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Ministry Of Environment and Mineral Resources
Draft for public comments Developing a Capacity Assessment for the Sound Management of Chemicals and National SAICM Implementation in Kenya
The project “Strengthening Capacities in Kenya for National SAICM Implementation”was developed with the technical assistance of the United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR) and the financial support of the Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management (SAICM) Quick Start Programme Trust Fund.
Chemicals have potentially significant positive as well as negative impacts. On the one hand, chemicals can contribute to the health of humans, livestock and other animals, agricultural productivity, energy efficiency and other aspects of sustainable development. On the other hand, the adverse consequences of unsound management of chemicals for the environment and human health can be significant and long lasting. These can be most acute in developing countries and for countries with economies in transition. The poorest, indigenous peoples, women and children are disproportionately at risk. Kenya has completed two important processes related to chemicals namely, the National chemicals Profile, the National inventory of Persistent Organic Pollutants, development of the Terms of Reference for inter ministerial coordination.. This has shown that Kenya has an active chemical use sector in industry, agriculture, research and services. Most of the chemicals are imported for agriculture, manufacturing and services. Chemicals account for 6 % of the Gross Domestic Product. The trend is that industrial manufacturing is picking up but is not as high as in industrialized countries. Most chemical enterprises are increasingly formulating and packaging imported chemicals. The government of Kenya recognises the importance of managing risks posed by chemicals through informing users of the dangers chemical could pose if used inappropriately. Existing policy pronouncements and proposed action plans point to the fact that the Government intends to improve risk management through capacity building for chemicals in general and for Persistent Organic Pollutants in particular. Kenya has invested heavily in education from primary to tertially institutions and in the education system chemicals and environmental issues are emphasised. However, the ability of trained manpower to identify chemicals risks and minimise them while disposing the chemical waste in an environmentally sound manner needs to be enhanced. The objective of this assessment is to provide the capacity building required to satisfy Kenya’s commitment to SAICM. This would support the implementation of the SAICM and use the capacity built to address other chemical and waste issues. The longer term development objective is to energise Kenya’s steps that it has taken to link its chemicals management capacity activities and projects within a national “programmatic” framework for the sound management of chemicals and environmentally sound disposal of chemical waste. This wills be put in the current three year 9th National Development Plan. A core feature of the plan is that it represents a longterm national commitment to chemicals management where relevant government institutions in all spheres and sectors of national development and the private sector establish and participate in compliance with national legislation and support a national chemical safety co-ordinating mechanism, adopt voluntary procedures of self regulation while maintaining their independence to execute individual activities after meeting local and international goals of compliance. They will also support Kenya in developing projects within their mandate and competence, priorities and interests. These efforts will go a long way towards reducing the release of hazardous wastes into the environment through enhanced national chemical management capacity in the management of chemicals chemical, and wastes. Ultimately, it will help Kenya to reach the target of the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) that, by 2020, chemicals are produced and used in ways that do not negatively affect human health and the environment.
General Overview Of The Findings. The Kenya Government has demonstrated that it has an active interest in helping stakeholders build their capacities to manage chemicals safely. The general approach is to provide awareness, a legal and policy framework and training on key chemical safety issues, usually in support of specific national legislation. This is often followed up with institutional or enterprise-based projects to help individual stakeholders integrate measures into their health and environmental protection programmes. During 2002-2005 alone, MENR organised over five national meetings and capacity-building workshops bringing together Government departments, agricultural organizations, industry and other non-governmental organizations, to address chemical safety issues. A recurrent recommendation is to enhance capacity at national and regional levels. These activities respond to the call for strengthening Kenya’s capacity building in line with the national Environmental Management and Coordination Act (EMCA).Kenya has also a private sector that is active in the chemical agenda of industry, agriculture and services
Key capacities Some progress has been made toward attaining the WSSD 2020 goal on sound management of chemicals, namely, that chemicals are used and produced in ways that lead to the minimization of significant adverse effects on human health and the environment. However, this progress is insufficient and uneven across countries and regions. Important actions which have been taken at the national and regional levels include: i. developing national plans on chemicals management; ii. prohibiting or restricting certain toxic chemicals, particularly pesticides; iii. systematically examining inventories of domestic chemical substances in commerce; iv. establishing risk assessment systems for environment and health; strengthening preparedness for chemical emergencies; v. developing legislation on liabilities and compensation for environmental damages; vi. Coordinating government action to prevent illegal trans-boundary shipments of hazardous wastes; vii. implementing regulatory mechanisms such as the European Union (REACH), which sets out rules for registration, evaluation, authorization and restriction of chemicals; viii. and public private partnerships and voluntary initiatives such as the Canadian Chemicals Management Plan, Responsible Care and the Global Product Strategy. ix. However, Concern was expressed these mechanisms and initiatives sometimes constitute non-tariff barriers to international trade. Gaps. Gaps in implementation of the sound management of chemicals exist throughout the life cycle and in both the public and private sectors. They include: i. insufficient and unavailable information and data on chemical safety and toxicity, especially in national and local languages; ii. insufficient information on chemicals in products; iii. lack of awareness of the potential risks that chemicals pose to the environment and human health and their environmental liabilities; iv. insufficient human and technical capacity for risk assessment, reduction and monitoring in both government and public interest organizations; v. inadequate financial and technical resources, in particular for developing countries, for the implementation of multilateral agreements on chemicals, including the Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management (SAICM). Summary Assessment: National Governance Framework Kenya has signed the Ban amendment and is in the process of signing the Bamako Convention which sanction and control the illegal export of hazardous chemical waste to developing countries. More attention needs to be paid to the issue of disposal costs incurred for transit waste to Uganda, Congo especially through the entry into force and full implementation of the protocol of liability and compensation of the Basel Convention which Kenya has yet to ratify. 101. The adoption and implementation of multilateral agreements including the Basel, Rotterdam and Stockholm Conventions and the Montreal Protocol on ozone-depleting substances represents an important step. However, implementation of most of these agreements is still lagging and requires priority attention, especially regarding the flow of resources and technology transfer. There is need for continuous cooperation and coordination between chemicals and waste related instruments. Priority Areas The priority areas identified include i. Priority areas for action include: ii. Strengthening national legislation, with international cooperation and training on enforcement and compliance; iii. integrating chemical management into national development priorities and budgets; establishing mechanisms for inter-sectoral and interministerial cooperation in all countries; iv. enhancing capacity for chemical risk assessment, including both human capacities and laboratory facilities; v. developing safer alternative products and technologies for replacing the most hazardous chemicals;
vi. vii. viii.
expanding monitoring programmes, including through establishment of Pollutant Release and Transfer Registers; strengthening partnerships and corporate social responsibility in the chemicals sector. Improving knowledge, training and awareness of all national stakeholders including experts, legislators, politicians, policy makers, farmers, workers and public and national organizations is a key to sustainable chemicals management. It is important to enhance the right to know and improve dissemination and exchange of information on chemical safety matters including the potentially hazardous chemicals in products.
Proposals for action i. ii. iii. iv. v. Speeding up the process of addressing the problem of obsolete pesticides that threaten the health of millions of people and the environment, which is a result of unsound chemicals management and pesticide overconsumption. Integrated pest management can reduce application of chemicals in agriculture. Improving dissemination and exchange of information on chemical safety matters, including the potentially hazardous chemicals in products; implementing the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals and ILO Convention 170 on chemicals; Participate more effectively on the negotiations for a legally binding instrument on mercury now that gold deposits have been identified in many parts of Kenya ; establishing partnerships for assessing and communicating risks and hazards; and addressing emerging issues such as nanomaterials and e-waste The coordination of UN bodies and other international organizations related to chemicals should be promoted. The health sector should play a more active role in sound chemicals management, for example by availing of WHO offices to strengthen coordination at the national and regional levels.
External Programmes i. Regional Centres under the three chemical conventions can play an important role in capacity building and technology transfer. The International Centre for Insect Physiology and ecology has been identified as a regional centre under the Stockholm Convention. It is hoped it can promote partnerships and practical cooperation in the and implementation of chemical management regimes. ii. Civil society and other stakeholders make important contributions to sound chemicals management. iii. The Africa Stockpiles Programme was mentioned as a successful partnership to address sound pesticides management. iv. The rate of access resources and technology transfer under the aegis of the Rio principles, especially, the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities. v. Evolving SAICM’s Quick Start Programme into a sustainable funding arrangement. Reference was made to the GEF POPs focal area, with a suggestion that chemicals more broadly could be a focal area society
................................................................................20 Annex 2: Worksheet for Identification of Important and Urgent Chemicals Management Issues..2..........................................17 Annex 1: Worksheet for Governance Assessment ............................................................38 ..................................................... Introduction................15 3.....................................34 Annex 3: Worksheet for the Capacity Assessment of Important and Urgent Chemicals Management Issues.........11 Assessment of the Governance Framework..Suggested Process for Developing the Capacity Assessment ...............................................................................11 Assessment of Capacities for Important Chemicals Management Issues...........6 2........................Table of Contents 1................4 Analytical and laboratory capacity.
