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. Explain the key features of UNCLOS. Enumerate the

key areas covered under the convention.
Ans UNCLOS stands for United nations convention on laws of the sea. This is an
evolution of the Law of sea convention i.e., the means for ensuring freedom of
navigation at sea. This leads to the need for establishing an internal law to determine
the status of sea areas and the governance or the inter relationship of countries using
the worlds ocean.
Key features of UNCLOS
This was basically an attempt to codify the international law of the sea
It is a treaty document of 448 articles grouped under 17 heads and 8
It was an outcome of the 1982 UNCLOS and came into force on 16

Nov 1994
Sets the width of a territorial sea as 12nm with the contiguous zone as
24nm from the base line.
Also defines innocent passage thro territorial seas and transit passage
through international sea. Defines archipelagic states and allows for
passage thro archipelagic water. Establishes EEZ an attending to
200Nm from the base line.

Defines the legal status of being on the High seas and regulations for the control
of marine pollu0tion.
Key areas covered under the convention
1. Territorial Sea
2. Contiguous Zone
3. Exclusive economic Zone
4. Continental Shelf
5. High Seas

Territorial Sea:
Extends to 12 nm from the baseline foreign flag vessels have a Right of Innocent passage
thro it. The passage is considered innocent as long as it is not prejudicial to peace, good order or
security of the coastal state.

Right of innocent passage can be suspended it is essential for the protection of coastal
state its security or for weapons exercise.

In internal waters the coastal state can exercise jurisdiction overall vessels. In territorial seas,
it should both exercise criminal jurisdiction except:-

1. If the consequences of crime extend to the coastal state.
2. If crime disturbs the peace of the country or good order of the sea
3. If master of a vessel or an agent of the flag state, requests the coastal
state to exercise jurisdiction
4. If jurisdiction if necessary to suppress illicit traffic of narcotic drugs.

Contiguous Zone:
Extends 12nm beyond the territorial sea limit coastal state must exercise controls necessary
to prevent infringement of its customs fiscal immigration or sanitary laws and regulations
within its territories.

Vessels covering noxious dangerous substances or waste may be turned away on public
health or environmental grounds

Exclusive Economic Zone:
Extends to a maximum of 200 nautical miles from the baseline covering and managing the
natural resources whether living or non-living of the waters adjacent and of the sea bed and its

State has jurisdiction, with regard to installation marine scientific research and protection
and preservation of the marine environment. All other states enjoy the freedom of navigation,
laying of submarine cables and pipelines.

Continental Shelf: The outer limit of the continental shelf shall not exceed 350nm from the
baseline or shall not exceed 100nm coastal state has exclusive rights for exploring and
exploiting its natural resources. The state also has the exclusive rights to authorize and regulation
drilling on the shelf for all purposes.

High Seas: Part of the sea that is not included in the exclusive economic zone in the
territorial sea or in the internal waters of a state or in the archipelagic waters of an archipelagic
state. High seas are open to all states for freedom of navigation, freedom of over flight freedom
to construct artificial islands installation, freedom of fishing, freedom of scientific research. High
seas shall be reserved for peaceful purposes other high seas precautions are prevention of slave
trade, piracy, seizure of ships, illicit narcotics trafficking and unauthorized broad casting. For
enforcement purposes, There are provisions for relevant rights of visit seizure, arrest and hot
2. What are the UNCLOS provisions concerning ships flag and nationality? In
observation of UNCLOS what the duties are of flag States and how is it

Ans. The United Nations conference convention on the laws of the sea (UNCLOS) was an outcome of
the third UN conference in 1982 and entered into force on 16th November 1994.
The UNCLOS provides a universal legal frame work for the rational management of marine
resources and their conservation. The treaty document consists of 446 articles grouped under 17
part headings and 9 Annexes.
- Part VIII : High seas consists of Provisions concerning ships flag state and nationality
- Article 90: Every state coastal or land locked has a right to have its ship fly its flag.
- Article 91: State should lay down conditions / requirements for granting its nationality,
registration and the right to fly its flag. Ships have the nationality of the state whose flag
they fly. There must be a genuine link between the state and the ship. The state must issue
documents to ships flying its flag.
- Article 92: Ships to fly flag of only one state and are subject to its jurisdiction on high seas. A
ship cannot change its flag during a voyage or while in a part of call. Change is allowed in
case of transfer of ownership or change of registry.
Duties of flag state:
Article 94 initials duties and responsibilities of the flag state salient parts are:-
1. State shall effectively exercise its jurisdiction and control in Administrative technical and soul
matters over ships flying its flag.
2. State should maintain a register of ships flying its flag i.e. names and particulars of ships.
State should assure jurisdiction under its laws over ships flying its flag its master officers and
crew in respect of Administrative technical and social matters concerning the ship.
3. State to take such measures for ships as necessary to insure safety at sea with regards to
- Construction equipment and seaworthiness of ships.
- Manning of ship labour conditions and training of crew with regards to applicable
international instruments.
- Use of signals maintenance of communications and prevention of collision.
4. Such measures shall include these necessary to ensure:
That each ship before registration and thereafter is surveyed by a qualified surveyor and has
onboard charts publications and equipment as are appropriate for safe navigation of ship.
Each ship is in charge of master / officers / crew having appropriate qualification and numbers
with regards to the type due, machinery and equipment of the ship.
5. Each state should conform to generally accepted international regulations procedures and
practices and should take steps which may be necessary to secure their observance.
6. A state which has clear grounds to believe that proper jurisdiction and control w.r.t. a ship
have not been exercised may report the facts to the flag state. Upon such request flag state
must investigate the matter and take appropriate action to remedy the situation.
7) Every state must cause an enquiry to be held in case of a marine casualty involving a ship flying
its flag and causing loss of damage to environment to those at any national and state. Every
flag state must co-operate with other flag states in conduct of enquiring.
Article 217 makes the following provision.
i) Every state must adopt laws / regulations to ensure compliance of international laws by ships
flying its flag.
ii) Every state should prohibit ships frame sailing for man compliance with international laws
including requirements relating to design construction equipment and manning.
iii) Status should ensure that all certificates as read by international laws are carried on board.
States to periodically inspect the vessels to ensure conformity of these certificates with actual
conditions on board.
iv) Flag state should provide for immediate investigation in case vessel commits relation of
international rules and standards.
v) Flag states should cooperate with other flag states if assistance is requested.
vi) Flag state must investigate any relation committed by vessel flying its flag on a request from
any state.
vii) Flag state should be prompt in addressing any requests for information by any other state.
It should inform competent international organizations about action taken and the outcome.
Such information should be made freely available to all flag states.
vii) Flag states must impose adequate penalty for any vessel relating the law to discourage further

3. Describe the salient considerations leading to first United Nations
Conference on The Law of the Sea. When it was provisionally accepted
and when it entered into force? What is meant by Avid Pardo and the
Common Heritage of Mankind-Principle?

Salient considerations leading to first United Nations Conference on the Law of the
The ocean is vast, covering 140 million square miles, some 72 per cent of the earths
surface. Climate and weather, even the quality of the air people breathe, depend in
great measure on interplay between the ocean and the atmosphere in ways still not
fully understood. Not only has the oceans always been a prime source of
nourishment for the life it helped generate, but from earliest recorded history it has
served for trade and commerce, adventure and discovery. It has kept people apart
and brought them together. Even now, when the continents have been mapped and
their interiors made accessible by road, river and air, most of the worlds people live
no more than 200 miles from the sea and relate closely to it.
For centuries the doctrine that governed ocean spaces and resources was freedom
of the seas. Coastal state claims were restricted within narrow limits. The first
change in this regime came with the emergence of the doctrine of the continental
shelf, spurred by the development of offshore oil and gas fields. The US in 1945,
was the first to proclaim jurisdiction over the natural resources of its continental shelf
beneath the high seas (beyond US territorial limits). Other nations were quick to
follow suit. Many of them were seeking to extend their jurisdiction over fisheries.
The UN in 1958 convened the first conference on The Law of the Sea. The initial
conference approved conventions on the continental shelf, fishing, the high seas,
and territorial waters and contiguous zones, all of which were ratified by the mid-
1960s. A further attempt made in 1960, at the second conference on the Law of the
Sea, failed to define the territorial sea.
Mr. Arvid Pardo, permanent representative of Malta to United Nation, delivered a
speech in Nov. 1967. He warned the United Nation General Assembly that there was
a danger that advanced, industrialized countries, who were so equipped, might wish
to exploit the ocean floors for their national use, not only to develop its immense
resources but also for defense and other purpose. Reacting to his call, the general
assembly set up a Seabed Committee to study the various aspects of the problem
and to indicate the practical means to promote international co-operation.
The committees work was adopted by the general assembly in 1970, proclaiming
that the seabed and ocean floor and its resources beyond the limits of national
jurisdiction are the common heritage of mankind and that no nation should exercise
sovereignty or right over any part of the sea. The declaration also called for the
establishment of an international regime to govern the exploration and exploitation of
the seas resources for the benefit of the mankind. The Seabed Committee, in
preparation for the conference, also had to deal with not only with international
seabed but also with such issues like the regime of high seas, the continental shelf,
and territorial sea (including the question of limits, fishing rights, preservation of
marine environment, scientific research and access to the sea by land locked states.
Thus a third UN conference on the Law of the Sea was convened to prepare a single
comprehensive treaty and is generally known as UNCLOS. Some 140 countries
have ratified the resulting Law of the Sea Treaty (1982). This has gained nearly
universal acceptance since its entry into force on 16 November 1994.
The 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea provides, for the first
time, a universal legal framework for the rational management of marine resources
and their conservation for future generations. Rarely has such radical change been
achieved peacefully, by consensus of the world community. It has thus been hailed
as the most important international achievement since the approval of the United
Nations Charter in 1945.
UNCLOS attempts to codify the international law of the sea. It is a treaty document
of 446 articles grouped under 17 part headings and 9 annexes.
UNCLOS I was at Geneva in 1958.
UNCLOS II was also at Geneva in1960.
UNCLOS III was again at Geneva in 1974. It was adopted in 1982, ratified by 140
countries and entered into force on 16
November 1994.

Oceans always have been a prime source of nourishment for life. Climate and weather changes
depend on the interplay between oceans and the atmosphere. They also serve as a convenient
medium for trade, commerce, exploration, adventure and discovery.
As the mysteries of the oceans gave way to their mastering, a lot of customers
traditions and laws arose defining the rights of the ship and the marines what plied the waters of
the ocean.
Attempts were made to regulate the use of ocean by conventions acceptable to all
nations. The UN has made considerable progress in developing and .... the laws of the sea.
There UNCLOS (United Nations Convention on the Law of the Seas) have been convened

UNCLOS I at Geneva in 1958
UNCLOS II at Geneva in 1960

International conferences approved conventions which covered the continental
shift, Fishing, High seas, Territorial waters and contiguous zones. During the
1970, it came to be accepted that the sea bed is a common heritage of mankind
and should be administered by an international authority.
UNCLOS III was at GENEVA in 1974 which discussed issues on navigation,
pollution and the breadth of territorial waters. It entered into force
On 16
Nov 1994 UNCLOS provides a universal frame work for the
management of marine resource and their conservation, govern all aspects of the
oceans, such as environmental control, marine scientific research, economic and
commercial activities, transfer of technology and settlement of disputes relating o
ocean matters. UNCLOS is a treaty of 446 articles grouped under17 part heading
and 9 annexes.
1) TERRITORIAL SEAS: Extends to 12 Nautical miles from the baseline foreign
flag vessels have a Right of Innocent Passage through it. The passage is
considered innocent as long as it is not prejudicial to peace, good order or
security of the coastal state.
Right of innocent passage can be suspended if it is essential for the protection
of the coastal state its security or for weapons exercise.
The internal waters the coastal state can exercise jurisdiction over all vessels.
In territorial seas, it should not exercise criminal jurisdiction except.
a) If the consequences of crime extend to the coastal state
b) If crime disturbs the peace of the country or good order of the sea
c) It master of a vessel or an agent of the Flag State requests the coastal state
to exercise jurisdiction
d) If jurisdiction is necessary to suppress traffic of narcotic drugs.
2) CONTIGUOUS ZONE: Extends 12 nautical miles beyond the territorial sea
Coastal status must exercise control necessary to prevent infringement of its
customs, fiscal, immigration or sanitary laws and regulations within its territories.
Vessel carrying noxious or dangerous substances or wastes may be turned away
on public health or environmental grounds.
It extends to a maximum of 200 nautical miles from the base line,
covering and managing the natural resources whether living or non
living of the waters adjacent and of the sea bed and its subsoil.
State has jurisdiction, with regard to installation marine scientific
research and protection and preservation of the marine environment.
All other states enjoy the freedom of navigation, laying of submarine
sables and pipelines

The outer limit of the continental shelf shall not exceed 350 nautical miles from the base line
or shall not exceed 100 nautical miles. Coastal states have exclusive rights for exploring and
exploiting its natural resources. The state also has the exclusive right o authorize and regulate
drilling on the shelf or all purposes.

Part of the sea that is not included in the exclusive economic zone in the territorial sea or in
the internal waters of a state or in the Archipelagic waters of an archipelagic state.
High seas are open to all states for freedom of navigation, freedom of over flight, freedom to
lay submarine cables and pipelines, freedom to construct artificial islands and installations,
freedom of fishing freedom of scientific research.
High seas shall be reserved for peaceful purposes. Other high seas precautions are
prevention of slave trade, privacy, seizure of ships, illicit narcotics, trafficking and unauthorized
broad casting
For enforcement purposes, there are provisions for relevant rights of visit, seizure, arrests
and hot pursuits.


5. Explain the key features of the United Nations Convention on the Law of
The Sea? When this convention was opened for signature and when it
entered into force? How many articles and annexes it contains?
Enumerate the areas covered under this convention?

Ans UNCLOS: It is the abbreviation of united nation conference on law of
the sea. Three conferences an UNCOLS have been convened so far.
UNCLOS I: At Geneva in 1958
UNCLOS II: At Geneva in 1960
UNCLOS III: At Geneva in 1974, which produced a convention document called
UNCLOS governs the law of sea for mutual benefit of all members states
Necessity of UNCLOS was in order
1. To promote peaceful uses of the seas and ocean
2. To facilitate international communication
3. To enable equitable and efficient utilization of oceans resources
4. To protect and preserve The marine environment
5. To protect promote maritime safety

Important highlight/salient features of UNCLOS are as follows
1. It defines international law of the sea
2. Sets widths of the territorial sea at 12Nm with a contiguous zone at 20Nm
3. Sets Transit passages through international straits and territorial sea
4. Sets exclusive economic zone extending 200 Nm
5. It defines continental self and jurisdiction over the resources of the shelf
beyond 200Nm where appropriate
6. It defines legal status of the high seas and establishes regulations for the
control of the marine pollution
7. It allows dispute to be settled in the international court of justice

It was outcome of 1982 UNCLOS III and come into force internationally on 16
1994. It is a treaty document of 446 articles grouped under 17 parts and 8
Areas covered under this convention:
A) UNCLOS provisions relating to zones of coastal state jurisdiction and high
1. UNCLOS sets the width of the territorial sea 12Nm with a Continuous
Zone at 24 NM from the lease line.
2. It defines innocent passage through the territorial sea and defines
transit passage through international straits.
3. it defines archipelagic state and allows for passage through
archipelagic waters
4. UNCLOS established exclusive economic extending to 200 NM from
5. It defines continental self and extends jurisdiction over the resources
of the shelf beyond 200Nm where appropriate
6. UNCLOS defines legal status of the high seas and establishes
regulations for the control of used for the purpose of committing one of
one acts mentioned a leave
7. On the high seas, or in any other place outside the jurisdiction of any
state, every state may seize a pirate ship and arrest the person and
seize property on toward.
8. The courts of the state which carried out the seizure may decide upon
the penalties to be taken with regards to the ships, aircraft, and
property subject to the rights of third parties acting in good faith.


. Procedure for adopting a convention:
This is the port of the process with which IMO as an organization is most closely
involved. IMO has six main bodies concerned with the adoption or implementation &
conventions. The Assembly and council are main organs, and the committees involved
are the maritime safety committee, Marine environment protection committee legal
committee and the facilitation committee. Developments in shipping and other related
industries are discussed by member states in these bodies and the need for a new
convention or amendments to existing conventions can be raised in any of them.
Normally the suggestion is first made in one of the committees, since these meet more
frequently than the main organs. If agreement is reached in the committee, the proposal
goes to the council and, as necessary, to the Assembly. If the Assembly or the council as
the case may be gives the authorization to proceed with the work, the committee
concerned considers the mater in greater detail and ultimately draws up a draft
instrument. The draft convention, which is agreed upon is, reported to the council and
assembly with a recommendation that a conference be convened to consider the draft
for formal adoption. Invitations to attend such a conference are sent to all member state
of IMO. Before the conference opens, the draft convention is circulated to the invited
Govts. and organizations for their comments. The draft convention, together with the
comments thereon from Govts and interested organizations is the closely examined by
the conference and necessary changes are made in order to produce a draft acceptable
to all or the majority of the Govt. present. The convention this agreed upon is then
adopted by the conference and deposited with the secretary-General who rends copies
to Govts. The convention is opened for signature by states, usually for a period of 12
months. Signatories may ratify or accept the convention while non-signatories may
accede. The drafting and adoption of a convention in IMO can take several years to
complete although in some cases, where a quick response is required to deal with an
emergency situation, Govts. have been willing to accelerate this process considerably.
Before the convention comes into force that is, before it becomes binding upon govt.,
which have ratified it, it has to be accepted formally by individual Governments.
Accepting a convention does not merely involve the deposit of a formal instrument. A
Govts. acceptance of a convention necessarily place on it the obligation to take the
measures required by the convention. Often national law has to be enacted or changed
to enforce the provisions of the convention. Adequate notice must be given to ship
owners, ship builders and other interested parties so they make, take account of the
provisions of the Convention in their future acts and plans. At present IMO conventions
enter into force within an average of five years after adoption.
Tacit acceptance Procedure: Technology and Techniques in the shipping industry change
very rapidly. As a result, not only are new conventions required but existing ones to be
kept up to date.
IMO had no authority to adopt let alone amend conventions. Its mandate allowed it only
to "Provide for the drafting of conventions, agreements or other instruments and to
recommend those to governments and to Inter governmental organizations and to
convince such conferences as may be necessary." IMO convention specifically stated
that IMO's functions were to be "consultative and advisory." the organization could
arrange a conference but it was up to the conference to decide whether the convention
under discussion should or should not be adopted and to decide how it should be
amended. Most of IMO conventions could only be updated by means of "classical"
(passive) amendment procedure. The number member states of IMO were rising all the
time as new countries emerged and began to develop their shipping activities. As the
number of parties rose, so did the total required to amend the convention. The problem
was made worse by the fact that governments took for longer to accept amendments
than they did to ratify the parent convention. The amendments adopted to the 1960
SOLAS convention in 1966, 1967, 1968 and 1969 had failed to enter into force till 1971.
It was felt that unless the International maritime community was sufficiently responsive
to these charged circumstances states will once again revert to the practice of
unilaterally deciding what standards to apply to their owners shipping and to foreign flag
shipping visiting their ports. Studies were made on alternative amendment procedures.
The main reason why amendments took so long to enter into force was the time taken
to gain acceptance by 2/3 of contracting Governments. One way of reducing this period
would be by "specifying a date of entry into force after adoption by the Assembly, unless
the date of amendment is explicitly rejected by certain number or contracting Govts."
The body which adopts the amendments at the same time fixes a time period within
which contracting parties will have the opportunity to notify either their acceptance or
their rejection of the amendment, or to remain silent on the subject. In case of silence
the amendment is considered to have been accepted by the party. This is known as the
"tacit" or "passive" acceptance procedure.
Convention: is a set of rules which are adopted by all countries and comes into force on
agreed date. Any changes in above conventions after date of enforcement are done
through various amendments.
Rule: is a governing authority.
Regulation: is a generally accepted condition or course of action.
Protocol: If a majority of changes are required is a convention which has been adopted
but not in force, then those are incorporated in the convention and it is called
e.g.: the Marpol Convention 1973 has also been amended by means of protocols. The
1978 marpol protocol made major changes to Marpol.
It also absorbed the parent convention and ensured that the combined Convention /
Protocol instrument (called Marpol 73/78) would enter into force at an earlier date then
the present convention would have done alone (Marpol 73/78 come into force on 2nd
Oct 1983).


7. Explain the procedure and the role played by main bodies/organs of IMO
towards adopting a convention from the suggestion from one of the
committees of IMO. How much time is allowed for the convention to be
open for signature by attending states? Explain the term (i) Signature (ii)
Ratification as followed by a state to express its consent to be bound by
a treaty.

