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Wright Mills Reviewed work(s): Source: American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 49, No. 2 (Sep., 1943), pp. 165-180 Published by: The University of Chicago Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2770362 . Accessed: 19/02/2012 20:05
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Social G. J. A. I92I). Only elements ad. Social Deviation (I939). W. It does not explicitly evaluate the worth of these concepts but characterizes the perspectives which are implied by the type and scope of problems usually considered in the literature of pathology. Elliott and F. Gillin. and Classes (I924). I933. (a) The Normal Life (I9I5. Dow. Phelps. I932). Current Social Problems (I933. and R. no one of (I932. this essay is not concerned with the "complete thought" or with the "intentions" of individual authors. B.lems (I040): U. M. and other texts are consultedin the writing of a new one. S. J. I939). Social Probdenced in certain texts at all. H. James Ford. Gillin. Hayes and I. I937). I929). R. tions to texts in the "Lippincott Series". (b) Social Pathology (I933. lems (I920. V. Harper. (a) The New State (I9I8). W. American Social Problems J. A. Weatherly. J.THE PROFESSIONAL IDEOLOGY OF SOCIAL PATHOLOGISTS C. I934) . C. Poverty and Social Progress (I9I6). Social Progress (1026). I922). Merrill. Gruener. Edward T. Devine. I94I). editor's introduclems (I928. Odum. H. Mangold. Bodenanalyzed. A.organization (I935). M. Hence. (b) Sociology ModernSocialProband H. M. textbooks tend to embody a content agreed upon by the academic group using them. Ellwood.Social Guidance: TheStudyof Social Problems (I927). G. R. H. A. E. Society and Its ProbM. S. Social Pathology (I932. (a) The Social Process (I9I8). E. Dittmer. mentary quotations which follow in footnotes are from the later editions of the following books: W. (c) Social Organization (I909). lems (I9I0-35). Reinhardt. (a) Social Changeand Social (I934). H. Since one test of their success is wide adoption. In some cases texts have been written only after an informal poll was taken of professional opinion as to what should be included. By virtue of the mechanism of sales and distribution. certain elements are not so visible in given hafer. B. the texts to be quoted exemplifies all the concepts Social Pathology (I940). C. Miller. WRIGHT MILLS ABSTRACT This essay in the sociology of knowledge relates the typical concepts used in the field of social disorganization to the structure of American society and the backgrounds and careers of social pathologists. C. H. Man's Questfor I No attempt has been made to trace specific concepts to their intellectual origins. i65 An analysis of textbooks in the field of social disorganizationreveals a common style of thought which is open to social imputation. SocialDisorganization (I934. I938). Shannon. (a) The Social Problem. C. M. Queen and J. Bossard. G. and some elements are not evi. (a) Poverty and Dependence (1921. Walker.the docru. G. ContemporarySocial Problems have come within my view: the aim is to grasp typical perspectives and key concepts. Hayes. Cooley. A. Colbert. (b) lBuman Nature and the Social Order(I902. Beach and E. it is a study of a professional ideologyvariously exhibitedin a set of textbooks. S. By grasping the social orientation of this general perspective we can understandwhy thinkersin this field should select and handle problemsin the mannerin which they have. Queen. (b) Pro- gressive Social Action (I933). "social pathology" seems an appropriatepoint of entry for the examination of the style of reflection and the social-historicalbasis of American sociology. Nations. Dexter. A. Social ProbE. Social Organizationand Distexts as in others. L. i919).Races. P. P. L. B. Fairchild. Follett. W. Visual Outline of Introductory Sociology (I935). (b) Creative Experience (I924). Rosenquist. Gillette and J. C. Adjustment (I927). In general. I937). Problems (I934) and (b) Problems of Social WellBeing (I927).' Yet. J. mitted into the more stable textbook formulations Maurice Parmelee. J. G. Although the conceptual frameworkof a pathologist's textbook is not usually significantly different from that of such monographs as he may write. the very spread of the public for which they are written tends to insurea textbook toleranceof the commonplace. be- cause of its persistent importancein the development of Americansociology and its supposed proximity to the social scene. C. I926. a Constructive Analysis (I9I5.Outlineof Applied . I924). Sociology (I9I6. and E. S.
yet they have not been attended to or received into the tradition of this literature. May.3The "informational"character of social pathology is linked with a failureto considertotal social structures. "The Concept of Complexity. The imputations presented must be held against the reader's total experience with the literature under purview.I-Verlag. In America a somewhat comparable situation led to a fragmentalization of empirical attention and especially to a channeling of work into "practical problems. American Journal of Sociology. 7). K. 222 and 369." Such structuralanalyses have been available." many representativesof the older forms of social science are ready to admit that there is a function for sociology. Mangold. G. Within such a generallyhomogeneousgroup there tend to be fewer divergent points of view which would clash over the meaning of facts and thus give rise to interpretations on a more theoreticallevel.b. All the authors considered7(ex5A.W.) (V." James H. 30). academic departmentalization may well have been instrumentalin atomizing the problems which they have addressed. nevertheless. G..M. In this paper the major imputations advanced do not proceed upon career data as much as upon the social orientation implied by general perspectives and specific concepts. 4 In Germany the academic division of specialties prior to the rise of sociology channeled sociological work into a formal emphasis. certain elements which seemed of basic importance .2 They display bodies of meagerly connected facts.6 The relatively homogeneous extraction and similar careers of American pathologistsis a possiblefactor in the low level of abstraction characterizingtheir work. Such an omission may not be accounted for merely in terms of a general "theoretical weakness. 785. Fairchild.. p. ranging from rape in rural districts to public housing. I934.m."5 However." Social Forces..4 Sociologists have always felt that "not 2 See Read Bain. neither lack of theoretical ability nor restrictivechannelingthrough departmentalization constitutes a full explanation of the low level of abstraction and the accompanying failure to considerlarger problems of social structure. P. H. N.. however.. American sociologists have often of assertedan interest in the "correlation the social sciences". p. xi: "In [Problems of Social Well-Being] an effort was made to consider chiefly in a factual vein. and by the selection of "problems." Politica. citing an editorial in the American Journal of Sociology. vii: "Dealing with applied sociology [this book] devotes itself to facts rather than to theories. Mannheim has called this type "isolating empiricism" ("German Sociology. W. p. VIII. p. The common conditionsof their professionoften seem more important in this connection than similarity of extraction. S. these books are not focused on larger stratificationsor upon structured wholes. 3 H. viii: "The author has tried to select that which [of factual material] best illustrates problems and practical situations. there is a tendencyfor them to be uniformlyset for some commonperspective. The entire question of the grounding of imputations in terms of social extraction and career-lines is an unfinished set of methodological issues." 7 Information concerning twenty-four of the thirty-two authors was full enough to be considered. Berlin.. Collecting and dealing in a fragmentary way with scatteredproblemsand facts of milieux. Gerth in Die sozialgeschichtliche Lage der burgerlichenIntelligenz um die Wende des i8 Jahrhunderts (diss.i66 THE AMERICANJOURNALOF SOCIOLOGY The level of abstractionwhich characterizes these texts is so low that often they seem to be empiricallyconfusedfor lack of abstraction to knit them together. I907." The quotations in the footnotes are merely indications of what is usual.D. February. 6 Such "homogeneity" is not.. Five of the eight not considered were junior authors collaborating with persons who are included. Small.H. I9I6. If the members of an academic profession are recruited from similar social contexts and if their backgroundsand careers are relatively similar. Compare the formal conception of "points of coincidence" advanced by H. . and intellectually sanction this low level of abstraction. Bossard (a). B. the only condition under which some common style of thought is taken on by a group of thinkers. Frankfurt A. p.
