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Anatomy & Physiology Longmeadow High School Name: _____________________________________________ Date: March 12, 2013 Unit Test Study

Guide Circulatory System Compare/Contrast: Arteries carry blood away from heart Veins carry blood towards heart Capillaries smallest vessels sight of diffusion Systemic Circulation delivers blood throughout body & carries wastes away Pulmonary Circulation eliminates CO2 & oxygenates blood Heart Structure Match structures to definitions: Pericardium encloses heart like a bag 2 layers Pericardial cavity contains fluid for heart to float in reducing friction Epicardium outer layer reduces friction Myocardium middle layer mostly cardiac muscle Endocardium thin inner layer within chambers of the heart Atria thin upper chambers that receive blood returning to the heart right & left atrium Ventricle thick, muscular lower chambers that receive blood from atria force (pump) blood through arteries Septum separates left & right sides of heart Tricuspid between right atrium & ventricle Bicuspid between left atrium & ventricle Mitral between left atrium & ventricle Atrioventricular Valve (2) Superior Vena Cava carries deoxygenated blood from upper half of the body to right atrium Inferior Vena Cava carries deoxygenated blood from lower half of the body to right atrium Chordae tendinae heart strings tendons that connect papillary muscles to the tricuspid valve & mitral valve Papillary Muscle muscles in ventricles of heart that contract to prevent prolapse of mitral & tricuspid Sinoatrial Node generates electrical impulse located in right atrium Label a Heart Diagram: No word bank! Flow of blood through the heart (arrows). Ox vs deox blood Heart Actions Systole aortic valve is open contraction Diastole aortic valve is closed relaxation The aortic valve is _________________!

Anatomy & Physiology Longmeadow High School Diagnostic tools: Sphygmomanometer measures BP Stethoscope listen & measure heart sounds Factors that affect high blood pressure Salty foods Smoking Stress Saturated fats & hydrogenated oils Weight Long Q-T genetic disorder making time between discharge of current & reorganization of heart muscle AED: Automatic External Defibrillation Pace makers internal defibrillator that automatically shock heart to keep a healthy beat Matching ECG graph Tachycardia fast heart beat >100 beats/min Bradycardia slow heart beat <60 beats/min Arrhythmia heart quivers Fibrillation irregular heart beat Vasoconstriction narrowing of blood vessels Vasodilation expanding of blood vessels Blood: Functions RBC transport O2 & exchange for CO2 WBC: 5 types of WBC Neotrophils eat bad things (seen as pus in wounds) Eosinophils attack parasites Basophils produce heparin & histamines important in inflammatory response Lymphocytes defense against invaders Monocytes eat bacteria Plasma Albumins blood pressure Globulins transport lipids & antibodies Fibrinogen blood clotting when fibrinogen converts to fibrin Disorders: MVP mitral valve prolapse mitral valve does no close completely creating a clicking sound at the end of a contraction Heart murmur valve does not close completely causing a (usually) harmless murmur sound

Anatomy & Physiology Longmeadow High School Atherosclerosis deposits of fatty materials in vessels reducing blood flow Heart attack death of part of heart muscle caused by a vessel being blocked Leukemia over production of immature WBC treatable with radiation, bone marrow transplant, & chemotherapy Sepsis blood poisoning infection enters blood stream Sickle cell anemia RBC abnormally shaped pain, tiredness, low RBC count, organ failure, stroke Jaundice when newborns livers are not fully functioning secretes bilirubin into blood causing yellow color treated with fluorescent lights Anemia iron-deficiency Mononucleosis usually caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) increase in one type of WBC (lymphocytes) Hemophilia blood cant clot treatable w/ blood transfusions that include clotting agents Carbon monoxide poisoning CO binds to hemoglobin prevents O2 from binding Genetics problems Dominant vs. recessive Sex-linked (hemophilia) Co dominant (Sickle cell) Multiple alleles (ABO blood types in humans)