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(15) MTE3102 ISL 15. Gather information about the roles of mathematics and lifelong education.

(Peranan Matematik dan Pendidikan Sepanjang Hayat)(ISL)

THE ROLES OF MATHEMATICS

Mathematics is part and parcel of our daily lives. It relates to things we do in the real world everyday, holiday, buying food, traveling and planning our work. We cant imagine what our life would be like without mathematics?

Mathematics trains our mind to think and reason logically and rationally. As a result, the knowledge of mathematics has a huge impact on our daily life. A very good example is that, we wont be able to manage our money efficiently without mathematics. Moreover, one cannot systematically perform many of his/her daily activities, without mathematics. It is shown now how important mathematics is in our life.

Mathematics can also enhance our problem-solving ability besides improving our intelligence level. People who are well-trained in mathematics will be able to do complex duties efficiently and effectively. For instance, many mathematicians all over the world have been hired to carry out a variety of complex problems. History has shown that mathematicians had even helped to break secret codes used during World War II.

Other than our daily life, mathematics also plays an important role in the development of information and communication technology (ICT). The advancement of mathematics contributes a lot to the advancement of science. For example, the creation of the binary number system has provided a powerful means of computational procedure in computers.

Advancement in mathematics is also important to make sure the achievement of Vision 2020 to become a reality. The sixth challenge of Vision

2020 which is, the building of a progressive scientific society with creative and far-sighted abilities, has brought immeasurable impact, not only on the development of a new mathematics syllabus, but also on the future roles of mathematics teacher (Mok, 2005).

PERANAN MATEMATIK

Kehidupan kita sangat berkait rapat dengan matematik. Segala aktiviti yang kita lakukan dalam sehari seperti pergi bercuti, membeli makanan, merancang kerja-kerja seharian dan sebagainya memerlukan kemahiran matematik asas.

Matematik melatih mental kita supaya berfikir secara rasional dan logik. Pengetahuan dalam matematik sesungguhnya memainkan peranan yang sangat penting dalam kehidupan kita. Sebagai contoh, kita tidak akan berupaya menyelaras perbelanjaan atau kewangan kita secara sistematik tanpa pengetahuan matematik..

Matematik juga meningkatkan keupayaan dan tahap kebijaksanaan kita dalam menangani soalan berbentuk Penyelesaian Masalah. Seseorang yang telah diberi latihan yang mantap dalam matematik, mampu melaksanakan kerja-kerja yang kompleks dengan berkesan.. Sejarah membuktikan bahawa ahli matematik telah berjaya membaca dan menyelesaikan kerumitan dalam kod rahsia semasa Perang Dunia Kedua.

Selain itu, matematik juga memainkan peranan yang penting dalam perkembangan informasi dan teknologi komunikasi (ICT). Sebagai contoh, penciptaan sistem nombor binari menyumbang kepada prosedur pengiraan dalam komputer. Kemajuan dalam matematik juga memberi sumbangan yang besar kepada kemajuan dalam sains.

Kemajuan dalam bidang matematik juga dilihat sangat penting dalam mempastikan tercapainya Wawasan 2020. Cabaran yang keenam dalam Wawasan 2020 iaitu the building of a progressive scientific society with

creative and far-sighted abilities, telah memberi impak yang besar, bukan sahaja kepada perkembangan silibus matematik yang baru, tetapi juga terhadap peranan guru-guru matematik pada masa hadapan. (Mok, 2005).

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PENDIDIKAN SEPANJANG HAYAT Konsep Pendidikan Sepanjang Hayat adalah konsep yang sememangnya wujud dalam budaya pribumi. Agama Islam sendiri menggalakkan setiap umatnya menuntut ilmu sepanjang hayat. Semua agama dan budaya di dunia menggalakkan pendidikan sepanjang hayat. Meskipun konsep ini mendapat galakan dalam budaya, sehingga sekarang ini, tidak ada usaha sistematik dan berterusan serta berkesan menggubal dasar, menwujudkan institusi, menawarkan program berkaitan pendidikan sepanjang hayat kepada warganegara Malaysia.

Terdapat dua konsep kembar Pendidikan Sepanjang Hayat. Pertama ialah pendidikan itu adalah proses sepanjang usia dari lahir hinggalah ke liang lahat. Kedua adalah pendidikan itu adalah proses seluas hidup, merentasi kehidupan dan merangkumi konteks pendidikan formal, tak formal dan informal.Pendidikan berterusan sebagai sebahagian sentuhan konsep

pendidikan sepanjang hayat bermaksud peluang untuk mendapat dan meneruskan pendidikan setiap penduduk tanpa mengira tahap umur. Dengan lain perkataan, setiap individu tanpa mengira batas usia masih disediakan peluang yang sewajarnya untuk menyambung pendidikan khususnya selepas tamat mengikuti pendidikan wajib selama sembilan atau 11 tahun seperti apa yang terkandung dalam sistem pendidikan sekarang.

Dalam ledakan teknologi maklumat dan pendidikan tanpa sempadan membolehkan semua maklumat diperolehi hanya dihujung jari sahaja. Sumber maklumat dan ilmu pengetahuan mengalir seperti air yang melimpah

ruah. Desakan meningkatkan ilmu pengetahuan dikalangan guru amat diperlukan bagi membolehkan guru mengejar arus pendidikan bertaraf dunia dan tidak ketinggalan jauh ke belakang.