. career.... 6-7: ". p.THE PROFESSIONAL IDEOLOGY OF SOCIAL PATHOLOGISTS I67 the "systematic" or "theoretical" work in "socialpathology"has been performed by teachers in textbooks for academic purposes.8 level of the textbook makes for a taxoA further determinant of the level of nomic gathering of facts and a systemaabstractionand lack of explicit systema. of the sameness of the "societies" to which they have belonged and of the socialpositionsof the personswhom they have married. By way of defense. Logic. p.. H.. xii: "The decision to omit them was made . They have been teach.'2 Systematizationof facts for the purpose of making them accessible to collegiate minds is one thing.". I939..been composed largely out of textbooks. L.. P.D. Small.. t2 J. three-fourthsof which were in states not industrialized during the youth of the authors." The fact that sociology often won its academic right to existence in opposition to other departments may have increasedthe necessity for textbook systematization. is the method followed . holds go) is the immediate purpose and the in a measure for all American sociology. Aristotle. cept one. The social circles and strata in which they have severally moved are quite homogeneous. Gillin (a). Hans Reichenbach.as a child nursed by the universities and has grown college students: this has influencedthe colleges. all but five have participated in similar "reform" groupsand "societies"of the professionaland business classes.'3 are examiningdoes not easily or typically "I This statement. Wright Mills. By virtue of their being college professors (all but three are known to have the Ph.g. An attempt to systematize on the fied. problems have been grouped on the basis of one underlying fact or condition." American Sociological Review. 759: "In the preceding chapters. pp. p." 13Cf. p.tization of them under concepts that tization (beyond which the mentality we have already been logically defined." J. 754: ". and Culture. 59. .Pitirim Sorokin. ers and their specific public has been September. the 9See above. Such systematization occursin a context of presentationand of justificationratherthan within a context of discovery. Experience and Predictual endeavors. chap. October. "In America sociology I929. because in an increasing number of colleges and universities. Fritz Mauthner. which requiresa type of systematization to which the textbook answers.. A. who was foreign born) were born in small towns. for the pedagogic character of the taxonomic logic of Aristotle. H. xi: "The. type of public for which they have pre. "Some Contrasts in Contemporary sumablywritten. has also been due to the fact that many of the advances in perception or expression have been in the course of attempts to meet students' minds at their precise point of outlook. p. pp..The textbook-writingand the academic profession of the writers thus figurein the characterand function of systematic theory within the field.9 Teaching is a task tion. the essential features of ... Most of P. op. mental experience of the teacher-explorer in the course of arriving at the present outlook of sociologists . i. . as is widely recognized. Sorokin's comment.. Cf. All career data on contemporary persons should be held tentatively: open to revision by knowledge not now publicly available. "Language.. S. v: "My years of experience as a social worker and teacher have gone into the content and method of presentation. second." I' Cf. these particular fields are dealt with in separate courses. or on farms near small towns." See C.. Obviously. systematization whichis orientedtowardcrucialgrowingpoints in a researchprocess is quite another. Fairchild.and circlesof contact seems justi8 The order of their respective experience has not been systematically considered. W.. See P. e.). of the similar type of temporary positions (other than academic) which they have held. cit. the assertion as regards general similarity of social extraction. for mechanisms involved in such determinations of the thinker by his public.European and American Sociology.." Social Forces. Bossard (a).. 57-58. American literature in sociology has content and direction of their intellec... this seems simpler and pedagogically preferable". this is an arbitrary procedure which can -be justified only on the basis of pedagogical expedience"..
. and may lead to dangerous. are the selecting and organizing principlesto be extracted from the range and content of these texts? What types of fact come within their field of attention? The direction is definitely toward particular "practical problems"-problems of "everyday life. more and more devotes itself to these practical problems of society.. 34: "It is the present contention that the scientific study of social problems which confines itself to mere description and classification serves a useful purpose. what it has been in all ages. A view of isolated and immediate problems as the "real" problemsmay well be characteristic of a society rapidly growingand expanding." Queen and Gruener. rather than well within. S. Bossard (a)." operated. p. A. or science . H. such writers as Eliwood. Such a statement [in terms of one set of factors] obscures the real nature of the problem." .'6 pracsocial and intellectual orientation. It is the problem of human living together. in conjunction with other factors. the First. and their infinite variety. p... H. 32: "Frankly. Elliott. as America was in the nineteenth century and. I94I.' and often personal. p." One way to grasp the perspective within which they do lie is to analyze the scope and character of their problems. this polemic implemented the drive to lower levels of abstraction.. rising to a very high level of abstraction. p." J. even though the perspectives of these texts are usually not explicit. cit. . 'practical. p." C. one-sided attempts at its solution. Dittmer..the practice of the detailed and complete empiricismof the survey is justified by an epistemology of gross description. But. I5: "This book is a treatise on a large number of social problems.in the early twentieth century. Lasswell. are beginning to perceive that the social problem is now.. 3I7: "The only problems which need concern the sociologists' theories and research are the real. The depictive mode of speech and the heavy journalistic "survey" are intellectual concomitants of an expanding society in which new routines are rising and cities are being built. the more one is impressed with their concreteness. June.." X4M. I4: "From almost any point of view there must be a large number of social problems today". at least.i68 THE AMERICANJOURNALOF SOCIOLOGY The researchpossibilities of concepts are not as important as is the putting of the accumulated factual details into some some sort of order. p. S. as a polemic against the "philosophy of history" brought into American sociology by men trained in Germany. then. K. I314: "Some of us. ... Bossard (a). p. I5 See H. pp. p. arrangement or classification of these facts according to some predetermined logical basis of classification. S. 42: "[In contradistinction to scientific problems] social problems . Mannheim.. practical problems of everyday living. big and little.. Second. p. the facts selected for treatment are not "random. Ellwood (a). American Sociological Review.. p.. It repeatedly recognizes the plurality of problems in its treatment of the great problems. pp.. 228-29. applied sociology is utilitarian. It does not claim to consider them all. and cannot be confined to any statement in economic. both ways of conceiving of "social problems" are similar in that neither is of a sort usable in collective action which proceeds against. It is concerned with practical problems and purposes.. theoretical sociology. and Ideology and Utopia. x6 Gillin. p." Gillette and Reinhardt.. Bossard (a).. The emphasis upon fragmentary. Their selection has been determined less by logic or principle than by accident and historical development". eugenic or other one-sided terms . 30-3I. Politics (I936). the accumulation of facts . What. I 7I: "We present here some of the problems of day by day living encountered by diabetics and cardiacs. A.. H." In terms of practicality.I5 Such an approachis then sanctioned with canons of what constitutes real knowledge. and Colbert. p." Gillette and Reinhardt. pp." On the other hand. I48." J. namely. conceiveformally of "the social problem.. D." J. pertain diTheir concern is usually rectly to everyday life ." Queen and Gruener. These norms of adequate knowledge linger in an academic tradition to mold the work of its bearers. more or less tolerated channels. 22: "The study of social problems constitutes the heart of sociology as a Even so-called 'pure' sociology. 44: "The more one deals with life's problems at first hand. are three in number. of not being "utopian.op. 44: "There are hundredsof socialproblems."I4 The ideal of the scientific method . the problem of the relations of men to one another. it is as broad as humanity and human nature. their specificity. 33: "Certain particular social problems are coming to be reserved for applied sociology. ideologically..