Ans. :- IMO :- International maritime organization.
Organization structure of IMO consist of
1. Assembly
2. Council
3. Five main committees
a) Maritime safety committee (MSC)
b) Marine environment protection committee (MEPC)
c) Legal committee
d) Technical co-operation committee
e) Facilitation committee & no. of. Sub committees.
IMO come into existence in 1958. but before that General conventions already been
Adoption of IMO convention
This is the part of process with which IMO as an organization is most closely
involved. IMO has six main bodies concerned with adoption or implementation of
conventions. The assembly and council are the main organs and above mentioned
committees are involved in adoption of conventions. Development in shipping and
other related industries discussed by member states in these bodies, & the need for
new convention amendments to existing convention can be raised in any of them.
Normally suggestion is first made one of the committee; since they meet more
frequently than council. If agreement is reached in committee, the proposal goes to
council and then to assembly.
If the assembly/ council as the case may be, give the authorization to proceed with
the work, the concerned committee consider the matter in greater detail and
ultimately draw up a draft instrument.
In some cases the subject may be referred to specialized subcommittee for detail
Work in the committee & subcommittee is undertaken by the representatives of
member state of organization.
The views and advise of intergovernmental & international non governmental
organization, which have working relationship with IMO are also welcome in these
bodies. Many of these organizations have direct experience in the various matters
under consideration hence able to work with IMO in a practical way. The draft
convention which is agreed upon is reported to council & assembly with
recommendations for conference to be convened to consider the draft for formal
Invitation to attend such conferences are sent to all member states of IMO & also to
all state which are members of UN or any of its specialized agencies. In addition,
organization of the united nations system & organization in official relationship with
IMO are invited to send observer to the conference to give the benefit of their expert
advice to the representative of governments. Before conference opens, the draft
convention is circulated to invited governments and organizations for their comment
the said draft and suggestions are closely examined by conference and necessary
changes are made in order to produce draft acceptable to all majority of governments
present. Convention thus agreed upon is then adopted by conference and deposited
with Secretary General who send copies to governments. The convention is opened
for signature by states usually for period of 12 months.
Signatories may ratify or accept the convention while non signatories may accede.
The drafting and adoption of convention may take several years. Though in some
cases where quick response is required to deal with an emergency situation,
Governments have been willing to accelerate this process considerably.
Ratification :-
Before convention entry into force, that is, before it becomes binding on
governments, which have ratified it, it has to be accepted formally by individual
Each convention includes appropriate provisions; stipulated conditions which have to
be met before it enters into force. These condition vary but generally speaking, the
more important and more complex the document then more stringent are the
conditions for its entry into force.
When the appropriate conditions have been fulfilled, the convention enters into force
for the states which have accepted. Generally after period of grace intended to
enable all the state to take the necessary measures for implementation.


8. Discuss the procedure of entry into force of a convention after its
adoption? State the provision and its importance towards entry into
force of the convention. For a convention of important technical nature
state the general rules/ conditions observed by the states for its entry
into force. Explain the terms (i) Accession (ii) Signature subject to
Ratification, acceptance or approval.

Ans. Usually, a convention enters into force according to procedures set out in
the convention itself. For instance, a convention may provide that it shall come
into force (i.e. become binding on the countries that have ratified it) after a certain
specified number of countries with the stipulated minimum tonnage have ratified
it. If no such provision exists, then the convention enters into force after all the
negotiating parties have formally conveyed their consent. It may be interesting to
note that some conventions have not come into force even after a lapse of many
decades (e.g. Conventions on Maritime Liens & Mortgages 1967 & 1993).
The adoption of a convention is only the first stage of a long process. Before
the convention comes into force, which means before it becomes binding upon
Govts. (which have ratified it), it has to be accepted formally by individual Govts.
Each convention states the conditions which have to be met before it enters
into force. These conditions vary with conventions but, generally speaking, the
more important and more complex the document, the more stringent are the
conditions for its entry into force. For example, the SOLAS convention provided
that entry into force requires acceptance by 25 states whose merchant fleets
comprise not less than 50% of the worlds gross tonnage; and (2) the
International Tonnage convention required acceptance by 25 states whose
combined merchant fleets represent not less than 65% of world tonnage.
When the stated conditions have been fulfilled, the convention enters into force
for the states which have accepted it. Between the date on which conditions are
fulfilled and the date of coming into force, there is usually a graced period which
enables all the states to take the necessary measures for implementation. E.g.
Annexe 4 of Marpol (sewage) was accepted by Norway in Sept 2002, thus
completing the required number of states and the tonnage. This Annexe will
come into force in September 2003 after 1 year grace period.
Most conventions are open for signature for a specified period of time. If a state
did sign the convention within this period, Accession is the method used to
become a party to a treaty. Technically, accession requires the state in question
to deposit an instrument of accession with the IMO.
Signature subject to ratification, acceptance or approval:-
Most mutilated treaties contain a clause providing that a state may express its
consent to be bound by the instrument by signature subject to ratification. In such
a situation, signature alone will not suffice to bind the state, but must be followed
up by the deposit of an instrument of ratification with the depository of the treaty.
The words acceptance and approval basically means the same as ratification,
but they are less formal and non-technical and might be preferred by some states
which might have constitutional difficulties with the term ratification.
Many states nowadays choose this option ( i.e. signature subject to ratification,
acceptance or approval) , as it provides them with an opportunity to ensure that
any necessary legislation is enacted and other constitutional requirements
fulfilled before entering into treaty commitments.


9. With reference to IMO conventions discuss (i) Amendment (ii) Tacit
Acceptance (iii) Enforcement. Should an offence occur by a ship
within the jurisdiction of another state, state the provisions kept under
the enforcement of conventions to counter the offence.

Ans) (i) Amendment: Amendment refers to the formal alteration of treaty
provisions, affecting all the parties to the particular agreement. They are made to
conventions protocols of their annexes after discussion, agreement and adoption by
the IMO assembly. Such alterations must be effected with the same formalities that
attended the original formation of the treaty. Many multilateral treaties lay down
specific requirements to be satisfied for amendments to be adopted. In the absence
of such provisions, amendments require the consent of all the parties,
(ii) Tacit Acceptance: Most of the IMO conventions could only be updated by means
of the classical (positive) amendment procedure. The number of IMO member
states was rising all the time as new countries emerged began to develop their
shipping activities. As the number of parties rose, so did the total required to amend
the convention. The problem was made worse by the fact that Governments took for
longer time to accept amendments than they did to ratify the parent convention. The
amendments adopted to the 1960 SOLAS conventions in 1966, 1967, 1968 and 1969
had failed to enter into force till 1971. it was felt that IMO would have to tackle
serious institutional problems. It was felt that unless the international maritime
community was sufficiently responsive to these changed circumstances states will
once again revert to the practice of unilaterally deciding what standards to apply to
their own shipping to foreign flag ships visiting their ports studies were made on
alternative amendment procedures. The main reason why amendments took so long
to enter into force was the time taken to gain acceptance by two-thirds of contracting
governments. On way of reducing this period would be by specifying a date of
entry into force after adoption by the Assembly unless the date of amendment is
explicitly rejected by a certain number of percentage of contracting Governments.
The body which adopts the amendments at the same time fixes a time period within
which contracting parties will have the opportunity to notify either their acceptance
or their rejection of the amendment, or to remain silent on the subject. In case of
silence, the amendment is considered to have been accepted by the party. This is
known as the tacit or passive acceptance procedure. This procedure has the
advantage that all contracting Governments would be able to advance the
preparatory work for implementing the amended regulations and the industry
would be in a position to plan accordingly members agreed that tacit acceptance
should apply only to the technical content of conventions, which was often
contained in annexes. The non-technical articles should continue to be subject to the
classical (or Positive) acceptance procedure.
(iii) Enforcement: Contracting Governments enforce the provisions of IMO
conventions as far as their own ships are concerned and also set the penalties for
infringements, where these are applicable. They may also have certain limited
powers in respect of the ships of other Governments. In some conventions,
certificates are required to be carried onboard ship to show that they have been
inspected and have met the required standards. These certificates are normally
accepted as proof by authorities from other states that the vessel concerned has
reached the required standard, but in some cases further action can be taken.
IMO has no powers to enforce conventions. However, IMO has been given the
authority to vet the training, examination and certification procedures of contracting
parties to the International Convention on Standards of training, certification of
Watch-keeping for seafarers (STCW) 1978. This was one of the most important
changes made in the 1995 amendments to the conventions which entered into force
on 1
February 1997. Governments will have to provide relevant information to
IMOs Maritime Safety Committee which will judge whether or not the country
concerned meets the requirement of the conventions.
The criminal jurisdiction of the coastal state would not be exercised on board a
foreign flag ship passing through the territorial area/sea for arresting any person or
to conduct any investigations in convention with any crime committed on board the
ship during its passage except in following areas. a) If the consequences of crime
extend to coastal state. b) If the crime disturbs the peace of country or the good
order of the territorial area.
c) If the assistance of local authorities has been requested by the master of the ship,
or consular officer of the flag state
d) If such measures are necessary for the suppressions of illicit traffic in narcotic
The coastal state shall, if the Master so requests notify a diplomatic agent or officer of
the flag state, before taking any steps and shall facilitate contact between such an
agent or officer and the ships crew. In case of emergency, this notification may be
communicated while the measures are being taken.
The coastal state should not stop or divert a foreign flag ship passing through the
territorial sea for the purpose of executing civil jurisdiction in relation to a person on
board the ship.
Should an offence such as oil pollution accidents or other damages occur within the
jurisdiction of another state, that state can either cause proceedings to be taken in
accordance with its own law or give details of the offence to the flag so that the latter
can take appropriate action.


Background of ILO
World War I transformed the worlds social and economic map. The International
Labour Organization (ILO) emerged together with the League of Nations from
the treaty of Versailles in 1919. It gave expression to the concern for social reform
that grew with the industrial revolution and the conviction that realistic reform
had to be conducted on an international plane. The members of the ILO were to
be countries of the world member states.
Created to develop international labour standards and to ensure their application,
the ILO devoted the bulk of its energies to this major task during its firs forty years.
During the twenty year period from 1919 to 1939. 67 conventions and 66
recommendations were adopted.
Originally, standards focused on working conditions. The first convention in 1919
dealt with hours of work, the famous eight-hour day and forty eight hour week.
In 1926, an important innovation was introduced when the International Labour
Conference set up a supervisory system on the application of standards which still
exists today. It created a committee of independent jurists responsible for examining
government reports on the application of conventions ratified by them and presenting
its own report each year o the conference. Its mandate has since been broadened to
cover reports on ungratified conventions and recommendations.
In 1944, delegates to the International Labour Conference adopted the Declaration
of Philadelphia which annexed to the constitution, still constitutes the charter of the
aims and objectives of the ILO. The declaration opens with a reaffirmation of the
fundamental principles on which the ILO is based notably that
Labour is not a commodity
Freedom of Expression and of association is essential to sustained progress and
poverty anywhere constitutes a danger to prosperity everywhere
The declaration anticipated and set a pattern for the United Nations Charter and the
Universal Declaration of human Rights.
In 1946 the ILO became the first specialized agency of the newly formed United
Nations organizations.
In 1969, on its 5oth Anniversary, it was awarded with the Nobel peace prize
The ILO: How it works
The International Labour office in Geneva is the permanent secretariat of the
International Labour Organization, its operational headquarters research centre and
publishing house. Administration and management are decentralized in regional
area and branch office in more than 40 countries.
Under the leadership of a Director general who is elected for a five year renewable
term. The office employs some 2500 officials and experts at Geneva headquarters
and in more than 40 field offices around the world.
Regional meetings of the ILO member states are periodically held to examine the
matters of special interest to the regions concerned.
The work of the governing body and of the International Labour office is aided by
tripartite committees covering major industries and by committees of experts on
such matters as vocational training, management development, occupational safety
and health industrial relations workers education and special problems of certain
categories of workers (young workers women, the disabled etc). The International
Labour office maintain a very comprehensive website at
The international labour conference meets annually. It provides an international
forum for discussion of world labour and social problems and sets minimum
international labour standards and broad policies of the organization.
Every two years, the conference adopts the ILOs beneficial work program and
budget which is financed by member states.
Each member country has the right to send four delegates to the conference:
Two from the government and one each representing workers and employers each
of whom may speak and vote independently.
The ILO is unique among world organization with its tripartite structure in that
employer and workers representatives the social partners of the economy have an
equal voice with those of governments in sharing its policies and programs. The ILO
encourages triparteism within member states as well by promoting a social
dialogue which involves trade unions and employers in the formulation and where
appropriate, implementation of national policy on social and economic affairs and a
host of other issues.
Between the conferences, the work of ILO is guided by the governing body.
Comprising 28 government members and 14 worker and 14 employer members. This
executive council of the ILO meets three times a year in Geneva. It takes decisions on
action to give effect to ILO Policy prepares the draft program and budget which it
then submits to the conference for adoption and elects the Direct General.
Ten of the government seats are permanently held by states of chief industrial
importance (Brazil, China, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, Russian federation,
United Kingdom, and United States).
Representatives of other member countries are elected by the government delegates
at the conference every three years, taking into account geographical distribution.
The employers and workers representatives elect their own representatives in
separate electoral colleges.
The international Labour conference meets in June each year in Geneva; delegates
are accompanied by technical advisor. As well as the government delegates, the
cabinet minister responsible for labour affairs in their countries also generally attend
the conference and take the floor. Employers and workers delegates can express
themselves and vote independently of their governments. They may well vote
against each other as well as their government representatives.
One of the ILOs oldest and most important functions is the adoption by the
tripartite International labour conference of conventions and Recommendations
which set international standards. Through ratification by member states,
conventions create binding obligations to implement their provisions.
Recommendations provide guidance on policy legislation and practice.
Each member state is required to submit all conventions and recommendations
adopted by the conference to the competent national authority for a decision to be
taken number of ratifications of these conventions have continued to increase. The
ILO has established a supervisory procedure to ensure their application in Law and
practice. It is based on the objective evaluation by independent experts of the
manner in which obligations are complied with and on examination by the
organizations tripartite bodies.
Mandate of the ILO
The ILO formulates International labour standards in the form of conventions and
recommendations setting minimum standards for basic labour rights:
Freedom of association
Right to organize
Collective bargaining
Abolition of forced labour
Equality of opportunity and treatment and other standards regulation
conditions across the entire spectrum of work related issues.

It provides technical assistance primarily in the fields of:
Vocational training and vocational rehabilitation
Employment policy
Labour administration
Labour law and industrial relations
Working conditions
Management development
Social security
Labour statistics and occupational safety and health.

It promotes the development of independent employers and workers organizations
and provides training and advisory services to those organizations
Within the UN systems, the ILO has a unique tripartite structure with workers and
employers participating as equal partners with governments in the work of its
governing organs
1996 maritime Session of the International Labour Conference
the 84
(Maritime) Session of the International labour Conference concluded its
work in October 1996 with the adoption of three conventions three
recommendations and a protocol concerning the living and working conditions of
The conference revised and adopted the following international legal instruments:
Seafarers hours of work and the Manning of ships convention
Seafarers wages, hours of work and the manning of ship recommendation 1996
Labour inspection (seafarers) convention and recommendation 1996
Recruitment and placement of seafarers convention (revised) and recommendations 1996
1996 protocol to the Merchant Shipping (Minimum Standards) Conventions 1976
Seafarers hours of work and the manning of ships convention
The conference revised the wages, hours of work and manning (sea) convention and
recommendation 1958 (No. 109). It adopted the new seafarers hours of work and the
manning of ships convention 1996 which establishes specific daily and weekly
limitations on hours of work or conversely daily or weekly minimum rest periods
for seafarers with the aim of preventing fatigue associated with excessive work.
It calls upon member states which ratify it to acknowledge that normal work hours
shall be based on an eight hour day with one day of rest per work and then provides
that maximum limits shall not exceed 14 hours per day and 72 hours in a week.
Alternatively, member sates may define working time through a minimum of ten
hours of rest per day or 77 hours in a week. These limitations are to be posted in an
easily accessible place on board the ship.
Records of daily working hours or periods of rest are to be maintained and the
competent authority is to examine and endorse these records at appropriate intervals
in order to monitor compliance and if the records indicate infringements of the
provisions governing hours of work or rest requires measures to be taken to avoid
The new convention has also been included in the protocol to the Merchant Shipping
(minimum Standards) conventions 1976 (No.147). This means that, following
sufficient ratifications, this instrument may also be subject to port state control.
Seafarers wages hours of work and the manning of ships
recommendation 1996
The accompanying recommendations which focuses on compensation for overtime
and other wage issues is a comprehensive instrument which will serve to clarify
wage issues for seafarers and ship-owners. It retains the ILO minimum monthly
basic wage figure for able seamen a figure which has long served as an international
bench mark for the industry. This is currently (as from 1
January 2003) US $ 465 per
Labour Inspection (seafarers) convention and recommendation, 1996
International provisions for labour inspection on board of ships were strengthened
by the adoption of the labour inspection (seafarers) convention. The first
international convention on maritime labour inspection. The preamble of the
convention states that measures only apply to flag state control- i.e., subject to
inspection by the ships own flag state and not port state control.
Recruitment and placement of seafarers convention (Revised) and
recommendation 1996
The international labour conference also adopted a convention and
recommendations on the placement of seafarers revising the placing of seamen
convention 1920 (No.9). The original 1920 convention (No.9) one of the first
conventions adopted at the IMO-related to seamen which included all persons
except officers employed as members of the crew engaged in maritime navigation.
The new convention allows private placement services provided that they are in
conformity with a system of licensing or certification or other form of regulation.
Ratifying member states shall ensure that no fees or other charges for recruitment
or for providing employment to seafarers are borne directly or indirectly in whole or
in part by the seafarer
The accompanying recommendations set out guidelines for effective co-operation
among the different recruitment services, ship-owners and seafarers. Among other
tasks the competent authority should approve or prescribe standards for the
operation of recruitment and placement services and encourage the adoption of
codes of conduct for these services.
1996 Protocol o the Merchant Shipping (Minimum Standards) convention 1976
The Merchant Shipping (Minimum Standards) convention 1976 (No.147) has become
the basic point of reference in the industry for minimal acceptable standards of
safety and health, social security and living conditions of seafarers.
The conference adopted an optional protocol to the 1976 convention allowing states
to accept new obligations but retaining the flexibility for the convention still to be
ratified in its existing form. A supplementary appendix which can be accepted by
the ratifying state includes ILO conventions regulating accommodation of crew,
hours of work and manning seafarers identity documents workers representatives
health protection and repatriation.

11. State the Maritime Declaration of Health and the requirements of
International Health Regulations for persons employed on board ship.
State the steps taken by you as Chief Engineer on board for an Engine
Room personnel suffering from a contagious disease while on a voyage

Ans World Health organization is a specialized agency of United Nations established in 1948.
WHOs objective is the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health.
WHOs objective is the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health.
WHO collaborates with member governments, United Nations agencies and other bodies to
develop health standards. Control communicable diseases and promote all aspects of family
and environmental health.

Purpose: WHO regulations were adopted and came into force in 1959, as international
sanitary regulation which later renamed in International health regulation in 1969.
Its purpose is to ensure the maximum security against the international spread of
diseases with
minimum interference with world traffic.
Maritime declaration of health.
At every port of call master of ship has to give a declaration of health to authorized
offices which states
1. Particulars of ship
2. Ships crew and officers are fit for service on board
3. During the voyage any case of suspected case of plaque cholera or yellow
4. Any illness of infectious nature, death of any person on board during the
voyage otherwise than as a result of accident.
5. Ship is free from rodents and deratting certificate or exemption is valid.

International Health regulations were originally intended to help monitor and
control six serious infectious diseases: cholera, plague, yellow fever smallpox,
relapsing fever and typhus.
Today only cholera plague and yellow fever are notifiable diseases.
Article 81 of IHR states that No health document other than those provided for in
these regulations shall be required in internal traffic.
Separate vaccination certificates were once required for small pox, cholera and
yellow fever. The eradication of small pox was confirmed by WHO more than 10
years ago. It also states that vaccination against cholera cannot prevent the
introduction of infection into a country and the WHO therefore amended the
international health regulations in 1973 so that cholera vaccination should no longer
be required of any traveller. A certificate of vaccination against yellow fever is the
only certificate which should be now required.
In case of Engine room personnel suffering from a contagious disease while on
1. He should be examined by ships designated medical officer
2. After confirmation, master should be informed and the patient should be
shifted to hospital
3. Ensure that Air from the hospital is not recirculated in the ships A/C system
4. Having listed all symptoms and findings relevant section of (shipmasters
medical guide) to be consulted and recommended treatments to be followed
5. When patient is ill visitors should be discourages when the patient shows
signs of improvement the above ban can be relaxed.
6. willing shipboard personnel must be deputed after taking all possible
precautions to attend the patient and monitor his progress
7. Disposable utensils for drinking, eating must be used.
8. all used bed linens and towels must be sterilized and should not be washed
with the common linen
9. If the conditions of patient does not improve, radio medical advice should be
10. All actions to be recorded in medical log book and company should be
informed for each happening

12. Underline the importance of IMO Convention concerning minimum
standards merchant ships, 1976 (No. 147) and its protocol 1996. Also
give a brief description of other relevant IMO conventions ?

Ans. Merchant Shipping (minimum standards) Convention 1976 applies to every
sea going ship. Each member which ratifies this convention undertakes:-
(a) To have laws or regulations laying down, for ships registered in its territory.
(i) safety standards including standards of competency, hours of work &
manning, so as to ensure safety of life on board ship.
(ii) appropriate social security measures
(iii) shipboard conditions of employment & shipboard living arrangements, in
the opinion of the member are not covered by collective agreement or
laid down by competent courts in a manner equally binding on the ship
owners and seafarers concerned & to satisfy itself that the provision of
such laws and regulations are substantially equivalent to the
(b) To exercise effective jurisdiction or control over ships which are registered
in its territory in respect of:-
(i) safety standards, including standards of competency, hours of work &
manning, prescribed by national laws or regulations
(j) social security measures prescribed by national laws or regulation
(k) shipboard conditions of employment and living arrangements
prescribed by national laws or regulations or laid down by the
competent courts in a manner equally binding on the ship owner &
seafarers concerned
(c) To satisfy itself that measures for the effective control of other shipboard
conditions of employment & living arrangements where it has no effective
jurisdiction, are agreed between ship owners or organisations & seafarers
organisations constituted in accordance with the substantive provisions of
the freedom of association and protection of the right to organise
convention 1948, and the right to organise and collective bargaining
convention 1949.
1996 Protocol to the Merchant Shipping (minimum standards) Convention:-
Most of the standards covered by the merchant shipping convention
1976(No.147) are defined in terms of ILO conventions. Convention No.147 has
become the basic point of reference in the industry for the minimal acceptable
standards of safety and health, social security and living & working conditions
of seafarers.
The conference adopted an optional protocol to the 1976 convention
allowing states to accept new obligations, but retaining the flexibility for the
convention still to be ratified in its existing form. The supplementary appendix
which can be accepted by the ratifying state include ILO conventions regulating
accommodation of crews, hours of work & manning, seafarers identity
documents, workers representations, health protection & repatriation.
Member states who have ratified convention No.147 may take measures
necessary to rectify any conditions on board foreign registered ships entering
their ports which are clearly hazardous to safety and health. If there is a
complaint or evidence that the ship does not conform to the standards of this
convention. Since its adoption the convention has strengthened substantially
the international will to eliminate the operation of sub-standard ships.
Despite the accelerated transfer of ships from one register to another, the
ratification rate of convention No. 147 covering more than 50% of the world
fleet remained stable between 1993 & 1996. It is referred to by many as one of
the most significant & influential maritime standards.
Some important maritime ILO conventions are:-
1) Merchant Shipping (minimum standards) Convention No.147
2) Medical examination of seafarers convention(1946); No.73
3) Minimal age convention (1973); No.138
4) Seafarers hours of work & safe manning levels convention
(1996); No.180
5) Officers competency certificate convention(1936); No.53
6) Repatriation of seafarers convention(1987); No.166
7) Accommodation of crew convention(1970); No.133

13. How many maritime labour conventions have been in force concerning
seafarers? Highlight Merchant Shipping (Minimum Standards) 1976 and
its protocol and its contribution to uplifting the working condition of
seafarers on board.