3 Such a strategic approach for national management of chemicals would need. RelatedCoordinative Action s in Kenya Over the past years significant progress has been made by Kenya to strengthen its chemicals management programs as detailed in the Kenya National Chemicals Profile (KNCP)2. adopted by the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD). For each group and sector Worksheets are provided for both components of the 1 2 (SAICM OPS. introduction of cleaner production etc. Kenya participated at this conference. GHS.1.g. Introduction 1.1.pdf.. as called for by SAICM.go.un. risk reduction. Coordinating and mainstreaming chemicals management has always eluded Kenya.the Sessional Paper on Environment and Development. However the goal of integrated national programmes for sound chemicals management has always eluded Kenya. An important objective of SAICM at the national level is to build upon existing chemicals management activities and initiatives in various sectors and strengthen coordination and coherence among various government and stakeholder initiatives and link these activities to national development planning. These are the same stated policies in Kenya premier policy document. that chemicals are used and produced in waysthat lead to the minimization of significant adverse effects on human health and theenvironment…”.ke. In this regard soon after the ICCM1 Kenya specifically addressed its strategic priorities which refer in Resolution I/4 to the “development or updating of national chemical profiles and the identification of capacity needs for sound chemicals management”. by 2020. 1. The full text may be found at: http://www. para.1.1. within a national SAICM implementation process. etc). For the management of the persistent organic pollutants under the Stockholm Convention.environment.2 The Need for capacity Assessment SAICM implementation is a requires a cross sectoral and multidisciplinary approach. Kenya has prepared National Implementation Plans for the Stockholm Convention. For specific issues such as the phase out of ozone depleting substances. 23) www.org/esa/sustdev/documents/WSSD_POI_PD/English/WSSD_PlanImpl. action by the Kenya Government and non-governmental stakeholders (including the business sector and non-governmental organizations). there are national co-ordinating platforms for chemicals management. www.1 Context and Overview The Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management (SAICM) was adopted by the International Conference on Chemicals Management (ICCM) at its first session in Dubai in February 2006.nema. 1. It is for this reason that SAICM provides valuable opportunities to build upon these activities and develop long-term strategic approach at the national level towards reaching the WSSD 2020 goal for sound chemicals management. This document generally has an assessment of the national governance framework for sound chemicals management and an assessment of capacities and priorities concerning specific chemicals management issues (e. Preparation of this national capacity assessment for sound chemicals management and SAICM implementation can provide a valuable tool for prioritising and planning the implementation of SAICM activities at all levels.ke 3 The Johannesburg Plan of Implementation. Attempts at coordinationhave been made in times of emergences but this lapses once the crisis is over. included the goal of “…aimingto achieve. as well as between international players involved in chemicals management such as the intergovernmental organisation on chemicals management commonly referred to as IOMC. . In order to achieve these objectives. the SAICM Overarching Policy Strategy (OPS) states that each Government should putin place arrangements for implementing the Strategic Approach on an inter-ministerial or interinstitutional basis so that all concerned national departmental and stakeholder interests are represented and all relevant substantive areas are addressed1.go.
September 2005 SAICM PrepComs 1. .assessment to facilitate the collection and analysis of information as appendix 1. Johannesburg.It was one of the major conferences on chemicals hosted by Kenya and in which the Government of Kenya led by the current vice President Hon KalonzoMusyoka then Minister for Environment gave of government commitment for SAICM and integrated chemicals management in general. February 2003 in Bangkok while prepcom 2 was held here in Nairobi. New York. September 2002 World Health Assembly. 2 & 3 The First session of the International Conference on Chemicals Management (ICCM). Fig . February 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development.See fig 1.2 Background on SAICM The SAICM development process. May 2003 International Labour Conference. started through a series of sessions of commencing in 2003 and included key milestones. June 2003 World Summit. including: • • • • • • UNEP Governing Council.Opening session of Prepcom2 in Nairobi.
The five objectives are: • • • • • Risk reduction.In yhis meeting three prominent Kenyans who have made great contribution in the growth of chemistry especially the growth of the Chemistry Department of the University of | Nairobi were recognised at this session. TheGlobal Plan of Action (GPA) 4 5 WWW. Shem OyooWandiga. 1.doc . health. civil society and the private sector. Kenyan chemists who were honored during SAICM PrepCom2 opening plenary. Capacity-building and technical cooperation. involving representatives of governments. and financial and implementation arrangements. industry.3.3.3 Overview of SAICM Outcomes and Decisions The overall objective of the Strategic Approach is to support the achievement of the 2020 goal agreed at the 2002 Johannesburg World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD). provides an agreed overview of the political commitments made for SAICM. Governance. Knowledge and information. environment. contribution of SAICM to the MDGs (Millennium Development Goals).” In particular. and Helen NjeriNjenga. non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and intergovernmental organisations (IGOs) drawn from sectors such as agriculture. and labour. and Illegal international traffic.ch/saicm/SAICM%20texts/Final%20standalone%206%20June%2006.int http://www. the InterOrganization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC). 1. identifies needs for effective SAICM implementation.unep. the development process was multi-sectoral and multi-stakeholder in nature. principles. implementation of international agreements. This was followed again by Kenya hosting the 9 th Session of the Conference of Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in November . 1. Dubai Declaration on International Chemicals Management The Dubai Declaration. The main outcomes of the SAICM process are three key documents5: 1. At that level. Fig 2 L-R: KonchoraGuracha. and the roles of nongovernmental stakeholders and importance of partnerships. it reinforces the importance of issues such as the linkage of sound chemicals management to sustainable development and poverty eradication.3. adopted by Ministers.3.1. It reflects their “…firm commitment to the Strategic Approach and its implementation.2 Overarching Policy Strategy (OPS) The OPS provides information on the scope of SAICM. and outlines objectives. UNEP.basel. 2006 followed immediately after by also Kenya hosting the8th Meeting of the Conference of Parties for the Basel Convention on the Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Waste and their Disposal/ Its key outcome was the African resolve on dealing with the dumping of waste in Cote dDivore and the Nairobi Declaration On Environmentally Sound Disposal Of Electrical And Electronic Waste4.chem.
(c) buildingcapacity for risk assessment and interpretation. Promotion of training.ch/saicm/qsp. with the following elements of sound national chemicals management in mind (a) adequate legislation to address production.chem. Strengthening of legislative support for environmental and health protection in chemical management projects. targets. para. Initial capacity building activities for implementation of Strategic Approach objectives are beingsupported by a Quick Start Programme (QSP)6 in MEMR whose objective is to “support initial enabling capacity building and implementation activities in Other SAICM QSP projects Kenya is implementing are through UNEP and WHO for implementation of the Libreville Declaration on health and environment linkages and iLIMA capacity building for policy and legislation.g PCPB. 2004. activities. reducing chemical enterprises. structured in accordance with the five categories of SAICM objectives set out in the OPS. See also http://www. It is for use and as a working tool and guidance document for stakeholders implementing SAICM. (e) Capacitybuilding for implementation and enforcement. . The GPA contains 36 work areas. and indicators of progress related to SAICM implementation. actors. (d) Establishing of risk management policy. Carrying out wide information and awareness–raising activities on POPs. and 273 activities. Evaluation of the health and environmental implications of chemical processing plants through environmental impact assessments and audits. KEBS.4 Linkages between SAICM and Agenda 21 SAICM gives guidance to countries for the implementation relevant provisions of Agenda 21. and (h) Developing capacity to respond to emergencies.KEPHIS. (f) capacity buildingfor rehabilitation of contaminated sites and poisoned persons. 19.The GPA is a more detailed document that outlines proposed work areas. releases and eliminating the most hazardous sourcesnin industrial and agricultural investigating environmental contamination by POPs and taking joint activities for preventing adverse effects on human health and the environment. waste disposal (b) Information gathering and dissemination. Extending and strengthening international cooperation and collaboration relevant to POPs management especially among regulatory agenciese. Priority actions have been identified inter alia as follows: Collecting and disposing of obsolete pesticides innthe Northern and Central parts of Kenya by the Agrochemicals Association of Kenya. research and field studies on risk reduction to for protection of health and environment Since its ratification of the Stockholm Convention on 24th September. use. Pest Control Products Board NEMA developing draft legislation for air and hazardous waste Building institutional capacities/structures and strengthening interactions amongst concerned ministries. For the national SAICM capacity assessment. (g) effective education programmes.unep. NEMA. departments and agencies as well as civil society aimed at identifying the principal sources of chemical contamination. development partners and the private sector . timeframes. a practical approach has been taken by building upon and bringing together the core elements outlined above from past studies as follows: The main themes in all capacity needs assessments are related to the commitment to minimise risks to the health of populations and environments arising from chemical use through. transport. 1. Kenya has completed endorsement of the National Implementation Plan (NIP). 6 SAICM OPS.htm.
