BLASTING AERIAL PHOTOS



Appendix A – Blast Aerial Image
Blast area –
Basalt lens
Potential Blast
area – Lower
Basalt
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APPENDIX B – BPUA MODIFICATION REQUEST FOR BLASTING LIMITS





Banora Point Upgrade Alliance

MODIFICATION REQUEST
FOR BLASTING LIMITS
Minister’s Condition of Approval 2.14 - Application No: 07_0059
Rev 3
13 December 2010

Abigroup Project Number: 221347
RTA Project Number: D/00092
SMEC Project Number: 3001750
Seymour Whyte Project Number: 021001






A team consisting of RTA, Abigroup, SMEC and Seymour Whyte
to upgrade the Pacific Highway at Banora Point

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COPYRIGHT: The concepts and information contained in this document are the property of Banora Point Upgrade Alliance. This
document may not be reproduced or disclosed in any manner whatsoever, in whole or in part, without the prior written consent of
Banora Point Upgrade Alliance.
LIMITATION: This report has been prepared on behalf of and for the exclusive use of Banora Point Upgrade Alliance. BPUA accepts no
liability or responsibility whatsoever for or in respect of any use of or reliance upon this document by any third party.

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Contents
Executive Summary.....................................................................................................1
1 Introduction.......................................................................................................3
1.1 Background .................................................................................................3
1.2 Location and scope of works ...........................................................................4
1.3 The existing construction blasting limits............................................................6
1.4 The proposed modification to construction blasting limits.....................................7
2 Justification for Proposed Changes to Construction Blasting Limits ......................8
2.1 Extent of impacted and beneficial residents .......................................................8
2.1.1 Benefits to the community – Increased Human Comfort........................... 10
2.1.2 Deleterious Impacts & Structural Damage ............................................. 12
2.2 Expert Evidence.......................................................................................... 14
3 Community and Stakeholder Consultation .........................................................16
3.1 Community involvement plan for blasting........................................................ 16
3.2 Phase 1 – Initial Community Consultation Regarding the Modification .................. 17
3.3 Phase 2 – Ongoing consultation with specific residents ...................................... 18
3.4 Phase 3 – Consultation and notification to the wider community ......................... 18
3.5 Phase 4 – follow up and complaint close out .................................................... 19
4 Environmental Management..............................................................................21
4.1 Environmental Management Framework.......................................................... 21
4.2 Vibration Management................................................................................. 21
4.3 Noise........................................................................................................ 22
4.4 Dust ......................................................................................................... 22
5 Conclusions......................................................................................................24
Annexure A – Project Approval 07_0059 for Banora Point upgrade.............................25
Annexure B - Technical report prepared by Dr. John Heilig .........................................43
Annexure C – Stakeholder Comments ........................................................................50
Annexure D – Community Consultation Report ...........................................................62


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Document History and Status
Copy
Number
Issued To Date Name
Electronic
draft
RTA, DECCW, TSC, ER 8 October 2010 Peter Borelli (RTA)
Ian Greenbank/Craig Dunk
(DECCW)
David Hannah (TSC)
Bill Gardyne (ER)
Rev 1 RTA 19 November 2010 Peter Borelli (RTA)
Rev 2 RTA 26 November 2010 Peter Borelli (RTA)

Rev 3 DoP 13 December 2010 Kylie Seretis (DoP)






Details

Printed:
13 December 2010
Last saved:
13 December 2010
File name:
BPUA_Modification Request Blasting V3_131210.doc
Author:
Greg Byrnes / Jenny Butler
Alliance Manager:
Steve Lambert
Name of organisation:
Banora Point Upgrade Alliance
Name of project:
Banora Point Upgrade Alliance
Name of document:
Modification Request
Document version:
Rev 3
Project number:
221347


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Abbreviations
ACRONYMS GLOSSARY
Approved Project The Upgrade based on the EA concept design prepared by PB that was approved by the NSW Minister for
Planning on 26 February 2009 under Part 3A of the Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979.
CEMP Construction Environmental Management Plan
CoA Ministers Conditions of Approval
DECCW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW)
DEWHA Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (Cth)
DI & I NSW (Fisheries) Department of Industry and Investment (NSW)
DoP Department of Planning (NSW)
NOoW (ex DWE) NSW Office of Water (NSW)
Eg For example
EIN Environmental Improvement Notice
EIR Environmental Incident Report
EMP Environmental Management Plan
EMS Environmental Management System (as defined under AS/NZS 14001)
EP&A Act Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979
NSW New South Wales
RTA Roads and Traffic Authority of NSW




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Executive Summary
Project Approval 07_0059 for Banora Point upgrade was issued to the Roads and Traffic Authority (RTA)
on 26 February 2009 after consideration and review of the Environmental Assessment (EA) on the
concept design under Part 3A of the Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979 (EP&A Act) by the
Minister for Planning.
The upgrade extends over approximately 2.5 kilometres from the northern end of Barneys Point Bridge,
through to the southern end of the Tweed Heads bypass in the Far North Coast region of NSW. The
project includes excavating 35,000m
3
of 200MPa rock in the main cutting. Due to the basalt lens in the
main cutting area, blasting has become the most effective form of excavation.
The Banora Point Upgrade Alliance (BPUA) is seeking a modification to Condition 2.14 of the Ministers
Conditions of Approval (CoA) relating to Blasting Peak Particle Velocities.
The proposed modification to CoA 2.14 is outlined below:
The Proponent shall ensure that ground vibration generated by blasting associated with the project does
not exceed the criteria specified in Table 2 when measured at the most affected residence or other
sensitive receiver.
Table 2 – Peak Particle Velocity Criteria
Peak Particle Velocity
(mms
-1
)
Allowable Exceedance
Criterion 1
If no agreement with
affected receiver
10 Never. Similar to existing conditions

Criterion 2
If a written agreement
from the affected receiver
is obtained.
10

5% of the total blasts over a 12
month period.
1

1
Note: 95% of blasts below 10mm/s ensures 99% of blasts are below 12mm/s and 100% are below
15mm/s. This is indicated in the figure below.





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BPUA propose to obtain the written agreement of the affected receivers by discussing the benefits to the
resident generated from this proposal. The higher vibration limits will then apply to the agreeable
receivers. If agreement is not obtained then BPUA will maintain the currently approved maximum
vibration limit of 10mm/s.
There are significant benefits to the community and the Alliance by approving this proposal, namely;
• 24% reduction in drilling = 1.5 months of drilling with an airtrack drill rig.
• 20% less blasts = 35 blasts to 25 blasts, a reduction of 10 blasts.
• 50% reduction in rock breaking = 2.3 months of continuous excavators rock breaking.
• 20% less traffic stoppages affecting approximately 10,700 commuters.
• Less complaints generated from the above known complaint sensitive activities.
An increase in the permissible level of impulsive vibration will lead to an overall improvement in the
“quality of life” for residents around the works area due to the reduced drilling, rock breaking and blasts.
Presently imposed vibration limits will necessitate the increased use of equipment, like hydraulic
hammers, that generate lower, however continuous and persistent levels of vibration which based on
residents feedback to date are more intrusive and can pose a greater imposition on their “quality of life”.
A broad range of stakeholders have been consulted in relation to the blasting program and the possibility
of increasing the 95% blasting limit from 5mm/s to 10mm/s. Following extensive community
consultation, BPUA have not so far received any negative feedback regarding the proposal due to the
offset in benefits that have been presented to the attendees (see Annexure D for presentations and
scope of consultation).
The BPUA will use the measures outlined in the Blast Management Plan (BMP) to ensure compliance with
relevant licences and approvals, reduce adverse impacts to the local community and environment, and
manage noise, vibration and air blast associated with the blasting activities on the Project. The measures
outlined in the BMP will also ensure the works are conducted safely and traffic impacts are minimised.

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1 Introduction
1.1 Background
Project Approval 07_0059 for Banora Point upgrade was issued to the Roads and Traffic Authority (RTA)
on 26 February 2009 after consideration and review of the Environmental Assessment (EA) on the
concept design under Part 3A of the Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979 (EP&A Act) by the
Minister for Planning. This Project Approval is included in Annexure A.
The RTA, Abigroup Contractors, Seymour Whyte and SMEC have formed an Alliance (the BPUA) to deliver
the construction of the Banora Point upgrade. The upgrade extends over approximately 2.5 kilometres
from the northern end of Barneys Point Bridge, through to the southern end of the Tweed Heads bypass
in the Far North Coast region of NSW. It would provide a motorway standard link between the existing
Chinderah and Tweed Heads bypasses, bypassing an existing section of the Pacific Highway that has a
poor alignment and high crash rate.

The major features of the project include:
• a six-lane divided carriageway;
• access control over its full length;
• use of the existing highway as a local access road;
• connection of a south-facing ramp at Barneys Point bridge with a southern interchange
roundabout;
• a landbridge approximately 75m wide, providing a green connection between east and west
Banora Point at Wilsons Park;
• a viaduct approximately 330m long spanning the central valley area south of Sexton Hill;
• realignment of Laura Street to meet with Short Street at a four-way signalised intersection;
• a 350m (approximate) extension of Minjungbal Drive, passing below the proposed upgrade
and connecting to Darlington Drive;
• a signalised intersection on the local access road, incorporating all movements between
Minjungbal Drive;
• north-facing ramps connecting to the Darlington Drive intersection;
• a south-facing ramp connecting directly to Minjungbal Drive;
• inclusion of a roundabout at the northern interchange for improved connectivity to the local
road network;
• realignment and upgrade of the existing coastal cycle pedestrian route through Banora Point;
• relocation of the existing Department of Primary Industries’ TickCam to a new position on the
local access.

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1.2 Location and scope of works
Figure 1-1. Proposed Blasting Location through Sexton Hill – Main Cutting

The main cutting through Sexton Hill has a significant basalt lens that requires excavation (See Figure 1-
1). It is currently estimated that 35,000 m3 of rock will need to be removed and is located from 3m to
13m below original surface level (See Figure 1-2).
Due to the extremely hard nature of this basalt (200MPa), blasting as opposed to rock breaking has
become the most effective form of fracturing the rock to enable excavation. The depth of the lens itself
varies from 2m to 5m thick and the horizontal road alignment has been designed to minimise the amount
of basalt bedrock that requires excavation.
Figure 1-2 below is a section through the middle of Sexton Hill following the highway alignment. The
colours represent different geological material types. The red oval indicates the section of material of the
Basalt lens that requires blasting. The basalt lens is covered by residual ballast soils (light blue on figure
2) and does not outcrop at either end of the cutting.

MODIFICATION REQUEST - BLASTING LIMITS– Rev3 Banora Point Upgrade Alliance – Page5

Figure 1-2. Basalt Lens


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1.3 The existing construction blasting limits
This modification request refers to Minister’s Condition of Approval (CoA) No. 2.14. It states:
The Proponent shall ensure that ground vibration generated by blasting associated with the project does
not exceed the criteria specified in Table 2 when measured at the most affected residence or other
sensitive receiver.
Table 2 – Peak Particle Velocity Criteria
Peak Particle Velocity (mms
-1
) Allowable Exceedance
5 5% of total blasts over a 12 month period
10 Never

Figure 1-3 indicates the expected vibration contours with 95% confidence for the current approved
vibration limits i.e. the blue line is the 95% confidence that this contour will receive 5mm/s or less.

Figure 1-3. Expected Vibration Contours for the Current Approved Vibration Limits













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1.4 The proposed modification to construction blasting limits
The RTA and its alliance partners formally request a modification to the approved project under Section
75W of the EP&A Act to modify CoA 2.14 as outlined below:
The Proponent shall ensure that ground vibration generated by blasting associated with the project does
not exceed the criteria specified in Table 2 when measured at the most affected residence or other
sensitive receiver.
Table 2 – Peak Particle Velocity Criteria
Peak Particle Velocity
(mms
-1
)
Allowable Exceedance
Criterion 1
If no agreement with
affected receiver
10 Never. Maintain current maximum
vibration limit.

Criterion 2
If a written agreement is
obtained from the
affected receiver.
10

5% of the total blasts over a 12 month
period.
1

1
Criterion 2 inherently controls the distribution of the 5% probability of an exceedence. I.e. there is a
5% probability of a blast exceeding 10mm/s, a 1% probability of a blast exceeding 12mm/s and a 0%
probability of a blast exceeding 15mm/s. This is diagrammatically represented in the distribution curve
below. The area under the graph equals 100%.



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2 Justification for Proposed Changes to Construction
Blasting Limits
2.1 Extent of impacted and beneficial residents
The BPUA is seeking a modification to the existing peak particle velocity frequency set out in the CoA.
BPUA understand that the quality of life (Human Comfort) criteria is more onerous than the structural
damage criteria. The Alliance is seeking to modify the Human Comfort criteria whilst remaining below
that of the structural damage limits.
The approval of this request will help BPUA significantly minimise the impacts to the affected residents.
To date the Alliance has received multiple complaints from the immediately surrounding community
relating to noise and vibration generated from rock breaking and drilling activities in the Sexton Hill area.
BPUA appreciate the sensitive nature of this area, especially considering the upcoming blasting activities,
and have investigated means of reducing the exposure of these activities.
The Alliance appointed an Explosives and Blasting Expert to review the blasting procedures and blast
designs with the objective to make changes to minimise complaints being generated from the blasting
activities like drilling and subsequent rock breaking.
The current blasting limits protect the resident from vibrations associated with blasting only and do not
necessarily protect them from increased noise and vibration from the associated activities that may also
affect their quality of life. The Evaluation Trial Blasts determined that due to the hard nature of the
basalt material and the rate of attenuation specific to this project (geological constants) the low vibration
limit at the property will not allow the rock to be sufficiently broken up to minimise secondary breakage.
In a different geological setting the current limits may have been suitable to achieve this.
Figures 2-1 and 2-2 below indicates vibration contours from the proposed vibration limits and also shows
for comparison the vibration contours for the existing limits.



MODIFICATION REQUEST - BLASTING LIMITS– Rev3 Banora Point Upgrade Alliance – Page9

Figure 2-1. Current Approved Limits - 5mm/s at 95% probability (Blue Line)


Figure 2-2. Proposed Limits - 5mm/s at 95% Probability (Blue Line), 10mm/s at 95 %
probability (Green Line)

The 13 properties that fall on the green contour are predicted to have a 5% chance of receiving more
than the previously approved maximum vibration of 10mm/s. This will be the group of residents BPUA
would need to obtain agreement from in order to exceed the current limit of 10mm/s.
The remaining 29 properties between the green and blue contours will not be exposed to vibration levels
any greater than that already approved in the CoA.

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The residents between the green and black lines receive the maximum benefit from this proposal as the
noise and vibration from the drilling and rock breaking activities have previously generated complaints
from these areas. (Blast notification radius includes some 850 residents).
The review highlighted that increasing the allowable vibration limits at the closest receiver would
considerably reduce the amount of and subsequent complaints generated from drilling, rock breaking,
number of blasts and number of traffic stoppages.
Section 2.1.1 below details the significant benefits and deleterious aspects of the proposal.
Providing the level of vibration from any drilling and blasting activities remains below expected values
that are within criteria that does not cause damage to properties (refer to Table 2-1 and 2-2 below), and
the residents are well briefed on the timing of any blasting, the benefits to the community are positive.
(Dr. John Heilig Principal - Heilig & Partners Pty Ltd August 2010).
2.1.1 Benefits to the community – Increased Human Comfort
By increasing the blasting limits to those proposed, the following benefits are anticipated for the
community:
• 24% LESS DRILLING
The proposed increase in vibration is to allow an increase in explosive quantity per hole. This
increase in explosive quantity enables the blast holes to be spaced further apart. BPUA have
reviewed the geotechnical bore logs and assumed an average basalt depth of 3.77m. The current
drill pattern is approximately 1m x 1m therefore there is 3.77m drilled per square metre of rock.
Increasing the pattern to 1.1m x 1.2m results in 3.77m per 1.32 square meters which is a
reduction of 24% drilled meters.

This 24% reduction equated to 325 less drilling hours = 32.5 days = 1.5 months.
Drilling noise has generated complaints to date and BPUA believe that this 24% reduction in
drilling time will benefit the nearest 150 houses (including the 13 closest) significantly.

• 20% LESS BLASTS
The proposed increase in vibration limits will allow the holes to be spaced further apart as
detailed above. This results in more rock being blasted per blast which reduces the number of
blasts as detailed below.
Only 7 rows of holes can be fired before the delay between holes starts to overlap and two holes
detonate at the same time resulting in a vibration exceedance. 7 rows equates to 8m wide per
blast. By increasing the hole spacing as detailed above, the burden (distance between holes)
could increase from 1m to 1.2m which allows 9.6m width per blast. The basalt lens is
approximately 250m long hence 250m/8m= 35 Blasts under the current approved conditions and
250m/9.6m = 25 Blasts under the proposed new conditions.
This 20% reduction in blasts equates to 10 less times the residents need to remain indoors or be
relocated. It also equates to the removal of 10 instances for a mis-fire or potential safety issues
from this high risk activity. This benefits the wider community and the closest 13 residents.




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• 50% LESS ROCK BREAKING
Although there is no exact science behind the amount of secondary rock breaking of material
types based on blasting vibration limits, it is however intuitive that the more explosive in the
rock, the greater the fragmentation and the easier it will be to excavate thus reducing the
amount of secondary rock breaking.
With a higher vibration limit, more explosive can be used which will propagate and open the
cracks allowing the rock to move slightly and loosen up. The higher explosive weight will reduce
the amount of percussive hammering required and change the nature of the activity from ‘rock
breaking’ which is propagating the existing tight cracks and creating new cracks, to ‘rock
loosening’ which requires much less energy to push the hammer into previously formed open
cracks. In some instances BPUA hope to use rippers instead of rock breakers if the material is
loose enough.
BPUA anticipate there will be a 50% increase in productivity (1200m3/week to 1800m3/week).
This equates to approximately 550 less hammering hours = 55 days = 2.3 months.
This reduction will have significant noise reduction benefits to the surrounding residents in the
affected area (approx 850).
• 20% LESS TRAFFIC STOPPAGES
The above reduction in number of blasts has a direct impact on the number of Pacific Highway
closures. These closures are complete closures for up to 15minutes and including the onramps
from local areas like Tweed South.
By increasing the vibration limits and reducing the number of blasts BPUA reduce the traffic
stoppages by 10 which affect the highway traffic from Tugan Bypass to the Chinderah
Roundabout, some 10.4 km in length.
This equates to approximately 1,069 vehicles affected during this 15minute period for each blast
(data obtained from onsite traffic counters).
• LESS COMPLAINTS, more Human Comfort
It is widely understood that complaints management for blasting is critical as a complaint will be
generated when the resident feels vibration rather than when the resident feels vibration higher
than allowable. This is due to the human body being very well suited to detecting vibration but
not so well suited to determining the level of vibration.
As there are only 13 residents that will have a 5% chance of vibration greater than 10mm/s (if
BPUA obtain their agreement) the number of complaints generated from this small number of
receivers affected with the increase should be very low as BPUA will have already acquired their
approval.
BPUA know that the local residents have complained about noise and vibrations from rock
breaking and drilling previously. These residents have in most cases not been the closest
receiver and encompass a wide area around the project. The benefits above will reduce the
amount of continuous noise and vibration and significantly reduce the potential for complaints to
be generated.
BPUA feel there would be greater human comfort achieved by reducing the exposure to continuous
rock breaking and drilling at the closest residents instead of eliminating the 5% chance of a blast
exceeding 10mm/s. The actual exposure of above 10mm/s is unlikely to be perceptible to the human
senses (As advised by John Heilig & Partners (Blasting Consultant).


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2.1.2 Deleterious Impacts & Structural Damage
As stated above the increased vibration limits will only expose 13 properties to higher vibration than the
currently approved maximum of 10mm/s. The probability of any of these properties experiencing a level
of vibration above 10mm/s is 5%.
The high frequency of the blast waves anticipated for close range construction blasts allows significantly
higher vibration levels to be recorded before structural damage can occur.
The Australian Standard AS2187 references the British Standard for assessment of structural damage
which is replicated below.
British Standard
British Standard 7385: Part 2 “Evaluation and measurement of vibration in buildings”, can be used as a
guide to assess the likelihood of building damage from ground vibration including piling, compaction,
construction equipment, road and rail traffic. BS 7385 suggests levels at which ‘cosmetic’, ‘minor’ and
‘major’ categories of damage might occur.
BS 7385 recommends that the peak particle velocity is used to quantify vibration and specifies damage
criteria for frequencies within the range 4Hz to 250Hz, which is the range usually encountered in
buildings. At frequencies below 4Hz, a maximum displacement value is recommended. The levels from
the standard are given below in Table 2-1.
Table 2-1: BS 7385 Structural Damage Criteria
Peak Component Particle Velocity, mm/s
Group Type of Structure
4Hz to 15Hz 15Hz to 40Hz
40Hz and
above
1
Reinforced or framed structures Industrial and
heavy commercial buildings
50
2
Un-reinforced or light framed structures
Residential or light commercial type buildings
15 to 20 20 to 50 50

The peak vibration limits set for minimal risk of ‘cosmetic’ damage (eg minor non-structural effects such
as hairline cracks on drywall surfaces, hairline cracks in mortar joints and cement render, enlargement of
existing cracks and separation of partitions or intermediate walls from load bearing walls) are: 15mm/s
for un-reinforced or light framed structures, such as residential or light commercial buildings (Group 2),
increasing as the frequency content of the vibration increases) and 50mm/s for reinforced or framed
structures, such as industrial and heavy commercial buildings (Group 1), constant across all frequencies.
‘Minor’ damage is considered possible at vibration magnitudes which are twice those given and ‘major’
damage to a building structure may occur at levels greater than four times those values.
The levels set by this standard are considered ‘safe limits’ up to which no damage due to vibration effects
has been observed for certain particular types of buildings. These values relate to intermittent vibrations.
Continuous vibration can give rise to magnifications due to resonances and may need to be reduced by
up to 50%.
German Standard
The German standard DIN 4150 - Part 3 - "Structural vibration in buildings - Effects on Structures”, also
provides recommended maximum levels of vibration that reduce the likelihood of building damage caused
by vibration. This standard too, presents recommended maximum limits over a range of frequencies
measured in any direction at the foundation or in the plane of the uppermost floor.