Gillin (a)." we I8 C. A." A paste-pot eclectic psychology provides a rationale for this facile analysis.. these writerstypically assume the norms which they use and often tacitlv sanction them i8 few attempts to explain deviations from norms in terms of the norms themselves. L.the causalefficiency humanrelaboth factorin securing tionships. pp.. pp.nor revolution.. Miller. Cf. treating as problems those which do not function smoothly. some of the social conditions which are the natural and consistent outcome of an individualistic-capitalistic organization of industry. more comprehensive problematization is blocked by a biological theory of social deviation. And the "explanation" of deviations can be put in terms of a requirementfor more "socialization. in Note to the Second Edition: "The object of Social Economy is that each shall be able to live as nearly as possible a normal life according to the standard of the period and the community." that does not analyzein I9 That is. We may then deal with its several parts. Rosenquist. popular recognition of any social condition or process as bad. may be summarized one sentence: It is always possible to do something.. p. 59: ". the inadequacy of which ProfessorEldridge (PoliticalAction) has of character shown. It is significant that.used as a moral epithet. pp." H. The focus on "the facts" takes no cognizanceof the normative structures within which they lie. Fairchild. J. x: "Not political action. an eclecticism any adequateway the elementsand theorieswhich it seeksto combine. granted the power and intent to realize such action. C. The "norms"so used are usually held to be the standards of "society.. This. P.. The easy way to meet the question of why norms are violated is in terms of biological impulses which break through "societal restrictions. is what the more reputable sociologist actually does. it would seem that those who accept this approach to "disorganization" would immediatelyexamine these norms themselves. In the absence of studies of specificnorms themselves this mode of problematizationshifts the responsibility of "taking a stand" away from the thinker and gives a "democratic" rationale to his work.. p. M.. T. Hayes in the Introduction to H.. This is the method to be followed in this book. p. One of the pervasive ways of defining "problems"or of detecting "disorganization" is in terms of deviationfrom norms. Bossard(a)... The texts tend either to be "apolitical"20 or to aspire to a "democratic" opportunism. H. p.'7 Rationally. I4-I5: "Theconstrucin tive approach." "Socialization"is either undefined.is the predominant orderand progress. Our best recourseis to employscientificmethodsrigidly at every step . M.the pathological but which ProfessorSorokinhas demonstrated. Such an approachrepresentsin welfarework that hopelesslyincurableoptimismwhichin politicallife we call democracy.'9 Thus. I9: ". followed by any attempt to eliminate or cure it.. and no rigorousfacingof the implications of the fact that social transformations would involve shifts in them. given their interest in reformingsociety. and hence are to be considered as normal in modern societies. November. p. Devine (a).I940. The studies so informed are not integrated into designs comprehensive enough to serve collective action. which is usually avowed. There are '7 C. it seems..THE PROFESSIONAL IDEOLOGYOF SOCIALPATHOLOGISTS I69 tical problems tends to atomize social objectives. S. Rosenquist. 20 E. Reuter'scritique."Gillette and Reinhardt.American Journal of Sociology. . 495: "For serious depressions carefully planned unem- i6-I7: "There are no certain rules to be followed because of uncertain factors al- step by step in the discoveryof the solution. or impliesnormswhich are themselveswithout definition.21 When the political sphere before ploymentreliefschemesshouldbe formulated is the depression felt." E." Laterwe shall see to what type of society they are oriented." 21 J." Examination of discussions of such items as poverty in most of the texts confirms this assertion. 293-304. serves as a criterion for its inclusion in a study of social problems. soof cial interaction... i9: "Perhaps may be on solid ground through a recognition of the capitalist system and its accompaniments as normal. The writer merely accepts the judgment of public opinion.
it is especiallylikely to be identifiedwith a legal process or the administrationof laws.. I94I.. Gillin (a). Instead.or of their political implications. our cures must be partial and approximate. p.. H.. A.25 This kind of formulation has been widely applied to isolated "problems" addressed by sociologists. nor does it feel responsible for them... Such a structural point of sight is not usually achieved The level of abstraction does not rise to permit examination of these normative structures themselves. Thus we make of the concept "situation" an .." etc. a social worker was finding it congenial and useful..' is in essence a recognition of the idea of the emergent. ." G. H. in relationto the tion and personality... the particular form of pathology which is involved in our problem may be called the oppression psychosis. 94: "It is an American practice to attempt to solve any and every sort of social problem through political action. May." About the time W. I3: "Experience shows that rehabilitation is possible only when each case of poverty or dependency is taken separately and its difficulties handled with strict regard for all the attendIt must be done in terms of ant circumstances . ." 25 Richmond. p... Queen recognizes the implications of the situational approach very clearly in these words: 'For purposes of sociological analysis.. 28: "The pathological phases of the political process include such anti-social behavior as delinquency. p. we never can be sure that our conclusions are more than approximations of the truth." 22 M. p. in our social thinking upon the situation as a unit of experience. we may postulate an abnormal relationship as a cause . " 27 J.. constantly changing. confronting a group. . 57: the emphasis ".. E. which is left open: H.. Corrupt political activity is an important example of such malfunctioning. Since we cannot completely control their activities . and revolution." 23 Note the identification of "political action" with legislation: Gillin. wherein a condition that deviates from the former is called pathological." One type of link between democratic ideology and social pathology is shown in the following quotation.. may be describedas the attempt to make as exact a definitionas possibleof the situation and personalityof a humanbeing in somesocialneed-of his situathat is. the quotation also indicates a typical shying-away from all orders of domination other than that type legitimated traditionally. ..22In anotherform the political is tacitly identified with the properfunctioning of the current and unexaminedpolitical order.. A.." we gain a clue as to why pathol- ogists tend to slip past structure to focus on isolated situations. p. 5i and 62. p.. Miller. p. for . Gillette and Reinhardt. 357. reviewing Queen and Gruener.. S.. or of why they come to be transgressed. L.. Elliott and F.. 3: "Social problems 26J. Thomas stated the vocabulary of the situational approach. the investigatorwouldperhapsbe carried to see total structures of norms and to relate these to distributions of power. S. the individual.. see also pp. as 'an aggregate of interactive and interdependent factors of personality and circumstance.. .. Social Forces. 566: "Without using the word democracy in the doctrinal sense the authors have shown what its utilities are in reducing pathologies. a situation consists in relationships between persons viewed as a cross section of human experience.. . p.... psycho-pathological conditions are found.I70 THE AMERICANJOURNALOF SOCIOLOGY kinds of apparently unrelated "situations. Bossard (a). As a result. 32: "When certain .24 and why sequences of situations were not seen as linked into structures: Social diagnosis. Bossard (a). this literature discusses many ways present. crime. V.. Price." or of "corruption.. . In M. I. and Colbert.26 And the "situational approach" has an affinity with other elements which characterize their general perspective. and in relation also to the social institutionsof his community. I5: "A social problem is a situation. why there is a tendency for problems to be considered as problems of individuals.27 24 J. Richmond's influential Social Diagnosis (I9I7) is discussed. revolt. Merrill. Oppression is the domination of one group by another.. consist of (a) a s6cial situation. it cannot be done en masse. (b) which are. disorder.. otherhumanbeingsuponwhomhe in any way dependsor who dependupon him. our statute-books are loaded with 'dead-letter' laws that are not enforced simply because public opinion does not respect them. Dittmer...23If the "norms" were examined. p. its pathological phases are usually stated in terms of "the antisocial.