Ans. The ILO has adopted various conventions dealing with issues affecting the
seafarers. These conventions are developed through a joint Maritime
Committee and special maritime sessions of ILO. There are 36 conventions
developed by ILO over the years covering employment, medical fitness, wages,
hours of work, repatriation etc. Besides these there are 4 other labour
standards which apply to all workers including seafarers. ILO also has
developed certain recommendatory conventions (26 in no.) which serve as
guidelines on work hours, manning, employment & wages.
Merchant Shipping (minimum standards) convention 1976: This convention
attempts to combine various ILO conventions & recommendations in a single
convention. Thus this convention becomes the basic reference point in shipping
industry for minimal & acceptable standards for the safety, health, social
security, living & working conditions for seafarers. This is ILO 147 convention
commonly known as Minimum Standards Convention. This convention has 11
Articles, the important provisions contained in these articles are:-
(a) Applies to all sea going ships thus no tonnage limits/types are
(b) Requires every member to have laws or regulations for ships
registered in its territory for :-
(i) Safety standards, including std. of competency, hours of work &
manning, so as to ensure safety of life on board.
(j) Appropriate social security measures.
(k) Ship board conditions of employment & ship board living
arrangements, in so far as these are not covered by CBA or laid
down by courts.
(c) The members should also exercise effective jurisdiction or control over
ships registered in its territory as regards the above points
(d) Every party must ensure that :-
(i) Adequate procedures exist for engagement of sea farers on
ships registered in its territory & for complaints arising in that
(j) Adequate procedure is provided for receiving complaints by its
seafarers employed on foreign ships & mechanism is formed to
forward the complaints to competent authority of flag state of
ship with a copy to DG of International Labour Office
(e) Seafarers employed on ships registered in its territory are properly
qualified & trained for duties with regard to vocational training of
(f) To verify by inspection or other appropriate means that ships
registered in its territory comply with applicable ILO conventions.
(g) It must hold an official enquiry into any serious marine casualty
involving ships registered in its territory, particularly those involving
loss of life, the final report of such enquiry should be made public.
(h) Article 4.1 of this convention is of particular importance as it gives
powers to port state to check & verify compliance with these
procedures & to take any measure necessary to rectify any conditions
on board which are clearly hazardous to safety & health.
(i) This convention will come in force 12 months after the date on which
these have been registered, ratified by at least 10 members with a total
world tonnage of 25% or more
The conference adopted an optional protocol to the 1976 protocol allowing
states to accept new obligations but retaining flexibility of original
convention. A supplementary appendix which can be accepted by ratifying
states includes ILO conventions regulating accommodations of crews,
hours of work & manning, seafarers identity documents, health and

14. State the number of articles present in Merchant Shipping (Minimum
Standards) Convention 1976 and briefly explain the purpose of each

Ans. The ILO has developed a number of conventions and recommendations
relating to seafarers working on board the ship. The ILO conventions adopted
are binding on every member state which ratifies them. India has ratified some
of the conventions. The requirements mentioned in these international
conventions are compiled according to Indian situation by incorporating relevant
provisions in the MS Act 1958.
ILO Convention No. 147 :- It is commonly known as a minimum standards
convention. It has 11 articles.
Article 1
The Convention applies to every sea going ship
Article 2
Each member which ratifies this convention undertakes:
(a) to have laws and regulations laying down for ships registered in territory
(i) safety standards, including standards of competency, hours of work
and manning so as to ensure the safety of life on board
(ii) appropriate social security measures
(iii) shipboard conditions of employment and shipboard living
(b) to exercise effective jurisdiction and control over the ships which are
(i) safety standards, including standards of competency, hours of work &
manning prescribed by the national laws & regulations.
(ii) social security measures prescribed by national laws and regulations
(iii) shipboard laws and conditions of employment and shipboard living
arrangements prescribed by national laws and regulations.
(c) to satisfy itself that measures for the effective control of other shipboard
conditions of employment and living arrangements where it has no
effective jurisdiction are agreed between ship owners or their organisation
or seafarers organisation constituted in accordance with the substantive
provisions of the freedom of association and protection of the right to
organise convention 1948 and right to organise and collective bargaining
convention 1949.
(d) To ensure that
(i) adequate procedures exist for engagement of seafarers on
ships registered in its territory and for the investigation of
complains arising in that connection
(ii) adequate procedures exist for investigation of any complaint
made in connection with and if possible at the time of
engagement in its territory of seafarers of its own nationality on
the ship registered in the foreign country and that such
complaint made in connection with is promptly reported by its
competent authority of the country in which ship is registered
with a copy to DG of ILO.
(e) seafarers employed on ship are properly trained and qualified for their
duties for which they are engaged
(f) to verify by inspection or by other appropriate means that ships registered
in its territory comply with the applicable ILO convention in force which it
has ratified.
(g) To hold an official inquiry into serious marine casualty involving ships
registered in the territory
Article 3
Any member which has ratified the convention shall in so far as practicable
advise its nationals on the possible problems of signing on a ship registered in
a state which has not ratified the convention until it is satisfied that standards
equivalent to those fixed by this convention are being applied
Article 4
(1) If a member which has ratified this convention & if other ships do not
conform to the standards of this convention, after it has come in to force, it
may prepare a report addressed to the government of the country in which
the ship is registered with copy to DG of ILO & may take measures to
rectify any condition on board which are clearly hazardous to safety or
(2) In taking such measures the member shall forthwith notify the nearest
maritime consular or diplomatic representative of the flag state & shall if
possible have such representative present it shall not unreasonably
detain or delay the ship.
(3) For the purpose of this article, complaint means information submitted by a
member of crew, a professional body, an association, a trade union or
generally any person with an interest in the safety of the ship including an
interest in safety or health hazards to its crew.
Article 5
1. This convention is open to the ratification of members which:-
(a) are parties to the international convention for the safety of life at sea
1960, or the international convention for the safety of life at sea 1974.
(b) are parties to the international convention on Loadline 1966 or any
other convention subsequently revising that convention, and
(c) are parties to or have implemented the provision of the regulations for
preventing collisions at sea of 1960 or the convention on the
international regulations for preventing collisions at sea 1972
2. This convention is further open to ratification of any member which on
ratification undertakes to fulfil the requirements to which ratification is
3. The formal ratification of this convention shall be communicated to the DG
of the International Labour Office for registration.
Article 6
1. This convention shall be binding only upon those
members of the International Labour Organisation whose
ratification have been registered with DG.
2. It shall come into force 12 months after the date on which
there have been registered ratifications by at least ten
members with a total share in world shipping of gross
tonnage of 25%
3. Thereafter this convention shall come into force for any
member 12 months after the date on which ratification
has been registered
Article 7
1. A member which has ratified this convention may denounce it after the
expiration of ten years from the date on which convention first comes
into force. Such denunciation should not take effect until one year after
the date on which it is registered.
2. Each member which has ratified this convention & which does not
within the year following the expiration of the period of ten years
mentioned in the preceding paragraph, exercise the right of
denunciation provided for in this article will be bound for another period
of ten years, and thereafter may denounce this convention at the
expiration of each period of 10 years, under the terms provided for in
this article
Article 8
1. The DG of the IL Office shall notify all members of ILO of the
registration of all ratifications & denunciations communicated to him by
the members of the organisation
2. When notifying the members of the organisation of the registration of
the second ratification communicated to him, the Director General shall
draw the attention of the members of the organisation to the date upon
which the convention will come into force
Article 9
The DG of the IL Office shall communicate to the Secretary General of UN
for registration of all ratification & acts of denunciation registered by
him in accordance with the provisions of preceding article
Article 10
At such times as may consider necessary the governing body of IL Office
shall present to the General Conference a report on the working of the
Convention & shall examine the desirability of placing on the agenda of
the Conference the question of its revision in whole or in part.
Article 11
1. Should the Conference adopt a new convention revising this
convention in whole or in part, then unless the new convention
otherwise provides:
a. the ratification by a member of the new revised convention shall
involve the immediate denunciation of this convention
b. as from the date when the new revised convention comes into
force, this convention shall cease to be open to ratification by
the members
2. This convention shall in any case remain in force in its actual form &
content for those members which have ratified it but have not ratified
the revised convention.
ILO has no enforcement powers of its own, but provisions are contained in
ILO 147 to allow for Port State Control measures

15. Address the salient issues as underlined in the Health Protection and
Medical Care (Seafarers), 1987 convention of ILO. As a Chief Engineer
comment its contribution to the improvement of medical care of
seafarers on board ships.

Ans. ILO means International Labour Organisation, which was created in 1919 to
develop international labour standards and to ensure their application. The
organisation standard includes related social policies, human and civil rights
matters. These standards have resulted from international tripartite agreements
on these matters. The ILO standards take the form of around 30 international
conventions and about 20 recommendations. These apply exclusively to
merchant shipping. A new consolidated ILO Convention covering all present
conventions is planned for the future.
Health Protection and Medical care (seafarers), 1987
Convention: Convention No. C 164
Date of Adoption: 08.10.1987
Came in to force: 11.01.1991
The general conference of ILO having been convened at Geneva by the
governing body of ILO office, and having met in 74
session on 24
1987. Noting that the following standards have accordingly been framed with the
co-operation of the IMO and the WHO (World Health Organisation) and it is
proposed to seek their continuing co-operation in the application of these
standards with regard to health, protection and medical care for seafarers, which
is the 4
item on the agenda of the session.
This convention has total 21 Articles.
Salient Issues Underlined In This Convention:
Article 3: makes ship owners responsible for keeping ships in proper sanitary
and hygienic conditions
Article 4: Aim at providing seafarers with health, protection and medical care
as comparable, as possible to that which is generally available to
workers ashore. Guarantee seafarers the right to visit a doctor
without delay in ports of call where practicable. Ensures medical care
is provided free of charge to seafarers.
Article 5: Every ship to which convention applies shall be required to carry a
medicine chest. The contents of the medicine chest and the medical
equipment carried on board shall be prescribed by competent
authority taking in to account such factors as the type of the ship, the
number of persons on board and nature, destination and duration of
voyage. Above equipments and chest should be properly maintained
and inspected at regular intervals not exceeding 12 months, by
responsible person. Expiry dates of medicines to be checked. The
competent authority shall ensure that the contents of medicine chest
are listed and labelled with generic names in addition to any brand
Article 6: Every ship is required to carry a ships medical guide, which will
explain how the contents of the medical chest are to be used.
Authority shall ensure that most recent edition of International
Medical Guide is available on board.
Article 7: The competent authority ensures by a pre-arranged system that
medical advice by radio or satellite communication to ships at sea,
including specialist advice, is available at any hour of the day or night,
free of charge to all ships irrespective of the territory in which they are
Article 8: All ships carrying 100 or more seafarers and engaged on
international voyages of more than 3 days duration, shall carry a
medical doctor as member of crew responsible for providing medical
Article 9: Ships which do not carry doctor will carry one or more specified
persons in charge of medical care and these persons shall have to do
a course approved by competent authority, regarding theoretical and
applied training in medical skills.
Article 11: Any ship 500 GRT, carrying 15 or more seafarers and engaged in
voyage of more than 3 days duration, a separate hospital
accommodation shall be provided. Some relaxation can be given for
ships operating in coastal trade. Hospital accommodation shall not be
used for other than medical purposes.
Article 12: A standard medical report form shall be adopted by authority. The
information contained in medical report shall be kept confidential and
shall be used for no other purpose than to facilitate the treatment to
Comments: The main contribution of this convention is it has made the
employer to ensure for the health and safety of seafarers on board
and to ensure ships are kept in proper sanitary and hygienic

16. Explain (i) WHO International Health Regulations (ii) ITU International
Tele- communication Regulations. What impact these treaties have on
modern shipping ?

Ans) WHO: World Health Organisation
The world Health Organisation, the United Nations specialized agency for health was
established in 1948. WHOs objective, as set out in its constitution, is the attainment by all people
the highest possible level of health. Health is defined in WHOs constitution as a state of
complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or
infirmity. It collaborates with member Govt., UN agencies and other bodies to develop health
standards, control communicable diseases and promote all aspects of family and
environmental health. WHO is governed by 192 member states through the World Health Assembly.
The Health Assembly is composed of representatives from WHOs Member States.
WHOs International Health Regulations
In 1951 WHO member states adopted the International Sanitary Regulations, which were
renamed the International Health Regulations (IHR) in 1969. Its purpose is to ensure the
maximum security against the international spread of diseases with minimum interference with
world traffic. The IHR were originally intended to help, monitor and control six serious infections
diseases cholera, plague, yellow fewer, small pox, relapsing fever and typhus. Today, only
cholera, plague and yellow fever are notifiable diseases.
Article 81 of the IHR states that no health document other than those provided for in there
Reg shall be required in international traffic separate vaccination certificates were once
required for small pox cholera and yellow fever. The eradication of small pox was confirmed by
WHO more than 10 years ago. It also states that vaccination against cholera cannot prevent
the introduction of the infection into a country and the WHO therefore amended the IHR in
1973 so that cholera vaccination should not longer be required of any traveller. A certificate of
vaccination against yellow fever is the only certificate that should now be required, if any, for
international travel. Most European countries have no vaccination requirements for
international travellers, while most Asia and African countries require a yellow fever

Article 54 of the International Health Regulation requires every ship to be either
permanently kept in such a condition that it is free of rodents on the periodically deratted.

ITU: The International Telecommunication Union
On 24
May 1844, Samuel Morse sent his first public message over a telegraph line between
Washington and Baltimore and through that simple act, ushered in the tele-communication age.
Barely ten years later, telegraphy was available as a service to the general public. In those days,
however, telegraph lines did not cross national borders and because each country used different
system, messages had to be transcribed, translated and handed over at frontiers, then re-
transmitted over the telegraph network of the neighbouring country. Given the slow and unwieldy
nature of this system, many countries eventually decided to establish arrangements which would
facilitate interconnection of their national networks. However, because such arrangements were
managed by each country at a national level, setting up telegraph links often required a huge
number of separate agreements. To simplify matters countries began to develop bilateral or regional
agreements so that by 1864 there were several regional conventions in place.

In 1865, the first International Telegraph Convention was signed in Paris by the 20 founding
members, and the International Telegraph Union (ITU) was established to facilitate subsequent
amendments to this initial agreement. Today, some 135 years later, the reasons which led to the
establishment of ITU still apply, and the fundamental objectives of the organization remain basically
un changed.

Following the patenting of the telephone in 1876 and the subsequent expansion of
telephony, the ITU began, in 1885 to draw up international legislation governing telephony.
With the invention in 1876 of wireless telegraphy. With the invention in 1896 of wireless
telegraphy- the first type of radio communication and the utilization of this new technique for
maritime and other purposes, it was decided to form a preliminary radio conference in 1903 to study
the question of international regulations for radio telegraph communication. The first Int. Radio
Telegraph conference in 1960 in Berlin signed the first Int. Radio Telegraph convention.

Under an agreement with the newly created United Nations, it became a UN specialized
agency in 1947 with its headquarter in Geneva. In 1957, the first satellite, sputnik-1 was
launched and began the space age. In 1963, the first geostationary communication satellite
synom-1 was put into orbit. Conferences made allocations and put in place regulations
governing the.. by satellites of the radio frequency spectrum and associated orbital slots. In
1992, allocations were made for the first time to serve the needs of a new kind of space
service using non-geostationary satellites.

The ITU is unique among international organization in that it was founded as the principle of
cooperation between governments and the private sector. With a membership encouraging
telecommunication policy-makers and regulators, network operators, equipment manufacturers,
hardware and software developers, regional standards making organizations and financing
institutions. ITUs activities policies and strategic direction are determined and shaped by the
industry it serves.

ITU publishes books and documents used by ships radio operators, including:
1. ITU manual for use by the Maritime Mobile and Maritime Mobile- Satellite
services 1992
2. ITU list of coast stations
3. ITU list o ships stations
4. ITU list of radio determination and special services and
5. ITU list of call signs and numerical table of identities of stations used by the
Maritime Mobile and maritime Mobile-Satellite services

17. For the safety, welfare and working condition of seafarer on board ship,
enumerate the various ILO/IMO regulations.

The main IMO conventions regarding safety, welfare and working conditions of
seafarers onboard are given below:-
1) SOLAS 74 and its amendments and protocols.
Entered into force 25
may 1980,
It has two parts. Part I contain 12 chapters Part II certain 4 annexure.
The main chapter which deals with safety and working conditions of
sea farers are:
Chapter II Constructional safety with respect fire, stability and flooding
Chapter III life saving appliances and arrangements
Chapter V - safety of navigation
Chapter VII Carriage of dangerous goods
Chapter IX Management for the safe operation of ships
Chapter XI-1 - Special measures to enhance maritime safety
Chapter XI-2 - Special measurers to enhance maritime security
2) L L 1966 and Amendments
In force 21
July 1968
Limits by means of minimum free boards, drafts to which ships may be
loaded prescribe minimum standard for internal weather tight and
water tight integrity and security for personnel
3) STP 1971 ( Special trade passenger ships agreement)
In force 2
Jan 1974
Complemented by protocol on space requirement for special trader
passengers ships.
STP 71 regulates the carriage of large numbers of unberthed
passengers in special trades such as pilgrim trades.
4) COLREG 1972
In force 15
July 1977
Amended in 1981, 1987, 1989, 1993 and 2001
38 rules divided in to 5 sections and four annexes.
Deals with rules and regulation for preventing collisions and technical
5) INMARSAT 1976 International Maritime Satellite Organization
Entered into force 16
July 1979
Define the Inmarsat purpose as being to improve maritime
communication there by assisting in improving distress and safety of
life at sea, communication, the efficient management of ships,
Maritime public correspondence services, and radio determination
INMARSATS obligations to provide maritime distress and safety
services via satellite were enshrined within 1988 amendment
6) STCW 1978 International convention on Standards of Training, Certification
and Watch keeping for seafarers.
Entered into force 28
April 1984
1995 amendment including STCW code entered into force on 1
It establishes minimum international standard requirements for training
certification and watch keeping, replaced national set standards.
Applies to ships of non party states, when visiting ports of party states.
7) SAR1979 - International convention on Maritime Search and Rescue 1979
Aims at developing an international search and rescue plan,
irrespective of location of accidents, SAR operations will be
coordinated by SAR organizations.
Entry into force 22
June 1985
Parties must have adequate SAR services in their coastal water and
to cooperate with other SAR organization.
8) PAL 1974 Convention relating to the carriage of passengers and their
luggage by sea called Athens convention
In force 28
April 1987
Protocol in 1976, 1990 and 2002
Establish liability regime for damage suffered by passengers carried
on seagoing vessel.
9) SUA 1988 ( Convention for the suppression of unlawfull acts against the safety
of maritime navigation
In force 1
March, 1992, SUA protocol 1988 in force 1
March 1992
Aims at ensuring that appropriate judicial action is taken against
persons committing acts against ships, which includes seizure of ship
by force, act of violence against persons onboard ships and the
placing of devices on board a ship which are likely to destroy or
damage it. Obliges contracting governments to prosecute alleged
1988 Protocol provide similar regulation relating to fixed platform
located on the continental shelf.
The main ILO convention related to safely, welfare and working conditions of sea
farers on board ship are as follows (About 30 convention related to seafarers)
1) ILO -147 Minimum standards convention
In force in Nov 1981
It is the minimum internationally accepted labor standards in merchant
It aims to eliminate operation of substandard ship, Aim to improve the
efficiency and safely of navigation, Aim to enhance measures to
protect the marine environment and aim to advance sea farers interest
in the filed of health, safety, working conditions and trade union rights
Convention requires flag states to adopt minimum standard relating to
safety, social security and shipboards condition of employments and
living arrangements.
2) ILO -178 Labor Inspection convention 1996
3) ILO -73 Medical Examination ( Sea fares) convention 1946
4) ILO -134 Prevention of accidents ( Sea farers ) Convention 1970
In force 17
Feb 1973
5) ILO - 138 Minimum Age Convention 1973
6) ILO -180 Sea farers hours of work and the manning of ships convention 1996
7) ILO -133 Accommodation of crews convention 1970
8) ILO 163 Sea farers welfare at sea and port convention 1987
9) ILO 164 Health protection and medical care convention 1987
10) ILO 165 Social security for sea farers convention 1987
11) ILO -166 Repatriation of sea farers convention 1987
12) ILO 146 Sea fares Annual leave with pay convention 1976
13) ILO -91 paid vacation ( Sea farers) convention 1949
14) ILO -74 certification of able sea man convention 1946
15) ILO 22 Seamans Article of agreement conventions 1926.
16) ILO -56 Sickness insurance (Sea ) convention 1936
17) ILO 87 Freedom of association and protection of the right to organize
Convention 1948.