To some extent exchange of data obtained as a result of publiclye.5 Initiating Enabling Activities for SAICM Implementation The implementation of SAICM began with an enabling phase to build capacity to develop. Partnerships among stakeholders are beingencouraged as a way to implement plans. National SAICM Implementation Plan Development SAICM’s OPS notes that development of national implementation plans can be complemented by individual sector action plans on substantive topics of chemicals management. 7 8 (SAICM OPS paragraph 19 (a)) (SAICM OPS paragraph 23) 9 The UNITAR/IOMC document: http://www.g by horticultutre industries and development activities as well as technical design developments. Capacity Assessment and Priority Setting As called for by ICCM in relation to the SAICM QSP. Kenya National Cleaner Production Centre and civil society completing studies for the design of economic instruments for plastic waste management . For Kenya such workshop will be held at the end of November. an important enabling activity for national SAICM implementation is the development of a capacity assessment (especially identification of priorities) as an essential step towards preparing a SAICM implementation plan. including those for development cooperation7. and • Establish arrangements for implementing SAICM on an inter-institutional basis so that all concerned stakeholder interests are represented and all relevant substantive areas are addressed 89.org/cwg/publications/inp.2. Involving of civil society institutions in risk reduction advocacy activities NEMA in cooperation with Kenya Association of Manufacturers.unitar. 2010 with participation of UNITAR. In order to systematically prepare for the implementation of SAICM.aspx). the Kenyan governments is expected to: • integrate SAICM into relevant programmes and plans. Though it is not possible to implement the many possible actions outlined in the SAICM documents at once there is need to focus on addressing the most pressing needs with priority to those addressing Kenyan needs. Kenya Energy Generating Company.5. prepared Kenya for SAICM implementation in a coordinated manner promoting development of a sound governance structure that ensures the effective participation of all concerned parties within and outside of government. This takes into account situations and the need to focus on activities that address Kenya national needs and priorities.5. diagnosed the existing infrastructure for the sound management of chemicals as an important step towards building national capacity in a systematic way using UNITAR/IOMC National Profile guidance document is taking into account ICCM decisions. 1. Developing project concepts for the development of locally appropriate Best Available Techniques (BATs) and Best Environmental Practice ( BEP) by ilima.3.5. The above activities have laid the foundation for building capacity to implement SAICM in Kenya 1. with stakeholder workshop Conducted by the United Nations Institute for Training and Research UNITAR which hthe Kenya Quick Start Programme. 1. Minimizing the release of unintentionally-produced POPs from open burning and other activities. 1.1 National Profile Preparation The Kenya National Chemicals Profile. Greenbelt Movement. . audits and environmental impact assessment and privately funded researche. The list of the Steering Committee is attached.g water quality.
the capacity assessment is intended to document and evaluate existing national capacities for SAICM implementation. or between various stakeholder groups. and that chemical management issues are “mainstreamed” . and • to set the stage for preparation of a SAICM Implementation Plan which is linked to. parastatals and universities National SAICM Capacity Assessment Assessment of Governance Framework • • National Chemicals Management Programme / SAICM Implementation Framework Government Action • • Assessment of Chemicals ManagementIssues and • Governance Framework Chemical Management Action Plans Environmenta l NGOs) Stakeholder Action 2.PIEA Stakeholder Action Governmen t Ministries. an integrated national programme for sound chemicals management. it also generated valuable information for stakeholder groups to review and consider priorities for the development of action plans specific to their needs and categories. Suggested Process for Developing the Capacity Assessment Complementary SAICM Assessment Activities of Non-governmental Stakeholder Groups Tthe assessment revealed particular areas where two or more groups may wish to work together to achieve concrete results through partnership activities. Fig 3 summarises the processes followed in developing the capacity assessment document. as appropriate. Assessment of the Governance Framework 2. Specific objectives of the assessment include the following: • to catalyze a process of collaboration between government and stakeholders towards understanding and identifying priority needs for SAICM implementation in Kenya. Figure 1: Strategic for Development of a National SAICM Capacity Assessment (KAM and AAK.6 Objectives of the National Capacity Assessment Building on the information in a National chemicals profile and other sources. • to identify selected areas where partnership projects between government and stakeholder groups. • to facilitate identification of activities in the government and within stakeholder groups which collectively contribute to SAICM implementation. that working relationships for government and stakeholders in SAICM implementation are in place.1. However.1 Introduction Sound governance can provide an important enabling platform which can help to ensure that chemical management activities are effectively planned and co-ordinated. may be feasible.
evaluation of the sustainability of the capacity and infrastructure. use.2. Legislation and enforcement Legislation and associated regulations comprise an important component of national chemicals management. processing. These include. for example: multi-sectoral and multi-stakeholder consultation/participation in project design and implementation. and solid linkages of project and activity goals to overall programmatic priorities. Development of a National Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals allows Kenya to conduct a strategic evaluation of progress made and challenges faced at the national level towards reaching the WSSD 2020 goals and the targets established by SAICM. sound project planning. If chemicals-related activities are identified in development plans that represent the result of consensus-building at the national level. Illegal international traffic. building on the experiences gained and lessons learned from previous projects and activities. • • • • The Sessional Paper No 6 on Environment and Development The Agriculture Act Vision 2030 Industrialisation to the year 2020 2. The existence of a comprehensive and well coordinated legal framework can help to avoid piecemeal. disposaland recycling. donor support to chemicals-related activities may be more likely.2. is that it represents a long-term national commitment to chemicals management where relevant government sectors establish and participate in a national chemical safety coordinating mechanism.2.in national development planning.Integrating chemicals management into national development priorities National priorities related to chemicals management and SAICM implementation can be reflected in a number of ways. The main . through their appearance in a national sustainable development strategy or national poverty reduction strategy paper. local and enterprise levels.3. The An assessment of governance issues is to assist in ensuring that there is high-level support to implement SAICM and provide a basis for developing a coordinated national programme for SAICM implementation at the national .2. or conflicting regulations.2 Proposed Areas for the Governance Assessment Building upon the Dubai Declaration and the OPS. monitoring and evaluation Specific projects an assessment was made as to how concrete progress can be made towards building capacities for the sound management of chemicals and achievement of the WSSD 2020 Goal.4. manufacture. The following policies went an extra distance in addressing chemicals risks. Kenya Ports Authority and Public Health Department as well as KEBS are largely involved in the prevention of International traffic in Toxic and dangerous goods at the ports of entry.3. 2. The legislative framework should be integrated across all sectors and should seek to address the entire life cycle of chemicals. Sound institutional and programmatic national framework A core feature of a programmatic approach. 2. storage. Overarching legislation can establish a generic legal framework for the control of chemicals and make the basic principles of sound chemicals management legally binding. the following five areas are considered relevant for conducting a governance assessment: 3. for example. 2. monitoring and evaluation. transport.2. overlapping. while maintaining their independence to execute individual components and projects within their mandate and competence.1. including importation. 2.2. implementation. The Customs Department. A number of characteristics contribute towards the sustainable impact of capacity building projects. Project planning.
2. especially given increasing calls by government for this sector to work in partnerships in support of sustainable development. There is need to equip the laboratories at KEBS with modern efficient monitoring equipments in the regions. Civil society will be involved in certain aspects of chemicals management capacity building activities. ii) Inadequate/outdated and in most time lack of suitable equipment to analyser chemicals and hazardous wastes in many private and public laboratories iii) Lack of standards. can be a net contributor to supporting capacity building. i) Lack of capacity for trained personnel to manage the life cycle. for example. packing. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Strengthen the capacity of KEBS officers to manage chemicals/hazardous waste in international trade with regard to description. Establish infrastructure to undertake necessary testing of chemicals for management across the life cycle. Draft national standards to align with Globally Harmonized System for classification and labeling of chemicals.Constraints faced in the chemicals management across the life cycle includes:. Needs identified for National Capacity building concerning international chemical management. including awareness raising. health and safety in industry Establish infrastructure. iv) Inadequate facilities to test and control illegal international traffic in toxic and dangerous products. which facilitates local and International exchange of information on hazardous chemicals. Industrial managers and those responsible for environment. Multilateral organizations such as the GEF and the Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol.5 Participation of the private sector and civil society in chemicals management Major multinational companies in particular industry. labeling. systems can be developed that work on a cost recovery basis to ensure sustainability. handling and hazard classification of goods. Radiation laboratories at KEBS require equipment to test for radioactive elements in chemicals imported and traded internationally.2. Where industry is involved.\ .bodies controlling entry through clearance is the Customs department and the Ministry of Health (Public Health department). trainers. risks assessments and management procedures. v) Inadequate number of laboratories to conduct sufficient tests nationally. There is need to build capacity for training of technical personnel. recognize the potential of civil society and the private sector to assist governments in the “delivery” of chemicals management-related commitments. analysts.