Dalam perkembangan yang berkaitan, adalah didapati bahawa dari segi pendekatan dan pelaksanaan meningkatkan tahap professional guru pendemokrasian dari sudut peluang untuk pendidikan berterusan pada masa kini adalah semakin baik malah jauh lebih baik berbanding perkembangannya sedekad yang lalu. Contohnya, hari ini pendidikan jarak jauh semakin diperluaskan dan menjadi sesuatu yang agak lumrah. Hari ini sudah kedengaran pendidikan jarak jauh untuk peringkat ijazah sarjana. Selaras dengan perkembangan teknologi maklumat pada masa kini adalah

diharapkan pendidikan jarak jauh yang mempunyai ciri istimewa dari segi kelonggaran masa dapat dijadikan wadah dalam menyediakan peluang untuk pendidikan berterusan khususnya bagi kalangan guru yang sudah bekerja tetapi masih berminat dan berkemampuan untuk meneruskan pelajaran demi untuk meningkatkan taraf profesionalisme mereka.

Tuntutan sosial kepada kaum guru bagi mencapai satu tahap kualiti perkhidmatan yang cemerlang hendaklah dilihat secara positif. Seluruh warga pendidikan harus bersedia menyahut cabaran ke arah pendidikan sepanjang hayat. Keperluan ilmu yang mendesak memaksa semua guru memainkan peranan aktif dalam meningkatkan lagi kualiti pendidikan melalui latihan berterusan, budaya meneroka ilmu, menguasai ilmu pengetahuan, kemahiran serta sikap proaktf dalam menyahut seruan kerajaan agar ilmu itu dikongsikan kepada semua masyarakat tanpa mengira umur dan taraf pendidikan.

Untuk menjayakan pendidikan sepanjang hayat, semua guru perlu mengembleng tenaga membina budaya Pendidikan Sepanjang Hayat. Budaya ini dapat dibina melalui pelbagai peluang pembelajaran melalui program dan kursus yang ditawarkan seperti menggunakan teknologi maklumat dan internet sebagai satu opysen yang membuka peluang yang luas tidak kira latar belakang sosio ekonomi dan jantina. Pembelajaran boleh

dilakukan di rumah, di tempat kerja, program latihan khas, pembelajaran just in time dan pembelajaran di sekolah. Semua ini menjadikan suatu kelaziman dalam menwujudkan budaya Pendidikan Sepanjang Hayat.

LIFELONG EDUCATION

Lifelong learning is the continuous building of skills and knowledge throughout the life of an individual. It occurs through experiences encountered in the course of a lifetime. These experiences could be formal (training, counseling, tutoring, mentorship, apprenticeship, higher education, etc.) or informal (experiences, situations, etc.) Lifelong learning, also known as LLL, is the "lifelong, voluntary, and self-motivated" pursuit of knowledge for either personal or professional reasons. As such, it not only enhances social inclusion, active citizenship and personal development, but also

competitiveness and employability. Toward a Model of Lifelong Education (Malcolm S. Knowles) proposes a role competency model based on the assumption that the purpose of education is the development of competencies for performing various human roles. Stages of Lifelong Learning

Lifelong education means education resulting from integration of formal, non-formal, and informal education so as to create ability for continuous lifelong development of quality of life. Learning is therefore part of life which takes place at all times and in all places. It is a continuous lifelong process, going on from birth to the end of our life, beginning with learning from families, communities, schools, religious institutions, workplaces, etc. The African traditional society envisioned lifelong learning by the roles one was expected to play in society from child, youth (boy or girl), young adult, junior elder to senior elder. Today with less defined changes in life roles there is need for new strategies to motivate lifelong learning.

Age 0-5 years In this age group, a lot of learning takes place, providing a foundation for future learning habits and resourcefulness. This is probably the age group where the greatest amount of informal learning occurs, as children imitate almost everything from parents, peers and their environment. Psychologists such as Sigmund Freud and other behavioral psychologists emphasize the importance of childhood learning. Learning in this stage affects the development of all other learning abilities later in life. Learning in the 6-24 age group Learning in the 6 24 age group primarily takes place in educational institutions, from primary and secondary to tertiary levels. Family life, social organizations, religious institutions, and mass media can also play a role in non-formal and informal learning during this time. The objective of learning in this period is the holistic development of learners in four aspects, namely: physical, intellectual, social capacity, emotional and mental development.

Learning in the 25-60 age group Individuals in the 25 60 age group can learn informally during their working lives through the use of instructional media, mostly from their occupations, work-places, colleagues, touring, mass media, information technologies, environment and nature. Adults learn from experiences and problem solving. They therefore need continuous development of intellect, capability and integrity. Learning in the 60+ age group In their senior years people may seek new knowledge for their own sake. This could be termed autoandragogy, from pedagogy, an adult who tutors him/herself. The challenge of seeking new knowledge and teaching themselves may result in a sense of pride of accomplishment and help maintain self-esteem. This may be further enhanced by offering their new knowledge in service to their local community, thus continuing to make valued contributions to society.

Lifelong Learning in a learning society It may be broadly defined as learning that is pursued throughout life: learning that is flexible, diverse and available at different times and in different places. Lifelong learning crosses sectors, promoting learning beyond traditional schooling and throughout adult life (i.e. post-compulsory education). This definition is based on Jacques Delors four pillars of education for the future.

Learning to know - mastering learning tools rather than acquisition of structured knowledge. Learning to do equipping people for the types of work needed now and in the future including innovation and adaptation of learning to future work environments. Learning to live together, and with others peacefully resolving conflict, discovering other people and their cultures, fostering community capability, individual competence and capacity, economic resilience, and social inclusion. Learning to be education contributing to a persons complete development mind and body, intelligence, sensitivity, aesthetic appreciation and spirituality.

This is underpinned by "Learning to Learn". Lifelong learning can instill creativity, initiative and responsiveness in people thereby enabling them to show adaptability in post-industrial society through enhancing skills to:

Manage uncertainty, Communicate across and within cultures, sub-cultures, families and communities, Negotiate conflicts.

The emphasis is on learning to learn and the ability to keep learning for a lifetime.

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