18. Under Indian Merchant Shipping Act, explain (i) Indian Courts and
their procedures towards a major casualty on a foreign flagship (ii)
Arrest of Maritime property (iii) Arbitration (iv) Liens

Ans 1) Indian Courts and their procedures on India we have the following Judicial
i) Lower Courts: For small Cities/ Towns
ii) High Courts: in each state
iii) Supreme Courts: in new official language of high court and supreme court is
A part of civil law that deals with shipping field regarding collision damage of
cargo, salvage, arrest of ships etc. is called admiralty law. All cases that fall in
this category are heard by admiralty court.
At the time of independence only high courts of Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata
had admiralty jurisdiction. By a judgement of Supreme Court, all the cases
regarding shipping field can be heard in the other high court.
Any suits against foreign ships owned by foreign companies which do not
residues or business in India are liable to proceed in the admirably side of high
The high court possesses jurisdiction over
1) MSAC Merchant Shipping Act 581 part ix safety any claims regarding.
a) Building, Equipment or repairing of a ship
2) MSA part X, collisions, accidents and liability any claims to damage one by
ship, loss of life or property due to collision
3) MSA pad XIII, Salvage, any claims in nature of salvage services
4) MSA part VII seaman and apprentices any claim by master or crew
wages agreements
5) MSA paid XII, investigation and inquiries any claims lot shipping causalities
1) Vessel registered in India
2) Any foreign vessels. India on India terrestrial wages

ii) ARREST OF MARITIME PROPERTY: Any ship that is not considered fit for
the proposal voyage or if she is a danger to the environment or vehicle for life in
any aspect that ship will be considered unseaworthy and she can be arrested
Any ship which is in India water can be arrested if required laid down by MSA S8
are not fulfilled.
1) MSA part IX safety
a) If ship does not comply with the requirements for hull, equipment and machinery
b) Does not comply with cautious regulations regarding lights to be carried and exhibited
distress signals to be observed and followed.
c) Ship not provided with proper LSA and FFA
d) If a ship has deficiency in radio telegraph its installation and operations on a
signalling ..
e) Does not carry valid certificates
2) MSA Part VI certificates of officers, if ship does not carry the minimum mandatory
requirements and their required certificates are not as per STCW 95

Ship can be given provisional detention by a surveyor of D.G. Shipping detention to master in
case of making the ship unseaworthy. The copy of this report must be given to the officer
concerned if the ship is a foreign flag.

The owner/circular officer can appeal against this report to court of survey for the port where
ship is detained. The owner may appoint an independent assessor who must be recognized by
both the surveyor as well as he independent assessor agree on declaration/release of ship than
the vessel will be accordingly declared as released.

The D.G. Shipping may at any have order the official release . With as without conditions if
satisfied that the detailed ship is not longer considered.

It is appears that there was not reasonable cause for provisional detention the central govt.
shall be liable to pay the vessel owner his costs incidental to detention and survey by owner. If
the vessel is however proud has to pay on costs, expenses and fines to control govt. in addition
the owner must repair or remove the cause of detention at his own cost.

MSA 58 does not say much about arbitration. But is 1996 the Indian parliament passed the
arbitration and convention Act. This act recognizes the need of an arbitration award. It is the
resolution of the dispute, by one or more arbitration appointed by parties is disputed
The advantages of arbitration are:
1. Fast settlement
2. Low cost
3. Less formality

But it has disadvantages which are:
1. Difficult points of law may need to be revert to a court
2. No right of appeal to the result
3. Foreign courts may not be allowed to enter the arbitration award.
LIENS:- (To have a right to keep something until debt is paid)
Lien is a claim or charge upon property, securing the payment of some debt or the satisfaction
of some obligation or duty. There are two classes of lien concerning ship:-
1) possessory liens
2) maritime liens
Possessory Lien :- A lien is a right to retain possession of a movable property(ships as well as
goods), pending the discharge of an obligation incurred for services rendered to or in respect of
the movable property.
It must be noted that the right to retain the property is based on possession; ON SURRENDER
OF POSSESSION THE RIGHT IS LOST; e.g. Port lien on the ship for services provided to her. A
carrier(the owner or charterer who enters in to a contract of carriage with a shipper) by sea, has
in common law, a possessory lien on goods in his possession in three cases:-
1) to recover unpaid freight (but not dead freight, demurrage or damages for
detention, for which a lien for recovery must be specifically contracted for)
2) to recover expenses incurred in protecting cargo(since the master may have acted
as an agent of necessity for the benefit of cargo owner)
3) to recover a General Average contribution due from cargo(although in practise
cargo is normally released once a General Average bond or guarantee has been
signed or security has been provided)
Possession of the goods may be actual (i.e. where the goods are on board the
carriers vessel) or constructive (i.e. where they are not on his ship but still under his
control e.g. in a warehouse etc awaiting delivery)
A charter party usually has a lien clause.
Maritime Lien: Maritime lien is a claim on a ship, her cargo, or both, as well as on the
freight she will earn, in respect of a service done to or injury caused by any of them. A maritime
lien is enforceable by proceedings in rem i.e. against the property involved, and not against
any person or persons who might own or manage or have possession of the property.
The lien can be enforced by arrest and sale of the property(unless security is given) and
the lien accordingly travels with the ship or cargo whenever possession of it changes, and is
good against a bonafide purchaser without notice, it is not dependent on possession.
Maritime lien survives even after the property passes into the hands of a bonafide
purchaser even though he neither knew about the lien nor could have known of it even after
exercising reasonable care.
So unlike mortgages, maritime liens are difficult to detect as they are not registered.
The purchaser of a vessel often comes to know of the existence of a maritime lien only after a
claim is made on the vessel by the concerned interests. For this reason, maritime liens are often
hidden or invisible liens.
No precise definition of a maritime lien is provided either in the domestic legislation in
India or in any source of international law including the relevant conventions of 1926, 1967 &
Advantages of Maritime Liens to lienee:-
1. He is provided with security up to the value of the res(property
or thing)
2. He remains unaffected by his inability to trace the defendant.
3. When there are a no. of claims against the same res(property), the
claim of a maritime lienee generally rules first in priority over other
Equitable Lien: An equitable lien is not dependent on possession. The person entitled to
receive money for goods (or services supplied) is entitled to receive the money due to him, by
sale of the property, after following due process of law, even though he is not in possession of
the property.
However, equitable lien is lost by sale of the property to a bonafide purchaser for value
provided the purchaser did not know about the lien attached to the property or could not have
learnt of it by exercising reasonable care before purchasing the property

19. An Indian flag vessel collided with another vessel off the coast of India,
as a result few lives were also lost and vessel damaged. In accordance
with the provisions under the Merchant Shipping Act, what steps should
be initiated and who should initiate such steps for the safety of the
ships and the marine environment

Ans. Whenever a shipping accident takes place and comes under the purview of
M.S.Act as a shipping casualty, the master, the pilot or persons in charge of ship
at the time of casualty is required to give notice of this casualty to officer
appointed by the government under the section 358(2) of the M.S.Act. The proper
officers appointed by the government are notified in the official gazette.
Preliminary enquiry:- When an officer appointed under the Act received
information about the shipping casualty, he is required to conduct a preliminary
inquiry about the accident. The purpose of the preliminary enquiry is to establish
the following:
(j) A shipping casualty has occurred within the meaning of Act.
(k) The details of the voyage leading to the casualty.
(l) Events that led to the casualty
(m) Extent to which loss of life or loss of property has occurred due to
shipping casualty
(n) The causes that led to the casualty including act of incompetency,
negligence or misconduct of person or persons is concerned
The preliminary enquiry, which is held under section 359 of M.S.Act is
departmental enquiry and the proceedings of such enquiries are not released
to public. In conducting the preliminary enquiry, the officer has the following
(1) To inform the central government and the state government concerned
where necessary of the detail of the shipping casualties occurring within
their jurisdiction
(2) To go on board the ship and inspect the same including machinery and
equipment, but not unnecessarily detaining or delaying her from
proceeding on any voyage
(3) To enter and inspect any premises to facilitate the completion of the
preliminary enquiry
(4) To summon persons he thinks to take statement to complete the
preliminary enquiry
(5) To demand the production of all log books, documents or papers he
considers necessary for the enquiry
(6) To submit the report to central government
If any person refuses to attend and answer or to produce necessary
evidence or to impede the enquiry, officer should call his attentions to the
power given to him. In case he still refuses, he can take action under chapter
X of the Indian Penal Code.
Persons who may be present at the examination; where the owner or
agent of a ship, a casualty to which is being investigated signifies his desire to
be present but only while witness belonging to the ships at which he is directly
interested are being examined, and he must be requested to remain silent.
He may take note of evidence, if he desires but should not interfere
examination of witnesses. Barring this, no person is to be present in room
during the examination of the witness excepting the deponent. The officer
conducting the enquiry and his clerk and if necessary an interpreter.
Professional lawyers are not admitted in to the proceedings of preliminary
enquiry or formal investigation. Whenever it appears that the event leading to
ship casualty, demand a formal investigation by court, the D.G.Shipping, by
virtue of power delegated to him under section 360 of M.S.Act may direct the
same to be held. On receipt of the order of director general the proper officer
shall make an application to the court of empowered under 361. the objective
of court empowered under 361 is not to punish anyone who may have been
at fault, but to throw light on the cause of casualty and to consider steps to
prevent such casualties in future. Only first class magistrates are empowered
to conduct these formal investigations.
The courts are assisted by assessors having the requisite technical
knowledge and are independent of all the interest concerned. The assessor
are appointed by the court out of the list which is maintained by the
Where formal investigation involves or appears likely to involve any
question regarding cancellation or suspension of certificate of competency of
master, mate or engineer, the court shall be assisted by not less than two
assessors having the requisite experience in merchant marine service.
Apart from the officer on whose application this investigation is
undertaken, any person upon whom a notice of investigation has been
served, any other interested parties may be permitted to appear at
investigation and become a party to the proceedings.
On the appointment time and place for holding investigation, the court
can proceed with investigating witness the parties upon whom notice of
investigation have been served are present or not.
Report of court, unless the cancellation or suspension of any officers
certificate is not involved, the court need not tell its decision in open court. It
may send or deliver to the parties a copy of the report as required by 369 of
M.S.Act to be transmitted to the central government. The court should submit
its report to the central government in duplicate. Where cancellation or
suspension of officers certificate of competency is involved, the court may
deliver its decision in open court and also send or deliver to the parties a copy
of the report to be transmitted to the central government. Where the certificate
is suspended and the court has recommended a certificate of lower grade
should be issued, the same shall be issued by D.G.Shipping through the
principal officer concerned.
The power to cancel certificate of competency The certificate of
competency may also be cancelled by central government under provision of
373 of M.S.Act

. Normally an Indian ship is registered in any of the following ports in India i.e.
Mumbai, Calcutta and Chennai. At each port, the principal officer (P.O.) of the
MMD is the registrar for that ship. The registrar has a book called The Register
book which carries entries made regarding the registration of ship.
Following Documents are required for registration of the ship.
a) Surveyors Certificate
b) The Builders Certificate
c) Any instrument of sale, by which the ship was previously sold.
d) All declarations of ownership.
1) Surveyors Certificate:
The owner of the ship which is to be registered in India makes the
arrangements for the vessel to be surveyed by a surveyor, who then ascertains
the tonnage of the ship. The surveyor grants a certificate, specifying the ships
tonnage and other particulars. This certificate is delivered to the Register for
purpose of registry.
2) The Builders Certificate:
In case the ship is built in India, a Builders Certificate i.e. true account of proper
denomination and the tonnage of the ship as estimated and the name of the
person, if any, on whose account the ship was built o be submitted to the
Registrar. If the ship is built outside India, the same evidence should be produced
as in case of a ship built in India. If the place and time of her building are not
known or if the builders certificate cannot be produced, then the instrument of
sale under which ship was sold earlier is required.
3) If the ownership of the ship has been changed in the past. Those
instrument of sale is required at the time of registry.
4) Declaration of Ownership :
Owner (i.e. a person/company) should sign a declaration of ownership in the
prescribed format containing following.
a) Statement containing citizenship of India.
b) A statement of the time and place where the ship was built. If the ship
was built outside India. and time and place are not known, a statement
to that effect must be given. In addition, in case of a ship previously
registered outside India, a statement of the previously registered name
and other particulars.
c) Name of her master
d) The number of shares (of the ship) held by the individual / company ( as
the case may be) and
e) A declaration that the particulars stated are true to the best of his / her
knowledge and belief.
5) The give a minimum of 14 days notice to the Registrar of the name
proposed for the ship. The Registrar before registering the vessel in the
name of the applicant shall obtain prior approval of the name from D. G.
shipping who will also allot an official number of the ship.
On being satisfied that the ship, on the strength of evidence placed before him
is entitled to be Indian ship, Registrar arranges for a surveyor for the
determination of her tonnage in accordance wih the merchant shipping (Tonnage
measurement) Rules 1987, as amended from time to time, for the purpose of
issue of a certificate of survey.
After the formalities enumerated above have been gone thro, Registrar issues
a carving and marking note. This note is o be returned to the registrar after
carving and marking have been duly carried out on the ship in the prescribed
manner & certified by surveyor. It involves carving of name of the ship
conspicuously on each side of her bows as well as insertion permanently on her
stern the name of the intended port of Registry.
After entering the required particulars of the ship in the register, the registrar
issues a certificate of Registry to the owner.

21. An Indian shipping company is running at considerable loss for
consecutive years and desires to put some of their vessels in mortgage.
Identify the parties to whom the vessel can be mortgaged and in
extreme measure when the shipping company fails to repay the
mortgaged loan, describe the modalities for recovering.

Ans. The main source of ship finance in India is now The Shipping Credit and
Investment Corporation of India, and the Nationalised Banks. The Shipping
Development Fund committee provided for continuous & non-lapsable source of
finance to shipping until its abolition in 1986.
A registered ship or a share therein maybe made a security for a loan or
other valuable consideration and the instrument creating the security is called a
Mortgage constitutes an ideal form of security since it allows the mortgager
to continue his business as a going concern, at the same time subjects the
mortgaged property to some sort of control by the mortgagee.
It enables the mortgagee to take possession and realise the security if the
owner/debtor defaults or jeopardises the value of the security.
Mortgages are visible claims as national laws generally provide for
registration of mortgages with the registrar of ships & when the ship is mortgaged
to more than one party, the priority between them is determined by the date of
registration & not according to the date of mortgage itself.
From the date of registration, mortgagee is protected against all
unregistered mortgages or charges as well as against its trustee in bankruptcy.
Section 47 & 54 of M.S. Act 1958 & M.S Rules 1960 contains provisions
related to mortgages of ships. Under section 51 as amended in 1993 details of
rights of mortgagee is described.
- When there is only one registered mortgagee of a ship or share, he shall be
entitled to recover the amount due under the mortgage by selling the
mortgaged ship or share without approaching the high court.
- When there are two or more registered mortgagees of a ship or share, they
shall be entitled to recover the amount due under the mortgage in the high
court, and when passing the decree or thereafter, the high court may direct
that the mortgaged ship or share be sold in execution of the decree.
- Every registered mortgagee of a ship or share who intends to recover the
amount due under the mortgage by selling the mortgaged ship or share shall
give an advance notice of fifteen days relating to such sale to the registrar of
ships port of registry. This notice shall be accompanied with the proof of
payment of the wages and other amounts due to seamen in connection with
their employment on that ship in accordance with the provisions of the M.S.
Act 1958

1) When a seaman dies during a voyage on Indian Coast & ship proceeds to a port
in India, Master shall within 48 hrs after his arrival at his port of destination in
India, pay and deliver any property to Shipping Master at that port.
2) Deduction made by master in such account shall not be allowed unless
verified by an entry in official log book, and also by such vouchers, if any, as
may be reasonably required by shipping master.
3) A shipping master in India shall grant to a master upon due compliance with
such provisions of this section as relate to acts to be done at port of destination
a certificate to that effect.
4) Shipping master to whom effects of a deceased seaman are delivered, or
who take charge of such effects under this act may if he thinks fit, sell the
effects & proceeds of any such sale shall be deemed to form part of property of
5) Before selling any valuables, shipping master may try to endeavour to
ascertain the wishes of next of kin of deceased seaman as to the disposal of
such valuables, if practicable and lawful, comply with such wishes.
6) If seaman engaged in any ship, voyage of which is to terminate in India, dies
during that voyage, master of ship shall report death to next of kin of seaman
and to shipping master at his port of engagement and shall take charge of any
money or effects belonging to seaman. Master shall enter in official log book,
the following particulars:-
i) a statement of amount of money and detailed description of other effects.
ii) a statement of sum due and amount of deduction if any.
7) The said money, balance of wages and other effects are in this act referred
to as property of seaman or apprentice.
8) If master fails to comply with provisions of this act, he shall be accountable
for such property to the shipping master, and shall pay and deliver accordingly.
9) Where any property of a deceased seaman is paid or delivered to a shipping
master, the shipping master, after deducting for expenses incurred in respect of
that seaman or of his property such sums as he thinks proper to allow may pay
and deliver the residue to claimants who can prove themselves to the
satisfaction of said shipping master and said shipping master is discharged
from all further liability.
10) Where no claim to property is received within one year, shipping master
shall sell the property and pay proceeds of the sale into public account of India.
11) If after proceeds of sale, any claim is made to the satisfaction of shipping
master, claim shall be paid and if claim is not established, claimant can
approach court.
12) After expiration of 6 yrs, from receipt of such property by shipping master,
no claim to such property shall be entertained without enacting of central

3. Under maritime law, in case of a collision, explain (i) apportionment of
damages (ii) proportionate fault (iii) collision liabilities (iv) presumptions
of fault (v) jurisdiction in collision cases.

Ans) (1) Apportionment of Damages: When ship collides, most important aspect is
to come to the degree of blame attaching to each ship, which is arrived at an the
basis of faults in navigation of each ship for instance 60-40, 70-30 etc., each ship is
responsible to that percentage of the total claim.
(2) Proportionment fault: Proportionment fault is the degree of blame attaching to
(3) Collision liabilities: In case of collision the .. doing ship is liable to make good
all damages/less suffered by the other ship. This includes cost of repairing the other
vessel cost of cleaning pollution caused by collision removal of wreckage and also
loss of earnings of the other ship
(4) Proportionment fault: In certain countries both vessels are presumed to be
negligent on 50-50 bases
(5) Jurisdiction in collision case: Jurisdiction in case of collision means which
countrys law will apply. Generally the law of the country where they sue of filed
applies. But by agreement generally it is United Kingdom jurisdiction, because the
clubs who are active in determining collision liabilities they prefer London

24. What are the various collision liabilities under international maritime
law? How the economic laws in ship collisions are assessed? Highlight
your views on collision and conflicts of law ?
Ans. Collision Liability
When ever by the fault of two or more ships, damage or loss is caused to one or
more of them or to the cargo of one or more of them or to any property onboard
one or more of them the liability to make good the damage or loss shall be in
proportion to the degree in which each ship was at fault. If it is not possible to
establish different degree of fault, the liability shall be apportioned equally.
Salvage or other expenses, consequent upon that fault, recoverable in law by way of
When ever loss of life or personal injuries are suffered by any person onboard a ship
owing to the fault of that ship and of any other ship or ships, the liability of the
owners of the ship concerned shall be joint and several.
When a proportion of the damages is recovered from the owner of one ship, which
exceed proportion in which she was at fault, the said owner may recover by way of
contribution the amount of the excess from the owner of the other ship or ships to
the extend to which those ship were respectively in fault.
In every case of collision between two ships it shall be duty of the master or person
in charge of each ship, if and so far as he can do so without danger of his own ship,
crew & passengers if any as to rendered to the other ship, her master crew &
passengers if any.
a) To render to the other ship, her master crew & passengers, it any such assistance as
may be practicable and may be necessary to save them from any danger caused by
the collision.
b) To give to the master of other ships the name of his ship and of the port to which
she belongs and also name of port from where she comes.
Immediately after collision occurrence, cause a statement thereof to be entered in
official log book, signed by master and also by mate or one of the crew.
When ship has sustained or caused loss of life or any serious injury to any person or
material damage or hull damage, effecting seaworthiness, the owner or master shall
with in 24 hours transmit to the central Govt. or the nearest PO with full ship details
non appearance of the ship, owner shall inform Govt. in writing with all ship details
name, official no. port of Registry etc. Internal convention for unification of certain
Rules of law with respect to collision between vessels, 1910 (Brussels) Ratified by
1. At least one vessel must be a sea going vessel, collision may take place any where.
2. In case of doubt or force majored damages are borne by those who suffered them
even if one of them is at anchor or made fast.
3. If one of the vessel is at fault, liability attaches to her.
4. If two or more vessels at fault liabilities in proportion to the degree of faults resp.
committed. If in doubt, liability is equal (MS act section 345).
5. Applicable to vessels, cargo, property of crew, passengers, other persons onboard,
even third party and damages caused by death or injury (MS Act s-346)
6. Limitation of liability of ship owner to persons on board is left to each country (MS
act s-345).
7. Liability attaches when damage caused by pilot's fault even it compulsory.
8. Right of action for recovery not subject to fulfillment of any special formality.
9. Barred after two years. Action for recovery of other ships contribution barred after
one year from date of payment can be extended by the law of court.
10. Master is bound to render assistance to vessel, crew and passengers of other
vessels, exchange names, port of Registry and ports from and to (MS Act s-348)
11. Without prejudice to ship owners limitation of liability or obligations arising from
contracts of carriage (MS act -345)
12. Application for damages even when no collision actually takes place.
3/4 Collision Liability : Clause -6
Provides that underwriters will pay for 3/4 of any.
Loss or damage to another vessel or property on it.
Delay to or loss of use of another vessels or property on it.
General average of another vessel or property on it.
Salvage or salvage under contract of another vessel or property on it.
Where the payment by the assured is a result of a collision with the other vessel.
Can be extended to 4/4 th cover (if clause 40 is expressly agreed to in writing by the
was formally called, and is still often referred to as, the running down clause or
was originally intended by under writers to make ship owners more careful with the
navigation of there vessels, since they would be carrying a quarter of the risk
The one fourth of liability not covered by the underwriters under the policy is
normally insured under the ship owner's normally insured under the ship owner's P
& I club policy.
Sister ship : Clause 7 :
Allows vessels owned wholly or party by the same owner, or under the same
management, to be treated in the event of collision or salvage as if they were owned
by different companies. In such cases liability is to be referred to a mutually agreed
rule arbitrator.
Conflicts of law : When collision take place in international water, it become difficult
to decide that which ships, flag / state law will apply or law of near coastal / state
will apply.