.2.3 Preparing the Governance Assessment For each of the five issue areas outlined above.3. development plans and environmental management programs. Enterprises can be made to substitute where applicable. acutely toxic Chemicals with those chemicals with reduced risk and/or non-chemical alternatives using the PIC. Promote a national safe work program with special attention to the informal sector. waged workers and vulnerable groups. Prohibit or restrict availability and use of acutely toxic chemicals as per the MEAs where possible in ecologically sensitive areas. self employed. 1What Needs To Be Done Based on the information above it is apparent that more efforts have to be directed towards Incorporate a system of health and environmental impact assessment as a requirement for handling chemicals. Policies guidance to avoid excessive or inappropriate supplies in donor assistance activities through policy formulation Policies need to be made to institutionalize requirements to inventory of types and volumes of chemical imported for use in the country Reporting incidences of exposure to generate information on potential exposure need not be voluntary as is currently the case. Toxic Chemicals and ODSs under the the Montreal Protocol. Draft guidance documents to integrate chemical safety issues into poverty reduction strategies. completing the governance assessment involved providing information on the following: • Strength of existing capacities (high/medium/low) • Existing gaps or problems (if capacity is low) • Possible action(s) • Level of priority 2.
10 Draft Terms of Reference for interministerial coordination and KNCP . enterprises and institutions in Kenya now have health and safety committees and many now do have an Environmental Health Safety (EHS) Officer after the requirement by the Factories and other places of work Act10. implementing safety procedures for the handling of dangerous chemicals and reducing the generation of hazardous waste. i) Because of this. Kenya did an initial screening and identified a select number of them for which a more detailed assessment of capacities. In this case the horticulture industry is way ahead followed by veterinary and to less extent cosmetics. assess problems that may arise and identify populations and environments at risk. exposure assessment and risk assessment. Assessment of Capacities for Important Chemicals Management Issues 3. Ensure that product label statements have clear safety and use information through enterprise policies and action plans. monitor and evaluate health and environmental risks. The Kenya Association of Manufacturers under whose umbrella manufacturing fall address specific waste streams. gaps and possible actions could be undertaken. or inherent hazards. Such efforts should be supported by a sustained information flow sector wise. field-tested.2.2 Proposed Areas for the Chemicals Management Assessment 3. For the purposes of chemicals management. Stakeholders need to understand the risks however minimal. of chemicals or by controlling the nature and extent of exposures. Examples of risk reduction issues examined in the context of SAICM include safe handling and use of pesticides. iii) A number of alternatives on use of pesticides have been developed. persistent or bio accumulative products. Risk reduction The reduction of risks related to chemical exposure can encompass a broad range of options designed to limit adverse effects on health and the environment by reducing the availability. nationally and internationally. 3. and are in use on either for small or large scale and should be exploited. livestock and other sectors purely by private sector initiative. workplace safety. raise awareness. classification and labelling (GHS). Safe use Chemical programs for all sectors not just for horticulture or just for Chemicals in products of international trade Create awareness on appropriate storage. and prepare and respond to chemical accidents and emergencies. Examples include hazard identification. implement focused and effective risk management programmes. and promotion of safer alternatives.2. In light of the great number of these topics. Predominant information need in Kenya is that which affect trade.1 Information generation and dissemination Information is vital to a successful chemicals management programme. Many training workshops mainly for workplace safety have been conducted especially for the oil.1 Introduction The basis for SAICM implementation was at negotiation stage what was considered as concrete actions which SAICM refers to a number of more specific work areas and chemicals management topics. many industries. horticultural. Risks may be reduced through the elimination or reduction of the use of hazardous materials. information is required to: identify chemicals of concern. Some Capacity built can be described as follows. distribution and application of Toxic chemicals Specific cross-references are provided to the more detailed recommendations and activities included in SAICM GPA. The fish industry is especially focusing on ensuring that toxic elements do not reach maximum residue levels to meet the market demand and EU Standards. 3. substituting less toxic.2. ii) Some sectors such as the horticulture is now having Sector Code of ethics perhaps driven by demands made by consumers in the European Union Market.
b) On information Management and dissemination. Beneficiaries of current programs are private companies. management and communications has been made resulting in alternatives to toxic Chemicals and hazardous processes. and guidance materials for recording. The types of equipment available in organizations were stated as scanners. Environmental Management. threats and risks. including employers. 3.3.1 Possible Partnership Projects a) For research. calls for a widespread awareness of the potential risks associated with the use of chemicals and chemical accidents. pastoralists and leaders.iv) Research on risk assessment. printers. PC. paper and CD Rom. 90% of respondents showed that Information Technology Unit is responsible for maintenance of databases. there is need to develop and implement relevant approaches. Provide and share information on chemicals. Environment. law. topographical maps. External (internet). employees and government. Organization involved in chemical management include National Environmental Authority (NEMA) and MEMR organizations offer education and training in the following area of expertise. Up scaling organic farming. These alternatives and processes include examples in: Integrated pest management (IPM) approaches. results of monitoring programs or regular work. Stakeholders should commit to sharing information on options for effective action to protect children and communities from chemical exposures. industry. The type of data that organizations hold are tabular data. This in turn. CD writers..2. 50% of those consulted indicate that organizations are connected to data networks i. 3. satellite images and books and references. monitoring and data management Establishing a national chemicals network CIEN currently established should be maintained at national level also at additionally at either GCD or NEMA. Exploring alternative containers other than plastics that are biodegradable. students. Environmental Education. and chemical safety in the workplace in forms and languages suitable and convenient to the workplace participants. collecting.e. and an understanding of the ways in which chemicals can be handled safely in mining/Energy. Communication on containment of the obsolete Toxic Chemicals pesticides to minimize environmental contamination and impacts on public health including of substance management in the school curriculum. Education and awareness rising Cooperation among relevant government authorities. commercial farms so as to bring them here to discuss their possible inputs and outputs of information and data. civil society. farmers. universities. Production of videos showing impacts of chemicals poisoning and pamphlets Creation of a national register on toxic chemicals at county levels . At the workplace. and analysing workplace data. workers. Sensitize all teaching institutions. Environmental risk management. non-governmental organisations and the public is fundamental to sound national chemicals management is critical if risk reduction is to be a policy at national and enterprise levels. research industry. standards. Environmental management training in school curriculum to include toxic substances management. geotechnical maps. geological maps. Information and Public participation and Health. government departments.3. Recycling of certain chemicals and plastic containers after use of pesticides. Data exchange is through email. Archival data are available in different types of format like paper and computer discs.