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The minimum ‘safe limit’ of vibration at low frequencies for commercial and industrial buildings is
20mm/s, and for dwellings it is 5mm/s. These limits increase as the frequency content of the vibration
increases. These values are presented in Table 2-2 below and are generally recognised to be
conservative.
Table 2-2: DIN 4150-3 Structural Damage Criteria
Vibration Velocity, mm/s
At Foundation at Frequency of
Plane of Floor
Uppermost Storey Group Type of Structure
Less than
10Hz
10Hz to
50Hz
50Hz to
100Hz
All Frequencies
1
Buildings used for commercial purposes,
industrial buildings and buildings of similar
design
20 20 to 40 40 to 50 40
2
Dwellings and buildings of similar design
and/or use
5 5 to 15 15 to 20 15

As indicated by the criteria from Table 2-2, high frequency vibration has less potential to cause damage
than lower frequencies. Furthermore, the “point source” nature of vibration from excavation and
construction equipment causes the vibratory disturbances to arrive at different parts of nearby large
structures in an out-of-phase manner, thereby reducing its potential to excite in-phase motion of the low
order modes of vibration in such structures.
The proposal to increase vibration limits are still significantly below the above levels so will not cause
damage. The increase from 10mm/s to a level high enough to create structural damage as above is
more exponential rather than linear. Doubling the charge weights used for 10mm/s will not result in a
vibration sufficient to cause structural damage. The potential to accidentally double that charge is
extremely low as the charges are pre measured packets.
Limits designed to protect personal amenity are well below those considered to represent the onset of
superficial damage (cracking of plaster, flaking of paint etc.) and are commonly less than one hundredth
of the value at which structural damage may occur. Several well documented studies that link vibration
levels from blasting to observed damage have been completed, with perhaps the most comprehensive
completed under the guidance of the United States Bureau of Mines (USBM). Aside from a few studies
that actually produced data that identified when failure of a structure occurs, most identify limits of
vibration that have not resulted in any damage and make no reference to what additional vibration the
structure could have tolerated without causing damage.
Stagg et al
1
constructed a test house from standard construction materials (timber studs, gypsum board
interior, block foundations, etc.) near an operating mine and concluded that most of the cracking was
indistinguishable from that which occurred from natural shrinkage. The study further concluded that the
first cracking of the gypsum board occurred at around 80mm/s, or some 16 times greater than District
Plan limit of 5mm/s, and that concrete only showed some cracking after a peak level of more than
150mm/s was applied. The effects of repeated blasting were also addressed and the study concluded that
fatigue failure can occur, although the first indication of such was not evident until the property was
subjected to an equivalent of 10,000 blasts, with each blast inducing a vibration level more than the
vibration level in BPUA’s proposed amended conditions.

1
Stagg, M.S., Siskind, D.E., Stevens, M.G., & Dowding, C.H., (1984), Effects of repeated blasting
on a wood-frame house”, United States Bureau of Mines, Report of Investigation 8896

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More recently, Moore & Richards
2
documented observations on a brick veneer house from blasting
activities that occurred within 50 metres of the property. Minor damage was observed, including
extension of existing plaster cracks, opening of new hairline cracks and the cracking of plaster around
nail heads at a minimum vibration level exceeding 70mm/s. Like the Stagg study, their study also
showed that new defects were more correctly linked to environmental factors such as rainfall,
temperature and temperature cycling.
As outlined below in Section 4.2, pre-blast building condition inspections have been conducted on all
structures that are located within 200m of the proposed blasting works in accordance with Statement of
Commitment (SoC) No. L4. Following completion of the project, additional surveys will be conducted as
required on buildings to identify any potential damage. Where liable, any property damage caused
directly or indirectly by the project’s construction or operation will be rectified at no cost to the property
owner(s) in accordance with SoC No. L6. Alternatively the RTA may negotiate compensation for the
property damage with the property owner.
2.2 Expert Evidence
Dr John Heilig from HEILIG & PARTNERS CONSULTING ENGINEERS has been engaged as an independent
expert on blasting to determine effects and mitigations to residents. Dr John Heiling has significant
experience in high urban density blasting and relaxation of vibration limits to reduce rock breaking and
overall vibration.
Dr Heilig states:
The appropriate vibration limits to ensure the integrity of the buildings will not be affected by the blasting
activities can unquestionably exceed the suggested value of 5mm/s. The 5mm/s value is better aligned
with acceptable vibration criteria for long term blasting activities that maintain the “quality of life” for
residents adjacent to large scale blasting. Vibration limits less than 10mm/s are considered to reflect
limits for vibration from mining or quarrying activities as these blasts are generally of greater scale,
persist for longer periods (years as opposed to months) and are of a lower frequency by virtue of the
greater distance between the blast and the sensitive receiver. The scale of blasting that would be
required for Banora Point project is considered construction scale and therefore better aligned with
significantly higher vibration limits.
A technical report prepared for the Banora Point project by Dr. John Heilig proposes an appropriate value
based upon a review of internationally accepted criteria, existing literature and other successfully applied
limits from other projects. The technical report is included in Annexure B. It demonstrates the influence
of the vibration criterion on the scale of blasting that can be undertaken. It also summarises the
relationship between explosive quantities and peak particle velocities both in a tabular and illustrative
manner.
The technical report also addresses the suitability of the presently imposed 5mm/s vibration criterion for
impulsive vibration associated with the BPUA construction. It addresses three key issues:
1. Ensure that the activity does not unnecessarily impose of the “quality of life” for persons about the
works area.
2. Ensure that the structural integrity of adjacent infrastructure is protected;
3. Ensure that adjacent infrastructure is not impacted superficially from the vibration activities.

2
Moore, A.J. & Richards, A.B., (2001), “Structure response of a brick veneer house to open pit coal
mine blasting”, Proceedings of the EXPLO 2001 Conference, The Australasian Institute of Mining
and Metallurgy, Publication Series No. 4/2001.

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Dr. John Heilig attended the community information session held on the 15 September 2010 to answer
technical questions where his expert advice and obvious experience appeared to build confidence with the
group. Further details on the community consultation and feedback are provided in the consultation
report in Annexure D.
The graphs below show the % probability of receiving vibrations. The heavy curve is the proposed
vibration curve and the light curve is the current vibration curve.








The pink area above represents the 5% probability of the 13 residents receiving 10mm/s or more.








The pink areas above represent the probability of the 850 (approx.) residents receiving the benefits of
this proposal.
It can be seen that the area in the second graph (benefits) is significantly larger than the area in the first
graph (deleterious effects) and the number of people associated with the second graph is significantly
greater than the first.

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3 Community and Stakeholder Consultation
3.1 Community involvement plan for blasting
The Community Relations Team is committed to ‘a policy of no surprises’ and ensures that the quality of
life for all residents is maintained at all times throughout the life of the project.
A comprehensive community involvement plan (CIP) has been developed as part of the Blast
Management Plan and has been trialled during blast testing earlier this year.
The CIP is supported by the overarching BPUA Community Consultation Strategy (CCS) for the project.
The objectives of the CIP are to:
• Provide all residents and stakeholders with advanced information of the effects of blasting on them
and their property;
• Provide details to residents and other stakeholders in relation to the management (including
implementing mitigation measures), constraints, and duration of blasting;
• Provide a community wide awareness of the blast periods and times;
• Ensure affected residents and stakeholders are notified and remain indoors during blasting
operations or are outside of the designated safety exclusion zone during blasts;
• Provides community members with a line of communication to lodge enquiries or complaints and
• Ensures all issues are proactively managed, followed up and closed out following the blasting
activities.
The Community Relations Team is currently rolling out a 4 phase consultation plan for blasting. The
phases are outlined below:
Phase 1: Pre-blasting information sessions to community members and other key stakeholders regarding
the current conditions and the alliances proposed modification and feedback captured.
Phase 2: Ongoing consultation with specific residents identified as the closest affected, seek written
consent to obtain their approval to increase vibration levels at their property and conduct additional
information sessions as required.
Phase 3: Consultation and notification to the wider community during the blasting operations. This will
ensure the community is advised of the blasts, field complaints are manage, complaints monitored and
recorded in regards to suspected property damage and maintain constant information flow to the
community.
Phase 4: Follow up on all complaints, resolve and close out all issues raised by the community and
specific residents.
Further details in relation to the roll out of the community consultation can be found in CIP which is
located in the Blast Management Plan.





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3.2 Phase 1 – Initial Community Consultation Regarding the
Modification
Recently the Community Relations Team conducted five formal presentations and a number of individual
stakeholder discussions from August to September 2010 to inform the community of the upcoming blast
activities, advise affected stakeholders of the modification request and to respond to their questions and
concerns.
These meetings also presented the BPUA an opportunity to gauge community opinions about the BPUA
blast management program, the BPUA review of blast criteria, and to determine the best ways to
communicate the blasting activities to the community.
The focus of the presentations was to discuss the initial trial blast carried out in August 2010 and then to
have follow up discussion on the opportunities for the BPUA, following review of the projects approved
blasting criteria, for consideration of increasing blasting limits to 10 mm/s. Demonstrating the benefits,
the impacts and the BPUA’s capacity and competency in managing the operation, the risks and
community concerns.
The presentations held were as follows:
1. Community information session: The trial blast and blasting program outline was presented to
residents at a Community Information Session held in August 2010;

2. Focus Groups: a Focus group meeting with residents identified as being potentially impacted if
the blast limits were increased to 10 mm/s was held in September 2010;

3. Community Information Session: A Community Information Session was held in September
2010 with the broader community outlining feedback on the trial blast and the review of blasting
criteria;

4. Individual stakeholder meetings with potentially affected residents and key
stakeholders:

A meeting was held in September 2010 with the closest affected property owners. A total of 13
properties were identified as being directly affected by the modification request. These properties
will have a 5 percent chance of receiving more than the previous maximum of 10mm/s. The
remainder of the immediate residents (29 properties) will potentially receive slightly higher
vibration levels than before but are still below the maximum of 10mm/s as previously
conditioned.

As a result of the community consultation undertaken to date, no one in attendance indicated
that they were uncomfortable with the modification request.

Stakeholder meetings were also held with the Department of Environment, Climate Change and
Water (DECCW), the Tweed Shire Council (TSC) and the BPUA Environmental Representative.
These stakeholders were provided with a copy of this modification report for comment. Some
comments were received back from these stakeholders and these are shown in Annexure C.
Following these discussions with DECCW, BPUA has subsequently amended this modification
request to commit to never exceeding a peak particle velocity of 10 mms
-1
unless agreement is
reached with the affected receivers or they have been offered to be relocated from the property
during the blasts. BPUA are currently in the process of consulting further with the residences that
could potentially exceed 10 mms
-1
to:
• Establish written agreements to exceed 10 mms
-1
;
• Determine the likely whereabouts of the residents during the proposed blast times;

MODIFICATION REQUEST - BLASTING LIMITS– Rev3 Banora Point Upgrade Alliance – Page18

• Establish if the residents are likely to take up the opportunity of temporary relocation
during the blasts.

If this proposed modification is approved by the DoP, an application will be made to DECCW to
vary BPUA’s Environmental Protection Licence (EPL 13226) to ensure consistency of the blast
limits between the project approvals.

5. Bione Avenue Residents Meeting – an update to blasting plans and the modification request
details presented to the residents in September 2010.

Using both individual and group discussion techniques, two main concerns were recurrent and related to:
1. Structural integrity of residential homes during blasting

2. Traffic impacts during the blasting period.

Please note: A comprehensive community consultation report in regards to the proposed
modification can be found in Annexure D.
3.3 Phase 2 – Ongoing consultation with specific residents
The Community Relations Team (CRT) now intends to meet again with closest affected residents and
provide an update on the blasting program and discuss in greater detail the advantages and
disadvantages of the modification limits.
Independent Consultants will also be brought in to provide information as requested.
In addition to this, the CRT will present a consent form to each affected household, with the intention of
gaining written consent to increase vibration levels at their property.
3.4 Phase 3 – Consultation and notification to the wider community
Consultation with the wider community will also continue during the blasting operation. The aim is to
update the wider community on blasting timeframes and to actively manage, monitor, record and close
out all complaints where possible.
As outlined in the CIP, the community consultation process and education of the community about
blasting and its effects is vital to the blasting process and alleviation of complaints.
The notification process involves four specific steps and is then backed by additional communication
tools:
STEP 1: Notify all affected residents within the 1 km radius
All residents within a 1 km radius of the blasts will be notified of the blasting activities via a letterbox
drop. The letter will inform them of the blasting works including days of the week, time of the day,
number of blasts etc. This notification will be disseminated at least one week prior to the blasting
commencing and advice given to the receiver will also include details of the 1800 telephone number and
BPUA contact details should they have any concerns.

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STEP 2: Identify and advise residents of temporary relocation, letter and doorknock prior to
blast
The BPUA will ensure designated Banora Point residents are given the option of being temporarily
relocated or asked to remain indoors during blast periods i.e. clearing backyards, pools, balconies.
The details will be provided in a letter (hand delivered during a doorknock) to the resident advising that
they need to stay indoors or contact the Alliance if they require temporary relocation during the blasting.
The letter will also include relevant contact information of the Community Relations Team should
stakeholders have an issues/concerns.
Those who have opted for temporary relocation during the blasting will be notified of transport details. A
mini bus or other suitable vehicle would be used to relocate the residents to BPUA’s site compound
(approx 500m north of blast area). Residents would be escorted to the Community Information Centre
where tea and/or lunch facilities would be provided.
STEP 3: VMS signs
In addition, VMS signs within the corridor will be continuously updated advising the next day and time of
the blast.
Additional communication tools to be used to inform the community include:
• Face to face meetings
• 1800 number
• SMS (Short Messaging Service) to convey proposed blast times
• Community info sessions
• Blasting fact sheet
• Traffic alert
• BPUA Website
Please note: All complaints received as a result of blasting will be dealt with in accordance with Section
8.1 of the BPUA’s CCS. A copy of the strategy is available on request.
3.5 Phase 4 – follow up and complaint close out
The Alliance is committed to ensuring all complaints are dealt with in a timely and professional manner.
Every effort will be made to close out complaints immediately after they have been logged by the
Community Relations Team when the blasting is taking place.
In some instances, complaints may require further investigation and follow up and will be closed out in
Phase 4.
For example: This includes closing out complaints that may have been lodged in regards to alleged
damage to properties from the blasting works. The Community Relations Team will log the complaint,
ensure photographic evidence is taken by a qualified engineer, arrange for all damage caused by the
blasting to be fixed and property owner continually updated until the complaint has been resolved.

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As mentioned in Section 3.4, all complaints received as a result of blasting will be dealt with in
accordance with Section 8.1 of the BPUA’s CCS.

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4 Environmental Management
4.1 Environmental Management Framework
The environmental management of the proposed blasting is described in detail in the Blast Management
Plan (BMP). The BPUA will use the measures outlined in the BMP to ensure compliance with relevant
licences and approvals, reduce adverse impacts to the local community and environment, and manage
noise, vibration and air blast associated with the blasting activities on the Project. This BMP also details
measures to ensure the works are conducted safely and traffic impacts are minimised.
4.2 Vibration Management
As outlined in Section 2 of this submission, the proposal to increase the blasting vibration limits will result
in significantly less cumulative impacts on the surrounding residents by reducing the number of blasts,
the amount of drilling and the amount of rock breaking required. Any human comfort issues for
potentially affected residents will be managed by implementing the communication tools and strategies
as described above in Section 3.3 and in Section 7.7 of the BMP.
The proposed vibration levels are also still significantly below the levels that could cause structural
damage to any properties.
Pre-blast building condition inspections have been conducted on all structures that are located within
200m of the proposed blasting works at the Sexton Hill cutting, in accordance with RTA Statement of
Commitment (SoC) No. L4. These reports have been undertaken to establish the condition of all existing
infrastructure which could be affected by blasting works. Copies of these reports have been issued to the
RTA Representative, the Project Verifier and the owner and/or occupier. Following completion of the
project, additional surveys will be conducted as required on buildings to identify any potential damage.
A review of the condition survey reports by HEILIG & PARTNERS CONSULTING ENGINEERS has confirmed
that the method, type of materials, and quality of the construction for all of the adjacent properties and
infrastructure will not be impacted by the vibration levels expected under the proposed amended
conditions. This approach has been successfully used on previous projects to assess the feasibility of
adjustments to accepted vibration conditions.
HEILIG & PARTNERS CONSULTING ENGINEERS have also reviewed the 200m radius for dilapidation
surveys and have advised that 200m is still suitable for the proposed limits and does not need to be
extended.
Any complaints received during the blasting activities regarding damage will be acted upon immediately
and a photographic review conducted of the property with the resident. If there are any structural issues
resulting from this review a structural and geotechnical engineer will inspect and report on the property.
All complaints regarding potential damage will be recorded and re-inspected immediately upon
completion of the blasting activities.
BPUA will monitor vibration levels from all blasts at the closest receiver in accordance with Section 5.5 of
the BMP to ensure compliance with the proposed limits. Monitoring will also be conducted at other
locations to ensure BPUA collect adequate vibration records for other properties and to increase the data
inputs into the vibration model. This data can also be used to determine potential damage and property
claims and alleviate complaints from specific residents requesting monitoring.

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Should an exceedance in the proposed limits be detected, BPUA’s Environmental Manager will investigate
the exceedance and consult with the shot-firer and Project Engineer to implement strategies to minimise
re-occurrences. In the event of an exceedance the following will be documented:
• the date, time and nature of exceedance;
• review blast procedures and preparation to determine the cause (likely cause) of the
exceedance;
• identify actions taken to date to avoid exceedances;
• identify proposed measures to address the exceedance;
• amend blast procedures as a result of any proposed mitigation measures;
• document and file this investigation report onsite.
The DECCW and the DoP will be notified of any exceedances in the EPL monthly compliance report and
the 6 monthly compliance reports. All monitoring results will also be discussed at the monthly
Environmental Review Group meetings. Exceedances that have the potential to cause harm to the
environment or to the community will be reported as per CoA 1.4.
4.3 Noise
As outlined in Section 2 of this submission, significant reductions in noise will result from this proposed
increase to blasting vibration limits.
The reduction of some 325 drilling hours at a L
10
(15min) noise level of 99 dB(A) at 7m will result in a
significant noise reduction for the affected residents. As mentioned in Section 2, noise from other drilling
and piling activities onsite to date have been a large source of annoyance for the community and
reduction to additional drilling hours is paramount to minimising future complaints.
The reduction of some 550 hours of continuous rock breaking at a L
10
(15min) noise level of 95 dB(A) at
7m will similarly result is significant noise reductions and the number of complaints from the community.
Several complaints have been received to date regarding the small amount of rock breaking BPUA have
conducted on site.
As outlined in Section 2, the modification request will also enable the faster completion of the 35,000m
3

excavation which will also will bring early noise reduction benefits to the community by having the
southbound lane of the highway open early. The noise reduction benefits will be from better grade, low
noise wearing surface and noise barriers completed.
It is not anticipated that airblast overpressure would be adversely increased due to the proposed change
in vibration limits. Three meters of insitu overburden will be left on top of each blast and is expected to
control the overpressure. As detailed in Section 5.6 of the BMP, airblast overpressure levels will be
measured and electronically recorded at the most affected residence for all blasts carried out. Any
exceedances of the limits will be reported to the DECCW and the DoP.
The noise mitigation measures proposed in Section 5.6.1 of the BMP will be utilised on site to further
reduce noise impacts on the community.
4.4 Dust
A net reduction of dust is expected from the proposed vibration modification due to the reduced
secondary rock hammering, drilling and blasting activities.
The dust control measures will be reviewed and inspected prior to each blast. The dust mitigation
measures proposed in Section 5.6.2 of the BMP will be utilised on site to further reduce dust impacts on
the community.

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Dust monitoring will occur during blasting activities in accordance with the Project’s Air Quality
Management Plan.