25. Differentiate between official logbook, deck and engine room log books.
Highlight their salient features and differences. Also, enlist the number
of documents, which are handed over by relieved Chief Engineer during
signing off from a vessel.

Ans) Official log book
1) Must be kept on every ship, unless exempted it is available with engagement and discharge
documents from concerned flag state offices
2) Must be completed in accordance with M.S. (official log book) regulation 1981, as amended
3) Must be kept in one book covering all seaman onboard and remains in force from time of
opening crew agreement until closure of crew agreement.
4) It must be delivered on closure to flag state concerned
5) It must be produced by Master, if demanded to the superintendent/surveyor or port
6) Each entry must be dated and the master commits an offence if an entry is not made, signed
and witnessed in accordance with the regulations and the schedule.

Supplementary officials logs and records:
a) Officials log book (part II passenger ships only)
it maintains recording of the openings and closing of watertight doors and connivances
listed in the M.8. (closing of openings in hulls and in water tight bulk heads)
regulations 1980

b) Radiotelegraph (W/T) wg
it includes routine tests of equipments in part 1 and part 2 records duty of radio officer
and particulars of messages transmitted and received.
c) Radiotelephone (R/T) log
It records details of operators battery condition, battery charging, messages transmitted and
d) GMDSS Log
Required under regulation 17(1) of the M.S. (Radio Installations) regulations 1992, be
maintained on all vessels and made available for inspection. It records details of:-
1) Summary of communications relating to distress urgency and safety traffic
2) Important incidents connected with ratio service
3) The position of ship at least once a day
e) Oil record Book:-
Under regulation 10 of M.S. regulations 1996, must be kept onboard all tanker (above
150GT) and all non tankers (above 400GT) for machinery space operations (all ships);every
oil tanker of 150 GT and above must also have an oil record book (part 2) for cargo and
ballast operations.

Deck and Engine room logs:
In addition to usual entries of course, speed, weather etc entries should be
made regarding:-
Switching on and off of navigational lights
Changing from automatic to hand steering and vice-versa
Exaggerated entries of weather conditions or other circumstances should be
Entries should be made of all extraordinary happenings and all matters
effecting owners interest, likely to arise.
Machinery breakdown, stranding and grounding etc.
Searches for stow-ways, drugs or contraband
Bunkering operations in detail(commencement, completion etc)
Passage through oil slicks
Time of arrival, berthing and serving and receipt of readiness
Particulars of delays in loading or discharging etc

The E/R and Mates log book should be signed by chief engineer and chief officer,
ensuring correctness of its contents
a) Bridge books and movement book
Record entering and leaving of port, engine movements, change of course etc.
Cargo Record Book
It is required as per regulations. It is a requirement under chemical and gas
carriers codes, as well as for ships carrying noxious liquid substances.
Number of documents handed over by chief engineer during sign off:
1. List of status of surveys/certificates , quarterly listing
2. Condition of class (stated) if any
3. Handing over report
4. Fuel oil, diesel oil/lube oil soundings confirm actual figures
5. Voyage requirements for fuel. Lubes
6. Bunkers expected and consumption record
7. Oil record book
8. PMS status of main, auxiliary and electrical machineries
9. Spares onboard
10. Stores onboard
11. Alarm checklist
12. Critical equipment checklist
13. Special and precision equipment onboard
14. Records of port state inspections-LSA/FFA
15. Cargo equipment maintenance records
16. Technical file: list of critical components/spares affecting NOx/SOx
17. Bunker delivery receipts
18. Special tools
19. List of manuals and drawings available on board
20. Training records

All other documents pertaining to the particular type of ship.

26. State the Importance of maintaining log book records during a watch
and vessels stay in port. Elucidate the procedures involved relating to the
entries made for the data during watch keeping. Which data records
concerned with main engine you find most important and why ?
i) The log book serves as a legal document in the event of an incident to prove the functioning of
ii) It serves as evidence of various requirements of different states regarding tests / checks to be
carried out prior arrival of their waters (These should be logged accurately).
iii) Recording of various parameters of machinery helps in identifying a trend. And deviation them
normal parameters would point an impending breakdown of machinery.
iv) Logging of the parameters terms an important part of the condition monitoring process and
hence plays a important role in the preventive maintenance.
v) Last but not the least, it ensures that watch keepers take diligent care in checking the
equipment / condition of machinery as they sigh the entries in the log book for their watch
thereby taking responsibility of the watch.
Procedures relating to entries in the log book.
i) Entries to be made neatly clearly and legible.
ii) It there is any need for cancellation the previous entry is to be legible and countersigned by
the person carrying out the cancellation.
iii) As far as possible readings to be taken from the local instruments and not the remote gages.
iv) Entries to be accurately made and filled in the relevant column / row.
v) All the entries relevant to the machine to be made as far as possible.
vi) Additional operations / incidents to be logged down in the reruns / column.
All operating parameters of operating machinery should be logged down in the respective
columns or spaces reserved for them. The flow meters should be logged down to enable calculation
of consumptions other than the above C/E will log down following after calculating.
- F.O. consumption for M/E, A/E & Aux blr.
- Engine rpm
- Distance by engine observation
- Propeller ship.
- F.O. / L.O. / FW ROB
The most important parameter regarding M/E would be the main L.O. pressure.
Maintaining the L.O. pressure within the specified range would ensure proper supply to the
bearings sliding surfaces, thrust pads, pistons etc. If the L.O. pressure is lower than what is required,
starvation of oil would lead to damage to bearing chances of hot spot and crankcase explosion.
There by putting the main propulsion machinery out of action.
Other than the above, the other parameters are
i) Exhaust temperatures.
These would indicate proper combustion
ii) Scavenge pressure and temperature
iii) Engine load (fuel index)
iv) Piston cooling temperatures.
v) Jacket water temperatures.

27. An accident with a ship relates with a grounding while approaching a
port. On an inspection made by a team of surveyors, you are to submit
the relevant Log book records for formulating an opinion regarding
cause of grounding. Taking figures from real life situations
present a case study to underline that machineries were functioning
Case Study: Grounding of the MONCHEGORSK, Bridge Team Management,
and Passage Planning.
Some general characteristics of the MONCHEGORSK.
Length: 177 meters (581 feet)
Beam: 23 meters (74 feet)
Draft: 6.5 meters forward; 8 meters aft
Deadweight: 19,943 tons
Gross Tons: 18, 627 tons
Year Built: 1983
Main Engine: 15,446 kW (20,999 bhp)
General Cargo Ship with Ro/Ro side ramp and icebreaking capability. Single screw,
CPP, geared to two main engines.
Crash Stop (Maneuvering Full Astern both Engines)
From Full Ahead
Ballast: 0.55 NM Loaded: 0.85 NM
Time: 3 minutes 10 seconds
From Slow Ahead
Ballast: 0.35 NM Loaded: 0.5 NM
Time: 2 minutes 30 seconds
The MONCHEGORSK was in an partially loaded condition with a draft of 6.5
meters forward and 7.95 meters aft.
Loaded the ship draws 8.5 meters.
The ship was carrying 52 containers, 2 vehicles, and 10 break bulk cargoes
on this voyage.
The ships capacity is 140 cars, 36 trailers, and 576 containers (TEU).
Turning Circles
Full Ahead
Ballast Advance: 0.31 NM Transfer: 0.16 NM
Loaded Advance: 0.29 NM Transfer: 0.15 NM
Slow Ahead
Ballast Advance: 0.27 NM Transfer: 0.14 NM
Loaded Advance: 0.25 NM Transfer: 0.14 NM
Turning circle information needs to be considered based on partial load and
intermediate speed 9 to 11 knots.
Full Ahead, both engines on line, with a pitch setting of 10, and 540 rpm is
listed on the maneuvering diagram as 18.1 knots.
Slow Ahead, both engines on line, with a pitch setting of 4, and 420 rpm is
listed on the maneuvering diagram as 11.4 knots.
These reflect a loaded condition.
The maneuvering diagram indicated 1 to 3 knots of additional speed for a
ballast condition.
All these data were confirmed by the surveyors by checking manuals, log book
records and planned maintenance. They found that the engine condition was
satisfactory at the time of incident.
Not for navigational use.
Nisqually Reach
the Nisqually Flats which is a National Wildlife Refuge.
Balch Passage, between McNeil and Anderson Islands, was the path the Pilot
intended to take from the start of the transit.
Nisqually Reach, south of Anderson Island, was the track the Master understood the
vessel would follow.
The Pilot: Master 1600 gross tons, Second Mate any gross tons, Oceans. First Class
Pilot any tons, Puget Sound. Sixteen years experience as pilot. No other incidents.
The Master: Masters license (Russia). Reported working as a pilot in Murmansk for
five years. Worked aboard MONCHEGORSK before. Russian was first language,
scored well on English language proficiency test. No interpreter necessary.
The Chief Officer: Masters license (Russia). Worked aboard MONCHEGORSK
before. Russian as first language, scored well on English language proficiency test.
No interpreter necessary.
The Helmsman: Able-Bodied Seaman. Worked aboard MONCHEGORSK before.
Russian was first language. Required an interpreter for interview.
The Chief Engineer: Class 1 license (Russia). Worked aboard MONCHEGORSK
before. Russian as first language, scored well on English language proficiency test.
No interpreter necessary.

Course recorder information had to be adjusted for both course and time because
the Chief Officer did not start it before the MONCHEGORSK departed the dock. He
annotated the time as 1737. Using the ships position as recorded by the Chief
Officer on the chart, an additional correction of 2 to 3 minutes was found to be
necessary. A suggested 6-minute adjustment was checked but did not correlate well
with other data. The 32-degree course correction was derived from the recorded
heading versus the observed grounded heading.

Extract from the bell logger tape. Note the slowing of the MONCHEGORSKs
engines starting at 1820 as the ship rounded Devils Head. Note also the one-minute
backing bell at 1826.
Error Chain Indicators
Some of the error chain indicators that were present as the MONCHEGORSK
grounding played-out.
Ambiguity. The track to be followed by the MONCHEGORSK was not clear
to all members of the bridge team prior to departure.
Distraction. The Pilot stated that he was concerned with small vessel traffic.
Inadequacy and Confusion [loss of control]. The Pilot said he knew the
heading had gotten too far over and realized he needed to come hard to port or stop
the vessel. The Helmsman stated he knew the ship had to proceed more to port, but
he received starboard helm orders. The Chief Mate said he wondered about the
Pilots starboard turn order, and attempted to contact the Master regarding the order.
Communication Breakdown. The Chief Mate did not call the Master upon
learning of the Pilots intent to deviate from the intended route. The Chief Mate was
apparently unaware of the Pilots concern for small vessel traffic in Drayton Passage.
Non Compliance with Plan. The planned route was not followed.
Procedural Violation. The Chief Mate did not call the Master about the
deviation from the intended route despite a standing order to the contrary.
The engine room log book, pms records were thoroughly checked. The chief
engineer was interviewed to find out any malfunctions with the engine or steering, or
any stoppages or breakdowns before the incident. It was also checked whether any
maintenance work was carried out on main engine or steering prior departure. The
main engine trying out record in ahead and astern directions, and steering and
emergency steering trying out prior departure port records were verified and were
found satisfactory.
Alarms and controls trying out records in pms were also checked. Hence it was
confirmed that the machineries were running satisfactorily at the time of incident.
Passage plans should be reviewed and discussed by the bridge team
(including the pilot) when the pilot boards the ship. Any changes foreseen at that
time should be evaluated, plotted on the chart, and made known to all bridge team
Changes to passage plans should be evaluated to determine their impact on
the composition and duties of the bridge team.
Communication is critical to the bridge team. It maintains the situational
awareness of bridge team members and ensures that developing error chains are
Standing orders should be consistently followed.

Investigation Notes
Multiple-investigating agencies: Pilotage Commission, Ecology and U.S.
Coast Guard
Sorting out timing of events from recorded information - course recorder,
engine logger interpretation.
Differing recollections of apparently credible individuals - the Chief Officer and
Pilot offered differing accounts of the who gave the various engine orders that were
Interview timeliness. Some witnesses interviewed a month after the
Willingness of interviewees. Pilot reluctance to give statement to U.S. Coast
Guard during initial investigation.
Alcohol testing was not conducted due to equipment problems. Alcohol could
not be ruled out categorically as a factor.
Voyage Data Recorders - should help sort out events during future incidents
once the requirement is implemented internationally.
Fatigue - The Chief Officer offered a question to US Coast Guard
investigators that raised the possibility that he may have been fatigued at the time of
the grounding.

The Washington State Board of Pilotage Commissioners issued a reprimand to the
pilot for his role in the grounding. In addition, the Board required him to take
additional Bridge Resource Management training (at his own expense) and levied a
monetary fine. An additional fine and suspension of his license were issued as a
suspended sanction for a period of one year.

28. Describe the objective for maintaining records onboard. What are its
categories? Enlist the record keeping items under each categories
substantiating with reasons. Give an example by which the records
generated by the shipboard maintenance activities may also be seen as
a data base from which valuable management information can be

Ans. The objective of maintaining record onboard is to 1) Meet with the requirements of the
various International regulations & 2) reduce the down time which may be involved
during "critical maintenance ' or break downs" The records of regulatory certificates
reveals the certificates due for renewal before their expiry date. Action for their
renewal can be therefore taken well in advance, thereby ensuring continued
seaworthiness of vessel. Basically "Records" reveal the information for planning
maintenance in next ports and surveys to be carried out. There are two categories of
records maintained onboard.
Externally generated and internally generated records.
Externally generated records are :
1) Class survey records, reports and certificates
2) Statutory records of reports and certificates
3) Port state control reports / records
4) Report of vetting organization
"Internally" generated Records are :
1) Records of routine, inspection and maintenance work.
2) Record of testing alarms, and emergency shutdowns.
3) Superintendents visit and inspection records
4) Internal and external audit reports
5) Records of non-conformity and corrective action taken .
6) Records of accidents and Hazardous occurrences
7) Spares and store maintenance records
8) Delivery Notes
9) Personnel records comprising of
i) Seaman's Document (CDC, PASSPORT etc.)
ii) Medical fitness certificate Report.
iii) Certificate of competency of officers / ratings
iv) Statutory courses Attended.
Externally" generated records can assist giving following valuable management
information :
Class survey records / Reports :
Continuous survey and inspection of machinery within the stipulated period should always
be compared with or else the ship cannot ply (or) claim any insurance. Therefore 'Records
of class certificates help us to plan and organize the surveys due thereby maintaining the
vessel in "class" at all times.
Statutory survey certificates / Records :
All safety, pollution prevention and critical equipment onboard has to be periodically
inspected by the administration and certified well kept records will enable this inspection to
be carried out prior to expiry of the certificates, so that the vessel trading in the international
water in not effected.
PSC inspection records :
All the PSC inspections reports shall be recorded and the latest PSC records
deficiency shall be rectified within the accepted time frame and PSC should be informed. If
any vessel undergoes PSC inspection of one port, it need not be inspected by another PSC
within a period of 6 months from that date, unless otherwise any specific reason is
established this can be proved only when we have the previous records. This will be
sufficient to show weather recommendations of previous PSC inspection have been fulfilled /
completed with.
Vetting Inspection Records :
Vessels in the tanker trade need "vetting records" to be maintained it is the critical
inspection of shipboard safety and operational procedure w.r.t. preventive maintenance plan,
regulatory compliance plans and crew training programs.
Many tanker charter parties now certain venting clauses that mention owners
warrant that the vessel, at all times shall be accepted by major oil companies under their
vetting program. Owners to arrange for inspection as and when required at their time and
INTERNALLY Generated Records
i) Records of Routine (Log Books), inspection and maintenance :
This helps the vessel in general up-keep in normal operating conditions the records
unable us to plan when to carry out different types of routines inspection and maintenance.
Previous records also help us to know any special produce or tools to be used for
maintenance pertaining to that particular machinery. Therefore previous records (history
book) should be referred, before planning any maintenance.
ii) Records of safety and emergency equipment :
To ensure the safety of life and property on board all safety and emergency related
equipment should be tested and recorded, there should be sufficient spare onboard (known
from the previous consumption) and it any deficiency / shortage is observed indents must be
iii) Superintendent inspection and internal / external audit records :
As per ISM (SMS) requirements a vessel shall be inspected by a company official every 3
months; there must be a documented evidence and his reports recorded.
Reports of Internal / External Audit as per 15 m (SMS) should be documented and
should be readily available in case of a PSC inspection.
iv) Spares and store Inventory Records :
These records very closely depend upon the maintenance records. So proper
maintenance will reflect the requisition to be made for indenting spares and stores which
should be received well in time before the date of planned maintenance.
v) Delivery Notes :
When receiving F.O. or L.O. bunkers 'Delivery notes' shall be signs by both the
parties and one copy kept on board as a record and other one should be sent to the
The 'note' should have all details like grade, properties, time of supply, made of
supply, name of supplier or any short supply. Any dispute should be recorded. If any enquiry
occurs for whatsoever reactions the 'delivery note' will play a vital role as a record of proof.
Personal Records :
All personnel onboard shall be in possession of required certificates / mandatory
courses as per STCW-95 and medical fitness certificate the records will shown the status /
details of all the personnel and that the immigration requirements have been met with. The
validity of the certification immigration requirements have been met with. The validity of the
certificate should be taken into account when planning sign off/ on. All overtime records of
crew shall be maintained as per 'ILO' requirements.
Maintenance records may be seen as database from which valuable management
information can be retrieved. An 'example' is given below :
Consider a particular records of maintenance of any equipment, from this the
company superintendent, can come to a conclusion that the maintenance period should be
increased (or) decreased.
We have take an example of cleaning of waterside of sea water cooled L.O. cooler of
an Auxiliary engine. Now say if ship is operating along the Indian coast them due to muddy
water; water side of the cooler will become dirty very soon and the performance of cooler will
deteriorate faster, where as when the ship is beastly plying an high sea the performance of
coaster will be normal for longer period of time.
So from previous maintenance records we can alter the maintenance plan for sea
water coolers i.e. vaulting in optimum efficiency and savings of the men working hours.

29. With reference to record keeping onboard, discuss (i) the necessity of
proper filing (ii) efficient control of follow up and verification activities
(iii) accident investigation.
Describe a situation onboard, which will highlight the importance of
record keeping of above three cases.

Ans. : (i) The necessity of proper filing - Proper filing of a document mean it should go in a proper
file with proper no & in proper order at proper time. It should have month & year
section. Once a file is maintained in proper order it.

- Reduces the time to find out document in less time
- Once document is found it reduces irritation
- Looks impressive & show system is organized.
- Becomes very easy for quick reference, survey etc.

(i) Efficient control of follow up & verification :- follow up means keep your self updating
regarding the inquiry you have sent for answer it to know progress. If this
communication is a paper correspondence it is very important to have initial letter no or
reference no. if it is an e-mail that it is always better the whole correspondence should
be sent every time if on communicate.

When you receive any correspondence it is equally important to verify it by sending a
small note that you have received so & so. If follow up for the queries are kept then it
makes easy for the replaying person & it helps in quick decision so saving time.

All the correspondence carried out including the follow up request should also be filed.

(ii) Accident investigations - Records are the main key to investigate the reasons for any
accident. The records can tell whom , how this problem started & what were initial
indications what steps were taken to remove the problem.

- if the people were aware of it or not
- What correspondence was carried out with officer
- Who was the in-charge of the job
- How many people involved, & whether they were right for the job or not
- Whether correct procedure was followed or not.

All this type of questions can be solved from the records to find out the root cause of the
accident and at the basis of it in feature the root cause of it can be eliminated and the
record will help in avoiding future accidents.

To highlighted the importance of record keeping let us take an examples of head inquiry due
to breaking of helmets by falling hammer. (Requisition filed) we received helmets in store,
the received ones were not of same standards we have asked for (invoice filed)

- Office was informed regarding this
- Follow up done & continued
- In between helmet was used & a hammer fall on the helmet breaking it sand piece
of hard plastic piercing in the head (log book entry)
- Incident report made & officer informed about this.
During accident investigation the requisition checked standard checked, invoice checked,
office correspondence & follow up checked log book only & incident reports wee studies &
report cause find and.

All the documents were filed um proper order so a smooth investigation was followed

Hence Record Keeping in day to day life is very very important.

30. How to distinguish between necessary and unnecessary records on
ship? How the control of record keeping maintained onboard? How the
old and unnecessary records are identified and dealt with?

Ans. The objective of maintaining records on board is to reduce the downtime which
may be involved during critical maintenance or breakdowns. The records of
regulatory certificates reveal the certificates due for renewal before their expiry
date. Action for removal can therefore be taken well in advance thereby ensuring
continuous seaworthiness of the vessel. Basically records reveal the information
for planning, maintenance in next ports & surveys to be carried out.
Almost every activity on a sailing ship demands for records or recording that
activity. Some of them requires time together with authorised personnel
notification and some of them are only important for the date of the activity or
task. It is such a broad term that single line definition is not viable.
To differentiate between necessary records and unnecessary records there is
not a demarcation line but we can say that certificates do have a validity period
and must be kept on board for that validity. Once it expires we can still keep till
new certificate is issued and after that the old one can be discarded, within the
accepted time frame & PSC shall be informed. If any vessel undergoes PSC
inspection in one part it need not be inspected by another PSC within a period of
six months from that date unless otherwise any specific reason is established.
Vessel in tanker trade need vetting records to be well maintained. It is the
critical inspection of ship board safety and operational procedures with respect to
preventive maintenance plan and crew training programs many tanker charter
parties now contain vetting clauses that mention owners warranty that the vessel
at all times shall be accepted by major oil companies and chemical companies
under their vetting program. Owners to arrange their inspection as and when
required at their time and expense.
Internally generated records:-
1) Records of routine inspection and maintenance work
2) Records of testing alarms and emergency shut downs
3) Superintendents visit and inspection records.
4) Internal and external audit reports.
5) Reports of non conformity and corrective action taken
6) Records of accidents and hazardous occurrences
7) Spares and stores maintenance records
8) Delivery notes
9) Personnel records comprising of
a) Seamans documents(COC, passport, courses)
b) Medical fitness certificate report
c) Certificate of Competency of Officers/Ratings
d) Statutory Courses attended, etc.