Chemical accidents and incidents can negatively impact human health and the environment. BSc Chemistry. for POPs in the environment. or hazard communication program and to be responsive to the Directorate of Occupational Health and Safety Services (DOHSS) and its regulations Engineering controls include eliminating toxic chemicals and substituting non-toxic chemicals. It appears therefore that attention should be focused more on the unsafe acts in the accident reduction/preventive strategies. microscopes. LD100. plant tissue and animal tissue. Some laboratories like Kenya Plant Health Inspectorate Service. occupational accidents are end products of unsafe acts and unsafe conditions of work. • • • • • . No Toxic chemicals are analysed at Olkaria geochemistry. General Service staffs in other laboratories are insignificant. spectrometers. and the ability to support health and environmental surveillance (e. lab equipment for soil and plant tissue analysis including x-ray. or for chemical contamination in ground water). UV. treatment and control. Higher National Diploma and Ordinary Diploma.4 Analytical and laboratory capacity Laboratory facilities and analytical capacity help support programmes and policies for the sound management of chemicals through regulatory chemical analysis. DDT. LD50. PH meters. 3. ion selective meter. 50 % staff working in laboratories as full time staff. Kenya Plant Health Inspectorate Service laboratory analyses all Toxic chemicals in the soil water. cationic analysis done using AAS. ion chromatograph. The key ones analysed are in appendix B Most laboratories were located in Nairobi and were affiliated to academia such as University of Nairobi Chemistry department and various labs in college of Health Science. They constitute the immediate cause.s flame photometer. Occupational Health and Safety. 50% of the laboratories have adequate housing facilities. EPA methods. gas chromatographs. • Laboratories like Entomology Division of Vector Borne Diseases in Nairobi have up to 25 full time staff. GC. Today. Professional and General Service Staff have the following qualifications. insect sampling devices ie light traps. Proper emergency response procedures need to be in place in cases when an accident cannot be prevented. Medicine. library. The issue of analytical and laboratory capacities is referenced several times in the SAICM GPA. Other laboratories have equipment’s such as . Radon emission meters. enclosing work processes or confining work operations. Most laboratories lack sufficient equipment’s for proper analysis. These unsafe acts and conditions are the surface and observable causes. occupational health. Methods applied include laboratory tests. NMR. National Agricultural Research laboratory (NARL) Kabete have computers and internet facilities and library for data storage. MSc. Generally speaking.2 Accident prevention and control Dangerous occurrences as described in the factories and other places of Work Act Cap. PHD. Heptachlor are analyzed at university of Nairobi Chemistry department.3. as well as result in a loss of income for enterprises that experience such accidents. Most laboratories do not have the capacity and capability for analysis for Toxic chemicals. However some organizations like NCC do not have modern housing facilities. They are also symptoms of deeply rooted factors remote from the workstations. for pesticide or workplace exposures. Centrifuges. Aldrin. HPLC.3. nearly every employer is required to implement the elements of an industrial hygiene and safety. Microbiology Clinical Chemistry and Kenya Bureau Standards. and the installation of general and local ventilation systems.2. Examples of issues to be considered under SAICM include chemicals accidents and poisoning prevention. 15 professional staff and 5 General Service Staff.514.g. community views OECD methods. Statistics have shown that 15% of all accidents are attributed to unsafe conditions while 85% are attributed to unsafe acts. monitoring capacity. assorted laboratory glassware. the later is used to analyze chemical species of interest to geothermal development. field observation. The answered questionnaires indicate that Kenyatta National Hospital lacks proper equipment.
3. 4. an assessment of the capacities. and determine their importance and priority. such as classification and labelling. a list of possible national priorities for action and opportunities for partnership projects was identified. 70% of the organizations do not have publications. and for which partnerships could be initiated. The results of the capacity assessment and Proposals for action. gaps and possible actions provided a basis for identifying SAICM implementation activities considered most relevant. training. 3. various chemicals management issues. Most laboratories Store their data in computers.6 Summary Assessment: Chemicals Management Issues and Priorities • • • The identified priority chemicals management issues. The Worksheet in Annex 2 was used to assist in identifying the priorities of the various stakeholder groups and making a summary assessment. safe handling and use of pesticides. Laboratories Kenyatta National hospital do not store data. files and diskettes as a backup in a computerized system.3 Identifying Important and Urgent Chemicals Management Issues In identifying issues considered important.• • • • Analysis by wet method used in ion chromatograph gas analysis of DDT. or chemical accidents. Dildrin. stakeholder groups review. 3. is AOAC and journal upgrades.4 Conducting an Initial Capacity Assessment for Important and Urgent Once an initial listing of priority issues was developed. from their perspectives. The capacity assessment of important and urgent chemicals management issues can indicate which activities and actions are of highest priority and also activities and actions suitable to partnerships projects involving two or more stakeholder groups. at University of Nairobi Chemistry Department.5 Identifying Opportunities for Partnership Projects (Step 3) Through completion of the set of worksheets for chemicals management issues. .
Prioritization on research issues of environmental health risks Establish collaboration and synergy among the various institutional programs Legislation and centralized authority to regulate and coordination related research programs Promote public involvement in chemical related issues through consultative meetings with the public. Kenya’s NGOs and CBOs especially those in health. etc. identifying their priorities through a PRA. •In selecting technology. Ensure workers are aware and actually take part in regulatory decision-making processes that relate to chemical safety especially in agriculture and small-scale industries through extension services. •Quantify and highlight the multiple beneficial impacts of waste management such as on climate change mitigation. technology support. national. to identify key entry points for public participation in the decision-making process. and innovative financing mechanisms. preliminary training and then giving them direct financial support for their implementation. Support to community initiatives addressing environmental conservation and poverty alleviation issues is especially critical to the success of the NIP. • Establish demonstration/pilot projects and disseminate the results through the media especially to policymakers. environmental and health NGOs. academia/research/professional bodies. NGOs and CBOs. work with the local media to convey messages to policymakers. agriculture and environment sectors may need to be adequately involved in implementation of the SAICM. Opportunities for partnership projects involving government and relevant stakeholder groups (industry. •Establish regional and/or sub-regional mechanisms required to develop waste management plans that motivate policymakers. policy dialogues. • Establish graduate certificate courses in waste management to develop qualified waste management professionals. tourism.8Common priorities and Promote public awareness on proper and safe use of chemicals.3. including reduction of waste at the source. • Raise solid waste management as an issue of public interest at the national level. labour organizations. •Support higher educational institutions and other expert institutions in assessing technologies that can be adopted under local conditions. distributors and the local communities to achieve proper management of chemicals. and civil society organizations to support information dissemination. • Establish global mechanisms for international agencies and institutions. research and academia. Provision of communication channels for conflict resolution. • Develop very comprehensive waste management policies covering all aspects of waste management. and poverty alleviation. give strong consideration to local capacity in the areas of operation and maintenance. capacity development. • Harmonize data collection and analysis to facilitate effective waste management. • Establish closer linkages with solid waste management and other major challenges such as climate change mitigation and attainment of the MDGs. national and local governments. Those institutions that are already on the ground dealing with these issues require technical support/supervision for effective implementation of the conventions . Cultivate goodwill and collaboration among manufacturers. This should involve the identification of firms. multilateral financing institutions.) or partnerships between two or more different stakeholder groups. •Enhance public-private dialogues on concepts and approaches in order to improve resource efficiencies. 3. and regional levels • Clarify the conditions and steps required for decoupling resource use and economic growth and disseminate this information to macro-level policymakers.7 Opportunities for Partnership Projects • Promote partnerships among different levels and stakeholders. including women • Develop models for waste management in unique and specific local conditions • Encourage and support development of comprehensive action plans at the local.
1 Mechanisms for Integrating Chemicals Management into Development Priorities 1 Develop national profiles and implement action plans for sound management of chemicals Medium 24. medium or low 20 . Give appropriate priority to pest and pesticide management in national sustainable development strategies and poverty reduction papers to enable access to relevant technical and financial assistance. L Established SAICM Secretariat office but has inadequate capacity • Draft National Chemicals Profile developed • Implementation of action plans not yet undertaken • Plans three years behind schedule as per the SAICM timetable due to funding difficulties Pesticide management not addressed in government policies and strategy though there is a legislation on it • • • • Strengthen SAICM Secretariat in MEMR to lead in implementation of SAICM Conclude NCP and develop capacity and policy Develop SAICM policy as means of addressing capacity needs High High Medium M To be included in Kenyan development strategies including Vision 2030 L Kenya National Bureau of Statistics(KNBS) has general data but not specific on chemicals especially those regulated by the Rotterdam and the Stockholm Conventions SAICM Secretariat to request for collection of data on chemicals to be included in the KNBS database for ease of retrieval and as a way of addressing knowledge and information on risky chemicals M 11 12 High. including appropriate technology 181 .Annex 1: Worksheet for Governance Assessment Please refer to section 3 and Annex 4 of this guidance document when completing these tables. Establish the capacity to collect and analyse social and economic data. A.1 Integrating Chemicals Management into National Development Priorities Category 11 Level of Summary of Strengths existing and Gaps (related GPA activities) capacities12: Possible action Urgency & importanc e of taking action: 1.
184 Include capacity-building for the sound management of chemicals as one of the priorities in national poverty reduction strategies and country assistance strategies. use and management. consistent with Principle 16 of the Rio Declaration. L Principle 16 not domesticated though Kenya has signed the Libreville Declaration on health and environmental linkages -Polluter pays principle should be considered through relevant policy -Libreville declaration effected M L No methodology for integrating chemicals into government development strategies Sound management of chemicals not included as a priority in national development policies and strategies An effective system should be developed for integrating chemical mgt into social and development strategies if not adopted Mainstream SAICM in Kenya Vision 2030 Capacity building included as a priority in national development. Consider and apply approaches to the internalization of the costs to human health.182 . Strategies Relevant departments be involved in implementing SAICM Mutual supportiveness should be enhanced between Ministry of Trade and that MEMR An effective inter-ministerial coordination committee should be established the capacity to undertake social and economic impact assessment should be enhanced M L M L The policy on collaboration on chemical trade not elaborate and at the moment is adhoc Inadequate collaboration within Ministries and specialised departments on issues touching on chemicals because they are too specialised Issues of social and economic impact included in EIA and audits but not adequate on chemical management as most EIA and EA experts do not appreciate the complexities of chemicals and hazardous waste management M L H M M Annex 1: Worksheet for Governance Assessment 21 . 183 Develop methodologies and approaches for integrating chemicals management into social and development strategies. society and the environment of the production and use of chemicals. 205 Ensure mutual supportiveness between trade and environment policies 225 Integrate the sound management of chemicals capacity within ministries involved in supporting chemicals production. 257 Establish the capacity to undertake social and economic impact assessment.