The mediums of experience and orientation through which they respectively view society are too similar. I93I."multiple-factor" view of causation. Man and Society.in theirprofessionalworkthey tend to have an occupationally trained incapacityto rise above seriesof "cases. it appears that the chief cause of rigid class systems of society with their attendant evils is the prolonged concentration of wealth in the hands of a relatively few persons. The fact that some individualshave had opportunities to rise in the American hierarchy decreasesthe chancefully to see the ceilings of class. manysided fluidity where "nothing is fixed or independent. toward another. June.too homogeneous. Anotherelement that tends to obviate an analytic view of structure is the emphasis upon the "processual"and "organic" characterof society. such a view may mean a reformismdealing with masses of detail and furthers a tendency to be apolitical." ." Social Forces. 305. and Colbert. p. or group. p. 48I). Queen. pp. 59: "The most fundamental cause of class and group conflict is the attitude of superority on the part of one class." Queen." 30 Note the lack of structure in the conception of "class": Gillette and Reinhardt. with each wave of immigrants displacing the lower-class position of former waves and raising the position of the earlier immigrants. Dittmer. The view is buttressedepistemologicallywith an emotionalizedanimusagainst "particularism" and with the intense approval of the safe. "adjusting" to a milieu31or being "assimilated" or Americanized. if colorless. 34Elliott and Merrill. Instead of problems of class structure involving immigration. and Harper. features the case approach to social problems. 44-45. viii: Editor's Note by S." 33 The Social Process."33 From the standpoint of political action. 38: "One of the most significant concepts in the understanding of social problems is the idea of multiple causation. p.32 p. In Cooley. p. Mannheim.pathologiststypically see problems in terms of an individual.. whose influence on these books is decisive. the similarityof origin and the probable lack of any continuous"classexperience" of the group of thinkers decrease their chances to see social structures rather than a scatter of situations. one gets a highly formal. instead of positional issues.such as an imintellectual tool'" (S. p.THE PROFESSIONAL IDEOLOGYOF SOCIALPATHOLOGISTS Presentinstitutions train severaltypes of persons-such as judges and social workers-to think in terms of "situations.the tendency has been to institute problems in terms of immigration involving the nationalist assimilationof individuals. And. Eldridge: "The present volume . 28 29 migrant. to permit the clash of diverse angles which. also tends to obscurestructuraland class positions. There can be no bases or points of entry for larger social action in a structurelessflux.. the concept of "adjustment. again. Under these conditions such structuresare seen as fluctuatingand unsubstantialand are likely to be explained not in terms of class position but in terms of status attitudes. I77: "Viewing the matter historically." It is in part through such concepts as "situation"and throughsuch methods as "the case approach"29 social patholthat ogists have been intellectually tied to socialworkwith its occupationalposition and political limitations. The paramountfact of immigrationin American culture. Bodenhafer. then. through controversy. might lead to the constructionof a whole. Their activities and mental "2S outlook are set within the existent norms of society. everything is plastic and takes influence as well as gives it.. below. "Some Problems of the Situational Approach.34The liberal "multiple-factor"view does not lead to a conception of causationwhich would permit 3I See 32 See K.30Thus." Gillin.
advertising and instalment buying. disasters. like the fact of private property in a corporate economy. especially political action. insect pests. p. and even in physical heredity. pp. Typically. A formal emphasis upon "the whole" plus lack of total structural consideration plus a focus upon scattered situations does not make it easy to reformthe status quo.36 sure they are all in."38In seeing everything social as continuousprocess.I72 THE AMERICANJOURNALOF SOCIOLOGY points of entry for broader types of action. at key points. but by social order we mean a settled and harmonious relation between the individuals or the parts of a society.." into elemental bits. inequitable distribution of wealth and income.. and which. 40 Gillin. family cases are presented as ".. When. pp. I4-I5. Of course. illness and diseases. I5: "But the aim of society is ever directed to the task of bringing uniform advantages to all. pp. 395: "Social organization may refer to any condition or relation of the elements of a social group. adverse surroundings of children. perhaps. but with the whole interacting organism of man. and Colbert. L. C. customs. This means that in order to get rid of poverty. naturally one will then need quite a few of them to account and one can never be for something. traditions. C." "the social order." 37 Whereas many socialist theories have tended to overlook the elastic elements that do exist in a society. and not only with any one element only of the past. The "organic" orientation of liberalism has stressed all those social factors which tend to a harmoniousbalance of elements. fluctuations between costs of living and income. mental inheritance. Cf. Mannheim. pathologists have not attempted to construct a structuralwhole. 36J.35No set of underlying structural shifts is given which might be open to manipulation.. might be seen as efficaciousin producing many "problems. Ellwood (b). must be got rid of... it is systematically homogeneous. death or disability of the earner.. A. . ii: "All this group life is nicely woven into a system that we call " society . they do considertotalities. habits." C. political conditions. but in scientific control of the whole life process of human society. unemployment. It Is Later than Ylou Think. H.. 25-26. 324: "We may.""the moresand institutions. it is somehow and in the long run harmonious. Dittmer. changes in pace and revolutionary or dislocationsare missed39 are taken as signs of the "pathological.40The large texture of "the society" will take care of itself. lack of proper wages. . Cooley (a). this can only be done when there is a scientific understanding of the conditions necessary for normal human social life. 39See Max Lerner. K. and Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences. article "Social Process. Eliwood (b) p. Whatever they may indicate. The problem of social order is then the problem of harmonious adaptation " among the individuals of the group .4' it has a "straintoward consistency"run38 the modem ". 46. 5I-I28: theory of the causes of poverty has passed beyond any one-sided explanation to a many-sided theory." chances for action in a social milieu where"thereis always continuitywith the past." See documentation and consequences below. however."or "the social organization. Uncriticaluse of such a term as "the" permits a writer the hidden assumption in politically crucial contexts of a homogeneous and harmonious whole. adverse climate. the defects in education in government. p. in religion and morality. p.. 4' Ibid." and "Americanculture. unwise philanthropy. Politica. After these discussions. A." The formality and the assumed unity implied by "the mores"also lower the chancesto see social chasmsand structuraldislocations." The following conditions of poverty and dependence are discussed: poor natural resources. family marital relations. in philanthropy. sum up this chapter by saying that it is evident that the cure of poverty is not to be sought merely in certain economic rearrangements."If one fragmentalizes society into "factors. p. studies in causation. it is in terms of such concepts as "society. adverse weather. physical inheritance. etc. Gillin (a)..." Four things shouldbe noted about their use of such terms: (a) The terms representundifferentiated entities.37There is a minimization of 35 See above comments on political relevance.