Charter party: In trumping the market conditions strongly influence the freight
that has to be paid. The contract between two parties is called the charter party.
Charter parties are contracts of affreightment under which the shipowner, in return
for a sum of money called the freight or charter hire aggress to carry goods in bulk
by sea or provide services of a vessel for the purposes of such carriage.
There are no international conventions governing charter parties. Most countries
have also not made laws for regulating chartering practices. The terms and
conditions of charter parties have been evolved over a period of years in preparing
with the growth of maritime commerce and the shipping industry.
Organization like the UK chamber of shipping and the BALTIC INTERNATIONAL
MARITIME CONFERENCE (BIMCO) in Copenhagen have played a significant role
in evolving international accepted CHARTER PARTIES. Besides such standard
forms, there are also a number of private charter parties forms evolved by individual
commodity producers and merchants. Thus, charter parties could vary from place to
place and also from one commodity o another.
The chartered will normally employ brokers to fire a ship for the carriage of their
cargoes. They may be carrying their own goods or goods of another party. They
maybe a member of a consortium conference on other multi party agreement or may
be outsider.
There are three important elements concerning chartering
The owner he who puts his vessel or part of the vessel at the disposal of another
party for carriage of cargo.
THE CHARTERER : He who hires the vessel and pays for it
The FREIGHT : The amount of money which the charterer has to pay the owner for
hiring of the vessel.
According o the contract both charterer and the owner have their own
responsibilities with respect to the fired costs and the variable costs in the use of
vessel. The charter party are normally claused to allow charterers to sublet the vessel
in whole are impart on condition that the charterer remain responsible to the
shipowner for the performance of original charter.
There are different types of charter parties
1. Voyage Charter
2. Time Charter
3. Bare boat Charter

Freight:The fright is expressed as per ton loaded cargo. This is usually expresses in
dollars per MT or long ton. Freight is the remuneration payable by charters to the
owners for the performance of the contract and may be called charter party freight.
This is normally payable in accordance with the terms of a freight clause which
stipulate the amount of freight the time for payment and the method of payment.

This is often payable under the charter party terms partially or fully in advance e.g.,
on loading on issue of Bill of Lading
Dead freight is not genuine freight but owners compensation for loss of freight,
payable by charterers on a quantity of cargo short shipped i.e., a quantity they
agreed upon but failed to load
A bare boat charter may also be called a charter by demise or demise charter and
is often described as a type of ship financing arrangement.
It will be generally on the BARE CON 89 charter party form
It is used by owners such as banks/finance organization who may not be
prepared to operate or manage ships themselves.
It is a contract for the lease of a vessel for an agreed period. The legal owner
ship continues to vest in the owner but her physical possession, operation
(including manning) and commercial exploitation are the responsibility of and
are the benefit of the charterer.
They often have a purchaser option at the expiry of the charter period and are
frequently linked to management control.
Any bills of lacking for cargo are issued by or on behalf of the charterer and not
on behalf of the legal owner.
The chartered usually pay the owner a fixed hire per month in advance as
detailed in agreement.
The bill landing is the declaration of the master of the vessel by which the
acknowledges that he received the goods on board of his ship and assures that
he will carry the goods to the place of destination for delivery, in the same
condition as he received them against handing of the original bill of landing. The
definition of a bill of lading given in the HAMBURG RULES is the following.
BILL OF LADING means a document which evidence a contract of carriage
by sea and the taking over of loading of the goods by the carrier, and by which
the carrier undertakes to deliver the goods against surrender of the document.
A provision in the document that the goods are to be delivered to the order of a
named person, or to order or o bearer, constitutes such an undertaking.
The bill of lading serves as a
a) A receipt of the goods by the shipowner acknowledging that the goods of the
stated species, quantity and conditions are shipped to a stated destination in a
certain ship or at least received in custody of the ship owner for the purpose of
b) A memorandum of the CONTRACT OF CARRIAGE by which the master
agrees to transport the goods to their destinations all terms of the contract which
was in fact concluded prior to signing of the bill of loading are repeated on the
back of this document
c) A document of little to the goods enabling the consigner to dispose of the
goods by endorsement and delivery of the bill of lading.
LAY TIME: The lay time is the allowed time for loading and unloading of the
vessel. The lay time is determined in the charter party. If this time excelled by the
charterer he has to pay the owner compensation called the
DEMURRAGE: On the other hand if the ship has loaded or discharged quicker
than foreseen then the owner will have o pay the charter a compensation called
dispatch. Lay time consists of a specific number of days DAYS means a period
of 24 consecutive hours running from 0000 to 2400 hrs.
DEMURAGE: Rate of amount payable per weather working day a portion
thereof to the shipowner by the charter as penalty for the letters failure to load or
discharge cargo within the lay time specified in the charter party provided
however that the delay was not due to circumstances within the control of
shipowner or beyond control of the chartered.
OFFHIRE:It is the responsibility of the owner to provide the vessel in a
seaworthy condition for the purpose of the contract and the time of contract
making. Owners usually agree to exercise due diligence to make the vessel
seaworthy for each voyage during the charter period.
A term charter party usually contains an undertaking by owners to maintain the
vessel in a good condition throughout the charter period and owners may be
required to keep the vessel in the condition she was stated to be in when the
contract was made. The term off hire means that in certain circumstances for
which the charterer is not responsible, the hire will be temporarily suspended. So
the hire of the vessel is suspended when the charterer cannot use the vessel for
which he had hired it.
The circumstances in which off hire is allowed are given in the charter
party.(eg- dry docking, strike of officers, crew, breakdown of machinery, to
maintain efficiency of the vessel, deficiency of owner stores etc.)
The boiler and piston cleaning is included to allows owners to carryout
maintenance of machinery. This period is normally 48 hours per year. The vessel
goes off hire if period of maintenance is exceeded.
If deviating for owners purpose eg-landing a sick man, repairs, dry dock the
vessels will be off hire from the moment of deviation until she is ready to resume
service in a position not less favourable to the charterers.
A deduction of hire is calculated on the basis of fuel used in deviation including
F.O and D.O at the port deviated to.
But if deviation is for the charterer purposes eg.: stress of weather the vessel
will remain on hire.

4. What are the basic contracts used in Maritime transportation? Discuss
the basic elements of the time Charter Party and Demise (Bareboat Charter
Parties)? State the conflicts between chartering and Maritime Law?

Ans. :- Contract is an agreement enforceable by law and exists between owner
and ship manager if any.
Owner, manager and any ship broker fixing the ships employment
Owner, manager and any charterer of the vessel.
Owner, manager and agent appointed at each port.
Master and his employer
Legal carrier and each shipper of goods on vessel.
Owner, manager and various parties engaged during a voyage such as ship
Repairing parties, tug owners, pilotage authorities, port authorities, stevedores.
Individual crew members and their employers.
Ship owners and charterers.
Charterers and sub-charterers.
Ship owners and owners of cargo
Ship owners ( or carriers ) and passengers ( contracts of passage )
- Contracts of carriage by sea are normally made between a shipper or
charterer & a ship owner or carrier, by brokers acting as agents on their
behalf. ( For brokers services a separate contract is made ).
An agent normally has the legal capacity to bind his principal to any contract
made on the principals behalf, although he must always act within his authority.
A master normally has no capacity to make or alter a contract of carriage made
by his employer except in except in exceptional circumstances. ( e.g. when
making a salvage contract in time of peril, or in circumstances where he becomes
an agent of necessity when unable to communicate with its principal.
Time Charter :- is a contract for the services of the vessel for a specified period
of time which could vary from one trip ( trip time charter ) to as much as a few
years. The owners retain possession of the vessel & provide the master & crew,
provisions, insurance deck and engine stores & have the responsibility of
maintaining the vessel in an efficient state in hull, machinery & equipment. The
charterers provide and pay for fuel, port and canal charges, pilotage, tugs,
agency fees & commissions. The time charter forms in common use are NYPE,
charterer-hire is generally on a daily rate & is usually payable in advance every
fortnight/every month.
Bareboat Charter or Demise Charter :- Is rather more in the nature of a ship financing agreement for
the services of the ship. In this arrangement the legal ownership continues to vest in the owner but
her physical possession, operations ( including manning ) & commercial exploitation are the
responsibility of & are for the benefit of the charterer. Bareboat charters often have a purchase
option at the expiry of the charter-period & are frequently linked to a management contract. The
owners are often banks or investment companies who do not have the expertise to operate or
manage ships. Any Bills of Lading for cargo loaded are issued by or on behalf of the charterer & not
on behalf of the legal owner. The most-often used form for this type of agreement is Barecon-89
published by BIMCO. The charter hire is generally payable in advance on the basis of per annum..

The duties of the ship-owner/carriers are covered under Article (iii) of
Hague Visby rules.
I) The carrier is obliged to exercise due diligence before and at the beginning of the
voyage in respect of the following:
(a) to make the ship seaworthy
(b) to properly man, equip and supply her
(c) to make the holds and other places where goods are to be carried fit and safe
for their reception carriage and preservation.
II) The carriers duty to exercise due diligence in the above respects is a paramount
duty and an overriding obligation. If subsequently it is established that loss of or
damage to cargo resulted from failure of the carrier to exercise due diligence, the
carrier will not be permitted to avail of the benefit of the protection, otherwise
available to him under the rules.
III) The carrier is obliged to properly and carefully load handle, stow, carry and
discharge the cargo. The carrier must have a proper system for taking care of cargo
during the time he is in custody thereof. This provision includes aspects such as
security, ventilation, maintenance of required temperature and avoidance of
(IV) The carrier must demand of the shipper, a bill of loding showing (a) Leading
marks necessary for identification of goods. (b) Number of packages or the quantity
or weight in writing by the shipper (c) The apparent order and condition of goods.
(V) A bill of lading issue as above must be a shipped Bill of lading, provided that
the shipper has surrendered any Mates Receipt or Received for shipment Bill of
lading (issued prior to the issue of the bill of lading)
such a Bill of Lading is also a prima-facia evidence of receipt of goods as described
therein but proof to the contrary is not admissible where the B/L has been
endorsed/transferred to a third party acting in good faith.
(i) Unless the value of goods has been declared by the shipper before shipment and
has been inserted in the Bill of lading the carriers liability for loss of or damage to
goods is limited as provided in the rules
(ii) Under the Hague Rules, the carriers liability was restricted to G.B. pounds 100
(gold equivalent) per package-unless of course a higher limit had been mutually
(iii) By Hague Visby amendments in 1968, the above limit was raised to 10,000 francs
per package or 30 francs per kilogram (whichever is higher). A frame meant 65.5
mgs of gold of 900/1000 fineness (90% pure gold)
(iv) By amendments in 1979, the above limits were further raised to 666.67 SDRs per
package or 2SDRs per kg.
(v) The 1968 amendment provided that where a container/pallet or similar article
of transport is used to consolidate goods, the number of packages mentioned in the
B/L as packed in such article of transport shall be deemed to be the number of
packages as far as these units are concerned.
(i) The shipper is the person who has a legally binding contract with the carrier. It is
the shippers responsibility to provide accurate information about the cargo.
(ii) Following information must be included in the B/L
(a) Shippers identity (b) Vessel name
(c) Port of loading (d) Port of discharge
(e) Quantity of cargo.
As far as possible the master should insert words viz., shipper figures or shore
figures or weight and quantity unknown to protect he carrier from claim short
loading date of loading (g) condition of goods (h) freight (i) condition of carriage
(iii) The shipper has to clearly declare, the nature of goods being shipped when
goods are being shipped without the knowledge of consent of carrier, the carrier is
free to jettison land or destroy the goods without any liability.
(iv) The shipper is responsible for all damages and expenses resulting from the
shipment of dangerous goods, even when such goods are shipped with carriers
knowledge. The carrier can deal with the goods when they become dangerous to the
ship without any liability except general average. But in such a case, the shipper is
not liable for any consequential loss.
1. If the value of goods has not been declared in the B/L the shipper will
get only 666.6 SDRs per package or 2 SDRs per kg
2. In case of loss or damage, written notice must be served on the carrier
within are year of delivery of goods.

1) Under Hague rules (framed in 1920s) carriers liability was restricted to GB
pounds 100 (gold equivalent) per package.
Under Hague-Visby rules, this limit was raised to 10,000 francs (gold equivalent) per
package or 30 francs per kg
2) As per Hague Visby rules, the carrier loses his right to limit liability, if the damage
to cargo resulted from an act or omission of the carrier, done with the intent to cause
such damage. As per Hague rules, no such provision were provided. Thus the
carrier could limit his liability to 100 GB pounds even if the damage caused to cargo
was done intentionally with the intent to cause damage.

34. Elaborate the influences of a Charterer on operation of propulsion and
other shipboard machineries during a voyage. A ship on a time- charter
if met with several unforeseen machinery breakdowns due to which the
scheduled date cannot be met with, stale the different options and
actions a Chief Engineer on-board should undertake.

Ans. The different types of charter parties are :-
(1) Voyage Charter (2) Time Charter (3) Bareboat Charter.
In case of a voyage charter and time charter, it is the responsibility of
owner to take care of ships propulsion machinery and other machineries on
In case of any breakdown :
(a) In case of voyage charter in breakdown if laycan is not met i.e. at
agreed time if the vessel is not presented at agreed port or place, the
charterers are entitled to reject the vessel and cancel the charter.
(b) In case of time charter, loss of time governed by the so called off hire
clause. This clause provides that time charter shall not be required to
pay hire for such time as is caused by breakdown of machinery or
(c) In case of bareboat charter all responsibilities regarding navigation,
propulsion and maintenance of shipboard machinery remains with
charterer itself.
Prior taking a ship on charter following things (but not limited to ) are taken in
to consideration by the charterer:
(2) Description of the vessel name, flag, ownership, class,
gross and net tonnage, cargo capacity and horsepower
(3) Speed and fuel consumption in function of determined
weather conditions (in good weather & smooth water)
Time charter has a major concern in speed of the ship and fuel consumption
as it determines the time period between ports and also the expenses to be
incurred on fuel in the voyage. Minimum speed agreed in charter party has to be
achieved and any deviation in case of speed or fuel consumption if any, then the
owner has to pay compensation to the charterer.
Voyage charter has stipulated laycan so in order to meet that a minimum
agreed speed has to be achieved/maintained during the voyage otherwise
charterer is entitled to reject the vessel and cancel the charter.
(3) Apart from propulsion machinery the charterer can also ask for
following reports:
a) Aux. eng. fuel consumption per day
b) Conditions of hatches/tanks
c) Boiler fuel consumption
d) DO cons. in IGG (gas ships)
e) Cargo machinery
f) Mooring & windlass
g) Navigation
h) General condition of vessel
i) Vetting inspection defect list
j) CAP survey reports of hull and machinery
For delivering the cargo at agreed terms and conditions in charter party,
other machinery also play vital role.
Time Charter:- This means a vessel is to be operated for a period of time
under charter without undertaking either the financial commitments of ownership
or responsibilities of navigation and management of vessel.
If too much unforeseen machinery breakdown have occurred and ship
cannot meet with the scheduled date, a chief engineer on board should
undertake following options and actions:
In case of time charter a period of 48 hrs is allowed for the shipowner per
year to carry out maintenance jobs on boiler and main engine.
So in case the breakdown is on ME or boiler, the C/E must ensure that
maintenance is carried out within the stipulated time by charter party. To expedite
the work, the option of making two teams to work on ME can be considered in
that when one group is working the other can take rest and work goes on
continuously till the job is over, to ultimately avoid the possibility of off-hire vessel.
In case of breakdown:-
3) Company must be informed regarding the breakdown machinery and
proposed maintenance action must be reported also
4) Any special assistance required like some spare parts/stores or
technicians must be discussed with company
5) Anticipated time for carrying out the maintenance must be reported to
6) Make separate teams to work on the machinery so that work is in
progress all the time till maintenance is over and machine is ready to
7) Motivate the crew and engineers and be a part of team. This will be an
encouraging factor to all and work can be done efficiently and
8) Appreciate and encourage the crew and engineers
If the breakdown is not over within time stipulated by charterparty, after
discussion with company the following action may be taken
(a) Speed of ship may be increased within safe limits. This should be done
in consultation with the company because increase in speed increases
fuel consumption which may deviate from that mentioned in charterparty.
(b) The load on diesel generator should be reduced if possible to
compensate for increase in fuel consumption.
(c) After discussion with master the course of ship may be altered keeping
in mind the safety of ship
(d) A more vigilant watch must be kept on the machinery to avoid further
breakdowns and engineroom to be manned at all times.
Company to be well informed about the condition of machinery.

. Charter : is the contract between the ship owner and the chatterer for the use of a ship or her
cargo space for a particular voyage or for series of voyages, or for a stipulated period of
o Contracts for carriage of specified quantities of cargo in specified vessels between
specified ports i.e., voyage charter.
o Contracts for hire of specified vessels, including
o time charters
o bare boat charters (also know as "demise charters).

Bareboat charter :
is a contract for the hire of a vessel for an agreed period during which the charterers
acquire most of the rights of the owners.
is most usually on the BARECON 89 charter party form
is used by owners such as banks & finance houses who are not prepared to operate or
manage ships themselves.
may be hinged to a purchase option after expiry of the charter or during the hire period.
In essence the vessel owners put the vessel at the complete disposal of the charters and
pay the capital costs, but no other costs. The charters have commercial and technical
responsibility for the vessel, and pay all costs except capital costs.
The "BARECON A" from under which the owners bear responsibility for insurance
premiums, was designed by BIMCO for short period chartering.
The "BARECON B" form was designed as a long-period, financial type of contracts,
mainly for new buildings although it can be modified for second -hand tonnage. The
charters are responsible for insurance premiums.
BARECON 89 is an amalgamation of the BARECON "A" and "B" forms.
There will be an arrangement for on hire survey.
In the case of new ship building the survey procedures can be done in the yard itself
according to the agreement. Other cases there is a thorough examination considering
the following points.
- Bunkers on board
- Stores & spares on board.
- General condition of the vessel.
- Certificates validity
- Tanks condition

- Sea worthiness.
As a Chief engineer, he is responsible for maintaining the equipment in good condition.
Bunker on board to be properly calculated and kept ready for the surveyors to check
cleanliness and proper P.M.S. system has to be maintained in view of seaworthiness. It is
a more stringent survey since the charter take the responsibility of the vessel in full
respect except capital cost. All crew members to be aware of the safety procedure and
safe working practices according to the company's quality management system. In this
regard proper training and briefing to be given before surveys.
Voyage Charter : is a contract for the carriage by a named vessel of a specified quantity
of cargo between named posts or places.
The ship owner basically agrees that he will present the named vessel for loading at the
agreed place within an agreed period of time an following loading, will carry the cargo to
the agreed place, where he will deliver the cargo.
The charter agrees to provide for loading, within the agreed period of time, the agreed
quantity of the agreed commodity, to pay the agreed amount of freight, and to take
delivery of the cargo at the destination place.
In effect the chatterers hire the cargo capacity of the vessel and not the entire vessel.
The owner must provide the master and crew, act as carrier and pay all running and
voyage costs, unless the charter party specifically provides otherwise.
The survey under voyage charter is not very strict as compared to other charter party :
The charter mainly interested on sea worthiness and condition of the cargo space. The
surveyor look for whether the vessel can carry the
cargo of particular quantity and to be able to discharge within an agreed period of time.
As a Chief Engineer he should take care of cargo hold/ tank, cargo gear condition.
It any repairs to be necessary to keep in good condition, that has to be carried-out. He
has to prove that the ship is able to carry the cargo safely and vessel able to reach in
proper time which is agreed.
Time charter : is a contract for the hire of a named vessel for a specified period of time.
The charters agree to hire from the ship owner a named vessel, of specific technical
characteristics, for an agreed period of time, for the chatterers purposes subject to
agreed restrictions. The hire period of time, for the charters purposes subject to agreed
restrictions. The hire period may be the duration of one voyage (a "trip charter") or
anything up to several years ("period charters")
The ship owner is responsible for vessels running expenses i.e., manning repairs and
maintenance, stores, masters and crews wages, hull and machinery insurance, etc. He
operates the vessel technically, but not commercially. The owner bear no cargo handling
expenses and do not normally appoint stevedores.
The charters are responsible for the commercial employment of the vessel, bunker fuel
purchase and insurance, port and canal dues (including pilot age, towage, linesmen etc.),
and all loading stowing / trimming / discharging arrangements and costs.
A directions and logs clause requires the charters to provide the master with all
instruction and sailing directions and the master and Chief Engineer to keep full and
correct logs accessible to the chatterers or their agents so that they can monitor the
vessels efficiency stevedoring damage notification forms and log abstracts will usually be
required to be rent to the chatterers.
On-hire survey and delivery certificate : There will be usually an agreements that there
will be an on-hire survey or delivery survey to establish :
Bunkers remaining on board (R.O.B.) in order to determine the quantity the chatterers
will have to pay the owners for.
The general condition of the vessel
That tanks or holds are fit for the carriage of the contemplated cargoes.
Holds of a dry cargo vessel must be dry and swept clean, etc. and tanks for oil or
chemicals must pass survey and be certified fit.
The on-hire survey is usually carried out by jointly approved surveyors, paid for 50/50 by
the owners and the chatterer. Time spent on the survey is normally at the owner's risk,
i.e., the vessel is not on -hire until passing of the survey.
A delivery certificate should be issued by the surveyor to confine the date and time of
hand-over, bunkers R.O.B. and the condition of holds or tanks. The certificate should be
attached to the survey report and is a vital document for the assessment of hire
payments due and the commencement of various chatterer liabilities.
The on hire survey should not be confused with the condition survey that may be
required by a prospective chatterer, particularly where this is an oil company or in the
case of older tonnage.
As a Chief Engineer, one should calculate the bunker on board correctly and to keep all
machinery in good condition. He has to prove that ship is able to satisfy charter party
requirement regarding fuel consumption and speed. Any maintenance required for
cargo holds or tanks to be carried-out prior survey to keep them in good condition.
The chatterers must normally re-deliver the vessel in the "same good order as when
delivered to the chatterer, fair wear & tear excepted." In the event of redelivery not
being in the same good order and condition, the charters would be liable for the costs of
repairs. If the chatterers are given the option of redelivering the vessel "dirty" a sum in
compensation to the owners will be provided for.
The off hire survey will normally be carried out by an independent surveyor to ascertain
the extent of damage done during the charter, bunkers R.O.B. etc. The redelivery clause
may provide that repairs necessary to make a vessel sea worthy must be done
immediately on redelivery, and any other repairs at a more convenient time, e.g. at the
next dry-docking.
The off-hire survey is similar in scope to the on-hire survey Bunkers r.o.b. are measured
so that they can be "brought back by the owners. The condition of the vessel and her
cargo spaces is examined for damage attributable to chatterers operations. A redelivery
certificate should be issued to the master.
As a Chief Engineer, he should check the bunkers r.o.b. and condition of the cargo
spaces. If any repairs to be done has to be notified to the surveyor.