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5 Conclusions
The BPUA is seeking a modification to the existing peak particle velocity set out in the Minister’s
Conditions of Approval. This request is required to both significantly reduce noise and vibration impacts
on the immediate community and to improve the blasting efficiencies and construction durations.
BPUA have undertaken Evaluation Blasts and consulted leading industry experts in this field to determine
the best approach to the blasting operation at Sexton Hill and determine the effects on the community.
BPUA have used the Evaluation Blast data to determine 3 distinct zones within the blast area and
modelled these both separately and combined to ensure compliance and predict more accurately.
BPUA and our Blasting Consultant (Heilig & Partners) have determined that our site constraints and
material to blast will at the current vibration limits result in significant drilling and secondary rock
breaking. BPUA have considered alternative blast designs and vibration limits (including up to 25mm/s)
and have determined that a modification to 95% of blasts below 10mm/s is the optimal proposal to best
improve the NET human comfort level generated from blasting, drilling and rock breaking. Higher
vibration levels will not provide significant ‘additional’ benefits from drilling and rock breaking and would
expose BPUA and the community to greater risk and discomfort i.e. an increase in vibration and potential
property damage.
The benefits from this proposal are;
• 24% less drilling which equates to 1.5 months less continuous drilling
• 50% less rock breaking which equates to 2.3 months of continuous rock breaking
• 20% less blasts which equates to 10 less instances to stop traffic and remain indoors
• Less complaints from the above issues
• Complete the Southbound works earlier and move the traffic onto these low noise pavements with
permanent noise wall protection.
A broad range of stakeholders have been consulted in relation to the blasting program and the possibility
of increasing the 95% blasting limit from 5mm/s to 10mm/s in one on one sessions, in small group
sessions (immediately affected residents) and in the broader community information sessions. The
response from the community ranged from positive to neutral with no negative oppositional feedback
received. The community were advised and shown details on the associated drilling and rock breaking
issues BPUA face and the potential benefits of this proposal to reduce these issues. (See Annexure D for
presentations and scope of consultation)
The BPUA will use the measures outlined in the Blast Management Plan to ensure compliance with
relevant licences and approvals, reduce adverse impacts to the local community and environment, and
manage noise, vibration and air blast associated with the blasting activities on the Project. The measures
outlined in the BMP will also ensure the works are conducted safely and traffic impacts are minimised.
BPUA and Heilig & Partners believe that BPUA’s proposal will have significant benefits to the community
and their quality of life as well and the delivery of this project.



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Annexure A – Project Approval 07_0059 for Banora
Point upgrade


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Annexure B - Technical report prepared by Dr. John
Heilig

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Annexure C – Stakeholder Comments

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Table of Comments – BPUA Modification Request Blasting & Blast Management Plan
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DECCW
If the proposal is approved by
the Department of Planning
(DoP) an application will need to
be submitted by the BPUA to
vary the conditions of the
current Environmental
Protection Licence (EPL).
Noted. This will occur subject to DoP’s decision.

Given the nature of the site and
the noise and dust issues
experienced too date it is
absolutely imperative that an
effective communication
strategy is developed and
implemented if the proposal is
approved. This strategy must
ensure that all potentially
affected residents are consulted
and provided with relevant
information and the ability to
contact the BPUA in relation to
the proposed activity or in
response to blasting noise and
vibration or property damage.
Extensive consultation has already occurred in relation to the proposal and these details
are provided in the modification submission. Following the community presentations, the
group were asked if they had any concerns or issues regarding the proposed increase in
vibration limits, no one in attendance indicated that they were uncomfortable with the
proposal, and many were on board with the opportunity to complete the works faster
with reduced impacts from less rock hammering.

The Blast Management Plan (section 7) details the extent of community consultation
BPUA will undertake prior to blasting activities. This includes:
• Notifying all residents within a 1km radius of the blasts via a letterbox drop. The
letter will inform them of the blasting works including days of the week, time of the
day, number of blasts etc. This notification will be disseminated at least one week
prior to the blasting commencing and advice given to the receiver will also include
details of the 1800 telephone number and BPUA contact details should they have any
concerns.
• A specific blast notification shall then occur at least 5 days prior to each blast to the
affected residents. Notification will be via a doorknock. The letter will advise the
resident to stay indoors during the blasting. It will also include relevant contact
information of the Community Relations Team should stakeholders have an
issues/concerns.
• In addition, VMS signs within the corridor will be continuously updated advising the
next day and time of the blast.


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• The Community Relations Team will monitor the 1800 number and manage
complaints and follow up on any other enquires in relation to the works. All
complaints will be reported in BPUA’s monthly report to DECCW and DoP.
• BPUA will also provide the opportunity to potentially affected residents (ie. residences
where vibration levels may potentially exceed 10mm/s) to attend the site compound
during the blasts where tea and/or lunch facilities would be provided.


The BPUA have advised that the
increase in the blasting limits
will result in fewer blasts being
required. The modification
request document states “By
increasing the % of blasts that
can exceed the 5mm/s peak
particle velocity beyond 5%, the
following benefits are
anticipated in the community:
Fewer blasts would be required
(ie. 25 blasts instead of 35).
blasts”. The community should
be provided with certainty about
the number of blasts that are to
occur and what impacts are
likely.
It is correct that the increase in blasting limits will reduce the number of blasts, and at
this stage it is estimated to be from 35 to 25. At this stage the geological model
indicates this estimate however there is still a fair degree of uncertainty regarding the
thickness and extent of the basalt lens. Hence the exact number of blasts cannot be
confirmed more accurately than the current estimate. Every effort will be made to
increase the blast sizes whilst still complying with the approved blasting limits in order to
continually reduce the number of blasts required.

The community has been made aware of the impacts of blasting and expected number of
blasts through the numerous community presentations. In addition, the community will
be advised prior to each blast in accordance with the Blast Management Plan.


DECCW is willing to endorse a
maximum blasting limit of
10mm/s peak particle velocity
(PPV) as an absolute maximum
limit (this is consistent with both
the Australian Standard
BPUA understands DECCW’s concerns regarding the proposed increase in vibration levels,
these being:
• Potential structural damage; and
• Human comfort concerns.

Regarding the potential to damage we advise:


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AS2187.2-2006 and the ANZECC
Technical Basis for blasting),
with the 5mm/s provision in the
existing EPL to be removed. In
practical terms this means you
will have to design blasts not to
exceed ~ 8mm/s to provide a
safety margin to ensure you do
not exceed 10mm/s.
As stated in the modification submission, almost all vibration criteria applied to drilling
and blasting activities undertaken in Australia, as well as the greatest majority of other
countries, are strongly biased towards the protection of “quality of life” for residents,
ensuring that neither structural nor superficial damage can occur. Further, the “quality of
life” level reflects an acceptable value for long term operations generating impulsive
vibrations, such as
production blasting at quarries and mines and is less appropriate (although still relevant)
for short term construction projects that incorporate dedicated teams covering
community relations, management and project engineering as well as immediate
reporting procedures and a well developed quality assurance and environmental
management plans.

Limits designed to protect personal amenity are well below those considered to represent
the onset of superficial damage (cracking of plaster, flaking of paint etc.) and are
commonly less than one hundredth of the value at which structural damage may occur.

The Australian Standard (AS2187.2) recommends maximum peak particle velocities for
different types of structures based on damage rather than human discomfort. Table
J4.4.2.1 of the standard suggests levels for the prevention of minor or cosmetic damage
occurring to structures from ground vibration generated by blasting. The table is
reproduced below:


The standard further defines cosmetic damage as the formation of hairline cracks on

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drywall surfaces, the growth of existing cracks in plaster or drywall surfaces or the
formation of hairline cracks in the mortar joints of brick/concrete constructions. Minor
damage is defined as the formation of cracks or loosening and falling of plaster or drywall
surfaces, or cracks through brick/concrete blocks. The same standard proposes limits for
ground vibration for control of damage to structures. See Table J4.5B as reproduced
below:

Given the high frequency of the vibration pulses from small scale construction blasting,
the dominant frequency will exceed 40Hz. Table J4.4.2.1 indicates an acceptable value of
20mm/s.

The absolute maximum blasting limit of 10mm/s peak particle velocity (PPV) referred to
by DECCW is taken from Table J4.5A of AS2187.2-2006 and relates solely to ground
vibration limits for human comfort.

BPUA believe that the limit of 10mm/s for 95% of blasts and 100% never exceeding
15mm/s is consistent with the Australian Standard and Global Standards with respect to
not causing any damage and we have conducted some 310 dilapidation reports to date.



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Regarding Human Comfort we advise:
BPUA’s proposed modification to the blasting vibration limits is largely to improve the
quality of life for the surrounding residents by reducing the amount of blasting and
secondary rock breaking (rock hammers) that will be required due to low explosive
weights to meet the current criteria. Extensive consultation with the affected residents
and the broader community has occurred in relation to the proposal to increase the
vibration limits in lieu of reducing vibration and noise from rock breaking and noise and
dust from drilling operations. BPUA believe the community is generally on board with the
proposal as no one in attendance to the community meetings indicated that they were
uncomfortable with the proposal and many were on board with the opportunity to
complete the works faster with reduced impacts from less rock hammering.

As stated in the modification submission, the proposed increase to vibration limits will
result in:
• Less secondary breakage (ie. rock hammering) would be required next to properties
which has higher vibration limits than blasting (can be up to 50mm/s, frequency
dependant - refer to Table 2-1 and 2-2 below).
• Less noise, dust and vibration impacts from drilling activities. Drilling time expected
to reduce by 24% drilled meters due to larger charge weights.
• Fewer blasts would be required - 25 blasts instead of 35 blasts.
• Exposure to fewer blasts (impulsive vibrations) and greatly reduced exposure to
rock breaking (continuous vibration).
• Fewer traffic stoppages and delays - 25 stoppages instead of 35 stoppages.
• Less noise and dust impacts due to less use of rock hammers.
• Less number of vibration exposures due to the ability to increase the charge weights
in each drill hole.
• Less number of times residents need to stay indoors or be evacuated due to blasting
events.
• The increased blasting limits proposed will NOT cause structural damage to adjacent
properties (refer to table 2-1 and 2-2 below) and Section 4 of this report for further

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details on property type damage limits.
• The overall duration of rock excavation and continuous rock breaking would be
greatly reduced which directly benefits the local community.
• Faster completion of the 35,000m
3
excavation will also bring early noise reduction
benefits to the community by having the southbound lane of the highway open
early. The noise reduction benefits will be from better grade, low noise wearing
surface and noise barriers completed.

BPUA agree with DECCW that we should plan for a lower vibration limit to ensure we do
not exceed the upper limits. DECCW comments suggest planning for 8mm/s to not
exceed 10mm/s. The blast evaluation trials BPUA undertook to fine tune the vibration
model (Page 42 of the submission) indicates that we actually need to plan for 5mm/s to
never exceed 15mm/s and maintain 95% of blasts under 10mm/s. This is solely due to
statistical scatter of vibration out of BPUA’s control. An example is changing geology
between blast and resident or underground water conditions. There is a very real chance
(95%) that we will never exceed 10mm/s.
However by adopting an absolute maximum of 10mm/s simply moves the median to a
lower vibration level so the majority of blasts will be reduced to below 5mm/s. There is
statistically only 1.25 blasts that may exceed the 10mm/s limit while the vast majority
(95%) of blasts will be below this value and concentrated around 5mm/s. By removing
the potential for the 1.25 blasts to exceed 10mm/s we move the remaining 95% of blasts
to a lower average vibration below 5mm/s. This will greatly increase the amount of
secondary rock breaking. The goal of increasing the vibration limit is to increase human
comfort by reducing the rock breaking and drilling requirements. Eliminating the risk of
the 1.25 blast exceeding 10mm/s greatly jeopardises our ability to reduce the impacts
from increased drilling noise and rock breaking vibration and noise.

BPUA feel there would be greater human comfort achieved by reducing the exposure to
continuous rock breaking and drilling at the closest residents for 95% of the blasts
instead of eliminating the 5% chance of a blast exceeding 10mm/s. The actual exposure

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of 13mm/s vs 10mm/s to the resident is unlikely to be perceptible to the human senses
(As advised by John Heilig & Partners (Blasting Consultant)).

In the one instance that the blast goes over 10mm/s but not greater than 15mm/s, the
levels would still be less than the lowermost value associated with the on-set of
superficial damage to properties.

“Quality of life” for residents will be maintained at the highest of standards through the
BPUA community relations group and their continual association with residents regarding
the planned drilling and blasting activities. Residents will be well briefed on the timing of
any blasting to ensure a policy of no surprises. Consultation during the blasting program
will be conducted in accordance with Section 7.7 of the Blast Management Plan (BMP)
and would involve:
• Notifying all residents within a 1km radius of the blasts via a letterbox drop.
• A specific blast notification shall then occur at least 5 days prior to each blast to the
affected residents. Notification will be via a doorknock. The letter will advise the
resident to stay indoors during the blasting. It will also include relevant contact
information of the Community Relations Team should stakeholders have an
issues/concerns.
• In addition, VMS signs within the corridor will be continuously updated advising the
next day and time of the blast.
• The Community Relations Team will monitor the 1800 number and manage
complaints and follow up on any other enquires in relation to the works. All
complaints will be reported in BPUA’s monthly report to DECCW and DoP.
• BPUA will also provide the opportunity to potentially affected residents (ie. residences
where vibration levels may potentially exceed 10mm/s) to attend the site compound
during the blasts where tea and/or lunch facilities would be provided.

Any complaints received in relation to blasting will be dealt with immediately and follow
the same process as all other community complaints as outlined in the BPUA Community
Consultation Strategy.

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Continuation of blasting should
be on a blast by blast basis and
subject to there being no
significant unresolved
complaints.
Upon receiving a complaint, it will be referred to BPUA’s community relations team,
environmental manager and the blasting consultant to review the significance and
validity of the complaint. The complaints would be responded to immediately to resolve
prior to the next blast. Consideration also needs to be given to potential vexatious
complainants. The Maximum Vibration level at a residence with a Valid and non-
vexatious complaint due to the higher vibration levels and that needs to be addressed
prior to another exposure of higher vibrations will revert to the lower vibration criteria.


In the event that there are
unresolved complaints the limits
will revert to 5mm/s.
Noted. However this should be a significant and valid complaint and not a vexatious
complaint and should refer back to current criteria.


Each blast (including trial blasts)
should be monitored at the most
affected receiver location and
reported to the DoP and
DECCW. Monitoring should
include but not be limited to:
details of the blast, measured
vibration levels, complaints
received and actions taken to
resolve the complaint/s.
Noted. This is included in the Blast Management Plan and is a requirement of the
existing MCoA & EPL conditions.


Dilapidation surveys should be
conducted of all potentially
affected residences before any
blasts resulting in vibration
levels greater than 5mm/s.
Noted. This is included in the Blast Management Plan and is a requirement of the existing
Statement of Commitment L4 which states:
Property inspections will be conducted, subject to landowner agreement, on all structures
within 200 metres of proposed blasting locations, within 50 metres of construction
activities that generate vibration impacts and at any other locations identified in the risk
assessment.



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To date BPUA have completed dilapidation surveys on 310 of the 358 potentially affected
residences with a copy of the dilapidation reports provided to the residents. The
remaining residences have been targeted however at this stage no response has been
received or the owners have denied access. BPUA will try all reasonable attempts to gain
approval to enter these residences to conduct the dilapidation surveys prior to
commencing blasting activities. Secondary letters have been provided to these
residences advising them of the need to accept the dilapidation inspection to help identify
any damage resulting from the BPUA works.
The dilapidation reports have been provided to the Blasting Consultant for review to
ensure the dwelling type, location, height and dilapidation details have been considered
in the management and design of the blast patterns. The vibration monitoring results
will be continuously reviewed in relation to the affected properties and blast designed
modified to not influence these properties.

If approved DECCW will be
recommending to DoP to include
appropriate conditions to
address the issues discussed
above including blasting damage
(including cosmetic damage)
limits.
Ok – BPUA would like to review draft conditions.

DECCW will also be
recommending that DoP include
appropriate conditions that
require BPUA to make good at
their expense any damage as a
result of blasting.
Noted. This is a requirement of existing Statement of Commitment L6 which states:
Where liable, any property damage caused directly or indirectly by the project’s
construction or operation will be rectified at no cost to the property owner(s).
Alternatively the RTA may negotiate compensation for the property damage with the
property owner.

ER Ann C /
Sec
There was an indication from
those present that all were
Added ‘Following the presentation, no one in attendance indicated that they were
uncomfortable with the proposal.’
Ann D /
Sec
6.3.2 &

MODIFICATION REQUEST - BLASTING LIMITS– Rev3 Banora Point Upgrade Alliance – Page60

Name
of
Agency
Section
/ Page
Agency Comment BPUA Response
Updated
Section
No.
6.3.2 comfortable with the proposal.
This may be true, but is probably
stretching the inference from the
feedback. It may be more
accurate to state (if that is, in
fact, the case) that:

Following the presentation, no
one in attendance indicated that
they were uncomfortable with
the proposal.




7
Ann C /
Sec
6.5.2
A survey will now be prepared
and distributed in the coming
weeks.
Has there been any further
follow-up with the Bione Ave
residents yet as to their feelings?
As you are undoubtedly aware,
one of the key issues affecting
residents will be that of timing,
so that school pick-ups,
appointments etc are not missed.
The former can be addressed by
ensuring that traffic delayed by
the blast is clear by 2:30pm, the
BPUA has decided not to proceed with any additional surveys. The affected residents
have been provided with the opportunity to comment during the community
presentations.




Noted. This is included in the BMP.


MODIFICATION REQUEST - BLASTING LIMITS– Rev3 Banora Point Upgrade Alliance – Page61

Name
of
Agency
Section
/ Page
Agency Comment BPUA Response
Updated
Section
No.
latter through adequate warning,
and consistency with regard to
the blast time.


MODIFICATION REQUEST - BLASTING LIMITS– Rev3 Banora Point Upgrade Alliance – Page62

Annexure D – Community Consultation Report


Banora Point Upgrade Alliance
COMMUNITY CONSULTATION REPORT
BLASTING PROPOSAL 5MM/S – 10 MM/S
Status : Rev 1
Date : 27 October 2010


Abigroup Project Number: 221347
RTA Project Number: D/00092
SMEC Project Number: 3001750
Seymour Whyte Project Number: 021001







A team consisting of RTA, Abigroup, SMEC And Seymour Whyte
to upgrade the Pacific Highway at Banora Point

Community Consultation Report
Rev 01 Uncontrolled when printed Page ii of iii
Distribution History and Status
Distribution List
Copy
Number
Issued To Date Name
Electronic
draft
RTA, DECCW, TSC, ER 8 October 2010
Peter Borelli (RTA)
Ian Greenbank (DECCW)
David Hannah (TSC)
Bill Gardyne (ER)
Rev 1 DoP 27 October 2010 Kylie Seretis (DoP)






Revision Status
Revision Date Description Page Clause Approved
GM
4 October
2010
Review
BG
October
2010
Review from independent
assessment

MW
October
2010
Review from RTA
LK
27 October
2010 2010
Finalise changes


Community Consultation Report
Rev 01 Uncontrolled when printed Page iii of iii
Table of Contents
1 Executive summary ........................................................................................................1
2 Community consultation and blasting ............................................................................2
3 Objectives in seeking community feedback ...................................................................3
4 Community presentations...............................................................................................4
5 Methodology...................................................................................................................5
6 Meeting outcomes ..........................................................................................................6
6.1 Blasting meeting 1 - Community information session..........................................6
6.1.1 Issues raised .............................................................................................6
6.1.2 Outcome of meeting 1 ...............................................................................6
6.2 Blasting meeting 2 – closest resident meeting ....................................................7
6.2.1 Issues raised .............................................................................................7
6.2.2 Outcome of meeting 2 ...............................................................................8
6.3 Blasting meeting 3 – Community information session.........................................8
6.3.1 Issues raised .............................................................................................9
6.3.2 Outcome of meeting 3 .............................................................................10
6.4 Blasting meeting 4 – Individual meetings ..........................................................10
6.4.1 Issues raised ...........................................................................................10
6.4.2 Outcome of meeting 4 .............................................................................10
6.5 Blasting meeting 5 – Bione Avenue residents ...................................................10
6.5.1 Issues raised ...........................................................................................11
6.5.2 Outcome of meeting 5 .............................................................................12
7 Summary ......................................................................................................................13
Appendices
Appendix 1 Blasting 1 - Blasting 10mm/s contour zone
Appendix 2 Blasting Presentation


Community Consultation Report
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1 Executive summary
The Banora Point Upgrade Alliance (BPUA) conducted five formal presentations and a number of individual
stakeholder discussions from August to September 2010 to inform the community of the upcoming blast
activities and to respond to their questions and concerns. These meetings also presented the BPUA an
opportunity to gauge community opinions about the BPUA blast management program, the BPUA review of
blast criteria, and to determine the best ways to communicate the blasting activities to the community.
The focus of the presentations was to discuss the initial trial blast carried out in August 2010 and then to
have follow up discussion on the opportunities for the BPUA, following review of the projects approved
blasting criteria, for consideration of increasing blasting limits to 10 mm/s. Demonstrating the benefits, the
impacts and the BPUA’s capacity and competency in managing the operation, the risks and community
concerns.
The presentations held were as follows:
1. The trial blast and blasting program Community Information Session August 2010;

2. Focus group meeting with residents identified as being potentially impacted if the blast limits were
increased to 10 mm/s - September 2010;

3. Community Information Session with broader community with feedback on trial blast and review of
blasting criteria - September 2010;

4. Individual stakeholder meetings with potentially affected residents and interested stakeholders –
September 2010; and

5. Bione Avenue Residents Meeting - September 2010.

Using both individual and group discussion techniques, two main concerns were recurrent and related to:
1. Structural integrity of residential homes

2. Traffic impacts

The presentations and feedback sessions provided the BPUA with an opportunity to engage face to face with
key representatives from the community, to put a face to the project, to develop relationships, to listen to
individual concerns and overall to better gauge the community’s acceptance to the possibility of increasing
blasting limits in the future.




Community Consultation Report
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2 Community consultation and blasting
A community engagement plan has been developed that forms part of an overall blast management plan and
outlines the process and guidelines in effectively engaging and informing the community in relation to this
important activity.
It’s recognised that managing stakeholder issues and perceptions will be the focus of the communication
team during blasting.
Effective communication will assist the project team to address stakeholder concerns, monitoring
perceptions, tracking issues and identifying emerging trends in community sentiment.
To counter potentially negative perceptions, the community engagement aims to build and maintain positive
relationships with all stakeholders and ensure open and honest dialogue throughout the blasting process.
This is vitally important in order to protect the reputation of the BPUA and the RTA.
A planned, strategic approach will ensure issues are managed and stakeholders are kept informed.



