. teamwork... with his tacit belief in "natural" order. L." G. I7: "Without the spirit of altruism society would be but a sorry exhibition of the collective humanity that we believe has been made in the image of God. pp.. p.. p. 77: "Primary groups . p.. p. vice.. pp.. When the opposite is true and there is a. or 'mutual aid. characterized by harmony.."46 The late eighteenthcentury use of "society" as against "state" by the rising bourgeoisie had alreadyendowed"society"with a "democratic" tinge which this literature transmits. A. (c) In addition to their "descriptive"use. The prostitute exists only because she is a means to man's sensual pleasure and satiety". Cooperation. understanding. pp.43or perhaps even a right moral feeling is taken as a solution. especially the traditions of civilization". Bodenhafer." Conversely. offer a primrose. pp. will society do away with the conditions that now depress some classes of the population and exhalt others.. who set forth the phrase and what it implies.. p. Dittmer. improved. conflict. p.. .. for the understanding of our social life. approval.. L.. The "social" becomes a good term when it is used in ethical polemics against "individualism" or against such abstract moral qualities as "selfishness. of 'primary' or face-to-face groups". been a struggle to transfer altruism and solidarity of the family to successively larger and larger groups of men"... Gillin (b). Their formality facilitates the empirical con- cern with "everyday"problemsof (community) milieu. all ." 47J. function because of human appetites.. meaning that comes closest to our interpretation ... Social values have no meaning for them .. 3I3: ".. primary groups and small homogeneouscommunities... however. G... Colbert." 45C. " C.. Mangold. 44J.. 59: "Unsocial habits lead to poverty. .. we may speak of organization... p. and Harper. and to insure group survival.. from one point of view.... There has often been no socializing influence in the lives of those men. These men are thoroughly aware of their antisocial attitudes. go-9i: "Primary. Before the advent of prohibition it " Queen.. Human Nature and the Social Order. 5: " 'The word [social] means conducive to the collective welfare." 46Gillin.. marked by tension... particularly do they degrade poverty into dependency. Vice areas . p.. and products of relationships that are believed to foster and promote group life.. I3: "Since a community is made up of a number of neighborhoods.. Chief among these vices is intemperance.THE PROFESSIONAL IDEOLOGYOF SOCIALPATHOLOGISTS ning through it. 43: "An analysis of the disorganization process suggests two types of anti-social forces: (i) the consciously directed anti-social forces and (2) the impersonal organic forces which are an outgrowth of the formalism discussed above .' the implicit counterpart of effective social organization ... to advance their own selfish ends. we may speak of disorganization... and thus becomes nearly equivalent to moral' [Cooley.. personal relationships .. is that they . Dittmer. 84: ". Gillin (a). 79-80: "The chief importance of primary groups in our social life. B. crime. I33: "Only as a passion for social righteousness takes the place of an imperative desire for selfish advantage . B. 44: "Sin. p. 43 Gillin. 84-85: "All human historykhas.. Dittmer.. are of most interest sociologically. such terms are used normatively. Elliott and Merrill. because individual desires are more deeply rooted than any sense of the social implications .. -'conducive to the collective welfare'-relationships.. " conceived as a "co-operative""sharing" of something or as "conducive to the general welfare. Mangold. or face-to-face groups are the key to the understanding of our social life . A.. " Gillin. Ellwood (b). p. p.45 "Social" is 42 It is significant that it was Sumner.42or.." or of "antisocial" sentiments. it is this .. p. and the like... it is necessary that all cooperate in order to secure better schools. or conceived largely in terms of. 4] ."lack of "altruism. Such a conception typically characterizes literathe ture within our purview. and because they are the bearers of the most vital elements in social life. increasing altruism is necessary for the success of those more and more complex forms of cooperation which characterize higher civilization and upon which it depends. or drifting apart. then only I73 the co-operation of all is needed. and Colbert. p. the "antisocial" is held to include certain abstract. furnish the 'patterns' which we attempt to realize in our social life in general".. Ellwood (b). are the most important ties in the social organization.. if not this. because they exhibit social life at its maximum intensity. 3-4: "The tendency in the best sociological thinking is to emphasize the importance.44(b) In their formal emptinessthese terms are commensurate with the low level of abstraction. (d) Thereis a strongtendency for the term "society" to be practically assimilated to.47In explaining consciously directed anti-social forces. corruption... 4: "When there is. moral traits of individuals. was. and Colbert.
they are conceived as due to enmany of the conditions we speak of as social problems .. save those peculiar to agricultural extractive pursuits.. Walker. In the rural community . L. the home is probably our most fundamental social institution.. they cannot be "ab282: ". p.. 49 ple and well-organized 409: ties of country life . 407: The home "developing as . p. p. G. but a conception of such a basis is implicitly used and sanctioned. p... pp.. A.. p.. The basis of "stability." 48 C. p.... rural" is considered "disorganized" in the city." "order.49 If they "abound"therein. constitute the basis of virtually every problem to be discussed in this volume. To this fact may be traced 5iJ. E. as incommensurate with an existent structuraltype) or in a statisticalsense (i. The patterns of behavior. In the city it is professional . together with their reflex upon the rural regions. 285: "Anything that endangers the stability of the family endangers society.. p. and the small community .I74 THE AMERICANJOURNALOF SOCIOLOGY it. I936.. Gillin (b). J.. II3: "The marked trend of population to the city and the rapid rise of large urban centers. It may be proposed that the norms in terms of which "pathological" conditions are detected are "humanitarian ideals. 4II: "In the city we have a greater degree of disorganization in the sense in which we use that term"... are here again disorganized and new patterns have to be found..5' Most of the "problems" considered arise because of the urban deterioration of certainvalues whichcan live genuinely only in a relatively homogeneous and primary rural milieu.... 409: "[In the city] it is only the rebel...." But we must then ask for the social orientation of such ideals.. Bossard (a). Social disorganization breeds in these unattached masses of the urban proletariat. . settled farm community no longer suffice in . and revolution. 32: "However different their approach.. When "rural problems" are discussed. 4I0: in the sim.e." W.. Bossard (a). but often their spiritual home as well.e. p. the city. 304: "Since there are no natural facilities available to the majority of the denizens of cities for the gratification of the desire for dancing. cut off from all stable primary ties. the club. Ellwood (b). H.." J.48 for some normative conception of a socially "healthy" and stable organization is involved in the determination of "pathological" conditions. 58I: "An ever-increasing number of persons living in the giant cities has become completely deracinated.". Gillin (b).." Gillette and Reinhardt..."or "solidarity"is not typically analyzed in these books. responds to his environment with a feeling of independence-a normal response." .. Any wholesome and satisfying life must provide for a continuation of such small groups and institutional forms." Elliott and Merrill. Fairchild.." Elliott and Merrill. .. . The "problems" discussedtypically concernurbanbehavior......". I02-3: in group membership and participation.. 555: "Family life is the focal point of virtually all of our social problems. p. conscious that he lives by his own thinking . brigandage.. H." 5? This is what Waller does not do in his provocative discussion of "humanitarian" and "organizing mores" ("Social Problems and the Mores." H. II6: "Cities exhibit all the social problems.. The farmer. They have lost not only their physical home." J. L. p... as deviations from centraltendencies). as the family. the neighborhood. 922-33). December..5? In this literaturethe operatingcriteriaof the pathological are typically rural in orientationand extraction.. One of the most elusive and challenging problems arising from the growth of cities is that of preventing the complete disorganization of essential social groups. "Pathological" behavior is not discerned in a structural sense (i. Beach and E. 79-80: "The very ideal of social solidarity itself comes from the unity experienced in such [primary] groups... pp. S. They furnish willing nuclei for robbery.. M. face-to-face relationships. it inevitably follows that provision is made on a commercial basis" (my italics). p. P. p.. p.." normal" in the statistical sense and are not likely to prevail in the structural sense.. This is evidencedby the regular assertion that pathological conditions aboundin the city. men find their life interests and values ". the basic dilemma of civilization is the fundamental disparity of values and standards of universally accepted definitions of the situation.. unable and unwilling to adjust himself to machine and organization. The city worker has no keen perception of his dependence upon nature. 47: "The controls which were effective in the small.." American Sociological Review. The most influential groups are those which provide intimate. S.. "Recreation in the country is largely homemade . Rosenquist. who retains personal independence. pp. the playground. C.. we come upon an element that is highly important in understandingthe total perspective.