1 Establishing an Inter-ministerial Coordination Mechanism .alcohol.g methanol . Identify draft programme on priority chemicals e.Establish national multi-stakeholder coordination bodies on chemicals to provide information and increase awareness of their risk 197. 166. Low Develop action plan for Rotterdam PIC Convention Formalise cleaner production concept in Kenya High because Action Plan on PIC will cut across SAICM objectives Medium To increase participation These priority chemicals are anational crises e. Formalise interministrial coordination. 195. 195. including coordination of national Government and multi-stakeholder positions in international meetings.g. 252) 56 Articulate an integrated approach to chemicals management taking into account multilateral environmental agreements and strategies that target a broad spectrum of chemicals.2 A Sound Institutional and Programmatic National Framework Category Level of (and related GPA activities) existing capacities13: Summary of Strengths and Gaps Possible action Urgency & importance of taking action: 2. Low Kenya is party to all chemicals and waste MEAs • 2006 EMCA waste regulations • Policy of medical waste • ODS regulations • NIP for POPs • No action for Rotterdam PIC Convention -SAICM process initiated -Oil and pesticide sector programmes fairly advanced/ -Programme on industrial and consumer chemicals not so advanced.fluoride. Currently no programme Develop Policy on industrial and consumer chemicals.Incorporate capacity-building strategies and promote activities to enhance each country’s legal and institutional framework for implementing chemical safety across all relevant ministries and Government agencies 13 High High High Capacity currently is low Incorporate capacitybuilding strategies b High 22 . lead cadmium. -Plastic policy developed. mercury and nitrates.A.(56. High 166 Formalize inter-ministerial and multi-stakeholder coordinating mechanisms on chemicals management issues. 197.
g. compilation and use of additional scientific data 89. 207.(164. ePromis and CIEN in the ministries Generate and share information giving priority to the most hazardous and toxic High \low High High low High 23 .2 Setting National Priorities . Medium Finalise coordination \mechanism Develop county profiles Highly Urgent for national priorities Medium medium medium Develop mechanism to share information IPM being Promoted in many sectors low low No harmonised data among institutions dealing with chemicals Partnerships not publicised although some exist People are not aware except in established industries through insurance health and safety programmes ICIPE taling Lead Set harmonised data Develop partnership projects and publicise them e. including categorization by. Provide assistance and training for the development of national profiles 227 Strengthen mechanisms for reporting and consolidating information necessary to produce baseline overviews that will help determine domestic management priorities and gaps (e. 77 Provide for national collection of harmonized data. type of poison. -Other sectors e. 165 Have in place multi-sectoral and multi-stakeholder mechanisms to develop national profiles and priority actions 207.3 Information Exchange Mechanisms 9 Develop mechanisms to share and disseminate information that can be used to reduce uncertainty in risk assessment 36 Provide extension and advisory services and farmer organizations with information on integrated pest management strategies and methods. PRTRs and inventories). Generate and share information detailing the inherent hazards of all chemicals in commerce. chemical identity. giving priority to hazard information for those chemicals that have the low A draft National Chemical Profile developed Draft interministerial coordination mechanism developed National profile exist County profile need to be developed Devise participatory response to chemicals management to gold mining. informal industrial these sectors and urban household High because many diseases manifested. oil industry. 227) -Horticulture. use or function. 2. 165. capacity is good. structure. Encourage partnerships to promote activities aimed at the collection.. 88.g.2.g gold mining and informal industrial sector and Urban household Not good. for example. taking into account industry reporting initiatives.
Database lacking at NEMA. Medium Low High Medium Medium High To reduce the risk period and create awareness High. -Technical information in most sectors in soft form. Strengthen the exchange of technical information among the academic. Consider establishing a clearing-house for information on chemical safety to optimize the use of resources. 113. 116 Facilitate access to research results related to alternative pest control (both chemical and non-chemical) and crop protection measures by pesticide users.g. KEPHIS. Encourage and facilitate exchange of information.109 113 & 115 106.ILRI Enhance facilitation to access research data on alternatives to toxic pesticides. responsibilities and accountabilities of Governments. -IVM/IPM in place -Strong institutions looking into non chemical alternatives e. industrial. Develop manuals on chemicals risk management Established Institutions with information e. CIEN website in progress. regional and international stakeholders 106 . 115. their users and extension services to risk reduction. those exposed to pesticides and extension services. Establish national priorities for information generation for chemicals that are not produced in high volumes 93. PCPB in place ICT Policy. Improve the information base. in particular in developing countries. KRA. Government Portals. Promote the establishment of generally applicable guidelines on the respective roles. technology and expertise within and among countries by both the public and private sectors for risk reduction and mitigation.greatest potential for substantial or significant exposures 90. 105. Establish information exchange mechanisms on contamination in border areas. government chemist. producing and importing enterprises and suppliers of chemicals concerning the generation and assessment of hazard information 103. Eliminate barriers to information exchange for the sound management of chemicals in order to enhance communication among national. ensuring that information reaches appropriate target groups to enable their empowerment and ensure their right to know. including via electronic media such as the Internet and CD ROMs. governmental and intergovernmental sectors. regional and international levels Medium chemicals low Low Guidelines and standards on chemicals and products. MoT. Strengthen and promote the exchange of information at the country level and at regional level Strengthen and promote information on risk reduction and mitigation at national and county levels.g. which is easily exchanged except in some government sectors -Some risk reduction and mitigation measures existing Promote applicable standards and guidelines among sectors Enforce EAC and other transit regulations Establish a clearing House for information using CIEN and MEMR website Eliminate barriers and enhance communication among national stakeholders by removing secrecy on data. 109. ICIPE-a proposed Stockholm convention regional centre This item is an IOMC responsibility Low Training on CIEN Database exists at ICIPE. DOHSS High High 24 . subregional. website in place. 208 & 209 210 Promote the development of databases based on scientific assessment and the establishment of centres for the collection and exchange of information at the national.
Capacity assessment not yet done • • 222. bilateral and multilateral financing institutions Create awareness on High High 25 .. • Conduct capacity assessment for chemical management at the county levels. Monitoring and Evaluation Category Level of (GPA activities) existing capacities: Summary of Strengths and Gaps Possible action Urgency & importance of taking action: 3.g. Low • • There exist a focal ministry to mobilise financial and technical resources for implementation of national plans and projects from GED. Develop competencies and capacities for the national planning of projects relevant to the management of chemicals Low • There are in general competencies in project planning but not in chemical management/projects.214. MF and the SAICM Trust Fund There is human resource in related sectors but need capacity enhancement. INFOCAP for exchanging information and increasing coordination and cooperation on capacity building activities for chemical safety Low None Promote contribution to and use of INFOCAP medium A.1 Project Planning 217. Promote contributions to and use of. to orientate them to project formulation mode • • • • Inadequate financial resources for rolling out plans and projects • Lack of awareness of plans and projects on chemical management • Develop competencies in project planning in chemical /waste management.3 Effective Project Planning. e. Develop resources for national implementation plans and projects. Strengthen mobilisation of resources for implementation of national plans and projects Strengthen human capacity for implementation of plans and projects Prepare project proposals for resource mobilisation by through national budgets. Implementation.