Community Consultation Report
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3 Objectives in seeking community feedback
The primary communication objectives in seeking community feedback in relation to blasting and blasting
limits are to:
Consult, educate and engage the community about the planned blasting operations;
Manage issues effectively and in a responsive manner to prevent escalation to crises;
Ensure project communication is consistent throughout the blasting phases; and
To ensure the community has an understanding of the impacts of increasing blast limits.

The team is committed to acting with:
Transparency
Honesty
Responsiveness
Empathy
Respect and trust.















Community Consultation Report
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4 Community presentations
The 5 types of presentations were staged at different locations at different times of the week to afford greater
inclusion and accessibility of participants.
The venues, dates and number of participants at each group are outlined in the table below:
Date Venue Number of
participants
Community Information Session
17 August 2010
Banora Point Upgrade Alliance Site
Office
80
Focus Group Meeting with closest residents
15 September 2010
Banora Point Upgrade Alliance Site
Office
11
Community Information Session
21 September 2010
Club Banora, Banora Point 160
Individual meetings with stakeholders
September 2010
No 6 – 46 Pioneer Pde 17
Bione Avenue residents meeting
30 September 2010
Banora Point Upgrade Alliance Site
Office
12
Total participants 280










Community Consultation Report
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5 Methodology
To gain a good cross section of the community the following groups were targeted by the following
recruitment methods and tools:
i. General residents
ii. Closest affected residents
iii. Businesses
iv. Motorists

Methods and tools used to engage the community include:
• Invitation sent to over 2000 residents to attend two community information sessions to learn more
about the blasting plans;

• Variable Message Board on Pacific Highway both directions alerting residents and motorists of
community information session that featured blasting information; and

• Telephone and personal invitation to residents identified as the closest affected.


































Community Consultation Report
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6 Meeting outcomes
6.1 Blasting meeting 1 - Community information session
A Community Information Session was held at the Community Information Centre on 17 August 2010. Over
80 residents and business representatives attended the meeting. A presentation was given by Construction
Manager Jason Moran in relation to blasting.
Attendees were provided with information on the following:
• Overview of blasting;
• Recognition of blasting issues that need to be managed. EG: Vibration, over pressure, fly rock, dust and
noise;
• How blasting impacts are measured;
• Effects on residents;
• Blast management plan and issues to be considered eg: School holidays and exams;
• Blasting stages including details on the evaluation blast; and
• Community consultation and the blasting process.
A copy of the presentation can be found in Appendix 2.
Please note: No information had been provided to the community at this stage in relation to the proposal to
increase blasting limits to 10mm/s.
6.1.1 Issues raised
Following the presentation, questions were raised by the attendees. The questions and responses given are
outlined below:
Q) How deep is the cutting?
A) 18 metres.
JM added that the alliance doesn’t expect issues with the blasting – trial blasts only incurred 4 minute delays
on the highway.
Q) Will the blasting occur in the middle of the day?
A) Yes, we are anticipating that blasts will occur between 10.30am and 2.30pm as we did in the trial. They
will be at a set time during the same day each week.
6.1.2 Outcome of meeting 1
Residents appeared to be satisfied with the blasting program, the results from the evaluation blast and
current plans moving forward.
Community Consultation Report
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6.2 Blasting meeting 2 – closest resident meeting
A meeting was held on 15 September 2010 at the Banora Point Upgrade Alliance site office. The meeting
was attended by closest affected residents within the 10mm/s radius (see Appendix 1 for a copy of the
radius).
Project Manager Steve Allan presented a series of slides outlining the blasting locations. Input was also
provided by Blasting Consultants John Heilig from Heilig and Partners consulting engineers, Ross Oldman
from Orica Construction Services. Both Ross Oldman and John Heilig are both experts in their fields and
have over 60 years of experience in blast management.

Attendees were provided with information on the following:
• an explanation of the 50 metre exclusion zone;
• reasons why the BPUA needs to blast;
• details on approved blasting criteria and the restrictions;
• the effects of restrictions on blasting operations;
• how residents are impacted and the mitigation measures to be in place to reduce impacts;
• benefits and impacts of increase blasting criteria to 10mm/s;
• how the blasting criteria 10 mm/s affects homes; and
• community consultation overview going forward.
A copy of the presentation can be found in Appendix 2.
6.2.1 Issues raised
Following the presentation, a number of questions were raised by the attendees. The questions and
responses given are outlined below:
Q) Will Laura Street vibrate when you blast?
A) No – the test blast did not vibrate Laura Street homes and we don’t anticipate that the proposed 5 mm/s
increase will lead to any significant increase in vibration for the majority of residents.
Q) You had yellow spots on a map – what did they indicate?
A) The five spots where we monitor vibration during the blasts.
Q) How many blasts will occur in total?
A) There will be around 30 blasts for 10mm/sec and up to 50 blasts for 5mm/sec.
Q) Won’t the Laura St bridge footings move?
A) No – we won’t damage the footings – as blasts will occur 28 days after the concrete has cured.
Q) Will we cover the blasts with anything?
Community Consultation Report
Rev 01 Uncontrolled when printed Page 8 of 13
A) The 3 metre overburden of earth fill will prevent flying rock - as the blast occurs some 10 metres below
ground level. JH indicated that the previously watched blast in Shafton Street, Brisbane would have the
same charge as Sexton Hill. He stressed that it is a highly skilled process – and reiterated that blasts at 10
mms would significantly reduce the hammering needed to break the rocks as the secondary activity which
has significant noise and vibration impacts.
JG) Our building is 3 stories high – how will that cope with the blast and will you monitor at the top
level?
A) We monitor at ground level and one value is sufficient – however, it should be stressed that we blasted
only 9 metres from a 20 story building in Brisbane and caused no damage.
Q) When will you commence?
A) We will commence in November – with 1 or 2 per week – on a set day mid week. Traffic figures indicate
that Monday and Wednesday around midday are the best times and there will be VMS and resident
notifications. LK indicated that some contact will include letterbox drops, door knocks, Community Info
session, and website and traffic alert.
SA stressed that up to 50 blasts would be the maximum number.
Q) What will happen at the northern end of blasting into Laura Street?
A) That’s where we are building the Laura Street bridge – Laura Street and the Pacific Highway traffic will be
halted for 15 minutes when the blast occurs.
Following a question, JH indicated that a house would move less than the thickness of a hair when blasting
occurred.
SA stressed that John and Ross were two very experienced blasting experts. Many alliance staff are also
very experienced in restricted blasting.
6.2.2 Outcome of meeting 2
At the conclusion of the meeting, residents were asked if they felt comfortable with the possibility of
increasing blasting levels from 5mm/s to 10mm/s blasts in light of the information provided.
There was an indication from those present that all were comfortable with the situation.
Residents were comfortable in being notified about upcoming blasting operations via letters and doorknocks
as outlined in the community engagement plan for blasting.
6.3 Blasting meeting 3 – Community information session
A Community Information Session was held on 21 September 2010 at Club Banora. Over 160 residents and
business representatives attended the meeting. A presentation was given by Project Manager Steve Allan in
relation to blasting.
Attendees were provided with information on the following:
• an explanation of the 50 metre exclusion zone
Community Consultation Report
Rev 01 Uncontrolled when printed Page 9 of 13
• reasons why the BPUA needs to blast
• details on approved blasting criteria and the restrictions
• the effects of restrictions on blasting operations
• how residents are impacted and the mitigation measures to be in place to reduce impacts
• benefits and impacts of increase blasting criteria to 10mm/s
• how the blasting criteria 10 mm/s affects homes
• community consultation overview going forward
A copy of the presentation can be found in Appendix 2.
6.3.1 Issues raised
Following the presentation, questions were raised by the attendees. The questions and responses given are
outlined below:
Q) Will there be any projectiles from the blast?
A) No – there will be no risk- It is highly calculated, charge weights, depth etc.
Q) What roads will be closed?
A) Laura St and Pac highway – only briefly. Monday and Wed at 12.30 and 2.30pm are the low days. Twice
a week. 15 minutes at a time.
Q) Drilling?
A) 3 to 5 m deep. We will use a top hammer to drill. There will be little noise.
GM: The alliance needs to demonstrate the justification for a change to criteria and community support.
Feedback from people closest to the blast and potentially impacted by the change is important in seeking
approval to any modification to the approved criteria
Q) Vibration monitors?
A) Yes at the nearest receiver – if we exceed goals we need to stop.
Q) A resident voiced their concern about traffic flow during the school holidays; they claim it is a
nightmare.
A) We will not blast if there are large queues. There will be traffic monitoring throughout the blasting process.
Community Consultation Report
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6.3.2 Outcome of meeting 3
Attendees were not asked directly as to whether they were uncomfortable with the possibility of increasing
blasting levels from 5mm/s to 10mm/s blasts. However, the questions raised were minimal and there
appeared to be no concerns specifically relating to the potential increase.
Following the presentation, no one in attendance indicated that they were uncomfortable with the proposal.
6.4 Blasting meeting 4 – Individual meetings
Meetings were recently held with residents of Pioneer Parade between No’s 6 and 46 (properties adjacent to
the Pacific Highway). The purpose of the meetings were to discuss the upcoming works adjacent to their
properties including the construction of highway retaining walls, discussion on noise walls and also the
upcoming blasting considering their location relative to the blast zone.
6.4.1 Issues raised
With respect to the blasting there appeared to be a level of comfort from the residents about the approach
and the potential impact. Only one resident indicated that there were some vibrations from the trial blast.
Most residents felt the key for them was to remain well consulted on all project activities including the
blasting
6.4.2 Outcome of meeting 4
There were no immediate issues in respect to the blasting from the Pioneer Parade community. The alliance
will continue to keep them informed of construction progress and the blasting activities.
6.5 Blasting meeting 5 – Bione Avenue residents
A meeting was held with Bione Avenue Residents (closest residents to the project) on Thursday 30
September 2010 at the Banora Point Upgrade Alliance site office. A number of topics were discussed with
the Bione Avenue residents, including the blasting program presented by Steve Allan.
Attendees were provided with information on the following:
• an explanation of the 50 metre exclusion zone
• reasons why the BPUA needs to blast
• details on approved blasting criteria and the restrictions
• the effects of restrictions on blasting operations
• how residents on Bione Avenue will be impacted and the mitigation measures to be in place to reduce
impacts
• benefits and impacts of increase blasting criteria to 10mm/s
• how the blasting criteria 10 mm/s affects homes
A copy of the presentation can be found in Appendix 2.
Community Consultation Report
Rev 01 Uncontrolled when printed Page 11 of 13
6.5.1 Issues raised
Following the presentation, questions were raised by the attendees. The questions and responses given are
outlined below:
Q) Have you tested at 10 mm/s?
A) Yes, we have had a trial blast.
Q). Resident claims that cracks had appeared in his residence after the test blast and queried if there had
there been a dilapidation assessment before the blast?
Q) Would rock breaking occur?
A) SA relayed that rock breaking would still occur – but it would be significantly reduced because of the
blasting and offered that the vibration is higher for rock hammering as the rock is hard basalt.
Q) When will blasting commence.
A) It is likely to occur in November.
Q) Can a dilapidation report be done for our property?
A) GM assured the resident that the alliance would investigate their circumstance.
SA: Yes, if your property is within 50m of construction and 200m of the blast zone - and the trial blasts had
concluded.
Q) Resident queried the value of the blasting test data.
A) SA replied that it defines the co-efficiency of the soil and had been very close to the predicted levels.
Q) Will the Alliance send letters to the community advising that the blasts would be higher than
5mm/s?
A) SA assured PG that 95% of the blasts would be at a level of 5mm/s.
GM indicated that the alliance required approval to change the rate. Forty residents were recently invited to a
blasting info meeting with 11 in attendance. Those in attendance appeared to support the potential 10mm/s
increase.
Q) Resident requested that a letter be sent to residents asking for their approval and they sign an
agreement form.
A) GM indicated that this could be arranged.
Community Consultation Report
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6.5.2 Outcome of meeting 5
Residents in Bione Avenue appeared to be very interested in the blasting information and made it very clear
that they wish to be kept well informed of the blasting program moving forward. No outright objections were
made to the potential blasting increase to 10mm/s, however residents did ask to be surveyed in the near
future as to their thoughts on the issue. A survey will now be prepared and distributed in the coming weeks.
Results will be submitted for review.
Community Consultation Report
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7 Summary
Overall a broad range of stakeholders have been consulted in relation to the blasting program and the
possibility of increasing blasting levels from 5mm/s to 10mm/s.
As a result of the community consultation undertaken to date, no one in attendance indicated that they were
uncomfortable with the proposal.
The BPUA Alliance will to continue the efforts of consulting the community of blasting activities with the
potentially affected residents and the broader community, will implement a survey for closest affected
residents and will continue to monitor community concerns and feedback throughout the process.






Community Consultation Report
Rev 01 Uncontrolled when printed
Appendix 1 – Blasting 10mm/s contour zone



Community Consultation Report
Rev 01 Uncontrolled when printed
Appendix 2 – Blasting Presentation

Blasting update – Steve Allan
Basalt lens ranging in depth from 5m to 10m under the land bridge. No
outcropping at the north or south
GENERAL LOCATION
50m Exclusion Zone
Proximity to road reserve and properties
38,000m3 of very hard rock. Up to 200MPa
Examples of the rock handed out this evening
This is 10 times harder than your concrete driveway
This is 5 times harder than what we build bridges from
A rock breaker would be required to break up a driveway so imagine how
hard it will be for a rock breaker to break material 10 times as hard.
Blasting is the best option for rock this hard to significantly reduce this
rock breaking and vibration. Blasting will produce significantly less overall
vibration. 10 seconds twice a week vs 10 hours per day every day.
WHY WE NEED TO BLAST
The three main restrictions are;
Vibration (Hammers) – up to 50mm/s depending on
frequency.
Vibration (Blasting) – up to 10mm/s for 5% of blasts
Over Pressure – 115dBl to 120dB for only 5% of blasts
The reason blasting is lower than rock breaking is the potential to make a
mistake and double the vibration is higher than with a rock breaker. Safety net.
Blasting Restrictions - MCoA and MSoC
5mm/s Contours (Closest Resident)
Not all residents are effected by every blast. Some only 1 or two.
10mm/s Contours (Closest Resident)
25 to 35 Blasts.
Traffic Stoppages for each blast.
Significant vibration from rock breakers undertaking secondary
breakage. The lower charge weights (5mm/s) do not break the rock
sufficiently to allow free excavation.
Vibration from rock breakers up to 50mm/s as opposed to 10mm/s.
Noise from the rock breakers
Significant amount of drilling and associated noise and vibration.
The effected residents will need to remain indoors during each blast.
What are the likely impacts?
Reduce the number of blasts by increasing the number of blasts
closer to 10mm/s instead of 5mm/s.
Reduce the amount of secondary rock breaking by blasting at
10mm/s instead of rock breaking at 25mm/s.
Strictly monitor charge weights to ensure vibration levels remain
below 10mm/s to ensure there is no structural damage to properties.
Reduce drilling noise and vibration by drilling larger patterns. Need
to increase to 10mm/s to do this.
Reduce the number of times residents and traffic are impacted by
blasts by reducing the number of blasts. Larger blasts.
Complete the works faster and return things to normal as soon as
possible.
What measures can reduce these impacts?
Currently we can blast up to 10mm/s but for only 5% of the blasts. This is inline with long term
urban quarry blasting day in day out not short term construction works.
We propose to increase the number of blasts above 5mm/s but NOT increase the maximum level of
vibration experienced.
This will significantly reduce the number of blasts.
This will significantly reduce the amount of rock breaking which is at a higher vibration level.
This will significantly reduce the amount of drilling.
This will significantly reduce the overall amount and level of vibration experienced by residents.
Case Study
Hospital in Brisbane exclusively excluded blasting as method of excavation. After 3 months of rock
breaking and community issues, restricted blasting was trialed and selected as the preferred method
due to reduced community impact. This was directly beside the existing hospital and no damage to
property or their sensitive equipment occurred.
How can we implement these?
There are many instances where these limits have been relaxed by the
Department of Planning once the contractor has shown the capacity and
competency to manage the blasting, risks, community and put systems in place
to ensure no property damage results.
Ballina Bypass – now 25mm/s
Clem 7 in Brisbane – was relaxed to 25mm/s
Airport link – now relaxed to 25mm/s
These all have residents in close proximity and in some cases high rises and high
density dwelling with no damage to properties or structures.
Can these limits be changed and
has this occurred before?
Increasing the number of blasts closer to 10mm/s will dramatically reduce
noise and vibration from rock breaking and reduce the potential to damage
properties.
Blasting limits closer to 10mm/s are still significantly below levels that
can cause structural damage.
The Alliance will be engaging a very experienced subcontractor to
undertake the works, a very experienced third party independent
consultant to review the methods and has very experienced engineers and
manager to administer and control these works.
Please review the following videos which show ‘restricted blasting’ and are
at 25mm/s with properties within 20m from the blasts.
Summary
Quarry Blast
Restricted Blast - Sewer
Restricted Blast – Shafston Ave
Videos
STEP 1: Notify all affected residents within the 500 metre radius
All residents within a 500 metre radius of the blast will be notified of the
blasting activities via a letterbox drop.
STEP 2: Letter and doorknock prior to blast
Specific blast notifications shall then occur at 5 days prior to the first blast
that will affect the nearest residents.
Additional communication tools to be used to inform the community
include: Face to face meetings, 1800 number, Community info sessions,
Blasting fact sheet, Traffic alert, VMS, Website
COMMUNITY CONSULTATION
BANORA POI NT UPGRADE ALLI ANCE
BLAST MANAGEMENT PLAN


BMP – Revision 4 Uncontrolled when printed
Authorised: Environmental Manager ©Banora Point Upgrade Alliance Page 46

APPENDIX C – UTILITY LOCATIONS
P
R
O
P
O
S
E
D
M
O
T
O
R
W
A
Y
40.783
38.001
37.882
35.282
225 Dia
225 Dia
225 Dia
225 Dia
IN
IN IN
IN
35.231
300 Dia
IN
EXISTING MOTORWAY
PIONEER PARADE
P
R
O
P
O
S
E
D
M
O
T
O
R
W
A
Y
EP
EP
EP
EP
EP
EP
EP
EP
EP
EP
EP
EP
EP
EP
EP
EP
TSP
TSP
TSP
32.527
IN
23.111
1200 Dia
IN
SD30.882
SF
SF
31.828
20.866
18.360
22.467
600 Dia
600 Dia
600 Dia
600 Dia
IN
IN IN
IN
48.095
48.516
32.777
32.396
48.604
300 Dia
300 Dia
300 Dia
300 Dia
300 Dia
IN
IN
IN IN
IN
37.384 37.208
43.465
37.113
375 Dia 375 Dia
375 Dia
375 Dia
IN
IN
IN
IN
L
A
U
R
A
S
T
R
E
E
T
ELSIE STREET
S
H
O
R
T
S
T
R
E
E
T
O
Y
S
T
E
R
P
O
IN
T
R
O
A
D
P
R
O
P
O
S
E
D
L
A
U
R
A
S
T
R
E
E
T
B
R
ID
G
E
BANORA POINT UPGRADE
0010.438.RC.2007 FOR CONSTRUCTION BPA-UT201-D105 A
TWEEDSHIRE H10 PACIFIC HIGHWAY
L.MOLONEY
P.WYATT
C.RITSON
T.WONG
T.WONG
C.ANDERSON
A 20.05.2010 27 M.S.
FOR CONTINUATION REFER INSERT A
INSERT A
0 5 10 20
SCALE 1:1000
EP
EP
EP
EP
EP
EP
EP
EP
EP
EP
EP
TSP
40.783
38.001
37.882
35.282
225 D
ia
225 D
ia
225 D
ia
225 D
ia
IN
IN IN
IN
48.095
48.516
32.746
32.701
31.110
31.057
29.362
48.604
35.231
32.746
32.701
31.110
31.057
29.362
300 D
ia
300 D
ia
300 D
ia
300 D
ia
300 D
ia
300 D
ia
300 D
ia
300 D
ia
300 D
ia
300 D
ia
300 D
ia
300 D
ia
300 D
ia
300 D
ia
IN
IN
IN IN
IN IN
IN
IN
IN
IN IN
IN IN
IN
43.465
29.237
29.237
375 D
ia
375 D
ia
375 D
ia
IN
ININ
P
R
O
P
O
S
E
D
M
O
T
O
R
W
A
Y
P
R
O
P
O
S
E
D
M
O
T
O
R
W
A
Y
EXISTING MOTORWAY
EXISTING MOTORWAY
PLAN LAYOUT
AMENDMENT / REVISION DESCRIPTION DATE REV
DRAFTING CHECK
DESIGN CHECK
DESIGNER
DRAFTER
TITLE NAME
ISSUE STATUS PROJ ECT / DRAWING No ISSUE
I:\Projects\3001750 - BANORA POINT\004_CADD\CAD\Dwg\Banora Design\12_UT_Utilities\BPA-UT203-D106_[02].dwg
EXTERNAL REFERENCE FILES
DRAWING FILE LOCATION \ NAME
SCALES AT A3 SIZE DRAWING WVR No
DESIGN MODEL FILE(S) USEDFOR DOCUMENTATION OF THIS DRAWING
ROADS AND TRAFFIC AUTHORITY OF NSW
RTA PLAN REGISTRATION No
CO-ORDINATE SYSTEM: MGA ZONE 56 HEIGHT DATUM: A.H.D.
BANORA POINT UPGRADE
0010.438.RC.2007 100% FINAL DESIGN BPA-UT203-D106 02
TWEEDSHIRE H10 PACIFIC HIGHWAY
L.MOLONEY
P.WYATT
C.RITSON
T.WONG
T.WONG
C.ANDERSON
1 05.03.2010 13 M.S.
2 18.05.2010 29 M.S.
0 5 10 20
SCALE 1:1000
BANORA POI NT UPGRADE ALLI ANCE
BLAST MANAGEMENT PLAN


BMP – Revision 4 Uncontrolled when printed
Authorised: Environmental Manager ©Banora Point Upgrade Alliance Page 47

APPENDIX D – MONITORING LOCATIONS
Appendix D – Monitoring Locations
BANORA POI NT UPGRADE ALLI ANCE
BLAST MANAGEMENT PLAN


BMP – Revision 4 Uncontrolled when printed
Authorised: Environmental Manager ©Banora Point Upgrade Alliance Page 48

APPENDIX E – EVALUATION TEST BLAST










Abigroup Contractors, Seymour Whyte Constructions
and Snowy Mountain Engineering Corporation (SMEC)


Blasting for the Banora Point Upgrade Alliance
Review of Trial Blasting








Prepared By:

Heilig & Partners Pty. Ltd.