" 57 Beyond p. Social distance is a dire fate.. In the world today the kind of stability that can-indeed. e.. And a rapid urbanization may well be only a veneer upon masses of rurally oriented personalities.58 is also within the It 55 G. In a historical sense we need not argue with these emphases: the underlying form of American democracy and religion. v. H. especially pp. for here the yearning for the values associated with rural simplicity and neighborliness is even more noticeable. and often it sets the scope of concern and problematization.THE PROFESSIONAL IDEOLOGYOF SOCIALPATHOLOGISTS The croaching urbanization. Social Process. S4 the world should be an enlarged. In this literature a primary. has drawn much from the dominance of a rural society. i6: ".. p. XXXV.. we must have "communion"of the saints." (Implies no conception of urban types of norms.p.. Hayes and emancipate I.. In order to have social relations. Shannon. pp. 3-29]".. 70I: "Cooley was Emersonian in finding the individual self in an oversoul. "Cooley's Contribution to American Social Thought. He practically assimilated "society" to this primary-groupcommunity. . this leads to setting up personal norms of behavior instead of conforming to group standards." Elliott and Merrill. 28I: "The reflex of the city problem is the rural problem. p. not to say as immoral. the local colorist of American sociology. G. which grows out of formalism." American Journal of Sociology.. But the kind of structural stability in America which grew from rural patterns is historical. p. although at first glance the two states appear to be opposite poles in the social process. L.53 Jeffersonian Cooley.. Another division of American sociology in which America's rural past is intellectually evident is "rural sociology" itself.. V. Smith of Cooley-and what he says will hold for the typical social pathologist-"what is highly common in our culture. This field shows the positive side of the matter. and he blessed it emotionally and conceptually. an ideal of intimacy short of which we do not rest satisfied where other people are concerned. s6 Note the common association of urban "impersonality" and "formalism" with "disorganization. Bell & Sons.54 and gave it the the idealists' absolute55 characteristicsof an organic village. F. A. lack of harmony between the various units of the social order is in a sense ... 39-44. in its control of railroads.." J. They are in reality sequential steps in the same great movement of disorganization. Ellwood (b).S2 notion of is disorganization quite often merelythe absence of that type of organization associated with the stuff of primarygroupcommunitieshaving Christianand legitimations.. J. all 52 . . It is not enough to have saints. p. Mead.g. 429: "[Urbanization] which has modified the solidarity of the rural family .) 53The intellectual consequences of the rural to urban drift are much wider than the perspectives noted in the literature of pathology. 58 C. Gillen (b). Hegel. Ellwood (b).. was the chief publicist of this conception of normal organization.. The communityis taken as a majorunit.. is also shownby it the stress upon communitywelfare. though not all are of equal importance. Ross are to be understood in terms of a reaction of those oriented to a farmer's democracy against the growth of big business. Christian-democratic versionof a ruralvillage. achieved with difficulty and lamented as highly unideal.. 22: "Contacts. V. III. 12: "All forms of association are of interest to the sociologist. The natural. A.56"There is reflectedhere. W. Cooley. A. [cf." Cf. rural heritage is taken as the source of "stability" and is conceived as the reservoir of "values. etc..in our Christian traditions. C. individuals from control of primary groups ." says T.chap. I884). He held "the great historical task of mankind" to be the more effective and wider organization of that moral order and pattern of virtues developed in primary Cooley took groups and communities. 574: "There is a very close relationship between formalism and disorganization. we must nuzzle one another. Conscience. " W. exemplified by the impersonal nature of the social organization and the consequent process of social disorganization . in part has-emerged from the hunger for those primary contacts historically associated with ties of blood and closeness to soil is a streamlined variety.." Such straddling concepts as "urban" function to limit recognition of the urban character of dominant contemporary social structures. p."57 The aim to preserve rurally oriented values and stabilities is indicated by thc implicit model which operates to deteet urbandisorganization. genetic social Social Organization. Lectures on the Philosophy of History (London: Geo. H. In more general American sociology the writings of a man like E.
Follett (a). American participation in the World War was an important factor in bringing this about.62 must analyze the use made by pathologists of "lag" rather than abstractformulationsof it. and sociology is in a peculiar sense a study of the problems of community life. p. Idealogy and Utopia.' serve best to exhibit sociological problems.. more stable. their functional realities are referredback. S.although not typically or exclusively. Mannheim. This would permit the expression of daily life and bring to the surface live needs that they may become the substance of politics. the neighborhood. Evaluations are thus translatedinto a time sequence. we may use and enjoy the largest measure of civilization possible. perhaps even more so". called communities. and usually are. Voluntary. The neighborhood as a political unit would make possible friendly acquaintance. ought to have had. tral problem is that of adjusting our social life and our social institutions. 437: "Much of the discussion of cultural lags in the family assumes some kind of normal pattern which is commonly believed to have permanent validity because of the functions performed.as. for definitions of these terms. For this reason communities are of more interest to the sociologist than specialized voluntary groups. the culturallag model is tacitly oriented in a "utopian"6T and progressivemanner toward changing some areas of the culture or certain institutions so as to "integrate" them with the state of progressive We technology.)6o "Culturallag" is consideredby many groups. which means. for example.63 Even though all the situations called "lags" exist in the present. 49-50: "Acceptance of the community as a definite unit in social work and in social theory has become general during the past fifteen years. p.. less artificial and specialized than purely voluntary groups. I5: s. for example. the city. the state or province.." It tells us what changesare "calledfor." 6i Cf." pathologiststo be the conceptwith which many scatteredproblemsmay be detected and systematized. since they are composed of individuals who carry on all phases of a common life. whether large or small. and the nation. 76-77: ". more embracing.p. so that.. . the problems of sociology can be much better attacked than through the study of society at large or association in general". 47: it is important to keep in mind that the cen". P.. p. "lag" and "norms" are not unrelated: Queen. SOcial work.." 59 Gillin. Bodenhafer. the community was seized upon by the various war-time activities and drives as the most effective unit for the mobilization of the spirit and resources of the nation." Social Forces. L. Bossard (a). Part III. and second. as individuals and as communities. I934.Dittmer. They may be. solutions are conceived as dependent upon abstract moral traits or democraticsurrogatesof them.I76 THE AMERICANJOURNALOF SOCIOLOGY framework of ideally democratic communities that proposed solutions are to be workedout. W. IOI: "The solution must spring from an aroused and unanimous public will. pp. Whereas the approach by deviation from norms is oriented "ideologically" toward a rural type of order and stability. first because the community constituted the basic expression of that democratic spirit which the war engendered." M. 388.. and when and wherewe didn't have it. Woodard's "Critical Notes on the Cultural Lag Concept. K. H. and promote further progress. Gillin (b). and Colbert. 97: "The 'liquor problem' is as acute in the United States today as it ever was in the past. therefore. which we may call 'communities. it would socialize people and would make for "the realization of oneness."calledfor. such as a "unanimouspublic will. natural groupings." J. p. scientifically developing and adjusting human relations in a way that will secure normal life to individuals and communities and encourage individual and community progress". In terms of various spheres of society it says what progress is. such as the family. p.." It is not enough to recognizethat the 6oJ. Groups which we call 'communities' are. away from the present. tells us how much we have had. 62 However." 63 See examples given in J. pp. purposive associations always exist within some community..cultural lag is an assertionof unequal "progress.. March..59It should be noted that sometimes." what changes "ought" to have come about and didn't. and Harper. The imputation of "lag" is complicatedby the historical judgment in whose guise it is advanced and by the programmaticcontent being shoved into pseudo-objectivephrases. Through the study of such simple and primary groups as the family and the neighborhood group. didn't have. has suggested that neighborhood groups be organized into political units.