among and by key stakeholders 3. Develop a targeted process to assess and monitor levels of a discrete number of priority contaminants in the environment. nitrates.g. development.g lead. but capacities are weak No targeted to assess and monitor priority contaminants in environment 83. KARI.KEBS • Develop targeted programmes to monitor priority contaminants in environment • Strengthen human and analytical capacities of research institutions • Provide incentives for scientific High High 26 . fluoride No consistent evaluation of susceptibility and exposure of chemicals among population segments • 81. Low • • There are dedicated national analytical research laboratories. validate and share reliable.. Water Quality Laboratory.2 Monitoring and Evaluation 80. Develop and establish targeted risk assessment approaches to evaluating exposure and impacts. affordable and practical analytical techniques for monitoring substances for which there is significant concern in environmental media and biological samples. women) have different susceptibility and/or exposure on a chemical-by-chemical basis in order of priority Medium • • Enhance research on human exposure to chemicals. Evaluate whether different segments of the population (e. Medium national plans and projects on chemical management Expand risk assessment of exposure to chemicals to cover all places Develop targeted risk assessment protocol for all chemicals High • There is a ministerial division to conduct risk assessment of exposure to chemicals but limited to work places No targeted risk assessment protocols for exposure to most chemicals Research has been conducted on human exposure to chemical but limited to only a few chemicals and not consistently e. including socio-economic impacts and chronic and synergistic effects of chemicals on human health and the environment. Develop. Develop scientific knowledge to strengthen and accelerate innovation. Develop evaluation tool for assessment of susceptibility exposure to chemicals to population segments High • • • 82. children. research. e-waste etc • Enhance capacity of analytical laboratories at the Government Chemist. training and education that promote sustainability Medium • • There are national institutions for research but lack adequate technical capacity There is low levels of scientific innovations Follow through complaints on some chemicals such as arsenic.
g.• 84. but • limited activities on management Inadequate human and technical resources for quality research on chemicals • Strengthen research institution to undertake research on chemical management • Develop human and technical research capacity on chemicals Build capacity for institutions undertaking chemicals risk High 131. Low • Institutions in place for chemical risk assessment. KEBS controlling specialised/priority chemicals. harmonization of risk assessment methods. but have limited capacity High 27 . mercury Survey • • 86 Design mechanisms to enable investigators from less developed countries to participate in the development of information on risk reduction 87 Fill gaps in scientific knowledge (e.. Pesticides but do not collect data on use patterns No comprehensive risk assessment for priority chemicals • Conduct survey for • chemical use patterns in the country Develop harmonised protocol for chemical use patterns for selected chemicals. Low Low • There are research institutions. gaps in understanding of endocrine disruptors). KEPHIS. arsenic survey. Medium • KNCPC established to promote • cleaner production. Innovations Increase financial resources for training and education Strengthen human and technical capacity of KNCPC Medium • Source for funds for research into technology and suitable alternatives from multilateral funds. Provide incentives for use of less polluting technology and suitable alternatives High • 85. Address gaps in the development of new tools for risk assessment. Utilise on ongoing programmes such as POPs Global Monitoring. Collect data on the use patterns of chemicals for which there is a reasonable basis of concern where necessary to support risk assessment characterization and communication Low • There are institutions PCPB. Inadequate financial resources for research into technology and suitable alternatives or adoption of available technologies. Promote research into technologies and alternatives that are less resource intensive and less polluting. but has limited human and technical resources.
interpret and apply knowledge on risks 136. Develop common principles for harmonized approaches for performing and reporting health and environmental risk assessments • No harmonised tools for risk assessment Low • Institutions in place for chemical risk assessment. but have limited capacity • No harmonised approach for • performing and reporting health and environment risk assessment No contribution to WHO chemical injuries database assessment Harmonise tools for chemical risk assessment Build capacity for institutions undertaking chemicals risk assessment • Develop common principals for performing and reporting health and environment risk assessment • Start poison centres Liaise with insurance for accidents reporting Utilise health and Safety Officers to report on chemicals accidents Strengthen institutions conducting biological indicators Develop harmonised protocol for biological indicators and chemicals High 254. but have limited capacity for chemicals No harmonised indicators for biological monitoring High • 28 . Undertake capacity-building in identifying and monitoring biological indicators Low • Institutions in place for identifying and monitoring biological indicators risk assessment.better methods to estimate the impacts of chemicals on health in real-life situations and the ability to access.
including non-governmental organizations.5 Participation of the Private Sector and Civil Society in Chemicals Management Category Level of Summary of Strengths (and related GPA activities) existing and Gaps capacities: 5. 266) 187. with a view to finding common ground and agreement among affected sectors of society on critical issues that impede efforts to achieve the sound management of chemicals.1 Stakeholder Participation (187. such as mediated discussions. 206. (206) Include civil society representatives in Government committees formulating. workers and trade unions in all enterprises – private. 196. Medium Possible action Urgency & importance of taking action: High and need for private sector involvement • • • The civil and private sector already involved in SAICM implementation processes Inter-ministerial coordination mechanisms being developed involving the civil society and private sector No collaborative mechanism in place on sharing technology and research on risks and corrective action • Initiate collaborative mechanism to address technology information sharing and research among all stakeholders in chemicals management 29 . Develop a framework to promote the active involvement of all stakeholders.A. (245) Develop mechanisms to facilitate collaborative national and international research and shared technology. public and civil service (formal and informal sector) – in the sound management of chemicals and wastes (196) Explore innovative consultation processes. managers. 245. (266) Expand the level of coordination and cooperation among all stakeholders. carrying out and monitoring SAICM implementation plans.
5.g. High • • • ( 190) . energy efficiency . Medium • Some Voluntary initiatives in place e.ISO 14000 Certification awards Private sector was part of formation of the FAO code of conduct and implementation through the AgroChem Fire Surveys CSR initiatives in place but are not specifically chemical related risks mitigations Encourage more sectors to participate in the voluntary initiatives High Enforcement capacity may not be adequate • The CSR initiatives need to be enhanced by way of channelling part of CSR funds towards chemical related risks and incidents responses and education and awareness initiatives Medium (236) Develop tools to assist industry to provide simplified chemicals information to Government and individual users.2VoluntaryInitiatives in the Private Sector (189) Encourage use of voluntary initiatives (e. including through the development of approaches that reduce human and environmental risks for all and do not simply transfer risks to those least able to address them. Promote corporate social responsibility for the safe production and use of all products. This may include provision of financial support and training in chemical safety agreements and concepts Low • No known initiative on provision either financial or capacity building to private sector and civil society • need for budgetary provision on capacity building for private sector and civil society in chemical safety Medium 30 . Medium • Encourage more private sector players to provide the information through ISO 14000 certification High Capacities of Civil Society (188) Build the capacities of NGOs.g. Responsible Care and FAO Code of Conduct). civil society and communities in developing countries so that their responsible and active participation is facilitated..
requiring that workplace risk assessments and hazard prevention measures be carried out based on the recognized hierarchy of prevention and control measures.. ILO conventions and IMO conventions related to chemicals such as the TBT Convention) and ensuring that necessary procedures are put into place. including such sectors as agriculture and health.g. 169) Promote ratification and implementation of all relevant international instruments on chemicals and hazardous waste.1 Legislation. Stockholm Convention. Medium OHSA 2007 in place EMCA 1999 Draft chemical & air quality regulation in place • No clear guideline on pollution prevention Draft OHS policy in place • • • • • Develop pollution prevention guidelines Finalize chemical and air quality regulations medium High 15 Develop national occupational safety and health policies containing specific text on chemicals management. 45) Incorporate the concept of pollution prevention in policies. covering the entire spectrum of work situations in which chemicals are handled. Basel Convention. unintentional toxic emissions and hazardous wastes at the most advantageous point in the chemical life cycle. with a clear emphasis on preventive measures. encouraging and improving partnerships and coordination (e. Medium • 121) Utilize the life-cycle management concept to identify priority gaps in chemicals management regimes and practices and to design actions to address gaps in order to identify opportunities to manage hazardous products.A. Consider legislation to protect the health of workers and the public.4 Legislation and Enforcement Category GPA activities Level of existing capacities: Summary of Strengths and Gaps Possible action Urgency & importance of taking action: 4. Regulations and Policies – General 12. Rotterdam Convention. 171) Consider approaches to facilitate and strengthen synergies and coordination between chemicals and waste Medium FAO pesticides guidelines adopted • WHO public health pesticides guidelines in draft SAICM in place Medium Ratified all Partially domesticated some Draft regulations to domesticate others Fully domesticate Finalize regulations 32 Medium SAICM adopted Joint plan of actions being . programmes and activities on chemicals management Medium/low Finalize OHS policy Medium Medium Incorporated in programmes and activities Policy not yet developed • • Prepare pollution prevention guidelines Develop policy medium Medium 46) Support the further development and adoption of FAO and WHO specifications on pesticides.