August, 2010














Distribution List:

BPUA : 2 Copies
BPUA : Electronic copy
Brisbane Office : 1 Copy

Project Details:

Project Number : HP1005-5
Date Completed : August, 2010
File Name : BPUA Blasting August 2010 - Trial Blast Review.docx
Date Saved : 16/08/2010 11:14:00 AM

This document has been prepared for the Banora Point Upgrade Alliance Project (BPUA)
Neither this report nor any part, including text, diagrams and equations may be used, reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, recording, or otherwise, for other than the
BPUA project without prior written permission from Heilig & Partners Pty Ltd.
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Executive Summary

The Banora Point upgrade is a project to upgrade 2.5 kilometres of the Pacific Highway through
Banora Point. The Alliance intend to undertake drilling and blasting activities as part of the excavation
process associated with the removal of the more competent rock masses in the cutting. This report
addresses blasting in the section south of Laura Street.

In achieving this outcome, this report documents the results of a program undertaken to measure and
analyse the level of vibration from various quantities of explosive that are likely to encompass the
range that would be used as part of the construction activities. Calculated explosive weights and
predicted contours are based on compliance at the nearest sensitive receivers of 5mm/s. Given the
likely blast outcomes and blast costs, the Alliance should motivate for a higher acceptable level of
vibration. Depending upon the impact on design, it may also be necessary to motivate for a relaxation
in the overpressure criteria. The possible impact and any necessary mitigation measures should be
addressed during the initial stages of the blasting activities.

It should also be noted that the compliance calculations are based on a 95% compliance value.
Increasing the level of compliance to a 99% value reduces the quantities to around two-thirds of the
values listed in the analysis section of this report. Given the importance of compliance, it is suggested
that the explosive weights are carefully considered, erring on the conservative side until further data
specifically relating to multiple hole, multiple deck, production blasts.




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Table of Contents


1.  BACKGROUND ............................................................................................................................. 4 
2.  ADJ ACENT INFRASTRUCTURE ................................................................................................ 5
3.  ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS FROM BLASTING .................................................................... 5 
4.  TRIAL BLASTING ........................................................................................................................ 5 
4.1.  Trial Blast Configuration ......................................................................................................... 6 
4.2.  Monitoring Configuration ....................................................................................................... 6 
4.3.  Vibration Relationship ............................................................................................................ 7 
5.  POTENTIAL IMPACT OF GROUND VIBRATION .................................................................... 9 
5.1.  Blasting Quantities ................................................................................................................ 11
6.  OVERPRESSURE EFFECTS ....................................................................................................... 11
7.  CONTINGENCIES ....................................................................................................................... 11
8.  MONITORING AND REPORTING ............................................................................................ 12

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1. BACKGROUND

The upgrade of the Pacific Highway at Banora Point is being delivered by the Banora Point Upgrade
Alliance (BPUA), a team consisting of the NSW Roads and Traffic Authority, Abigroup Contractors,
Seymour Whyte Constructions and Snowy Mountains Engineering Corporation (SMEC).

Key features of the project:

- A six-lane, 2.5 kilometres of dual carriageway from Barneys Point Bridge to the Tweed Head
bypass;
- Retention of the existing Pacific Highway as a local access Road;
- Connection of South facing ramps at Barney’s Point Bridge with a southern interchange
roundabout;
- A land bridge approximately 100 metres wide which will provide a parkland connection
between east and west Banora Point at Wilson Park;
- A 330 metre long viaduct across the valley south of Sexton Hill;
- Northern interchange connecting to Darlington Drive and Minjunbal Drive;
- Realignment and upgrade of the existing coastal cycle pedestrian route through Banora Point;
- Realignment of Laura Street to meet with Short Street and the existing Pacific Highway at a
four-way intersection with traffic lights.

As part of the upgrade works in the area south of Laura Street, the Alliance have identified sections
where the competency of the rock mass is such that removal via mechanical methods is likely to be
uneconomic and drill and blast methods are preferred. The following image shows the extents of the
proposed blasting area. The limits extend to the outer edges of the batters (ie assume zero free
digging).


Figure 1 – Location of the extents of the possible blasting activities

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A series of nine trial blasts have been initiated in three separate areas of the expected blasts zone
(referred to as north, south and central) and the resulting vibration levels measured to assess the level
of vibration as a function of distance and explosive weight. The methods of measurement and analyses
are consistent with those specified in the Australian Standards AS2187.2.

This document provides the results of the trial blasts undertaken to assess the level of vibration from
the planned blasting activities required as part of the BPUA project. The report, together with other
geotechnical data and geology information, is prepared to assess the scale of blasting, and in
particular, the quantity of explosive that can be detonated whilst complying with the project vibration
restrictions. Tendering companies should however confirm the analyses and the potential impacts on
the allowable explosive quantities, scale of blasting and the overall drill and blast costs.

2. ADJ ACENT I NFRASTRUCTURE

The Alliance have indentified that the planned cutting will approach residential properties. The
proximity of these locations have been identified from aerial photography sourced from via Google
Earth (Date of Photography – 23
rd
J une 2008). Properties constructed after this date are not considered
in the analyses. Other properties have been demolished or acquired as part of the project. The relevant
properties should be verified by the BPUA.

3. ENVI RONMENTAL EFFECTS FROM BLASTI NG

It is understood that the EPA have stipulated a vibration criterion of 5mm/s at each of the existing
properties and an acceptable overpressure value of 115dBL. Both limits should however be confirmed.

Some vibration and air over-pressure from blasting is unavoidable. With the adoption of conscientious
blasting practices, and an adequate separation distance between the blasting and the nearest sensitive
structure, the level of ground vibration can be reduced to compliance values. By applying diligent
practices and ensuring the quantity of explosive is adjusted to reflect the distance nearest property, it is
expected that small scale controlled blasting can be developed within the EPA vibration constraints.

The purpose of this document is to identify the acceptable scale of blasting with respect to compliance
with the 5mm/s vibration criterion. No measurements of overpressure were collected during the field
trials given the absence of a free face and the highly confined explosive charges.

4. TRI AL BLASTI NG

The primary factors known to influence the level of ground vibration from blasting include:

- The weight of explosive per blasthole;
- The distance between the blastholes and the point of measurement;
- The local geological conditions, including rock mass conditions.

The trial program involved detonating a series of eleven blastholes and measuring the level of
vibration at multiple monitoring locations, including residential properties and other near field
locations chosen to assist with the regression analyses. Three trials involved multiple holes with two
decks per blasthole (sequenced individually), one trial had two decks within a single blasthole and four
single hole trial blasts were fired with a single explosive deck.

The trial blasting was completed with explosive weights varying between 0.5 and 2.3 kilograms. Each
blast was monitored at multiple locations.


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4.1. Trial Blast Configuration

The trial blast configuration and locations for the trial blast patterns are as given in Table 1. The blasts
were initiated on the 3
rd
August 2010.

Blast Trial
Number
Trial Description Cutting Monitoring
MaximumExplosive
Quantity
1 Single hole/Single deck South Zone
Distances
between 41m
and 43m
0.5 kilograms
2 Single hole/Single deck South Zone
Distances
between 38m
and 181m
2.25 kilograms
3
Two holes with two decks
per hole, each deck of 1.25
kilograms
South Zone
Distances
between 36m
and 101m
1.25 kilograms
4
Single hole with two
decks, upper deck of 0.5
kilograms and lower deck
of 0.75 kilograms
North Zone
Distances
between 15m
and 80m
0.75 kilograms
5 Single hole/Single deck Middle Zone
Distances
between 34m
and 89m
1.0 kilograms
6 Single hole/Single deck Middle Zone
Distances
between 37m
and 97m
1.75 kilograms
7
Two holes with two decks
per hole, each deck of 1.75
kilograms
Middle Zone
Distances
between 31m
and 134m
1.75 kilograms
8
Two holes with two decks
per hole, each deck of 0.6
kilograms
North Zone
Distances
between 20m
and 75m
0.6 kilograms
Table 1 –Blast trial details

Orica “Sentanel” packaged 55mm explosive was lowered to the base of the blasthole and initiated with
an electronic delay element. Stemming material was placed above the explosive column to the collar
to ensure no flyrock and the uncharged collar height exceeded normal practices for this purpose. A
single detonator was used for each explosive column, placed at toe end of the column. No bulk
emulsion or ANFO was used. Where multiple decks were initiated, the delay between decks was
25ms.

4.2. Monitoring Configuration

The level of vibration was measured by installing a triaxial geophone unit at each specific monitoring
location. The units were configured to record the level of vibration together with the waveform. In
accordance with the Australian Standards AS2187 and the ISEE recommendations, the units were
anchored to the ground via a buried concrete block. All reported vibration levels are the instantaneous
vector sum value of the three orthogonal components of vibration.

A total of thirteen monitoring stations were utilised and positioned at distances ranging from
approximately 15 metres through 180 metres from the blast. The monitoring locations are referenced
to Figure 2. The data for monitoring locations about the site and the locations of the blastholes were
taken from GPS data points. Separation distances were calculated on the basis of these GPS
coordinates.
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Figure 2 – Summary of monitoring and blasting locations the three trial areas. Blast locations
are shown as green dots and monitoring locations as red circles with a vibration pulse

Monitoring locations were chosen to allow measurement of vibration over a range of distances and
different directions to identify if there are any anomalous regions around the cuttings and to allow
direct measurement of vibration at one of the closest sensitive receivers.

4.3. Vibration Relationship

The vibration data have been analysed using techniques consistent with the recommendations provided
in the Australian Standard AS2187. The form of the equations typically used to predict the level of
vibration for a given explosive quantity and distance is used and has the following form:

o
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
w
d
K PPV

where PPV is the peak particle velocity measured in mm/s, d is the distance from the blast measured in
metres, w is the maximum quantity of explosive per delay, and K and α are site constants. The term in
brackets (d/√w) is referred to as the scaled distance term.

Figure 3 shows the recorded vibration data for each of the trials according to the production blast. The
values on the Y axis indicate the measured vibration level (vector sum value). The values on the X
axis represent the value of the scaled distance term, calculated as the distance between the blast and
the monitoring site divided by the square root of the explosive quantity.

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Figure 3 – Vibration levels measured fromthe trial blasting

A global relationship between the level of vibration, the quantity of explosive and the distance from
the blast has been derived from vibration measurements collected from all of the monitoring locations
and eight trial blasts. The regressed equation is as follows:

6 . 1
1670
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
w
d
PPV
Average

To account for variability in the explosive performance and rock mass variations, best practice is to
predict vibration levels as the "effective maximum" where this level exceeds 95% of all measurements.
The equation is as follows:
60 . 1
4420
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
w
d
PPV
Blasting Maximum

where PPV
MaximumBlasting
is the “effective maximumvibration level”, d is the distance between the
blasthole and the point of measurement and w is the maximum quantity of explosive per blasthole.

A review of the vibration data measured at the Banora Point project has shown no appreciable increase
in the level of vibration measured from a single blasthole when compared to that generated by a multi-
hole, multi-deck production blasts. This may however be strongly influenced by the ground
conditions, initiation sequence and the use of precise electronic delays. In the event of different
blasting designs, the equation should be verified as production blasting data are collected.
In addition to a global vibration equation for the Banora Point area, the measured data have also been
analysed based upon the location of the trial area. The excavation has been divided into three areas:
north, central and south. In each case, the data have been fitted to a constant attenuation parameter to
highlight any differences in geology and explosive coupling. Vibration relationships for each have
been determined and are shown in Table 2. It should be noted that the amount of data for each area is
minimal and any conclusions from the data should consider the small number of tests.


0.10
1.00
10.00
100.00
1000.00
1.00 10.00 100.00 1000.00
P
P
V

(
m
m
/
s
)
Scaled Distance (m/√kg)
Data Forced Fit Average Forced Effective Maximum
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Excavation Area Equation
Northern
6 . 1
5870
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
w
d
PPV
North

Central
6 . 1
3130
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
w
d
PPV
Central

Southern
6 . 1
4480
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
w
d
PPV
South

Table 2 – Summary of vibration parameters calculated fromtrial blast data
The equations in Table 2 suggest that northern area is potentially more restrictive than the central area
and southern sections of the excavation. It is however the professional opinion of Heilig & Partners
that the expected explosive weights should initially be based upon the global equation noting that
some areas of the cut may lead to an increase in the allowable quantity whilst other areas may
necessitate a reduced quantity. These effects can be further verified through monitoring and analysis
once production blasting commences.

5. POTENTI AL I MPACT OF GROUND VI BRATI ON

Using the site specific equation given above, the minimum distance to comply with a vibration
criterion of 5mm/s for adjacent properties can be estimated for differing explosive quantities. The
results in Table 3 are shown for different blasting configurations based upon different explosive deck
lengths and densities. The blasthole length, or more correctly the explosive column length, affects the
quantity of explosive which directly impacts upon the level of vibration measured. It is taken that the
explosive density is 0.85g/cm
3
, as per operating practices with ANFO, or where wet ground conditions
are encountered, an explosive density is 1.2g/cm
3
, as per operating practices with cartridge emulsion.
Other explosive configurations can also be considered based upon the column length and density.

The distances are based upon the equation with the K co-efficient of 4420 and an attenuation co-
efficient of -1.60.

Blasting Design
Option
Description
Explosive quantity
per blasthole
Minimumdistance
to comply with
5mm/s
i
Explosive column length of ≈½ cartridge
of 55x400

Explosive column length of ≈2/3
cartridge of 45x400

ANFO column of ≈1/3 metre in 45mm
diameter blasthole
≈ 0.5 kilograms 50 metres
ii
Explosive column length of ≈1 cartridge
of 55x400

Explosive column length of ≈1½
cartridges of 45x400

ANFO column of ≈¾ metre in 45mm
diameter blasthole
≈ 1.0 kilograms 70 metres
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iii
Explosive column length of ≈1½
cartridge of 55x400

Explosive column length of ≈2 cartridges
of 45x400

ANFO column of ≈1 metre in 45mm
diameter blasthole
≈ 1.5 kilograms 85 metres
iv
Explosive column length of ≈2 cartridges
of 55x400

Explosive column length of ≈3 cartridges
of 45x400

ANFO column of ≈1½metre in 45mm
diameter blasthole
≈ 2.0 kilograms 100 metres
Table 3 – Minimumdistance between the blast area and the closest residential receiver to comply with
5mm/s for different blasting options

It should also be noted that the compliance calculations are based on a 95% compliance value.
Increasing the level of compliance to a 99% value reduces the quantities to around two-thirds of the
values listed in the analysis section of this report. Given the importance of compliance, it is suggested
that the explosive weights are carefully considered, erring on the conservative side until further data
specifically relating to multiple hole, production blasts have been collected.

These distances can be used to define the scale of blasting for the cutting. Based upon the critical
vibration level for residential infrastructure of 5mm/s, the allowable explosive quantity will vary
according to the proximity of the blasting to the property. The equations derived in Section 5 and
separation distances given in Table 3 can be used to show the potential impacts of the adjacent
properties on the scale of blasting that can be undertaken.

Rather than restricting the analyses to the possible extraction area determined by the hard
rock/rippable or free dig areas, the full extent of the excavation shown in Figure 1 (ie to the limit of
the batter) has been modelled to determine the possible influence of the properties on the scale of
blasting activities. This is considered a worst case as some areas may be excavated without any
requirement for blasting.

The distance between the blast area and the existing residences will control the quantity of explosive
that can be detonated. In areas of blasting nearer to the residences the scale of blasting must be
reduced to ensure compliance.

Plate A shows the expected explosive quantity to comply with the existing properties about the bypass
road alignment based upon the vibration relationship identified from the trial blast data, as well as the
location of the 2.5mm/s, 5mm/s, 7.5mm/s and 10mm/s contours based upon blasting activities using
these quantities.

The data in Plate A indicates that the properties on the eastern side of the project at both the
northern and southern ends of the cutting will have the greatest influence on the allowable quantity
of explosive. Explosive quantities greater than 2 kilograms per deck should not be expected with
the majority of the excavation using between 0.5 and 1.0 kilograms. Consideration should be given
to motivating for an increase in the allowable vibration level, possibly better aligned with the
Australian Standard AS2187 values. This will permit the use of greater explosive quantities, be far
more cost effective and provide better fragmentation and diggability of the blasted rock, still
without the possibility of damage to adjacent structures.

The location of the properties should also be verified to ensure no properties have been omitted
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from the modelling, or conversely, some properties may have been resumed and are no longer a
critical receiver.

5.1. Blasting Quantities

Based upon the planned blasting areas for the excavation and the analyses provided in Plate A, the
percentage of the cut that can be blasted with the different explosive quantities has been estimated.
The percentage is based on the plan area of the cut and does not account for the varying excavation
depths required in the different sections of each cut (ie square metres and not cubic metres of material
removed). The percentages are as shown in the following Table 4.

Blast Design Reference Explosive Quantity
Percentage of excavation
K=4420 & α=-1.6
A <0.5 kilograms 11%
B 0.5 – 1.0 kilograms 43%
C 1.0 – 1.5 kilograms 33%
D 1.5 – 2.0 kilograms 13%
E 2.0- 2.5 kilograms 0%
F >2.5 kilograms 0%
Table 4 – Percentage of the excavation that can
be completed with varying explosive quantities.
Calculations based on plan area and not total volume of blasted material

6. OVERPRESSURE EFFECTS

Overpressure from blasting refers to the transient, but elevated, levels of pressure above atmospheric
pressure. It is measured irrespective of frequency with no weighting, and on this basis, is distinguished
from noise criteria. Air overpressure generally features the greatest proportion of the energy in the
inaudible minus 20 Hz band. Unlike ground vibration, the level of air overpressure is influenced by
both topography and prevailing weather conditions.

Depending upon the orientation of the blasting patterns, the scale of blasting, the prevailing weather
conditions and the topography, overpressure levels may exceed the 115dBL permissible value. No site
data has been measured to permit modelling of the expected effects and any subsequent and required
adjustments to the blast designs.

The exposure to the properties will however be for no more than a second throughout a blast event.
When compared with other natural phenomena, like wind and thunder, these effects will often exceed
the 115 dB (Lin) for many hours during each day. Further, these naturally occurring and
uncontrollable sources may induce levels more than 50 times than 115 dB (Lin) for extended periods
each day and without any adverse effects.

Depending upon the impact on design, it may be necessary to motivate for a relaxation in the
overpressure criteria. The possible impact and any necessary mitigation measures should be addressed
during the initial stages of the blasting activities.

7. CONTI NGENCI ES

The trial results have reasonably guaranteed that the levels of vibration from the blasting will comply
with the proposed 5mm/s criteria at locations as near as 45 metres with a 0.5 kilogram weight. In the
event that the trial blast programme has underestimated the level of vibration, several mitigative
procedures are available and could include:

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- limiting the quantity of explosive by further reducing the length of the blasthole or the length
of the explosive column;
- introducing additional explosive columns within the blasthole;
- reducing the blasthole diameter;
- alternative explosive types, including both low density products and cartridge explosives.

8. MONI TORI NG AND REPORTI NG

The procedure for demonstrating vibration compliance at the residential infrastructure is expected to
remain essentially unchanged from typical practices employed for blasting at construction sites.
Vibration monitoring systems are expected to be positioned at several locations about the cutting at the
nearest potentially affected properties and configured to detect any increase in the ambient vibration
level above a pre-set threshold value.