W.price and ownership. intrenchedinterests. Odum.. and social sumption that human beings are "adprestige. as "adaptive culture" and "material and with its concept of time as progress. Loosely. J. V." and he ence involves a positive evaluation ol detailed its mechanism. when some aspect of social life mingled with them." leak. L. November. One must find the generalloci of men acting within entrepreneurialcanthis kind of evaluation and then explain ons would result in a commercialsabowhy just this formof evaluationhas been tage of productionand efficiencyin order so readily accepted and widely used by to augment profits within a system of pathologists.and many of the academicmen justed" satisfactorily to any social conof the generation were recruited from dition that has existed for a long time these rising strata and/or actively and that. Shannon.. classes were taking over instruments of but usually it carries the implicit asproduction. American Academy of Political and Social Science.. 8-io. p. I938. Ogburn."" There is no specific focus for This notion of progresswas carriedintc a program of action embodied in the Americancollegesby the once prevalent applicationof such terms." W. pp." 68 The point is made and acutely discussed by Rosenquist.its messianicand now thing fragmentarily. Social Change (I922)] to the exdifferentspheres.68The notion is oriented ideologithe scale of positionand income. He did not like tutions lag behind technology and sci. F. political power. p. 5: ". Gillin (b). culture. J. In the patholnaturalscienceand of orderlyprogressive ogists' usage the conceptionhas lost this change.65 eral categories of social problems already listed in it must be clear that most them He focusedon where"the lag" seemed to previous chapters.g.trainedincapacityof legitimate businessguised. p. e.manifestations are due toofor acor their present 64 See."for the specific is a J.this "unworkman-likeresult. Bossard(a). The Theory upon the conditions and interest groups 66J. . Stern'sarticle in Annalsof the centuated by the process of social change. From after Another model in terms of which disthe Civil War through the first two or organizations are instituted is that of three decades of the twentieth century "social change" itself. Scottish moral philosophy..THE PROFESSIONAL IDEOLOGYOF SOCIALPATHOLOGISTS I77 stating of problems in terms of cultural pinch.. Notions of progress changes. in the routine of group life causing serious alteration maladjustment. he attempted to show how the lag involves evaluations. The model in which insti. Hayes and I. cally and yet participatesin assumptions Those sociologistswho think in terms 65 The Engineers and of this model have not typically focused of Business Enterprise. if one reviews the genof industry versus business enterprise. it may lead to a social probare congenial to those who are rising in lem. it derivesfrom a liberal specific and structuralanchorage:it has continuation of the enlightenment with been generalized and applied to everyits full rationalism. the Price System. by people's lives.. however dis. ioo: ". it is tech67 "Social nology that is "lagging. as Ogbumput underlyingvariant "rates of change" in it [W. One might say that in tent that the adaptive culture has not kept pace with terms of the rates of change at which the material culture." sectors of culture couldmove. B.. H. Veblen's use of "lag.67 This model is the expanding business and middle not handled in any one typical way. S. 4I6: changingdisorganization conditions in function of rapidly reason of the control of patents. the amount of social ill-being has increased relatively. p. etc. This generalization politically naive admiration of physical occurswith the aid of such blanket terms scienceas a kind of thinkingand activity. and friction"is a structuralanalysis H.64 In contrast to the 20: "Social disorganization is an abrupt break in the existing social arrangements or a pathologists' use..
35: ".75or lems are a matter of chance for which the past offers no sure panacea. p. however. p...a radical might well call reorganization. p. p.. 7I The notion of temporal contingency. Ellwood (a)..". orientation to rural principles of stability. armed though he is with the experience of the past.. which is an ideal attitude . is the normal attitude for every person who is animated by generous loyalty and . ance of forces. 48: "Social life and its products require long periods of time to develop and ripen . plays into the processual. p. but may easily be avoided by plasticity in social institutions and in the mental attitudes of " classes and individuals . which.73This comes out in the obvious fact that what a conservative calls disorganization. they are complimentary parts of the same process. 3: "Life is dynamic.. and Colbert. 3o: ". ii: "Assimilation. ... p. and reactions. .. at times extended to the point of historical irrationality. Ellwood revolution is not a normal method (a). He must recognize that the immediate present is a constantly changing frame of reference and that future prob- . " Weatherly. "evolutionary" pace of change is taken explicitly as whereas "disnormal and organized. This concept. p. Elliott and Merrill. p.. CreativeExperience). 536: "All social problems grow out of the social problem-the problem of the adjustment of man to his universe.72 is what spheresinduce disorganization?" left open. most of the time. for thought about discontinuity in industry or education and about our dependence on proper training to keep society stabilized and progressive should be emphasized". G. P." C. C. routine. and the balance between them. disturbances. Besides deviation from norms.. Fairchild.I78 THE AMERICANJOURNALOF SOCIOLOGY similar to those of cultural lag. commented on above. i6: "While the problems. which is social equilibration. notice also its commensurability with the apolitical and one-thing-at-a-time reformism. E. Dittmer.. "Changesin sanctioned.. bewildering change. as well as that of the "normal.69 continuity" is taken as problematic. xii: "Realization that progressive change is not likely to be less in the generation next to come . The maladjustments in these relationships give us all our social H. and determination . Life is ceaseless. Follett.the point where sanctioned order meets advisable change is not typically or structurally drawn.. on the other hand. both of which are held to be bad. ance"is usual and sometimesis explicitly The question... Dittmer. p. can never be certain of the future. and of the social universe to man.7'A conception of "bal69 Gillin. p. is gradual and depends upon some degree of contact and communication.." This gradualism is related to the orientation to primary group relations and experiences and hence to the "sharing" conception of the social. . indeed. I38: "Both innovation and conservatism have their value. p. "The larger proportion of social changes are I3: small and simple." 75Gillin... Hayes' Editor's Introduction to U." 72 E. they are broken across by social breakdowns. p. if there is to be any vital sharing of common experience (Cf. . of social change." 73 A......74The pathologicalor disorganized is the maladjusted. and man. Elliott and Merrill. 380: "Discipline and liberation are not two antagonistic processes. but here the slow. and resemble osmosis in the field of physics and organic life. daily. Fairchild.. might be considereda variant of it. the position taken is usually somewhere between extremes. to promote progress. nonstructural characteristics of the perspective. on the other. it can be safely said that maladjustments are among the most numerous and important of all forms of abnormality. Often.one remains caughtbetweensimpleevaluations.. social content. and Colbert. 230: ". " Gillette and Reinhardt.. cultural lag. In line with the stresson continuousprocess.g.. vii: "The aim of the book is to indicate the direction which our social thinking must take if we are to avoid revolution. M. frequently being so extensive as to include entire social groups or classes. Such a scheme for problematization buttresses and is buttressed by the idea of continuous process.. it is not inevitable. it marks the breakdown of the normal means of social development. 2I: "The habitual.. and social change. They illustrate the law stability is reached only by a balof physics. conventional activities of life fortunately make up the greater part of life. p. p. P. ..76 The orientation to "rural" types of organizationshould be recalled. Weatherly.Without a constructionof total social structures that are actually emerging. P."is usually left empty of concrete. and dislocations and the appearance of troublesome classes of persons. on the one hand. A." 74 H." the need 70 Gillette and Reinhardt.... . another conceptionin terms of which "problems" are typically discussedis that of adaptation or "adjustment" and their opposites.