2 Exposure Assessment (2. 94. 4.1 Information generation and dissemination Stakeholder Group Stakeholder Input Priority Reason for Judgment (22) – Low (95. 34.2/INF/12 Annex 1 Annex 2: Worksheet for Identification of Important and Urgent Chemicals Management Issues Please refer to section 4. B. 91. 107. 97. Classification and Labelling (GHS) (11. 96) – high (97) 1. 101. 99. 95. 9. __Private sector__ Stakeholder Group Priority Rating for Chemicals Management ---------------------------Potential Priority for Development Planning High GCD to start the training programme possibly with UNITAR 34 . radiating substances High Inventory and Programme with DOHSS Government __Civil society__ Category (and related GPA activities) 1. e.SAICM/RM/Afr. 108. pesticides. 22.g lead. 249. 66) Low Already established in the OSHA act No known mechanism in place on the approaches Routinely implemented Few demands and requests low Lack of appreciation Medium Company requirements to OSHA. 96. 250) Priority Reason for Judgment (11) – Medium (91) – High (92) High Priority Reason for Judgment Need for enforcement since they are anchored in OSHA act No agreement already existing. 35.1 Hazard Identification.3 and Annex 4 of this guidance document when completing these tables. 168. 92. 100.
29. 49. 37. 142. 167) 2. 146. 52) 2. 16. 31. 155. 13. 145. 42. 243) Preventive strategies in place for pesticides and hydrocarbons but not others Cannot access and interpret chemicals knowledge adequately 35 . 57. 33. 30. 198) 2.6 Obsolete Pesticides and Wastes (47. 39. 143. 140. 79.3 Chemical Safety in the Workplace (12. 40. 48.2/INF/12 Annex 1 B.SAICM/RM/Afr.4 Chemical-Specific Risk Reduction (20. 19.2 Safe Handling and Use of Pesticides (23. 50. 30. 68. 60) 2. 14.5 Industry-sector Specific Risk Reduction (19. 144. 27. 25. 149. 28. 58. 139. 32. 80. 98. 15.2 Risk Reduction Stakeholder Input Priority High / Medium / Low Medium Reason for Judgment Government Civil Society Private Sector Priority Rating for Chemicals Management --------------------------Potential Priority for Development Planning Related GPA activities Priority High / Medium / Low High Reason for Judgment Priority High / Medium / Low Reason for Judgment 2. 148) 2. 59. 2. 138.1 Chemical Safety – General (6.
73. 160) B. 146. 231. 150. 244. 270) High Low Medium 36 . 230. 273) 2. 62. 36. 51. 161. 272. 156.SAICM/RM/Afr. 240. 69.2 Information Dissemination (17. 229. insurance and trade demands Foe selected chemicals such as greasers. 233.8 Promote Safer Alternatives (53. 84. 72. 259. 123. 255. pesticides and fertilisers As dictated by sets of chemical types and circumstances Stakeholder Input Priority Rating for Chemicals Management ---------------------------Potential Priority for Development Planning High With workers and post graduate programmes High All national institutions with a focus in chemicals life cycle Risk Assessment training with UNITAR 3. 18.2/INF/12 Annex 1 2. 111. 134. 122. 70. 157.7 Prevention and Control of Chemical Pollution and Waste (67.3 Training (41. refrigerants. 158. 258. 262.1 Education (110. 112. 234.3 Education and awareness raising Government Priority Reason for Judgment Medium Many trained chemists but not aligned to risk reduction programmes Higher education institutions do not get appropriate information It is its mandate medium Stakeholder Group Civil Society Category (and related GPA activities) Priority Reason for Judgment Only those chemicals causing problems Low number of people interested in chemicals management It’s not its responsibility high Stakeholder Group Private sector_ Priority Reason for Judgment To comply with OSHA . 154) 3. 162. 159. 83. 52. 251. 71. 163) High low High 3. 238. 54. 260. 253. 232. 218.
SAICM/RM/Afr. Treatment and Control (5. armed forces and some local authorities Poison centre mandate Forensic facilities at GCD.2 Poisoning Prevention. Initiatives to be started in the NDC in all key institutions 4. 74. 75. 78) High No known initiative in place. National Disaster Centre tends to be inclined more on floods For the police. Accidents in laboratories 37 . 76. Some concern in the informal sector high 4.1 Chemical Accidents (48. No equipment and appropriately trained personnel Frequent accidents in the transport of hydrocarbons. 221. With exception of pharmacies and Poisons Board. Insurance industry greatly concerned. No other centre has set up to handle the actual emergencies medium Mostly in horticulture industry.4 Accident prevention and control Stakeholder Input Category (and related GPA activities) Priority Reason for Judgment Government Stakeholder Group Civil society Priority Reason for Judgment Stakeholder Group Private sector __[name of group]__ Priority Reason for Judgment Priority Rating for Chemicals Management --------------------------Potential Priority for Development Planning Emergency preparedness initiatives in all major towns. 237) High High Frequent poisonings due to illicit drinks and agrochemicals High No organised mechanism for inland chemicals response. Fire accidents in the paint industry Material safety data sheets for chemicals handled-used are available and accessible to all.2/INF/12 Annex 1 B.
Strengthen NEMA to initiate and drive such programmes 38 . 228.5 Analytical and laboratory capacity Stakeholder Group __Civil Society Stakeholder Group Private sector Priority Rating for Chemicals Management ---------------------------Potential Priority for Development Planning Stakeholder Input Government Category (and related GPA activities) 5.1 Analytical and Laboratory Capacities (63.2/INF/12 Annex 1 B. 246. KEPHIS District environment committees Develop specific targeted projects Urgency & importance of taking action: High / Medium / Low -Follow up on NIP for POPs -Form a task team Align projects to 2011 Financial Year refer to section 4. Priority Reason for Judgment There are many quality control laboratories especially for manufacturing industries. research and forensic Priority Reason for Judgment iLima has been following up on mercury analysis for consumer products. fluoride contamination Develop effective risk management programmes Capacity Gaps No defined research or survey agenda for chemicals contamination Lack of human and budgetary resources and policy Possible Action Develop targeted surveys Concerned Actors MWI. 220. eg Marsabit cancer cases.SAICM/RM/Afr. 219. 181. quality control standardisation and Pre shipment High pesticide or workplace exposures POPs in the environment. 247.1 Information generation and dissemination Chemicals Management Issue Area Assess problems that may arise and identify populations and environments at risk. GCD.4 of this guidance document when completing these tables. 248) Priority Reason for Judgment For institutions . chemical contamination in ground water High Medium High : Worksheet for the Capacity Assessment of Important and Urgent Chemicals Management Issues B. 82.
MEMR. AAK. DOHSS and MoA No institution charged with follow up on chemical accidents B.2/INF/12 Annex 1 Respond to chemical accidents Chain of Command and designated institution responsible and assistance from Police Create a 24hr hotline for chemical accidents Equip an institution to respond Urgency & importance of taking action: High / Medium / Low Kenya did not meet target that GHS be in place by 2008 Urgent because it is a matter of life and death B.4 Accident prevention and control Chemicals Management Issue Area Capacity Gaps Possible Action Concerned Actors Urgency & importance of taking action: High / Medium / Low 39 .SAICM/RM/Afr.3 Education and awareness raising Chemicals Management Issue Area information dissemination CIEN Capacity Gaps Information gathered not shared Not institutionalised Possible Action Require systematic dissemination of information Formalise CIEN Concerned Actors Universities.2 Risk Reduction Chemicals Management Issue Area Classification and labelling Safe handling and use of pesticides Chemical accidents Capacity Gaps No training on GHS Possible Action Develop Training programme for GHS For a standing technical committee on chemical accidents Concerned Actors All members of SAICM Steering Committee MEMR and NEMA. NEMA GCD MEMR UNEP Chemicals Urgency & importance of taking action: High / Medium / Low High High B. KAM.
workers and public. training and awareness of all national stakeholders including experts.SAICM/RM/Afr. Private Sector. Concerned Actors National organizations is a key to sustainable chemicals management Enhancing capacity for chemical risk assessment. farmers. Integrating chemical management into national development priorities and budgets. Government. High Awareness of the potential risks that chemicals pose to the environment and human health and their environmental liabilities. lack of awareness of the potential risks that chemicals pose to the environment and human health and their environmental liabilities. private sector. Enhancing capacity for chemical risk assessment. including both human capacities and laboratory facilities.2/INF/12 Annex 1 Implementing regulatory mechanisms Insufficient human and technical capacity for risk assessment.5 Analytical and laboratory capacity Urgency & importance of taking action: High / Medium / Low High Chemicals Management Issue Area Capacity Gaps • systematically examining inventories of domestic chemical substances in commerce. IOMC High because successful ligations can promote risk reduction activities and establishing risk assessment systems for environment and health. reduction and monitoring in both government and public interest organizations. including both human capacities and laboratory facilities. establishing mechanisms for intersectoral and interministerial cooperation in all countries. 40 . • Possible Action Improving knowledge. policy makers. IOMC B. strengthening preparedness for chemical emergencies. legislators. politicians. Government.