Data are expected be analysed and collated regularly to allow the continual refinement of the vibration
predictions.
P.O. Box 176
Sumner Park Business Centre
QLD. 4074. Australia
Telephone +61 7 3715 7599
Mobile 0419 196 369
Facsimile +61 7 3715 7588
Email john@heiligandpartners.com.au
ABN 56 082 976 714
1
1
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1
Heilig & Partners
Scale as Shown
Date Drawn: 11 August 2010
Plate No. A
0 25 50 75 100 125m
SCALE
Project Description: Banora Point predicted explosive weights based upon trial blast results
Ref No: Banora Point Blast.cdr
Explosive Quantities
<0.5 kilograms
Between 0.5 and 1.0 kilograms
Between 1.0 and 1.5 kilograms
Between 1.5 and 2.0 kilograms
Between 2.0 and 2.5 kilograms
>2.5 kilograms
Expected 5mm/s Vibration Contour
Expected 2.5mm/s Vibration Contour
LEGEND
Expected 7.5mm/s Vibration Contour
Expected 10mm/s Vibration Contour
BANORA POI NT UPGRADE ALLI ANCE
BLAST MANAGEMENT PLAN


BMP – Revision 4 Uncontrolled when printed
Authorised: Environmental Manager ©Banora Point Upgrade Alliance Page 49

APPENDIX F – SUBCONTRACTOR BLAST MANAGEMENT PLAN



Blast Management and Control Plan

Banora Point Upgrade Alliance


Prepared by:




PACIFIC DRILLING & BLASTING PTY. LTD
Member of the International Society of Explosives Engineers
ABN: 90 071 934 202

7/78 Hutchinson Street
Burleigh Heads Q 4220

May 2011




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CONTENTS
1 OBJECTIVE ......................................................................................................................................... 3
2 BLAST PLANNING and IMPLEMENTATION RESPONSIBILITIES................................................ 3
3 BLASTING PLAN ................................................................................................................................ 4
4 BLASTING METHODOLY................................................................................................................... 4
5 BLAST DESIGN................................................................................................................................... 6
6 BLASTING OPERATIONS.................................................................................................................. 6
7 BLAST MANAGEMENT FIELD PROCEDURES................................................................................ 6
7.1 Survey and Blast Hole Layout ...................................................................................................... 6
7.2 Blast Hole Drilling .......................................................................................................................... 6
7.3 Blasting............................................................................................................................................ 7
7.4 Blast Initiation................................................................................................................................. 9
7.5 Post Blast Evaluation and Reporting......................................................................................... 11
8 ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS .............................................................................................. 11
8.1 Blasting Environmental Impact .................................................................................................. 11
9 POST BLAST EVALUATION............................................................................................................ 11
10 APPENDICES..................................................................................................................................... 11
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1.0 OBJECTIVE
This Blast Management Plan is to cover drilling and blasting activities. The BMP has been developed
with consideration of the risk assessment conducted by Pacific Drilling & Blasting.
The objectives of the BMP are to:
• Assure the safety of the public, site personnel, contractors and equipment and to maintain the
environmental standards of the site.
• Control the blasting process from design to initiation.
• Provide safe blasting procedures for both employees and contractors engaged in drilling and blasting
activities on site
• Provide detailed supporting documentation, including all licenses, insurances, certificates of
competency, MSDS, shotfirer certificates and BMP to Clients.
2.0 ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES
Client Management
• Is responsible for approving the BMP and confirming compliance with AS 2187.2.
• Is responsible for providing a safe work environment.
• Ensure safe work environment for all staff and contractors.
• Undertake, and document risk assessment for all activities associated with drill and blast conducted
on site.
• Is responsible for determining the location for the blast and the powder factor (Kg’s/BCM) for the
blast.
• Approve all equipment to be used on site to complete the drill and blast process.
• Undertake pre and post blast inspections to ensure blast objectives are met and blast zone is safe to
conduct load and haul activities.
Pacific Drilling & Blasting Management
• Undertake a hazard and risk assessment of drilling and blasting activities in conjunction with the
Client Management.
• Ensure the work site is safe for the activities to be undertaken.
• Provide appropriate and approved equipment and explosives products for personnel to safely
undertake their work.
• Provide competent and trained staff to undertake the work.
• Provide the client with a written record of the training and competency of each contractor, employee,
used on site.
• Maintaining all licenses and permits, etc, for vehicles entering the site to undertake the work.

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Maintenance Staff
• Shall ensure Pacific Drilling & Blasting P/L equipment is maintained and can be operated in a safe
and efficient manner.
• Ensure all plant and equipment is registered and licensed for the purpose it is intended.
Driller
• Undertake a hazard and risk assessment of drilling activities
• Be responsible for ensuring the drill is operated in a safe manner and all Pacific Drilling & Blasting
procedures are followed
• Be responsible for ensuring the site is safe for access of the drill rig.
• Be responsible for ensuring all holes are located and drilled to the parameters on the blasthole plan.
Maintain a log of drilling conditions
Shotfirer
• Undertake a hazard and risk assessments of drilling and blasting activities.
• Design the blast according to requirements of Client Management.
• Survey the blast and layout blastholes.
• Ensure all sub-contractors and Pacific Drilling & Blasting plant and equipment are fit for purpose.
• Supervise the drilling.
• Ensure blast site security and demarcation of work area.
• Charge, stem and tie-in the blast.
• Fire the blast.
• Carry out post blast inspection in conjunction with the Client Management.
• Provide the Client management with blast reports, including copies of any risk assessments
undertaken for the drilling and blasting activity.
3.0 BLASTING PLAN
All drilling and blasting operations will be done in accordance with AS 2187.2 Explosives – Storage,
Transport and Use – Use of Explosives.
Blasting activities are to be conducted by appropriately trained, experienced, insured and certified
blasting contractors and shotfirer.
4.0 BLASTING METHODOLGY
It is proposed to undertake initial trial blasting to ascertain the optimum powder factor, pattern size and
sub drill to be utilised. These initial trials would be expected to be carried out in one or two days
including excavation and appraisal of results. The information obtained from these trials will then be
used to design and execute production blasts. Packaged explosives coupled with non-electric
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detonators will be used for these blasts. Blast mats will also be deployed for these trial blasts to provide
an extra level of protection from any potential ejection.
Due to the limited number of firing opportunities, it will be necessary to ‘sleep’ loaded shots. As a result,
maxim packaged 60mm explosive will be used coupled with non-electric detonators so as to eliminate
any risk of water damage to loaded holes over the course of the ’sleep’ period.
The trial and main blasting will be carried out following the sequence of activities below:

• Design of each blast to achieve the intended result including compliance with all environmental and
safety requirements. The blast design shall be developed to produce the required cross section at
each location. The depth of each blast will be determined and may include localised deepening for
drainage etc.
• Coordination of blast designs and program to ensure issues associated with materials handling,
excavation of OTR, site access, haul roads, stockpiles are taken into consideration.
• Marking out of blast pattern.
• Drilling of blastholes. This will likely require 1 drill rig. Accurate drill logs will be recorded for each
hole. In addition, a hole will be drilled at 5m intervals to a depth that is below the basalt lens and then
stemmed back up. Records of these depths will be used to ensure that drill holes for use in the
blasting pattern will be drilled to a depth of 500mm above the bottom of the basalt lens. This will
ensure that explosive energy does not escape from the bottom of the blast hole into softer soils
below without sufficiently fragmenting the basalt lens.
• Dipping, priming and loading of blastholes with suitable primers, detonators and explosives to suit
the requirements of the blast design. It is anticipated that the basalt lens will require deck loading
(loading of holes with two separate layers of explosives) in some areas to ensure only one pass of
blasting is required, minimising the number of blasts.
• Stemming of blastholes. Stockpile of appropriate stemming material will be provided at each site in
close proximity. A method of ensuring each blasthole is sufficiently filled with stemming shall form a
hold point for each blast, i.e. an actual quantity vs design quantity check. Filling of blastholes with
stemming material is to be carried out by competent workers.
• Connection of all detonators, delays etc. as required by the blast design. It is noted that electronic
detonators may be required for blasting on the project due to the environmental and safety
constraints.
• Supply and installation of blast protection measures to eliminate ‘fly rock’ or ejection of material from
the shot area for each blast. The control measures will be reviewed and inspected prior to each
blast. Existing over burden (approx 2m) and potentially blast mats (rubber blast mats 2.5m x 6m in
size and approximate weight of 600kg each) will be used to control flyrock for the project.
• Supply of documentation from subcontractor a minimum of 48 hours prior to each blast for review,
including all details in accordance with R44 Earthworks – RTA specifications. The documentation
shall also include safety considerations and environmental measures such as methods of monitoring
vibration and locations of monitoring equipment.
• Coordination in relation to the shot being fired to manage the clearing of each area, stopping of traffic
etc.
• Firing of the shot. It is anticipated that the BPUA General Forman/Foreman/Project Engineer will be
the blast controller and will take overall control of each blast.
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• Any rectification measures required as a result of a miss-fire, including overnight security if required.
• Supply of documentation following each blast including drill sheets, checklists, monitoring results,
video of blast etc. as detailed in RTA Specification R44.
5.0 BLAST DESIGN
The Shotfirer shall determine and document the design for each blast, prior to drilling commencing,
based upon the clients blasting objectives, and shall provide a hard copy of the design to the Client
Management. The Client Management shall approve the design prior to the commencement of drilling.
The blast design will typically be based on a powder factor of Client Nominated kg/ m³. The powder
factor for a particular blast, however, shall be determined as a blast design parameter.
6.0 BLASTING OPERATIONS
All drilling and blasting operations will be conducted as per associated SWMS Blasting Operations
D&BWI(S) Blast 001
7.0 BLAST MANAGEMENT FIELD PROCEDURES
7.1 Survey and Blast Hole Layout
The Client management will determine and instruct Pacific Drilling & Blasting as to the location of the
blast to be conducted. All Survey and blasthole layout will be done in conjunction with Pacific Drilling &
Blasting.
A plan of the blast shall be produced by Pacific Drilling & Blasting and submitted to the Client
Management for review, approval and retention as a record on site.
7.2 Blast Hole Drilling
Safety Precautions
There are several Health and Safety precautions to be taken with respect to drilling. These are:-
• All drilling to be conducted in accordance with Pacific Drilling & Blasting SWMS Drilling Operations
Form (S)1 / D&BWI(S) Drill 002
• PPE is to be worn at all times during operation of the drill hammer;
• The drill rig dust collection system if fitted is to be effectively maintained and operational during
drilling.
• Drilling shall be completed prior to charging commencing. Where drilling must be performed during
charging operations to re-drill a hole, drilling operations must not be carried out within six (6) meters
of charged blast holes.
• Movement beepers will be required at all times (site specific beeber type to be complied with)
• Caution will be taken to avoid spills during refueling and any oil transfer.

General Drilling Procedure as per Pacific Drilling & Blasting SWMS Drilling Operations Form (S)1 /
D&BWI(S) Drill 002
Drilling operations shall be completed prior to charging of blast holes commencing.
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Where drilling must be performed during charging operations to redrill a hole or to clear a blocked hole,
drilling operations must not be carried out within six (6) metres of charged blast holes.
The Drill Operator will be briefed on the blast design and pattern requirements by the Shotfirer (or their
appointed representative) prior to the commencement of drilling operations. The Drill Operator will be
provided a drill pattern detailing hole diameter, hole angle and depth of each hole in the blast.
The Drill Operator is to drill each hole to the angle and depth specified on the blast pattern at the
position marked on the bench. A drillers log must be kept recording any anomalies with any of the holes
(e.g. cracks, clay, broken ground etc). This log must be given to the shotfirer prior to any loading taking
place.
It must be noted that all face holes or holes within 6m from the face will be drilled perpendicular to the
face, limiting the operator’s exposure to the hazards of working at heights.
7.3 Blasting
Safety Precautions
• All blasting activities will be conducted to SWMS Blasting Operations Form (s)1 D&BWI(S) Blast
001.
• All blasting to be conducted in accordance with all relevant Australian Standards, applicable
guidelines, statutory rules and regulations and in conjunction with site specific blasting procedures.
• An assessment of weather conditions must be made prior to any charging taking place. If pending
electrical storms or other inclement weather conditions are predicted blasting operations may be
postponed to another date.
• Client Management to notify relevant neighbours and personnel of blasting date and time.
• Warning signs “BLASTING NO UNAUTHORISED ENTRY” shall be erected at the boundaries and
entry road to the blast area.
• Only persons authorised by the shotfirer shall be permitted to enter onto the blast;
• Drilling shall be completed prior to the commencement of charging operations. If re-drilling must be
carried out, drilling shall not be carried out within 6 meters of a charged blast hole and approval from
the Client Management prior to any such drilling
• All charging and initiation tie-up will cease upon the approach of a lightning storm and all personnel
will withdraw from the blast area. Charging will not recommence until after the storm has passed
and all lightning activity and thunder has ceased.
• The blast area is to be kept free of obstructions and tripping / fall hazards at all times.
• No smoking will be permitted within the posted blast area.
• Stemming material will be distributed over the blast prior to any charging activities.
• All explosives delivered to site, used on site and removed from site are to be recorded on Pacific
Drilling & Blasting Shipping.
Priming
Priming will be undertaken by a Shotfirer or a person under the personal supervision of a Shotfirer. Prior
to the commencement of priming, all holes will be dipped to ensure holes are not blocked and are all to
the correct depth.
8
The primer is to be lowered into the blast hole ensuring no damage to the primer or the detonator tube.
The tail of the detonator is to be secured at the collar of the hole to prevent the tail falling into the blast
hole.
Blocked Holes
If a hole is found to be blocked a weight shall be lowered on a rope and an attempt made to clear the
blockage by impacting the weight against the blockage. Once the blockage is cleared the hole will be
remeasured and the measured depth recorded on the Blast Plan.
If, prior to charging commencing, a blockage cannot be cleared then the hole can be cleared with the
drill or redrilled. Where a hole is found blocked after charging has commenced, and there are no
charged holes within 6 metres, the hole can be redrilled after obtaining approval from the Client
Management. The area around the blocked hole is to be cleared of all explosives and accessories and
the shotfirer is to guide the drill over the bench ensuring that all explosives and accessories are clear of
the drill.
If the blocked hole cannot be cleared or redrilled and it is below the stemmed portion of the blast hole
the hole is to be charged to achieve the designed stemming length.
Charging
During charging the explosive column rise is to be checked at regular intervals, either by dipping the
hole, through depth markings on the explosive delivery hose, or by a suitable method determined by the
contractor and detailed in the blast charging procedures of the contractor’s blast management plan.
The amount of explosive being loaded into the blast hole shall be measured to confirm the correct
design amount is being delivered into the hole. The measurement method is to be detailed in the
charging procedures of the blast design.
If a hole is overcharged and it exceeds the allowable MIC (Maximum Instantaneous Charge), the hole
will be marked and blocked to prevent stemming being placed in the blast hole. It shall be dealt with as
detailed below.
Overcharged Holes
If a hole is overcharged and exceeds the allowable MIC, the following procedures shall be followed;
Packaged; Plugs are to be removed using a non-ferrous rod (brass rod) hook. The hook end
of the rod is lowered onto the top plug. The rod is manoeuvred so to hook the top
plug and remove, this process is repeated until the designed stemming or MIC is
achieved. The detonator tube is to be held straight in the hole to avoid snagging
on the hook end of the rod.
ANFO; Water will be poured into the hole dissolving the required length of ANFO.


Stemming
Prior to placing any stemming into the hole, it must be dipped using a tamping stick and the
stemming height measured and the hole checked for obstructions.
The correct stemming material is critical in the containment of the explosive. The size of stemming to be
used must grade between 10mm and 20mm and be of an angular shape.
Stemming will only be undertaken by the shotfirer or a person under the personal supervision of the
shotfirer. Stemming shall be placed in the blast hole in a controlled manner to ensure that bridging does
not occur. When placing the stemming by shovel a count of loads shall be made to ensure that the
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correct volume of stemming is placed in the blast hole. Alternately, stemming is to be bucketed to the
blast hole and metered from the bucket into the blast hole.
If, during placement if stemming, it is found that the required volume of stemming cannot be placed in
the blast hole the procedure for Stemming Blocked Holes shall be followed.
Stemming Blocked Holes
Where a hole is found to be blocked during the placement of stemming and the blockage is too deep to
be removed by hand, the collar of the blast hole is to be circled with survey paint.
After connection the hole shall be covered with fine particle crushed rock material to control rifling from
the blast hole collar and the associated fly. Material shall be placed to a depth of not less than 1.2
metres to a radius of 1.5 m around the blast hole. Extreme care will be necessary when placing
overburden material to ensure that damage is not done to downhole detonator tubes and surface
connectors. Blast mats may be utilised if deemed necessary.
Surface connectors are to be left out where necessary to allow access of a front end loader for
placement of the fine crushed material. Care is to be taken that all detonator wires are rolled up and do
not come in contact with the loader tyres or machine frame. Observers are to be placed at the sides,
front and rear of the loader to give direction and ensure that detonator tube and surface connectors are
not run over by the loader.
Initiation Sequence Plan
The Client management and shotfirer shall be responsible for determining the hole firing sequence for
the blast, and shall have his initiation plan drawn up and completed prior to any loading taking place.
Only the shotfirer or personnel under personal supervision of the shotfirer shall tie-in the blast.
The shotfirer shall inspect each hole for correct and complete “tie-in” of the initiation system.
7.4 Blast Initiation
Safety Precautions
Prior to firing the blast, all personnel (other than the shotfirer) and equipment shall be removed from the
blast area. Personnel removed from the blast area are to muster at the nominated muster point – a
minimum of 30m from the blast area. A head count shall be undertaken by the Client Management and
confirmed with the shotfirer prior to firing.
Personnel shall remain at the muster point until given the all clear by the shotfirer to re-enter the
excavation area.
A drive by of the entire area will be undertaken by the blast controller to ensure that no personnel remain
in the area and that no vehicle or equipment is in the danger area around the blast site.
Sentries will be positioned with radio contact at the nominated sentry points
All sentries will have radio contact with the shotfirer on a nominated UHF Channel.
Firing the Shot
At 10min prior to the blast, all personal and equipment involved in the project are to be re-moved from
the zone of influence. At 5min prior to blast the Client Management shall confirm by radio with the Blast
Controller that sentries/guards are in position. The shotfirer with firing key in possession completes the
connection of firing cable and electric detonator to the non-electric initiation system and makes a final
test of the electrical circuit. At 2 min prior to blast blast controller to arrange with sentries for residual
streets and pedestrian access to be secured. At 30 sec prior to blast, rolling roadblock of highway to
commence. During this period the shotfirer shall connect the firing cable to the exploder, energise the
exploder and sound the siren for 30 seconds.
10

The Blast Controller shall confirm with the Shotfirer that everything is secure.
Shotfirer Calls “firing blast at site in 10 seconds”
Fire the blast 10 seconds after call.
After the blast area has cleared of dust and fumes, the shotfirer shall inspect the blast to determine that
all charges have successfully initiated. If all charges have been successfully initiated the shotfirer shall
notify the Blast Controller. The Blast Controller will give the all clear by sounding the blast siren three
times quickly on and off and by radio to give clearance to the Client Management who will then allow
entry to the blast area.
If during inspection of the blast area the shotfirer finds that all charges have not initiated he shall follow
the misfire procedure.
Misfires
Please read in conjunction with the Misfire Flow Chart found in SWMS Blasting Operations D&BWI(S)
Blast 001 page 24.
If during inspection of the shot after initiation the shotfirer finds misfired charges the following procedures
shall be implemented: -
• The Client Management shall be informed of the misfire and entry to the blast site is to be secured
with a 10m exclusion zone until a thorough evaluation of the misfire is undertaken. Road and
pedestrian blockages may be released by blast sentries after the all clear is given by the shotfirer.
• The shotfirer, in conjunction with the Client Management, shall determine the cause of the misfire,
whether the initiation system is in a suitable condition for the misfired charges to be initiated and if
burden on the charges is adequate to eliminate flyrock.
• The options available to rectify the misfire shall be documented and a hazard and risk analysis
undertaken on each option to determine the most safe option for dealing with the misfire.
• The Client Management shall have the misfire event reported to the designated Statutory Authority.
The relevant authority shall be advised of the outcome of investigations and the proposed procedure
for corrective action.
• In the event that the misfire cannot be safely fired without the need for further works, the blast area is
to be secured and signage placed in position around the blast area. No unauthorised persons shall
be permitted to enter the area.
• The shotfirer and Client Management shall determine if excavation activities can be safely
recommenced whilst these corrective actions are undertaken.
• All firing of misfires shall follow the procedures previously detailed.
Should a misfire be discovered during face loading operations all operations within 10 metres of the
uncovered explosive / detonators shall cease immediately. The Client Management shall then be
advised promptly of the misfire.
All plant and equipment shall be withdrawn to a point beyond the 10 metre exclusion area unless there is
an associated safety risk to achieve this plant movement. In this event, the operator shall park and leave
the machine to withdraw themselves from the area.
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The Client Management shall arrange to inspect, secure the area, evaluate and determine corrective
actions to rectify the misfire. The Relevant Statutory Authority shall be advised of the misfire
immediately after the site is safely secured.
7.5 Post Blast Evaluation and Reporting
Face Stability and Safety
After the shotfirer has given the all clear he will carry out an inspection of the blast area and surrounding
work area with the Client Management. Particular attention is to be directed toward the possibility of
misfires, face stability behind the blast and the safety of bench formations.
Reporting Requirements
Pacific Drilling & Blasting shall provide the Client Management with blast report sheets in accordance
with R44 Earthworks – RTA specifications) as detailed below;
• Blast timing plan detailing initiation sequence, single and double primed holes, any uncharged holes.
• Environmental monitoring results.
• Blast Report BMP – 1.
• A video of the blast shall be recorded and provided as required.
The completed Blast Report shall be retained as a record of the blast. In order to report monitoring
results efficiently to all interested parties, it is proposed that the information will be made available via a
secure web based data management system. The system known as blasthub.com, allows verified users
to access all the blasting information over the internet in a secure environment.
8.0 ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS
8.1 Blasting Environmental Impact
Table A2 presented in Annexure R44/A details limiting peak particle velocity (ground vibration) and air
overpressure for various structures. Blast design shall incorporate criteria to maintain a) blast
overpressure below a level of 110 dBL (overpressure may only increase to below 120 dBL on five
percent of blasting events) and PPV Ground Vibration below 10 mm/sec at designated residential
developments.
Vibration control parameters will be supplied by BPUA and all defined charge weights will be complied
with.
In addition to the BPUA monitoring, blasts are to be monitored for ground vibration and air blast
overpressure at the two (2) nominated monitoring sites by the Saros group (Independent monitoring
subcontractor). Ongoing improvement of the site model will assist with determining appropriate charge
weights and timing sequences. Other monitors are available on request.
9.0 POST BLAST EVALUATION
Contract blasting personnel and/or the Shotfirer firing the blast will review the performance of each blast
in conjunction with the Client Management. The review will consider safety outcomes, assessment of
blast performance to verify no misfires have occurred.
Blast design modifications (burden & spacing, MIC, hole diameter, stemming, bench height, and subdrill)
which may be necessary to tailor future blast design to client blasting outcome criteria objectives will be
determined at this time.
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10. APPENDICES
Please see attached documents for a copy of Safe Work Method Statements relating to the works to be
undertaken on this project. They will be completed on site will be completed prior to commence of works.
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4
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5
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8
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.