5. Explain the following;
(a) World scale (b) Responsibilities of a shipbroker

Ans: (a) WORLD SCALE: This is used for tankers cargoes whereby freight rates
are quoted with reference to an international scale called the new Worldwide
Tanker Nominal Freight Scale or World Scale in short. This is used as a
reference by the parties in the tanker market to easily compare and evaluate
freight rate for all the different voyages and market levels.
The basis of world scale is that the particulars of a standard tanker of
75000 tons DWT have been chosen for making round voyage calculation for
practically all known tanker trades with the comparatively few. In these
calculations specified figures have been used for all items involved, e.g. a
distance of 15000 nautical miles, port cost, port time(hour/days) bunker cost,
etc. and the additional fictional cost element of 12000 dollars/day. In this way
the freight/MT required by the standard ship in each trade has been calculated
and these freighted figures are printed in World Scale as a certain dollars/ton.
These values are called world scale 100 or world scale in short. In practise,
reference is made to these world scales in other freight negotiation and market
reports. The prevailing market levels, the actual ship size, the type and quality
of product to be supplied and also the loading place, then determine how for
above or below the reference level of WS 100, the fixture will be calculated. In
other words what percentage of the tabulated freight figure will be used for
calculating the freight to be paid, e.g. in a fixture covering 10000 tons DWT from
Gulf to Western Europe made at WS 80 means that the owner will be paid a
freight equal to 80% of the freight per ton tabulated in the world scale table for
the trade in question. The freight rates are normally negotiated on a fixture,
using world scale for the basis of negotiations. It is called the world scale freight
10) Simplified negotiations for tanker charterers.
11) A simple reference covers all possible voyages within the agreed
trading areas.
12) Facilitate ready and quick comparison of fixture.
1) World Scale is not a substitute for voyage estimating
2) It does not allow for income or freight tax etc.
3) World Scale is only a method of comparison and tool for negotiation, not
a substitute for risk management and/or business forecasting.

Responsibilities of a ship broker: Ships are normally fixed on charters,
between ship owners and charterers by shipbrokers acting as negotiator for
the two parties. Many ship brokers are self employed, while others work in
large firms active in several of above disciplines. Shipbrokers are
remunerated by commissions called brokerage, payable by the ship owner
to each broker involved in arranging a contract. In a voyage or time charter,
the brokerage payable is stipulated in brokerage clause and is normally
1.25% of the ship owners gross receipts from hire, freight, dead freight and
demurrage, payable to each broker involved.
The professional body for ship brokers worldwide is the London based
Institute of Chartered Shipbrokers. The institute sets and monitors
professional standards for shipbrokers through annual examinations. Its
tutorship correspondence courses enable shipbroking students (including
mariners) to study for the institutes annual exams(from which qualified
mariners are granted some exemptions).
London is still the hub of international ship broking community and many
individual brokers and broking firms are members of Baltic Exchange, which
is essentially a ship broking market place. Most shipbroking today is
conducted via the international telecommunication network.
Such specialists may be engaged by a shipowner are customarily
referred to as chartering agents or chartering brokers and are paid a
commission for their services (usually paid by shipowner unless otherwise
stipulated) which customarily is 1.25% of the gross revenue and any
demurrage. When two or more brokers are involved, duplicate (double)
brokerage is normally paid. Shipbrokers include:-
9) Owners brokers, who find and arrange employment for their principal
10) Charterers brokers, who fix ship to carry out their principal
The principal functions performed by the shipbrokers are:-
1) To determine the form of charter and special provisions that must
closely meet the needs of particular transactions.
2) To facilitate the negotiations of the terms and broker the charter on
behalf of the principals
3) To chart the vessels position and availability for loading and to
coordinate delivery of cargo to shipside.
4) To ensure that the required notices for readiness are given, that the
election of loading or discharging parties or brokers are declared, and
appropriate insurance coverage is obtained.
5) To supervise the preparations of dispatch, demurrage and loading
statement, payment of dues and customs at various ports and
settlement in so far as possible of disputes arising in this connection.
6) To obtain certification of freight invoices, arrange for surrender, bill of
lading, facilitate collection of freight, etc.
7) To arrange for appointment of port agents and to issue appropriate

37. Company is planning to buy and old ship stationed at a foreign port and
to put the vessel immediately on bareboat charter. On your placement
as Chief Engineer on the said vessel, enlist and explain the series of
inspection / examinations / inventories you will make towards
preparation of such charter voyage.

Ans. Bare boat chartering is hiring of the ship for long time which gives charterer a possession & control
of ship including the right to appoint master and crew. The vessel owner puts the vessel without
any crew at the complete disposal of charterer. Owner pays only the capital cost of the ship and
no other costs. Usually charterer has the commercial and technical responsibility for the vessel. He
will pay all the costs like voyage costs, running cost, administration cost etc. The bare boat charter
pays for bunker stores, spares, lubes stationery . provision, wages of crew, survey fees for
classification society & flag state registration fees.
As the concerned vessel is an old ship, it will be already having all the certificates, class
survey status, flag state certificates, insurance, provisions, stores, spares, lubes bunker on
board. Examination of all certificates of class and stature is made as well as its status. Any
outstanding recommendation regarding specified deficiency and its due date is checked. If
any extension for the above is needed then flag state is requested for extension survey.
ISM certification needs an attention. As bareboat charterer is responsible for operating
and technical management, ISM certification needs to be refreshed. An interim
certification needs to be carried & for that DOC and interim DOC for this type of ships
needs to be existing. Initial verification of SMS, internal audits from company plans within
3 months, initial audit plans needs to be prepared. Any non conformity observation and
defects of previous ISM certification needs to be corrected by following corrective action
Inspection of the whole ship for its seaworthiness and cargo worthiness will be carried out.
Ship needs to be fit for the normal perils of the sea. All her watertight and weather tight
closures will be inspected. Condition of cargo holds or tanks and water tightness of hatch
cover examined by carrying out hose test. Condition of rubber packing for ventilators
intactness of vent pipes & drips trays, their corrosion condition. Strengthening members
and tanks as far as possible will be checked . All eng. equipment and life saving appliance &
FFA will be checked for their condition & operating status. Running test of the eng.
machineries like em. fire pump, lifeboat engine emergency generator engine etc will be
carried out.

E/R ventilation system & its isolating mechanism inspected . Thorough round of E/R
is taken and as far as possible satisfactory running tests of all the machinery with normal
working parameters is checked . All pollution prevention equipments like oily water
separator & incinerator certificate are checked & condition enquired . E/R log book is
studied to find any abnormality in the operation of the power plant . Inventory of store
room & spare parts will be properly checked & critical level of spare parts needs to be
maintained at all times. Major spares of M/E. like liner, cyl. Head, exhaust V/VS. various
bearing , chain length, thrust pad, will be enlisted . Current stock of lub oil and fuel oil.
inventory will be taken . Company needs to know the brand of L.O. being used on board &
its possible compatibility with the companys brand of L.O. studied.

Grade of F.O. in different tanks is noted and any empty tank for next bunker is
allocated . Maintenance status of all machinery & their history are collected & calibration,
inspection and maintenance reports will be properly taken over from the current staff.

Dry dock specification file of previous company will be studied and any item to the
recommended will be added after inspection & examination of E/R. Any requirements of
bare boat charterers for dry docking of ship prior putting it on sailing enquired &
accordingly preparation of dry dock started . Immediate requisition for store , spare , gas ,
lubes, f.o. / D.o. sundry oil, chemicals , stationary is made & sent to the company

Extensive preparation for on hire survey will be carried out. Special attention is given
to bunkers. Major spares & stores, sea worthiness of the vessel. Proper documentation
concerning all above are made ready for the inspection by bareboat charterer surveyor.

38. Differentiate between Voyage Charter and Time Charter of a vessel.
Underline the changes in responsibilities and the scope of activities for
a Chief Engineer in each case.

Ans. A charter is a contract for the hire of a vessel for carriage of goods/cargo for a
specific voyage or series of voyages(voyage charter) or for specified period of
time)time charter)
Nature of a voyage charter:-
A voyage charter is a contract for the carriage of a specified quantity of
cargo by a named vessel between named ports or certain range of ports. Under
the voyage charter, the ship owner agrees to present the named vessel for
loading at agreed place or port within an agreed period of time, & following
loading will carry the cargo and deliver it to the agreed place. The charterer on
the other hand agrees to provide specified quantity of agreed cargo & to pay the
agreed freight. In effect the charterer hires the cargo capacity of the vessel and
not the entire vessel.
Nature of a time charter:-
A time charter is a contract for the hire of a named ship for a specified
period of time. The hire period may be the duration of one voyage(trip time
charter) or anything up to several years(period time charter). Under the time
charter, the ship owner is responsible for vessels running expenses such as
manning, repairs, maintenance, stores, spares, crews wages, hull & machinery
insurance etc. In short, the ship owner operates the vessel technically but not
commercially. The charterers on the other hand, remain responsible for
commercial employment of the vessel, bunker fuel purchase & insurance, port
and canal dues, pilotage and all cargo handling arrangements and costs. The
time charterers normally provide the master with all instructions and sailing
Charter Party clauses specific to voyage charter:-
Freight:- This clause specifies the freight rate, how the freight will be
calculated, when it must be paid etc. Freight is the remuneration payable by the
charterers to the owners for the performance of the contract. In voyage charter ,
freight is paid on the cargo carried & is directly proportional to the volume of the
cargo carried. At times dead-freight may be payable to the owners by the
charterers. It is not a genuine freight, but owners compensation for lost freight
payable by the charterers on a quantity of cargo short-shipped, i.e. a quantity
which charterer agreed but failed to supply.
Loading & Discharging costs clause:- This clause allocates the responsibility
for the costs of cargo handling. The responsibility for cargo handling can be of
the charterers which is termed as FIO, or it can be the owners responsibility.
Provisions regulating the rate of loading & discharging:- This clause covers
demurrage & despatch claims. Demurrage is an agreed amount payable to the
owner in respect to the delay beyond the laytime, for which owners are not
Despatch:- if the cargo operations are completed before expiry of laytime, a
monetary reward is normally payable by the owners to the charterer. Despatch
is defined as an agreed amount payable by the owners if the vessel completes
loading or discharging before the laytime has expired.
Preamble:- This clause identifies parties to the contract, specifies the identity of
the vessel(name, flag, cargo capacity, class etc.)
Charter Party clauses specific to time charter:-
Hire:- This clause specifies the charterers obligation to pay hire at the
specified rate, until redelivery. In case of time charter, the hire paid is
dependent on the period of hire. The volume of the cargo carried has no
relation to the charter hire & is directly proportional to the period of the charter.
Cargo handling:- In time charters, the responsibility of cargo handling lies on
the charterers. The time charterers normally appoint stevedores for cargo
Charterers to provide:- This clause specifies the obligation of the charterer to
pay for port charges, pilotage, canal dues, tug assistance etc.
Bunkers:- Under time charter, the charterers provide the bunkers to the vessel.
This clause obliges the charterer to buy the bunkers r.o.b. at the time of
delivery, obliges the owners to buy back the bunkers r.o.b. at the time of re-
delivery. It specifies the minimum quantity of bunkers to remain on board at re-
Owners to provide:- Obliges the owners to pay for running expenses like
wages, provisions, stores, insurance, repairs and surveys, etc.
Preamble:- This clause identifies the parties to the contract. Identifies the
vessel(name, flag, ownership, class, tonnages, horsepower etc.) Speed and
fuel consumption are given in the charter party in function of determined
weather conditions.(e.g. in good weather and smooth waters.) and are always
(about) allowing a certain margin. Speed and fuel consumption are vitally
important for determining whether the vessel is performing the contract
efficiently. Charterers provide the master with all voyage instructions & sailing
directions. Vessels deck and engine room log books are to be kept available for
charterers inspection.
Off-hire clause:- This clause provides that no hire will be paid for any time in
excess of the stated no. of hours, if the vessel goes out of service due to
machinery breakdown, shortage of stores, dry docking etc.
The scope of activities of a Chief Engineer & his responsibilities on a
ship under voyage charter:-
o Initially when the ship has to be presented to the charterers, i.e. in an on-hire
survey the C/E should pay attention to the general condition of vessels
machinery & machinery spaces. Cargo gear should be working satisfactorily
o During the ship under voyage charter, the C/E should always make sure that
the vessel is seaworthy at all times in respect of the vessels machinery.
o A reasonable & careful inspection of all the machineries on board should be
done by the C/E before commencement of a voyage.
o If cargo handling responsibility lies with the ship owner, than C/E should
ensure that vessels cargo gears are properly maintained & in working
condition. The cargo gears include deck cranes for a bulk carrier & COPs in
case of a tanker
The scope of activities of a chief engineer & his responsibilities on a
time chartered vessel:-
- At the time of on-hire survey, the C/E should accurately calculate the
bunkers r.o.b. so that there is not any discrepancy in the bunker
- Since the charterers provide bunkers to the vessel, C/E should always
calculate the quantity of bunkers at all times.
- The vessels speed & fuel oil consumption are dictated by the
charterers, the C/E should make every effort to oblige the charterers
demands in respect to the speed of the vessel and fuel oil
consumption; e.g. charterers may want the vessel to proceed with
economical speed or stipulated full speed etc. Such things should be
clearly taken in to account.
- A particular attention is to be paid to main propulsion machinery & any
equipment which is important for full operation of the vessel, so as to
minimize/reduce the breakdown, so that the vessel is kept operational
for the charterers use, reducing the downtime required for
maintenance, during which the vessel remains off-hire.
- The C/E should keep engine room log books available and accessible
for charterers or their agents.

Bill of lading :
- is a receipt for goods either received or shipped on board.
- is good evidence of the existence and terms of contract between the shipper and
- is a document of title, signifying that the holder has the LEGAL RIGHT TO POSSESSION
of goods it describes.
Bill of lading and related documents:
1. Exporter / shipper makes a goods sales contract with an overseas buyer / consigner.
2. Carrier (ship) is chartered, proceeds to loading port arrives at berth.
3. Shipping note containing details of goods (as stated by the shipper) is presented to
chief mate or MASTER.
4. Goods are loaded on ship and are tallied.
5. Chief mate compares ships tally or in taken cargo tonnage with details on shipping
note and issues mate's receipt from ship's TRIPLICATE BOOK. Master's receipt contains
accurate and truthful details of quantity and condition of goods i.e. their "apparent
order and condition" with reference to any shortage or damage.
6. Shipper obtains a full set of "BLANK BILLS OF LADING" from carrier, types in detail of
shipped goods exactly as stated in mate's receipt. Set most often comprises of 3
7. Shipper tenders all originals bills for signing on behalf of the carrier i.e. by carriers
head office, agent or ships master.
8. Person authorized to sign, carefully checks details inserted by shipper to see that they
correspond to those in ship's copy of mate's receipt, stamps / writes any required
endorsements, then signs all original bills in set.
9. Full set of signed original bills is issued to shipper together with copies as required.
Master retains one copy of bill of lading as on board as "captain's copy".
10. Ship sails from loading port.
11. Shipper sends full set of bill of lading to consignee. At least one bill should be posted in
a later post than others. In case all are lost / stolen.
12. Ship arrives at discharge port.
13. Consignee or receiver acting as consignee's agent proves his identity to port agent and
present one original bill of lading duly endorsed to him. Freight, demurrage or other
charges owed to the carrier are paid to the agent.
14. Agent stamps presented bill of lading "ACCOMPLISHED" all other original bills of lading
in set are now legally VOID. Agent issues delivery order to consignee or receiver to
enable collection of goods.
15. Delivery order to warehouseman (ship and goods are released into possession of
consignee or receiver and become legally delivered).
The above is a simplification of procedure in modern shipping operations.
Documentary credit system is often buyer and this complicates the journey of the bills
of lading, since the original bills must be transferred to specified banks as security for
their credit advances, made out in such a way that each bank involved has a good legal
title in the goods represented by bill of lading.
Obligations of carrier and shipper :
There sets of rules are in the use in international transport industry which contains
minimum terms and conditions and where a bill of lading is issued.
* The Hague rule.
* The Hague Visby Rule
* The Hamburg rule
Carrier's obligations : (Under Hague Visby Rule)
* To ensure vessel's seaworthiness.
* To care for the cargo.
* To issue a bill of lading where the shipper request over carrier must before and at
the beginning of voyage exercise due diligence to (SEAWORTHINESS)
* Make the ship seaworthy.
* Properly man, equip and supply the ship.
* Make the holds, refrigerating and cool chambers and all other pants of the ship in
which goods are carried fit and safe for their reception carriage and preservation.
Care for the cargo :
The carrier must 'properly and carefully' load handle, stow, carry, keep, care for and
discharge any goods carried. Unlike seaworthiness this duty extends throughout the
voyage and implies a greater degree of care than exercising due diligence. Following
are certain examples where cargo is not taken care properly.
* Contamination of other goods.
* Inadequate or no ventilation
* Dry cargo damaged by liquid cargo.
* Vehicles secured only by their brakes.
The carrier must have a proper system for looking after the cargo when stowed. He
has a duty to use all reasonable means to ascertain the nature characteristic of the
cargo and to take care of it accordingly, although the shipper should give a special
instructions where special care is required.
Obligation to issued bill of lading :
After receiving the goods into his charge, the carrier, the master or the carriers agent
must if the shipper demand issued a bill of lading to the shipper.
* All leading marks for identification of goods as stated by shipper before loading
provided these are visible on the goods or their coverings.
* Either the no. of package or pieces or quantity of weight as stated by shipper
* the apparent order and condition of goods
* the carrier or master or agent need not insert any inaccurate statement on the bill of
lading or give any details which he cannot reasonably chock
* Any bill of lading thus issued will be prima facie evidence of receipt of goods by the
carrier as described but proof to the contrary will not be admissible if bill of lading is
transferred to a third party in good faith.
* Any bill of lading issued after loading must be shipped bill of lading if the shipper
demands, provided he surrenders previously issued document of title.
P & I club cover for liabilities :
The contract of carriage of most ship owner carriers incorporate either the Hague or
Hague Visby rules, and in those rules. Provided such a contract is used, then even
where a count with proper jurisdiction refuses to recognize the defenses under the
rules the ship owners liabilities will be covered by his P & I club. However where he
uses a contract incorporating terms less favorable than those of Hague or Hague -
Visby rule the club will normally refuse to cover liabilities arising under the contract.
Masters should therefore ensure, especially where less favorable rules like Hamburg
rules are mentioned in the contract terms as applying, that the owners, P & I club
approves of their incorporation.

40. Differentiate between third party liability and contractual liability.
When may the ship owner seek to limit his liability?

Ans. THIRD PARTY LIABILITY:- When an agreement is signed by the parties(may be 2 or more) they
agree on certain conditions and goals written in agreement. They also get certain liability to
wards each other for successful achieving of the goals. But by any reason, a third party gets
affected, then liability towards the third party is called THIRD PARTY LIABILITY. E.g.
compensation required to pay to affected cost during oil pollution becomes third party
liability. There is no such agreement between ship owner and coast; cause may be any line
operational accident, but coast get affected due to pollution. So ship owner takes P&I
insurance cover in respect to third party liability during ship operation. Hence he would give to
limit his liability(third party) with regard to:-
1) Collision liability,
that is not covered in H&M insurance policy.
2) Liability of damage to its cargo of the vessel in case of collision
3) Damage done by ship to other floating/fixed installations
4) Pollution damage caused by his ship and cost involved in oil clean up & other persons
5) Third party injuries/death claims etc.
6) Wreck and salvage liability
7) Diversion expenses
8) Fine and penalties for not following rules etc.
9) Any other claims made by third party
CONTRACTUAL LIABILITY:- During any agreement both parties agree for certain terms and
conditions for achieving particular goals and interests. So some liabilities are set towards
achieving goals. As agreement is signed by them, the liabilities are called Contractual
Liabilities. Liability does not come in picture if everything runs smoothly, but if anything goes
wrong then liability comes into picture.
Ship owner takes following types of contract:
1) With employee
2) With flag state administration for safe operation, to compliance with
national/international regulations/conventions
3) Contract with cargo owner
4) Contract with salver or tug owner
5) Contract with class and his fees and survey
6) Repair contract etc.
So there is no mandatory requirement for party to take any type of policy except civil
liability for oil pollution damage.
Rest is all up to ship owner and cargo owner or other party involved in maritime adventure
to cover for various liabilities or bear themselves.
Ship owner may limit his liability covering:-
(1) With Employee:- Ship owner provides safe plant equipment and safe environment policy
and their due care so that he would like to limit his liability regarding;-
(a) Their medical expenses
(b) Compensation to be paid in case of injury or death
(c) Breach to anything intentionally or unintentionally by employee which would
land him in trouble
(2) With flag state/administration:- Registering vessel under administration, responsibility
for safe operation and compliance with relevant rules and regulations. So would like to
limit his liabilities regarding:-
(a) Any breach caused by ship
(b) Oil pollution caused by ship in their territory
(c) Other cost involved in landing sick people or stevedore or other services
(3) With local agency:- would like to limit his liability regarding:-
(a) Agency fee
(b) Claim by agent
(c) Claim arises if agent breaches the contract or any conflict
(d) Any damage or injury caused to their personnel
(4) With salver or tug agency:- Ship requires their services often, so owner would like to limit
his liability regarding:-
(a) Tug hire rate
(b) Damage caused to tug and their personnel
(c) Salvers award or any claim made by salver in rendering his services.
(5) With Class:- Ship requires class for trading so having contract with class, owner can limit
his liabilities.
(6) Repair Contract:- M/c is running, so requires maintenance; hence having contract with
repair party, ship owner can limit his liability.
For eg. Pay annual fee for repair and maintenance of particular m/c instead of only
calling for visit every time.