. The man is all right. writers using these terms suggest techniques or means believed to be less disruptive than others to attain the goals that are given. These persons are never subjected to the temptations of great wealth.79At the most.. . made by the unceasing effort and sacrifice of men and women who. to universalize word 'normal' carries a fairly definite and. Io: "Social pathology . L. physical and social alike... vice. Use of "adjustment" accepts the goals and the means of smaller community milieux. P. Our immigrants furnish abundant examples of this form of incompetence ... " 78 J. thus again obscuring specific social content. Until the present it has been the especially maladjusted individual or group who has received the service of 'straighteners.. as we say. will never see the sun or the green grass because of the sins of their parents or the carelessness of their physician. it is nevertheless extremely difficult to define in concrete terms ." the term. Social and moral elements are masked by a quasi-biological meaning of the term "adaptation"77 with an entourageof apparentlysocially bare terms like "existence" and "survival. life consists in large measure of habitual responses to the demands of a fairly fixed environment." .THE PROFESSIONAL IDEOLOGY OF SOCIAL PATHOLOGISTS its content is.the "social type" within which he is maladjusted is not stated. Dexter. All this and much more is due to social adjustments.. and fewer still of the next.. 34: "The other form of incompetence. 408: ".. 5-81. so a disorganized social order must involve a conflict between individual and social points of view. but he is not in the right place. the necessary task of smoothing-off the rough edges and softening the sledge-hammer blows of an indifferent social system. on the other. instead of pawns for unscrupulous politicians.. L. accurate implication to the mind of any intelligent person..76When it is an individual who is thought to be maladjusted. used as applying to .. new and perhaps untried responses are called for.. The term ." J." R. C.. worthy of a free nation. p. an individual immiRrant. H. I 7. p. 77 When it is so hidden. 407: "In this book the term Social Adjustment has been.) 8oH. L. particularly our modern city life. is the study of the social patterns and processes involved in man's failure to adjust himself and his institutions to the necessities of existence to the end that he may survive and satisfy the felt needs of his nature.10 79J. for the most part. p. is practically synonymous with social adaptation-the fitting of man to his complete environment.' does not imply any lack on the part of the individual himself ..... p. Fairchild. If he does not concern himself with living up to them." J. in effect. New adjustments must be made. As commonly used to convey a definite idea. and thanks to our increasing provision for free public education." which seem still to draw prestige 8 from the vogue of evolutionism.. crime. Bossard (a). which may be called 'maladjustment. pp. p. His discussion is thus a consideration of the 'normal standards' for the several ages of the bourgeoisie.. p. correctly assert that in "Edward T.. and other unpleasantly sordid aspects of life [The Normal Life. Our modern life.. thousands of boys and girls will become intelligent. responsible citizens. iio (under "The Immigrant's Problem of Adjustment"): "To most persons. 4: "Social pathology . the word 'normal' means that which is in harmony with the general make-up and organization of the object under discussion-that which is consistent with other normal factors. but note the heavily sentimental endowment the term may receive: R. middle-classmilieux. teems with cases of this sort.'" (Note ideological orientation of concept.. a propagandafor conformity to those norms and traits ideally associatedwith small-town... by formalization... C. Divine's discussion of 'the normal life' the norm is the healthy and uneventful life cycle of the average middle-class man or woman. When man changes his environment. p. few of the present generation of little ones. Gillin (b)." 76 Elliott and Merrill. 22: "Just as an effective social organization implies a harmony between individual and social interests. p. .... The idea of adjustment seems to be most directly applicableto a social scene in which." Elliott and Merrill.. They do not typically considerwhetheror not certaingroupsor individuals caught in economically underprivileged situations can possibly obtain the currentgoals without drastic shifts in the basic institutions which channel and promote them. Gillin (b). there is a society and.. S. Both and the quasi-biological the structureless character of the concept "adjustment" tend. 8: "An individual who does not approximate these [socially approved] standards is said to be unadjusted. Gillin (b). more and more adapted to the needs of the individual child. Neither do they come in contact with poverty. on the one hand. he is said to be demoralized or disorganized. Dexter. p. arises out of the maladjustment between the individual and the social structure. But the foreigner is not by any means the sole example of maladjustment.
io6: "People who are use. Introduction to the Science of Sociology. Their criterion of the pathological is correctly indicated in the subtitle of their book." "moderation. good for the whole.e.) 83 See above documentation. . who is unable to compete. The criminal. .. Davis." "dynamic personality. exploitation." Odum. if not unable.. on the other hand."The ideallyadjusted man of the social pathologistsis "socialized. (Hart." This term seems to operate ethically as the opposite of "selfish." "skill.. We then have the following pathological manifestations: '. "Mental Hygiene and the Class Structure." etc.83 the voluntary community activities in which he participates. ciety regards as moral.. at least handicapped in his efforts to compete. If he is not a "joiner." and the little men don't scramble after the big money.". The "immigrant problem" was early in the pathologist's center of focus. come to be liked and respected. participation in which is defined as organized." "specialized knowledge of some particular thing. notice the Protestant ethical accent on utility and what it will do for one. Communities in which there is a high percentage of individuals with a positive rating on the items listed above are logically those which are the most highly organized and efficient. the individual cannot or will not compete.' (Park and Burgess.." The Polish Peasant (I9I8). the defective . who is." 82 See Queen and Gruener. The In Science of Social Relations.. He is "successful"-at least in a modest waysince he is ambitious. as well as . the individual thinks of others and is kindly toward them. It causes the individual and the group to feel their In brief. becomes the aim of socialized individuals and groups. . whether or not he votes at elections . greed. This being true. 5o-5I.."he certainlygets aroundand inIf to many community organizations. Cf. Social Pathology: Obstacles to Social Participation. I6-I7: "By socialization we mean the directing of human motives toward giving to 'even the least' of the members of the socialwhole the benefits of cultural development. selfishness. however.. and Colbert.. 56o). pp." Among the traits thought to characterize "the good life from the standpoint of the individual. pp. one may analyze the specific illustrations of maladjustmentthat are given and from these instances infer a type of socialpersonwho in this literatureis evaluated as "adjusted.. 52I-524. the more they gravitate toward the norms of independent middle-classpersons verbally living out Protestant ideals in the small towns of America.. the central aim of a sound educational program should be to teach people to be useful.)"2 the following.. cites: "patience. ful." "love of work. Dittmer. who is perhaps unable." Psychiatry: Journal of the Biology and Pathology of Interpersonal Relations. to compete according to the rules which society lays down. p. eagerly participating in his community'sinstitutions.. K.. p. but at any rate refuses... In approachingthe notion of adjustment. The less abstract the traits and fulfilled "needs" of "the adjustedman" are." "optimism. and the concepts used in stating it may have been carriedover as the bases for a model of experienceand formulations of other "problems.i8o THE AMERICANJOURNALOF SOCIOLOGY The immigrant then "adjusts" to the new environment. apparently irrespective of social fact: GillinDittmer. 580: "There are various criteria by which the degree of individual participation may be measured roughly . what sooneness with the social whole. p. I927.. note the norm of competitiveness: Elliott and Merrill. February.pp. no matter what happens to be their race or color. and profiteering.. pp. it implies that the adjusted man conformsto middle-class morality and motives and "participates"in the gradualprogressof respectable institutions. Gillin. He does not brood or mope about but is somewhat extravert. lest he become "a fantasy thinker. I938. the individual's ownership of real or personal property .. These authors would deny this mode of statement. was empirically focused upon an immigrantgroup. 55-65.A2 8I he is socialized. the improvement of society rests to a very large extent upon moral progress. the degree of specific interest in community activities may be roughly measured by the number and character of the institutions to which the individual belongs." "trained will power.. His motherand fatherwere not divorced. .. in this connection. i.. 29-30: "Often. Elliott and Merrill. the dependent . pp. Hornell. and Colbert. Consequently. Socialization is thus practically the opposite to aloofness." (Note the character of the institutions. which has had a very strong influenceon the books under consideration..nor was his home ever broken. but such verbal denials must be tested against what they have done and the framework they have actually employed in defining pathologies.. but he does not speculateabout matters too far above his means.
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