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1
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BANORA POI NT UPGRADE ALLI ANCE
BLAST MANAGEMENT PLAN


BMP – Revision 4 Uncontrolled when printed
Authorised: Environmental Manager ©Banora Point Upgrade Alliance Page 50

APPENDIX G – SAFETY SWMS, PRE-START TOOLBOX, CHECKLIST


AR1002C
TOOLBOX MEETING TRAINING RECORD
PURPOSE OF TRAINING
Type Details
Quality/Technical Procedure
Safe Work Method Statement
Emergency Procedure
Environmental Control Procedure
Other

Personnel Trained (Tick as appropriate)
Alliance Subcontractor Client

Training of the following personnel has been completed and is acknowledged.
Individual’s Name
(please print)
Occupation Employer Signature



































Training Officer
Name:

Signature:
Position:

Date Training Given:


AR1002C Toolbox Meeting Training Record Page 1 of 1
Version 4 Authorised RY
©Abigroup Limited

AR603B
SAFETY INSPECTION REPORT (BLANK)

PROJECT: BPUA WORK AREA:

INSPECTION DATE:
ITEM
NO.
INSPECTION ITEM
ACTION REQUIRED
& LOCATION
ACTION
PRIORITY
PERSON
RESPONSIBLE
CLOSED
OUT
DATE

1.



2.



3.



4.



5.



6.



7.



8.



9.



10.



11.



12.



Inspection By:

Print Name Signature












Follow up
Inspection:


Follow up Date:



Priority Key: 1.Immediately 2. Same Day 3. Nominate Date
AR603B Safety Inspection Report (Blank) Page 1 of 1


AR603C
SAFETY OBSERVATION RECORD
AR603C Safety Observation Record Page 1 of 2
Version 3 (Revision 1) Authorised RY
©Abigroup Limited

Area:
Names of
Observers:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Position: 1.
2.
3.
4.
Date:
What is the activity being observed? Does the activity involve High Risk
Construction Work Yes No
Where is the activity being carried out?

Who is undertaking the activity?
Alliance Subcontractor
Name of subcontractor (if applicable):
Name and position of Supervisor:

Brief description of activity;

Is there a Safe Work Method Statement (SWMS) available for the activity? Yes No
Has the Safe Work Method Statement (SWMS) been approved for use? Yes No

Name of personnel carrying out activity Have these people been toolboxed?
Yes No
Yes No
Yes No
Yes No
Yes No
Yes No

Areas of Observation Acceptable Behaviour Comments


Is a copy of the SWMS present with
the work crew?

Yes
No


Has a Job Hazard Analysis Card or
equivalent been completed for the
day?

Yes
No


Does the SWMS capture all hazards
present at the time of the
observation?

Yes
No


Are those doing the task wearing the
required personal protective
equipment

Yes
No


Are tools and equipment being used
correctly?

Yes
No


AR603C
SAFETY OBSERVATION RECORD
AR603C Safety Observation Record Page 2 of 2
Version 3 (Revision 1) Authorised RY
©Abigroup Limited

Is the task done as per the SWMS? (I f no list the differences) Yes No








Name and position of person(s) spoken to as part of the observation?

Name Position Name Position


Are they aware of the potential
hazards involved in the work activity?
(What are they?)

Yes

No

Are they aware of the control
measures in place to eliminate or
minimize the risk of harm?

Yes

No

What could be done to improve safety for this task?









General Comments (document positive and/or safe behaviours observed)







Does the SWMS appear to be adequate? Yes No
ACTION REQUIRED NAME OF RESPONSIBLE
PERSON
DATE DUE





Signatures of observers
1. 2.
3. 4.



BPUA Site Inspection (Structures)

BPUA Site Inspection (Structures) (rev1) 1 of 1
Location/Structure:
Subcontractor:
(if applicable)

( ) Adequate ( X ) Not Adequate ( n/a ) Not Applicable Date;

No Check the Following
, X, n/a
Comments Complete?
1 PPE available and being worn, shirts and
pants worn properly?

2 JHA cards completed for all activities and
signed off by all?

3 SWMS available on site for workers and
being complied with?

4 Plant inspection sheets available and
completed by operators?

5 Power tools & leads ‘Test-n-Tagged, RCD
protection in place & leads suspended?

6 Harnesses appropriate for the application,
with Trauma Straps fitted & lanyards
attached to suitable anchor points?

7 Para web and/or barriers are in place to
define the work site?

8 Hand rails are in place for work over 2m, top
rails 900mm high & posts 2.4m apart?

9 Generators isolated where fumes may build
up or noise may be an issue?

10 Cranes operating safely & certified
dogger/rigger used for all crane lifts?

11 Fuel kept away from operating/hot motors?


12 Ladders tied off and 1m above work deck?


13 Scaffold ‘Scaff-tag’ up-to-date, access is
good & no materials stored on work decks?

14 Compressor hoses clipped and no leakages
from hoses or compressor?

15 Worksite tidy with materials stacked safely
and securely away from areas?

16 Warning signs adequate for the work?


17 Oxy/Acetylene bottles secure, fire exting. is
present & flashback arrestors fitted?

18 Access to and from work area is safe & is
free of Slip, Trip and Fall hazards

19 Re-Bar Caps in place?



• Items identified as “X” are to be rectified immediately.

Name Signature Name Signature





BPUA Site Inspection (E’works)

BPUA Site Inspection (E’works) (rev1) 1 of 1
Area:
Subcontractor:
( ) Adequate (X) Not Adequate ( n/a ) Not Applicable Date;

No Check the Following
, X, n/a
Comments Complete?
1 PPE available and being worn


2 Shirt Sleeves are below elbow height &
long pants are being worn properly?

3 Certificated Plant Operators being used


4 Experienced and trained personnel
operating general plant

5 JHA cards in place for all activities and
signed off by employees

6 SWMS available on site for workers


7 Seat belts fitted and worn where fitted


8 Pre-shift plant inspection sheets available
and completed by operators.

9 Warning signs adequate for work being
carried out including Subcontractors

10 Road signs in place and visible to all
operators and surveillance traffic.

11 VMP &/or Traffic Control Plan in place


12 Windrows &/or parawebbing in place to
define batter edges, pits or trenches

13 Pits are parawebbed or covered


14 Trenches protected if greater then 1.5m in
depth?

15 Surveyors clearly identified/marked when
working around plant & trucks?

16 Mobile plant & vehicles have operating
flashing lights and reverse alarms?

17 Plant not operating above personnel
without awareness from both parties

18 Communication between plant & vehicles
open & clear?

19 Safe driving techniques demonstrated by
all operators & drivers

20 Safe means of access available for
access and work on batters?


• Items identified as “X” are to be rectified immediately.

Name Signature Name Signature





BPUA Site Inspection
(Excavation & Trench Checklist)

BPUA Site Inspection (Excavation) (rev.0) 1 of 1
Area/location: PTE No.
Subcontractor: Date;
Description:
(eg; sewer pit)

( ) Adequate (X) Not Adequate ( n/a ) Not Applicable

Check the Following
, X, n/a
Comments &/or Action required Complete?
1 Permit & Job Requirements
Is the PTE present and current?
Is a Powerline Permit required
Is the Safe Work Method Statement on site?
Is the PPE in use appropriate?

-
-
-
-

2 Geotechnical Site Inspection Report (SIR)
Does the excavation require a SIR?

-



4 Surface & Weather Conditions
Are there any significant surface cracks?
Is the spoil placed well clear of the edge and from
protected vegetation?
Is it raining &/or very hot, how will the weather
affect the excavation?


-
-

-

5 Benching, Battering or Shoring
Does the excavation comply with the design?
Is appropriate protection in place & functioning?
Is there sign of any movement or deflection?

-
-
-

6 Excavation
Is there suitable access for workers in and out of
the excavation (stairs, ladders, ramps)
Is there an existing service in the excavation?
Does the excavation need dewatering?
Is equipment & materials away from the edge?
Is it near a public road or pedestrian path?
Is lighting sufficient?
Is there a risk of falling objects (eg; rocks)?
Are walkways / bridges required / in place?
Is there a risk of a build up of gases (eg; Co
2
)?

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-

Additional Comments; x




• Items identified as “Not Adequate” are to be rectified immediately.
Name Signature Name Signature





BPUA Site Inspection (Scaffold)

BPUA Site Inspection (Scaffold) (rev.0) 1 of 1
Location: Scaffold Dimensions:
Type of Scaffold: No. of Working Decks
Scaffold Installed by;
Scaffold Rating (circle): Light Duty / Medium Duty / Heavy Duty
( ) Adequate (X) Not Adequate ( n/a ) Not Applicable Date;

No Check the Following
, X, n/a
Comments Complete?
1 Sole-boards centred

2 Sole-boards not undermined

3 Base jacks have full bearing

4 Base jacks wing-nut wound up tight to
underside of standard

5 Full scaffold framework every 2 metres

6 Locking pins engaged and not loose

7 Kickboards on all decks above 2 metres
and secure

8 Top-rail and mid-rail on all working decks

9 Hop-ups positioned only one star up or
down from the working deck

10 Hop-ups located more than one star down
must have a mid-rail installed

11 Lap-boards secured from movement

12 Gaps have protective coverings

13 Decks fully planked out

14 Suitable ties are used and correctly spaced

15 End bracing in place

16 Face bracing in place

17 Couplings tightened

18 Ladder access secured and penetrations
have protective tubing in place

19 Stairs in good order with landings no
greater than 400mm from last step

20 Scaffold not overloaded

21 Scaffold components free of damage

22 Scaff-tag system up to date

23 Potential trip hazards protected

24 Scaffold free of rubbish and stored
materials

25 Isolated or incomplete areas have access-
prevention measures in place


• Items identified as “X” are to be rectified immediately.

Name Signature Name Signature




BPUA Site Inspection (Survey)
BPUA Site Inspection (Survey) (rev1)
1 of 1

NAME: ………………………………………………..…………….. POSITION: ………………………………………………………

COMPANY: ………………………………………………..………. AREA INSPECTED: ……………………………………………

ITEM Yes No or
N/A
PROBLEM & REMEDIAL ACTION CLOSE-
OUT DATE
All workers under my supervision inducted
(Check for site induction card)


Daily JHA Cards correctly filled in with
hazards identified before starting work


All PPE being worn correctly eg: hard hat,
vest and safety boots


SWMS for task is available (for high risk
activities)


All workers under my control are toolboxed
in appropriate SWMS


Warning signs, or delineation, in place
(where required) eg; around haulage traffic
and live road


Surveyors identified within the work zone &
contact with surrounding equipment &
personnel established (eg; Leading
hand/Foreman)


Harnesses & attachment points available &
checked, for use where required for
working at heights


Ladders tied off and 1m above work deck



Loose items in cab stowed correctly



Certified operator operating boom lift



Suitable access egress



Check following specific hazards In my
work area:
• Services marked where hazard
present
• VMP or TCP in place
• Survey equipment calibrated
• Manual handling options in place



List other safety, environmental or
community items of concern








Note: Workers above includes Subcontract personnel you are responsible for

SIGNATURE: ……………………………………..…………………………………… DATE: …………………………………………



SURVEY MANAGER SIGNATURE: ……………………………………………….. DATE: …………………………………………


All actions have been completed

SURVEY MANAGER SIGNATURE: ………………………………………………... DATE: …………………………………………


BPUA
AREA PRE START & VISITOR RECORD
BPUA Area Pre Start & Visitor Record (rev1) Page 1 of 4
AREA PRE START & VISITOR RECORD
Date: Work Area / Location:
Supervisor/Presenter
Name; Signature;
Area Contact is;
Name; Contact No;
Today’s activities:











Today’s Priority
Hazards;
Yes

n/a

What are you doing about it?
Vehicle Movement Risk
Traffic Risk
Site Safety Risk
Environmental Risk
Quality Risk
Community Risk
Other Risks
Today’s Weather Forecast;
Fine Cloudy Overcast Windy Showers Storms
Vehicle Movement Plan (VMP) is in place and it has been
toolboxed to all the participants?
VMP is not applicable to our
work
Pedestrian Access & Road Crossing Points are?;



UHF Radio Channels in use are?;



BPUA
AREA PRE START & VISITOR RECORD
BPUA Area Pre Start & Visitor Record (rev1) Page 2 of 4
Items that must be included in your JHA Cards (eg; hot weather):






Previous incidents & Other Items Raised:






PRE START PARTICIPANTS
Name Employer Signature Name Employer Signature





















BPUA
AREA PRE START & VISITOR RECORD
BPUA Area Pre Start & Visitor Record (rev1) Page 3 of 4

Late arrivals and visitors MUST READ the Pre Start and sign in this area,
before venturing onto the site

VISITORS & OTHERS WHO DID NOT ATTEND THE PRE START MEETING
Name Employer Signature Name Employer Signature


























BPUA
AREA PRE START & VISITOR RECORD
BPUA Area Pre Start & Visitor Record (rev1) Page 4 of 4

VISITORS & OTHERS (cont’d)
Name Employer Signature Name Employer Signature



























BANORA POI NT UPGRADE ALLI ANCE
BLAST MANAGEMENT PLAN


BMP – Revision 4 Uncontrolled when printed
Authorised: Environmental Manager ©Banora Point Upgrade Alliance Page 51

APPENDIX H – BLASTING WORKSITE PROFORMAS
DRILL LOG SHEET No.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
DRILLER:
COMMENTS:
Total BCM
Complete Drilling Shot # Project Client
Av Depth Total Lineal
Start Drilling
Spacing Burden No. of Holes Hole Dia
SHEET A
KG
ABNORMAL CONDITIONS:
CHARGE WEIGHT (AVG):
STEMMING HT:
BLASTJOLE ANGLE:
SHOT NO.:
NO. OF HOLES:
ROWS:
TOTAL BCM:
SHOT NO.:
HOLE DIAMETER:
BENCH HEIGHT:
TOTAL TONNES:
COMPLETED DRILLING:
SHOTFIRER:
POWDER FACTOR:
SPACING:
SUBDRILL:
START DRILLING:
DENSITY OF STONE:
EXPLOSIVE CHARGE:
BURDEN:
DRILLER:
TYPE OF STONE:
TOTAL LINEAL:
AVG. HOLE DEPTH:
MARK UP DATE:
BANORA POI NT UPGRADE ALLI ANCE
BLAST MANAGEMENT PLAN


BMP – Revision 4 Uncontrolled when printed
Authorised: Environmental Manager ©Banora Point Upgrade Alliance Page 52

APPENDIX I – EXAMPLE EXCLUSION ZONES

BANORA POI NT UPGRADE ALLI ANCE
BLAST MANAGEMENT PLAN


BMP – Revision 4 Uncontrolled when printed
Authorised: Environmental Manager ©Banora Point Upgrade Alliance Page 53

APPENDIX J – PROCESS CONTROL PLAN

Initial Date Initial Date Initial Date NCR#
Date
Closed
1
HOLD Point 1: Verify borehole used to protect
batter prior to burden blast (SE)
2
Verify there is NO rain event likely to occur within
the loading and firing window (SE)
3
HOLD POINT 2. Verify Proposed Blast Design and
Explosives Loading Chart is completed by
Subcontractor and submitted to BPUA for review. Shot firer (SE)
4
BPUA Survey to provide plan showing proposed
blast area with distance to monitoring stations and
important structures. Plan to include adjacent blasts
and vibration results. And issued to community team (Survey)
5
HOLD POINT 3: BPUA Blasting consultant to
review and approve Proposed Blast Design the day
before the planned blast. (JH)
6
HOLD POINT 4: Verify the following Permits have
been approved and tool boxed
Permit to Excavate
Blasting Permit
Traffic Control Permit……………………………… Shot firer (SE)
7
HOLD POINT 5: Verify that the project engineer has
approved explosives handling procedures and JSA's
before explosives are brought onto the site. Shot firer (PE)
8
HOLD POINT 6: Verify all hole depths, burdens,
spacing's, number of hole and lost holes, charge
weights, stemming, detonator delays and
sequencing are checked for conformance to
approved Blast Design Blast Report Signed off by
Subcontractors and submitted to BPUA for review.
Verify all boreholes are clean and stemmed.
Previous blast holes are identified stemming
checked and re-stemmed required. Shot firer (SE)
9
HOLD POINT 7: Any changes to the design are to
be approved by Blast Consultant prior to
commencing past this point. (PE)
10
HOLD POINT 9: Inspection and approval of
overburden and matting, Bidum placed along line
drill. 200mm Overburden & Double Matting to
extend 1.5m either side of blast. Single matting to
extend 10m either side of shot. Shot firer (FM)
11
HOLD POINT 11: Notify Community,
Environmental, Structures and TMC (NSW) of blast. (SE)
12
13
INSTALLATION OF SIGNAGE: TC to install
signage as per TCP.
14
HOLD POINT 12: Verify Pre blast Meeting occurs
60 minutes prior to blast for any last minute
instructions. (BC)
15
TMC NOTIFICATION: 30min prior blasting Traffic
Engineer to ring TMC on 02 8396 1686
16
RADIO CHECK: radio check to confirm all BG's
TC's radios work and are on correct channel (UHF
31). Check that remote TC's have phones and are
charged (BC)
17
HOLD POINT 13: Verify ALL Plant and equipment if
removed 20m from blast 20 minutes by TBC
Subcontractor to confirm upon request. Confirm
Video Camera is Set-up & Recording. (BC)
18
HOLD POINT 14: Blast Controller to advise on the
UHF "RADIO SILENCE UNTIL ALL CLEAR IS
GIVEN" Shot firer
19
WITNESS POINT: Blast Controller to advise Shot
firer to sound warning siren for 30seconds."shotfirer,
please sound warning siren" (BC)
PROCESS CONTROL PLAN - INSPECTION CHECKLIST
Project: BANORA POINT UPGRADE ALLIANCE (BPUA)
PROCESS: DRILLING, CHARGING and FIRING BLAST
HOLD POINT 11: APPROVAL TO PROCEED TO BLASTING
Notify Personnel of Blast Time and Location (PE)
Hold/Witness
Point Released NCR
LOT No: Location:
Time ITEM
Verified By
Subcontractor
Verified by
BPUA
No
20
HOLD POINT 15: Verify ALL Traffic Controllers and
Blast Guards are in position 10 minutes before
blasting. Personnel to radio in (in order) to BC
confirming they are in position. "Copy BG and TC,
confirm you are in position"
BG 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
TC 1 3 4 5 5A 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Mobile TC1, TC12
Car 1 2 -
Once BG1 and BG2 have confirmed their position,
BG1 (Dave Weaver) to phone Mobile TC1.
BG2 (Mark Ingram) to phone Mobile TC12.
BC to confirm by radio: "BG1 is TC1 in position?"
"BG2 is TC12 in position" (BC)
21
HOLD POINT 16: Shot firer to verify all equipment
is in working order and he is ready to blast. "copy
Blast Controller, Shotfirer is ready to blast" Shot firer (BC)
22
HOLD POINT 18: Blast Controler to advise that ALL
Pedestrian Traffic to be stopped. Blast Guards to
radio in (in order) confirming they are in position and
their area is SECURE. "copy blast guards, stop
pedestrians and confirm"
BG 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 (BC)
23
HOLD POINT 19: Blast Controller to advise Traffic
Controllers to close the roadways. Traffic
Controllers to radio in (in order) to Blast Controller
confirming they are in position and their area is
SECURE.
"Copy local traffic control, stop traffic and confirm
Local Roads TC 5 5A 6 7 8
"Copy SB Main Traffic Control, stop traffic and
confirm, Mark, phone SB rolling stop, trailing car 1
follow last vehicle out"
Main Roads TC 3
"Copy NB Main Traffic Control, stop traffic and
confirm, Dave, phone NB rolling stop, trailing car
follow last vehicle out"
Main Roads TC 11
Mark and Dave to report in when trailing car has
passed.
Car 1, 2 (BC)
24
TMC NOTIFICATION: Traffic Engineer to ring TMC
on 02 8396 1686 to change traffic lights at
Terranora Road
25
HOLD POINT 20: APPROVAL TO BLAST
Shot firer advised the area is secure and safe to fire
the blast. "copy shotfirer, the area is secure, repeat,
the area is secure"
26
HOLD POINT 21: Shot firer to announce "firing in 3
seconds" then "firing NOW" then fire immediately Shot firer (BC)
27
HOLD POINT 22: Shot firer to check blast for
misfires, then advise Blast Controller either;
1) ALL CLEAR and sounds the siren three times
2) There is a misfire BUT release traffic.
3) There is a misfire DO NOT release traffic Shot firer (BC)
28
WITNESS POINT 1: Blast Controller to advise
Blast Guards to
1) Release traffic the Blast is ALL CLEAR using a
code word
2) Or release traffic BUT There is a misfire Shot firer (BC)
29
Verify: Vibration and monitoring results are collected
and included in vibration model. (Survey) (SE)
30
WITNESS POINT 2: Verify there has been no over
break. (SE)
31
Verify excavated material does not contain any
unexposed products. (SE)
Comments:
(BC)
Verification of Work Completed: ______________________________________
Lol Qty: Units:
Position: _________________________________________
Date: _____________________________________
BANORA POI NT UPGRADE ALLI ANCE
BLAST MANAGEMENT PLAN


BMP – Revision 4 Uncontrolled when printed
Authorised: Environmental Manager ©Banora Point Upgrade Alliance Page 54

APPENDIX K – TRAFFIC CONTROL PLANS
BANORA POI NT UPGRADE ALLI ANCE
BLAST MANAGEMENT PLAN


BMP – Revision 4 Uncontrolled when printed
Authorised: Environmental Manager ©Banora Point Upgrade Alliance Page 55

APPENDIX L – BANORA POINT COMMUNITY LOCATION PLAN
Appendix L – Community Location Plan
Blasting
Location
BPUA Site
Compound
BANORA POI NT UPGRADE ALLI ANCE
BLAST MANAGEMENT PLAN


BMP – Revision 4 Uncontrolled when printed
Authorised: Environmental Manager ©Banora Point Upgrade Alliance Page 56

APPENDIX M – INITIAL BLAST DESIGNS – SOUTH, CENTRE, NORTH

SHEET A
Mark Besson
17 M/S Surface Connector
238 246 323 408 493 578 663 731 782 816 833
153 221 229 306 391 476 561 646 714 765 799
85 136 204 212 289 374 459 544 629 697 748
34 68 119 187 195 272 357 442 527 612 680
0 17 51 102 170 212 255 340 425 510 595
ABNORMAL CONDITIONS:
NORTHERN CUT
HOLE DIAMETER: 64 NO. OF HOLES 55
5/ 27/ 2011 SHOT NO. : BL - 1 LOCATION:
DRILLER: Wi l l Mahony SHOTFIRER
MARK UP DATE: 27/ 5/ 2011 START DRILLING: 5/ 27/ 2011
COMPLETED
DRILLING:
TYPE OF STONE: Basal t DENSITY OF STONE: 2.7
TOTAL LINEAL: 165.0 EXPLOSIVE CHARGE: 38.16
SPACING: 1.00
MIC 0.69
POWDER FACTOR: 0.231 BENCH HEIGHT: 3.0
SUBDRILL: 0
DEEPEST HOLE DEPTH: 3.00 BURDEN: 1.00
ROWS: 5 STEMMING HT 2.40
0.33
TOTAL TONNES: 446 TOTAL BCM: 165 BLASTHOLE ANGLE: 0
AVERAGE BCM: 165 AIR DECK LENGTH:
FACE
AVG. HOLE DEPTH: 3.00
SHEET B
Banora Poi nt Upgrade Shot No:
Locati on Chai nage Paci fi c Dri l l & Bl ast
Date to be Fired: Date Fi red:
Time to be Fired: Ti me Fi red:
Type of Stone Type of Stone
Density of Stone Density of Stone t/m
Burden m Burden m
Spacing m Spacing m
Number of Holes Number of Holes
Average Hole Depth m Average Hole Depth m
Total Lineal Metres Drilled m Total Lineal Metres Drilled m
Total Volume of Stone bcm Total Volume of Stone bcm
tonnes tonnes
Subgrade Drilling Depth m Subgrade Drilling Depth m
Pattern Type Pattern Type
Nominal Blasthole Diameter mm Nominal Blasthole Diameter mm
Number of Rows Number of Rows
Blasthole Inclination Angle deg Blasthole Inclination Angle deg
Bench Height m Bench Height m
Average Stemming Depth m Average Stemming Depth m
Stemming Material Stemming Material
Total Explosive Charge kg Total Explosive Charge kg
Heaviest Charge Detonated
at any Instance (MIC) kg
Heaviest Charge Detonated
at any Instance (MIC) kg
Powder Factor kg/m stone Powder Factor kg/m stone
TYPE QUANTITY TYPE
Premix ANFO 0 kg 0 KGS Premix ANFO kg bags bags
Bulk Type kg Bulk Type kg
Package Type – Magnum 0 gram 0 kg Package Type g kg
Package Type – Sentinal 55m 0.833 kg 38.16 kg Package Type kg kg
ANFO kg bags kg ANFO kg bags kg
Boosters 150g kg Boosters 150g kg
Boosters 400g kg Boosters 400g kg
Delays/ Down line 6.1 m 425ms x 55 Delays/ Down line m
Delays/ Surface 9m/s 0 m Delays/ Surface m
Delays/ Surface-tell tails 0 m Delays/ Surface-tell tails m
Delays/ Surface 17 m/s 3.6 m 55 Delays/ Surface m
m m
m m
REMARKS
Shot Loaded By (Names)
Shot Fired by Foreman/Manager (sign)
DRILLING AND LOADING DETAILS DRILLING AND LOADING DETAILS:
BL - 1
NORTHERN CUT
P R O P O S A L A C T U A L
5/27/2011
1:00 PM
3.00
Basalt Basalt
2.7
1.00
1.00
55
64
165.0
165
446
0
Square
38.16
5
0
3.00
2.4
20mm aggregate
0.69
0.231
EXPLOSIVES USED EXPLOSIVES USED
QUANTITY
`
SHEET C BLAST REVIEW AND APPROVAL OF DESIGN
Banora Poi nt Upgrade
Blast Location
Banora Point Upgrade
Chainage
NORTHERN CUT
Blast Number BL - 1
Blast Date
5/27/2011
REVIEW OF PROPOSED DESIGN (SHEETS A & B) Y / N
Is the maximum hole diameter less than or equal to 76mm
Is there a minimum of 2m stemming
Is the stemming a 20mm crushed aggravate.
Is the maximum hole depth equal to or less than 5m
Is the maximum charge weight in accordance with the allowable charge weights based on proximities to buildings and receivers
Has the location of the free face been assessed and deemed safe or additional measures advised below.
Has SHEET A been reviewed and deemed acceptable
Has SHEET B been reviewed and deemed acceptable
Additional reviewer comments to highlight deficiencies or additional controls required.
Approving Officer
CHECKLIST Y / N
Is the maximum hole diameter less than or equal to 76mm
Is there a minimum of 2m stemming
Is the stemming a 20mm crushed aggragate.
Is the maximum hole depth less than 5m
Is the maximum charge weight 2kg or less.
Has appropriate protection been placed over surface detonators and signal tube
Is there sufficient burden and if not have the blast mats been placed over the blast and extended 2x the spacing past the blast holes.
Are the double blast mats lapped by at least 1.25m. And 0.3m for Single matting?
Has the free face got at least 2.5m of false burden in front of it
Have blast mats been positioned to protect the free face.
Has SHEET A been reviewed and actual data compared to design.
Has SHEET B been reviewed and actual data compared to design.
Additional comments
The actual blast detailed above has been reviewed by the undersigned and all blast parameters, conditions and controls are in accordance with th
Operations Supervisor
SHEET D
Mark Besson
KG
19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
A
3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00
B
3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00
C
3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00
D
3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00
E
3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00
F
G
H
SHOT NO. : BL - 1 LOCATION:
TYPE OF STONE: Basal t DENSITY OF STONE: 2.7 SUBDRILL: 0 HOLE DIAMETER:
NORTHERN CUT
DRILLER: Wi l l Mahony SHOTFIRER
MARK UP DATE: 5/ 27/ 2011 START DRILLING: 5/ 27/ 2011
COMPLETED
DRILLING:
5/ 27/ 2011
64 NO. OF HOLES
0
CHARGE WEIGHT 0.69 55
3.0 2.40
446
STEMMING HT 0.231
TOTAL BCM: 165 BLASTHOLE ANGLE:
BENCH HEIGHT:
AVG. HOLE DEPTH: 3.00
ROWS: 5 TOTAL LINEAL: 165.0 EXPLOSIVE CHARGE: 38.16 POWDER FACTOR:
SPACING:
BATTER
ABNORMAL CONDITIONS:
TOTAL TONNES: 1.00
FACE
DEEPEST HOLE DEPTH: 3.00 BURDEN: 1.00
SHEET A
Mark Besson
17 M/S Surface Connector
238 246 323 408 493 578 663 731 782 816 833
153 221 229 306 391 476 561 646 714 765 799
85 136 204 212 289 374 459 544 629 697 748
34 68 119 187 195 272 357 442 527 612 680
0 17 51 102 170 212 255 340 425 510 595
AL CONDITIONS:
CENTRAL CUT
HOLE DIAMETER: 64 NO. OF HOLES 55
5/ 27/ 2011 SHOT NO. : BL - 2 LOCATION:
DRILLER: Wi l l Mahony SHOTFIRER
MARK UP DATE: 27/ 5/ 2011 START DRILLING: 5/ 27/ 2011
COMPLETED
DRILLING:
TYPE OF STONE: Basal t DENSITY OF STONE: 2.7
TOTAL LINEAL: 165.0 EXPLOSIVE CHARGE: 84.81
SPACING: 1.50
MIC 1.54
POWDER FACTOR: 0.236 BENCH HEIGHT: 3.0
SUBDRILL: 0
DEEPEST HOLE DEPTH: 3.00 BURDEN: 1.45
ROWS: 5 STEMMING HT 2.40
0
TOTAL TONNES: 969 TOTAL BCM: 359 BLASTHOLE ANGLE: 0
AVERAGE BCM: 359 AIR DECK LENGTH:
FACE
AVG. HOLE DEPTH: 3.00
SHEET B
Banora Poi nt Upgrade Shot No:
Locati on Chai nage Paci fi c Dri l l & Bl ast
Date to be Fired: Date Fi red:
Time to be Fired: Ti me Fi red:
Type of Stone Type of Stone
Density of Stone Density of Stone t/m
Burden m Burden m
Spacing m Spacing m
Number of Holes Number of Holes
Average Hole Depth m Average Hole Depth m
Total Lineal Metres Drilled m Total Lineal Metres Drilled m
Total Volume of Stone bcm Total Volume of Stone bcm
tonnes tonnes
Subgrade Drilling Depth m Subgrade Drilling Depth m
Pattern Type Pattern Type
Nominal Blasthole Diameter mm Nominal Blasthole Diameter mm
Number of Rows Number of Rows
Blasthole Inclination Angle deg Blasthole Inclination Angle deg
Bench Height m Bench Height m
Average Stemming Depth m Average Stemming Depth m
Stemming Material Stemming Material
Total Explosive Charge kg Total Explosive Charge kg
Heaviest Charge Detonated
at any Instance (MIC) kg
Heaviest Charge Detonated
at any Instance (MIC) kg
Powder Factor kg/m stone Powder Factor kg/m stone
TYPE QUANTITY TYPE
Premix ANFO 0 kg 0 KGS Premix ANFO kg bags bags
Bulk Type kg Bulk Type kg
Package Type – Magnum 0 gram 0 kg Package Type g kg
Package Type – Sentinal 55m 0.833 kg 84.81 kg Package Type kg kg
ANFO kg bags kg ANFO kg bags kg
Boosters 150g kg Boosters 150g kg
Boosters 400g kg Boosters 400g kg
Delays/ Down line 6.1 m 425ms x 55 Delays/ Down line m
Delays/ Surface 9m/s 0 m Delays/ Surface m
Delays/ Surface-tell tails 0 m Delays/ Surface-tell tails m
Delays/ Surface 17 m/s 3.6 m 55 Delays/ Surface m
m m
m m
REMARKS
Shot Loaded By (Names)
Shot Fired by Foreman/Manager (sign)
DRILLING AND LOADING DETAILS DRILLING AND LOADING DETAILS:
BL - 2
CENTRAL CUT
P R O P O S A L A C T U A L
5/27/2011
1:00 PM
3.00
Basalt Basalt
2.7
1.45
1.50
55
64
165.0
359
969
0
Square
84.81
5
0
3.00
2.4
20mm aggregate
1.54
0.236
EXPLOSIVES USED EXPLOSIVES USED
QUANTITY
`
SHEET C BLAST REVIEW AND APPROVAL OF DESIGN
Banora Poi nt Upgrade
Blast Location
Banora Point Upgrade
Chainage
CENTRAL CUT
Blast Number BL - 2
Blast Date
5/27/2011
REVIEW OF PROPOSED DESIGN (SHEETS A & B) Y / N
Is the maximum hole diameter less than or equal to 76mm
Is there a minimum of 2m stemming
Is the stemming a 20mm crushed aggravate.
Is the maximum hole depth equal to or less than 5m
Is the maximum charge weight in accordance with the allowable charge weights based on proximities to buildings and receivers
Has the location of the free face been assessed and deemed safe or additional measures advised below.
Has SHEET A been reviewed and deemed acceptable
Has SHEET B been reviewed and deemed acceptable
Additional reviewer comments to highlight deficiencies or additional controls required.
Approving Officer
CHECKLIST Y / N
Is the maximum hole diameter less than or equal to 76mm
Is there a minimum of 2m stemming
Is the stemming a 20mm crushed aggragate.
Is the maximum hole depth less than 5m
Is the maximum charge weight 2kg or less.
Has appropriate protection been placed over surface detonators and signal tube
Is there sufficient burden and if not have the blast mats been placed over the blast and extended 2x the spacing past the blast holes.
Are the double blast mats lapped by at least 1.25m. And 0.3m for Single matting?
Has the free face got at least 2.5m of false burden in front of it
Have blast mats been positioned to protect the free face.
Has SHEET A been reviewed and actual data compared to design.
Has SHEET B been reviewed and actual data compared to design.
Additional comments
The actual blast detailed above has been reviewed by the undersigned and all blast parameters, conditions and controls are in accordance with th
Operations Supervisor
SHEET D
Mark Besson
KG
19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
A
3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00
B
3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00
C
3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00
D
3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00
E
3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00
F
G
H
SHOT NO. : BL - 2 LOCATION:
TYPE OF STONE: Basal t DENSITY OF STONE: 2.7 SUBDRILL: 0 HOLE DIAMETER:
CENTRAL CUT
DRILLER: Wi l l Mahony SHOTFIRER
MARK UP DATE: 5/ 27/ 2011 START DRILLING: 5/ 27/ 2011
COMPLETED
DRILLING:
5/ 27/ 2011
64 NO. OF HOLES
0
CHARGE WEIGHT 1.54 55
3.0 2.40
969
STEMMING HT 0.236
TOTAL BCM: 359 BLASTHOLE ANGLE:
BENCH HEIGHT:
AVG. HOLE DEPTH: 3.00
ROWS: 5 TOTAL LINEAL: 165.0 EXPLOSIVE CHARGE: 84.81 POWDER FACTOR:
SPACING:
BATTER
ABNORMAL CONDITIONS:
TOTAL TONNES: 1.50
FACE
DEEPEST HOLE DEPTH: 3.00 BURDEN: 1.45
SHEET A
Mark Besson
17 M/S Surface Connector
238 246 323 408 493 578 663 731 782 816 833
153 221 229 306 391 476 561 646 714 765 799
85 136 204 212 289 374 459 544 629 697 748
34 68 119 187 195 272 357 442 527 612 680
0 17 51 102 170 212 255 340 425 510 595
AL CONDITIONS:
SOUTHERN CUT
HOLE DIAMETER: 64 NO. OF HOLES 55
5/ 27/ 2011 SHOT NO. : BL - 3 LOCATION:
DRILLER: Wi l l Mahony SHOTFIRER
MARK UP DATE: 27/ 5/ 2011 START DRILLING: 5/ 27/ 2011
COMPLETED
DRILLING:
TYPE OF STONE: Basal t DENSITY OF STONE: 2.7
TOTAL LINEAL: 165.0 EXPLOSIVE CHARGE: 56.54
SPACING: 1.20
MIC 1.03
POWDER FACTOR: 0.238 BENCH HEIGHT: 3.0
SUBDRILL: 0
DEEPEST HOLE DEPTH: 3.00 BURDEN: 1.20
ROWS: 5 STEMMING HT 2.40
0.2
TOTAL TONNES: 642 TOTAL BCM: 238 BLASTHOLE ANGLE: 0
AVERAGE BCM: 238 AIR DECK LENGTH:
FACE
AVG. HOLE DEPTH: 3.00
SHEET B
Banora Poi nt Upgrade Shot No:
Locati on Chai nage Paci fi c Dri l l & Bl ast
Date to be Fired: Date Fi red:
Time to be Fired: Ti me Fi red:
Type of Stone Type of Stone
Density of Stone Density of Stone t/m
Burden m Burden m
Spacing m Spacing m
Number of Holes Number of Holes
Average Hole Depth m Average Hole Depth m
Total Lineal Metres Drilled m Total Lineal Metres Drilled m
Total Volume of Stone bcm Total Volume of Stone bcm
tonnes tonnes
Subgrade Drilling Depth m Subgrade Drilling Depth m
Pattern Type Pattern Type
Nominal Blasthole Diameter mm Nominal Blasthole Diameter mm
Number of Rows Number of Rows
Blasthole Inclination Angle deg Blasthole Inclination Angle deg
Bench Height m Bench Height m
Average Stemming Depth m Average Stemming Depth m
Stemming Material Stemming Material
Total Explosive Charge kg Total Explosive Charge kg
Heaviest Charge Detonated
at any Instance (MIC) kg
Heaviest Charge Detonated
at any Instance (MIC) kg
Powder Factor kg/m stone Powder Factor kg/m stone
TYPE QUANTITY TYPE
Premix ANFO 0 kg 0 KGS Premix ANFO kg bags bags
Bulk Type kg Bulk Type kg
Package Type – Magnum 0 gram 0 kg Package Type g kg
Package Type – Sentinal 55m 0.833 kg 56.54 kg Package Type kg kg
ANFO kg bags kg ANFO kg bags kg
Boosters 150g kg Boosters 150g kg
Boosters 400g kg Boosters 400g kg
Delays/ Down line 6.1 m 425ms x 55 Delays/ Down line m
Delays/ Surface 9m/s 0 m Delays/ Surface m
Delays/ Surface-tell tails 0 m Delays/ Surface-tell tails m
Delays/ Surface 17 m/s 3.6 m 55 Delays/ Surface m
m m
m m
REMARKS
Shot Loaded By (Names)
Shot Fired by Foreman/Manager (sign)
DRILLING AND LOADING DETAILS DRILLING AND LOADING DETAILS:
BL - 3
SOUTHERN CUT
P R O P O S A L A C T U A L
5/27/2011
1:00 PM
3.00
Basalt Basalt
2.7
1.20
1.20
55
64
165.0
238
642
0
Square
56.54
5
0
3.00
2.4
20mm aggregate
1.03
0.238
EXPLOSIVES USED EXPLOSIVES USED
QUANTITY
`
SHEET C BLAST REVIEW AND APPROVAL OF DESIGN
Banora Poi nt Upgrade
Blast Location
Banora Point Upgrade
Chainage
SOUTHERN CUT
Blast Number BL - 3
Blast Date
5/27/2011
REVIEW OF PROPOSED DESIGN (SHEETS A & B) Y / N
Is the maximum hole diameter less than or equal to 76mm
Is there a minimum of 2m stemming
Is the stemming a 20mm crushed aggravate.
Is the maximum hole depth equal to or less than 5m
Is the maximum charge weight in accordance with the allowable charge weights based on proximities to buildings and receivers
Has the location of the free face been assessed and deemed safe or additional measures advised below.
Has SHEET A been reviewed and deemed acceptable
Has SHEET B been reviewed and deemed acceptable
Additional reviewer comments to highlight deficiencies or additional controls required.
Approving Officer
CHECKLIST Y / N
Is the maximum hole diameter less than or equal to 76mm
Is there a minimum of 2m stemming
Is the stemming a 20mm crushed aggragate.
Is the maximum hole depth less than 5m
Is the maximum charge weight 2kg or less.
Has appropriate protection been placed over surface detonators and signal tube
Is there sufficient burden and if not have the blast mats been placed over the blast and extended 2x the spacing past the blast holes.
Are the double blast mats lapped by at least 1.25m. And 0.3m for Single matting?
Has the free face got at least 2.5m of false burden in front of it
Have blast mats been positioned to protect the free face.
Has SHEET A been reviewed and actual data compared to design.
Has SHEET B been reviewed and actual data compared to design.
Additional comments
The actual blast detailed above has been reviewed by the undersigned and all blast parameters, conditions and controls are in accordance with th
Operations Supervisor
SHEET D
Mark Besson
KG
19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
A
3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00
B
3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00
C
3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00
D
3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00
E
3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00
F
G
H
SHOT NO. : BL - 3 LOCATION:
TYPE OF STONE: Basal t DENSITY OF STONE: 2.7 SUBDRILL: 0 HOLE DIAMETER:
SOUTHERN CUT
DRILLER: Wi l l Mahony SHOTFIRER
MARK UP DATE: 5/ 27/ 2011 START DRILLING: 5/ 27/ 2011
COMPLETED
DRILLING:
5/ 27/ 2011
64 NO. OF HOLES
0
CHARGE WEIGHT 1.03 55
3.0 2.40
642
STEMMING HT 0.238
TOTAL BCM: 238 BLASTHOLE ANGLE:
BENCH HEIGHT:
AVG. HOLE DEPTH: 3.00
ROWS: 5 TOTAL LINEAL: 165.0 EXPLOSIVE CHARGE: 56.54 POWDER FACTOR:
SPACING:
BATTER
ABNORMAL CONDITIONS:
TOTAL TONNES: 1.20
FACE
DEEPEST HOLE DEPTH: 3.00 BURDEN: 1.20

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