41. What is a general average act? Name the essential features of a general
average act.

Ans. A general Average Act is defined in rule A of the York Antwerp rules 1994 Marine insurance Act
as follows:

There is general average act when any extraordinary sacrifice or expenditure is intentionally
& reasonably made on incurred for the common safety for the purpose of presenting from
peril the property involved in a common maritime adventure.

Essential features of General Average Act:

In order to have a right to claim a contribution from other parties to the common maritime
adventure the owners at the vessel which together with as cargo & any other properly have
been from danger, must be able to show that there was a general average act.

So essential elements are

1) There must be a sacrifice on expenditure

2) The sacrifice or expenditure must be extraordinary

3) The sacrifice or expenditure must be intentionally made

4) The sacrifice is reasonably made as incurred

5) The sacrifice is in order to benefit the common venture

6) The sacrifice is for the purpose of preserving the property from peril.


Examples of sacrifices that may be allowed under Act are

(i) Cargo jettisoned to refloat a grounded vessel or prevent capsizing of dangerously
lighted vessel.

(ii) M/C damage sustained during refloat operation examples of expenditure.

(iii) Cost of salvage expenditure include the salver award

(iv) Costs of entering, staying & leaving a port of refuge


It must be extra ordinary nature & not an ordinary or every day loss or expenses, incurred in
running a ship & carrying cargoes for e.g. losing an anchor in attempting to prevent a ship from
running aground is not extra ordinary losing on anchor during a refloat operation could be extra
ordinary & may be allowed in general average act. E.g. Damage to marine engine though over
working while trying to prevent rounding would not be extra ordinary where as damage alone during
a deflating operation would be extra ordinary & may be allowed in general average act A wide
variety at costs even including small expenses such as superintendents taxi fare to the yard at a port
of refuge may be regarded as extra ordinary & may be recoverable as general average expenditure.


For E.G. when a ships Co
cylinders are discharged to put out fire onboard as international
expenditure is incurred which will usually be allowed in general average act. For e.g. cline cost of
reflections in accidentally grounded ship would be allowed in general average since the act of
reflections is intentional. The cost of damage done during running aground however would not be
allowed in general average act.


For eg. More cargo is jettisoned than was necessary to reflect a grounded ship the excess would
probably not be allowed in General Average Act

Eg: Expenditure at a port of refuse even or above reasons expenditure would not be allowed in
General Act


& not for the benefit of only one party.

Eg. Where the refrigerating m/c of a loaded reefer vessel breaks down during a voyage through
tropical waters making if imperative for the sake of cargo to put into a port for repairs. The threat of
loss is limited to the owners of the cargo & perhaps the freight. As far as the ship itself is concerned,
could quit safety continue so the cost of deviation to the repair port would not be allowed in the
general average.


i) The peril must have been real & substantial although if need not have been imminent. A Vessel
which lost M.E. power to mid ocean would be in PERIL even though the weather at the time
might be good & there seemed to be me immediate threat. Sooner or later however ships &
cargo would come to grief, either by running aground & breaking up or foundering it. So the
cost of a tow to a port of refuge would normally be allowed on general average act.

ii) It might be agreed that expenses incurred in taking shelter from tropical storm during a voyage
should be allowed in General Average Act. Since only tropical storm constitutes a real &
substantial peril & the action of sheltering is for the preservation at all property involved. Such
action however would be ordinary practice of prudent sea men. It would not be extraordinary &
would therefore not meet all the criteria necessary to be allowed in General Average.

42.State the different types of Marine Insurance policies that could be
undertaken by owners, shippers or other related parties Explain the salient
liabilities and exclusions related with each case for an insurer.

Ans. There are various types of marine insurance policies available and they could
broadly be classified into 5 types.
1. Time policy - Insures property for a period of time.
2. Voyage policy - It insures property from one place to another it may
include a date limit.
3. Mixed policy - It covers both a voyage and a period of time of voyage and
in port after arrival.
4. Construction policy - It insures vessel while in course of construction not
for a period of time.
5. Floating policy - cargo policy that insures a number of shipments. In
Canada & US this policy is continuous and covers all shipments to a limit
of liability for any 1 loss.
The marine insurance policies that a ship owner can take are
1) Hull & machinery policy
2) Protection & indemnity cover.
The insurance policies for a cargo owner include
1) Marine cargo insurance
2) Goods in transit insurance.

Hull and machinery policies :
These are usually time policies with a maximum period of 12 months.
Normally the items covered will be clearly stated in the clauses of each
policy. Any extra port to be covered will raise the insurance premium.
Perils include 1) Peril of seas 2) Fire / explosion 3) theft from outside 4)
Jettison 5) Piracy 6) Earthquake volcanic eruption, lightening 6)
accidents during loading or discharging 7) Machinery damage 8) Latent
defects in machinery or hull 9) Negligence of master, officer or crew 10)
3/4 collusion liability items not covered under insurance include 1) loss /
damage eg insurer deliberately set fire to ship caused by willful
misconduct willful negligence by owner. 3) loss of charter hire due to
delays 4) loss due to wear and team 5) war risk cover.
6. Cost for scraping & painting vessel underwater part due to fouling
7. Valuation clause i.e. in case the vessel is a constructive total loss, salvage
values are not considered.
8. loss / damage from nuclear weapon or by radioactive material.
P & I cover is available fro the following
1) Cargo claims 2) crew claims 3) claims for various fines eg. customs times
immigration fine for improper documentation fine due to misconduct of
crew etc 4) Collision liability covering the 1/4 liability not covered by H &
m insurance 5) liability against collision with fixed or floating objects 6)
third party injury & death claims 7) oil pollution liability 8) miscellaneous
Restrictions on P & I cover include :
1) Deviation 2) delivery of cargo at port other then port specified in the
contract of carriage. 3) failure to arrive or late arrival at port of loading 4)
delivery of cargo without bill of lading 5) Out dated bill of lading 6) clean
bill of lading in respect to damaged cargo 7) arrest or detention.
Cargo insurance policies :
The policies will incorporate institute of cargo clause A B or Institute of
cargo clause C : This covers only against major casualties eg fire,
explosion, grounding or vessel stranded, sinking or capsizing, collusion or
contact disc at port of distress general average sacrifice and jettison.
Institute of cargo clause B : In addition to the above will also cover
casualties like earthquake, volcanic eruption, lightening strike washing
obd entry of sea.
Institute of cargo clause A - Offers cover against all possible risks.
Items excluded from maritime cargo insurance policy are
1) Claims resulting from insufficient or in suitable packing or protection of
matter insured.
2) Claims for loss or damage arising from financial default of owners
company cannot be responsible for performance of the carrier and this
exclusion is aimed at encouraging the use of reputable company.
3) Claims arising from use of nuclear weapons.
4) Claims arising from damage by terrorists or politically motivated groups.
5) Claims arising from unfitness of vessel ware risk and strike risk cover is
available for cargo insurance for an additional premium for long term
insurance, open cover policy and floating policies are available.

(a) Port of refuge : It is a port on place that a vessel diverts to when her master considers it
unsafe to continue the voyage due to a peril that threatens its safety.

Where such a deviation is for the preservation from peril of the property involved is a
common maritime adventure, it will generally constitute a general average act.

Where the ship-owner or carrier is a party to a contract of carriage, discontinuation of the
voyage is deviation from the contract.

A deviation to a pent of refuge will be regarded as a justifiable deviation if the reasons for
the deviation can be shown to be a valid one within the terms of the contract. In such a case all
contractual rights will be unaffected.

Valid reasons for deviating to a port of refuge usually include:
(i) Weather, collision or grounding damage affecting the seaworthiness of the ship
(ii) A serious Fire
(iii) Dangerous shift of cargo
(iv) Serious machinery breakdown
(v) Any other accident causing a serious threat to the vessel on her cargo
(vi) Shortage of bunker

Paragraph (a) of Rule X Expenses at pent of refuge etc of the York- Antwerp
Rules 1994 provides that when a ship shall have entered a port of refuge fro any of
the above mentioned reasons, the expenses incurred shall be admitted as General
A pent or place where a vessel seeks temporary shelter is not a port of refuge (Eg.
Due to adverse weather) since running for shelter is ordinary practice and not
extraordinary in context of Rule A of the York Antwerp Rules.
Particular Average and general Average
A marine loss may be either:-
1. A total loss or
2. A partial loss (termed average)

Partial Loss
A partial loss may be either:
1. Particular average (PA) i.e., accidental partial loss
or 2.General average(GA) i.e., intentional partial loss

1. Particular Average:
It is a partial loss, proximately caused by a peril insured against and which is not a General
average loss. Thus, structural damage proximately caused by collision, grounding, heavy
weather etc. (perils of the seas) would normally be caused as a PA loss .

2. General Average:
General average is an ancient form of spreading the risk of sea transport and existed long
before marine insurance. General average means general loss, as opposed to a particular loss under
marine insurance.

It is a system, in which all interests involved in the adventure, viz., Hull and Machinery, cargo
and Freight at risk must contribute to the losses voluntarily incurred to save all interests on board.
The principle is That which has been sacrificed for the benefit of all, shall be made good by
the contribution of all, that got the benefit from the General Average Act The object of GA is to
ensure, that the owner of the ship or cargo, who has incurred an expenditure or suffered a sacrifice
of his property, in order to extricate the ship (and the cargo) from a perilous position, receives a
contribution to his loss, from all those who have benefited from this action A GA loss is a partial
loss, incurred through a deliberate act performed with the intention of protecting the interests of all
involved, in a voyage from a danger, which threatens them all. GA losses are shared equally by all
parties to the common adventure each contributing in proportion to his percentage of Net arrived

The five major component of a general average loss are therefore
a) an extraordinary sacrifice or expenditure
b) which action taken was intentional or voluntary and not inevitable
c) and reasonably made
d) against a peril
e) in order to benefit the common venture
e.g., Damage done when over working a ships engine while afloat to prevent
grounding in ordinary, whereas damage done to engines, when already aground, in
attempting to re-float the vessel is a GA, since this is an extraordinary Act.
Total loss and constructive loss
A total loss may be either:
1) An Actual Total Loss (ATL) or
2) A constructive Total Loss (CTL)

Actual Total Loss:
There is an Actual Total Loss, where the subject matter of insurance is completely
destroyed or so damaged as to cease to be a thing of the kind insured, on where the
insured is irretrievably deprived of it or where properly is posted missing
e.g. when a ship is missing, viz., has not repented for several weeks
Constructive Total Loss:
As per the Marine Insurance Act, a Constructive total Loss occurs, when an assured
is deprived of possession of his ship on goods by a penil insured against and where
the subject matter of insurance is reasonably abandoned by the Insured, on account
of its actual loss appearing unavoidable, because it could not be prevented from
Actual Total Loss without expenditure that would exceed its value after expenses
have been incurred.
After valid abandonment, the Insurer is entitled to take over the interests of the
Assured in whatever remains of the insured property including proprietary rights
The right to any freight, that was in the course of being earned when the casualty
The right to take over the ship or its goods
The right to dispose of the ship or its goods as they think fit and to retain all the
proceedings (even if this is more than the claim actually paid)

44. Why does a ship require Marine Insurance cover? Explain Hull Claims
and Cargo Claims related with Marine Insurance. State the related
documents and information required from the ship in this regard
highlighting their validity.

Ans. Marine Insurance is a method where by one party called assuror or
underwriter, agrees for a stated consideration known as a premium, to indemnify
another party, called the insured or assured, against loss, damage or expense in
connection with the commodities at risk if caused by perils enumerated in the
contract known as a policy of insurance. The policy pledge to compensate the
insured by does not guarantee the continued existence or the replacement of the
good itself.
Insurance provides individuals and organisations with financial protection
against the outcome of events which involve monetary loss or liabilities which
could not be predicted or anticipated and over which they have no effective
control. In the case of ship-owner or ship manager insurance is usually confined
to financial consequences of damage to its own ship, damage to the peoples
property or death or injury to people all ship-owner and shipping merchants
should insure this property against the loss or damage. They are not legally
bound to insure except for liability of oil pollution claim. However the modern
methods of financing trade and shipping makes it essential that they do so. The
capital exposed to loss in modern ship is so huge that no company can afford to
bear the liability incurred. Besides most of the tonnage is mortgaged to banks
and other financial institutions and they require insurance as collateral security.
Hull Insurance claims :
Following any cases of Hull damage e.g. collision, grounding etc. ship
owner/managers insurance dept. will normally immediately inform H & M lead
underwriter via broker. As per clause 49 of IHC 1.11.02, lead underwriter will
instruct a surveyor to ascertain the nature, cost and extent of the damage,
necessary repairs and fair and reasonable cost there of and any other matter
which leading underwriter or surveyor considers relevant. The lead underwriter
will make decision in respect of any claim within 28 days of receipt by them of the
appointed average adjusters final adjustment or, if no adjuster is appointed, a full
document claim presentation sufficient to enable the underwriter to determine
their liability in relation coverage and quantum. The underwriter all discharged
from the liabilities of the claim if it is not notified within 180 days of the assured
becoming aware of accident or occurrence. Documents and information required
from the ship.
In addition to copies of the relevant insurance policies (which will be supplied
by the owner), documents and information listed below may be required to
accompany a claim lodged by owners against underwriters
4 Deck and E/R logbooks covering the casualty and the repair
4 Masters and / or chief engineers detailed report (as
4 Relevant letters of protest.
4 Protest and extended protests.
4 Underwriters surveyors report
4 class surveyors report
4 owners superintendents report.
4 Receipt and account for repairs.
4 Accounts covering and drydocking & general expenses.
4 Details of E/R stores and spares consumed.
Cargo Claims :
1) When cargo loss or damage is discovered a delivery note or consignment
note will be claused with a note of the loss or damage.
2) The cargo owners will immediately inform his insured if it is outside UK, this is
done thro the local Lloyds agent in case of Lloyds policy.
3) If loss or damage is extensive underwriters will normally ask for a survey
report. This is arranged by Lloyds agent, who can appoint surveyor and pay
small claims locally.
4) After the claim is quantified and documented the underwriter settles the claim
thro Lloyds agents,
5) Underwriter then decides (under the doctrine of subrogation) whether or not
claim is worth pursuing against carrier.
6) If he decides to pursue the claim be immediately makes a written claim on the
carrier, failure to claim may prejudice his right of recovery.
7) The claim (including surveyors fee) is settled by the carrier in the currency
stated in the policy or on the certificate of insurance.
8) The carrier if a PI member then claims on his club policy.
Documents usually required are :
Bill of landing / Airway bill, commercial invoice, insurance certificate, copy of
Notice of claim reported against carrier, Documentation related to outturn /
receipt of goods, local carriers way bill where applicable, copy of temperature
records, where available copy of instructions to carrier regarding carriage
temperature, where applicable invoices to confirm salvage / sale price.

45. Salvage can be described as a service rendered to save maritime
property in danger. Salvage can be characterized by the following:
1. Salvage service must be voluntary
2. Salvage property must be recognized maritime property
3. Subject must be in danger
4. Salvage must be successful.

Let us look at above in detail-
1) Vessel crew pilot cannot claim salvage as they are bounded by contract to
protect the vessel and its cargo from danger. Tugs arranged previously for to
wage cannot claim salvage. However tugs called in an emergency tacs claim
2) Subject can be vessel cargo special equipment on board ship boundaries as any
other maritime property out risk of being lost if salvage is not rendered.
Provisions crews effect etc o not qualify for salvage
3) Dangers must be at commencement of salvage. However it might not be
immediately present or imminent eg., a vessel which has lost its propeller is not if
any immediate danger, if it is at sea however, if may taken lead to grounding.
4) Salvage claim is paid out of the value of the property saved hence salvage must
be successful (at least partly). Hence the term No cure no pay viz if salvage
operation is unsuccessful there can be no value to effect payment.
Beneficiaries of salvage are liable to pay salvage
These includes
1. Owner of vessel
2. Owner of any special equipment fitted on board
3. Charters of vessel
4. Owners of salved cargo
5. Owners of bankers on board

Principles and object of 6.A
That which has been for the benefit of all shall be made good by the contribution
of all.
The object of 6.A is to ensures that the owner of a vessel or cargo who has incurred
an expenditure the vessel from a previous position receives a contribution o his loss
from all those who have benefited from the action
The York Antwerp rules 1974, .. act as There is a 6 A out when and
only when, any extraordinary sacrifice as expenditure is . Made or
incurred for the common safety for the purpose of preserving from peril the
property involved in a common maritime adventure
A common maritime adventure is a voyage in which several parties have some
financial interest. The policies to a common maritime adventure would include the
ship owner.
(i) General Average Adjustment
Assessment of each partys contribution is caused on average adjustment
Governed by York Antwerp Rules 1974
The rules ensure that all the average adjustments. To as international
The adjustment is made by an average adjuster
The average adjuster is appointed by the ship owner to collect all the facts
surroundings the incident to collect various parameters from various policies
before the cargo is discharged and to ensure payment of contribution
The adjuster have all the facts and figures at his disposal
In addition to calculating contributions due from each party he will be
frequently requested to adjust any types of claim.
The declaration of G-A is normally made by shipowner, but in criteria
countries any one of the interest parties may initiate an adjustment
A declaration must be made before cargo is discharged and to ensure
payment of contribution
Ship owners will usually allow the discharge of cargo when owner interested
parties to the ventures provided suitable security.

(ii) Artificial 6.A: is the .. of a claim for 6A when even when one of the fine basic
principle found in Rule A of the York Antwerp Rules is not present
claims for 6A were originally for .. of cargo cutting away of anchor cables etc.
carried out for the common safety in order to avoid imminent ship wreck
caused by a peril of sea
The creation of artificial 6.A was part of slow evolution favouring ship owners
If peril was an essential ingredient of G.A if was reduced in importance by
Safe prosecution rule and peril did not have to be immediate provided that it
was real and not imaginary.
Some numbered rules and do not retain interpretation rule of Rule paramount.
Thus it is not dear weather the principles in act 193 have precedence over the
rules in out 194 or vice versa. Articles 203allows particles to opt out of
changes 10 by agreeing to a different set of rules.
Because their was no specific peril read. In rule x(b) and x1(b) claims may be
made for there is no peril. This is G/a by agreement as artificial G.A

(iii) Entitlement to 6/A: A claimant is entitled to obtain contribution from other parties
to the common venture (cargo as the ship). But a carrier is not entitled to obtain
contribution in 6A from cargo if the peril arises as a result of his actionable faults
as negligence in law as that of his employees
(iv) Contestation to 6A: GA has been in subject to dissatisfaction for the following
main 6 reasons

1. Exoneration of carriers for the faults of master and crew under the hague of
MV rules, carrier is exampled from liability for the negligence of its employee
2. interpretation of rules: Numbered Rules lettered rules
3. emergency of marine insurance has made GA reluctant
4. Expenses and delay in adjustments
5. Problems in collision of G A contribution
6. Small G A

Write short notes on the following:
(a) Lloyds Open Form (b) General Average (c) Particular Average

Ans. (a) Lloyds Open Form:- The first modern text of the Lloyds form of Salvage
Agreement known as Lloyds Open Form or LOF was adopted in 1892. Since then
Lloyds Open Form has undergone ten revisions; the current version is LOF 2000. LOF is
the most widely used no-cure-no-pay Salvage Contract. In return for salvage service, the
salver receives a proportion of salved values, the value of the ship, its bunker & cargo.
Traditional removal depends upon success, and the recovery of property. In the past, if
there was no recovery, there was no payment; whatever the expenses of the operation.
This has changed in recent years so that whenever there is a threat of damage to the
environment, the salver can expect a fair return for his efforts, even in high risk and low
property value situations.
(b) General Average:- GA is one of the oldest forms of spreading of risk by all the
interest of a maritime adventure namely ship, cargo, freight (if at risk). Freight is at risk
when it is to be paid at destination. Thus when freight is pre-paid it is not at risk.
The sacrifice or expenditure must be of extraordinary nature. Damage to a ship,
her machinery or equipment whilst being used for the purpose for which they are
intended, would not amount to general average. On the other hand using a ships
engines in an effort to re-float when stranded would if the engine were damaged as a
result, be an extraordinary sacrifice.
(c) Particular Average:- This is defined by the marine insurance as a particular loss
of the subject matter insured caused by a peril insured against which is not a general
average. It may perhaps be more directly described as a partial loss arising from any
kind of accident. General Average, sacrifices and expenditures, particular charges and
salvage charges do not arise by accident; and therefore are not included in Particular
Average. A Particular Average loss falls directly upon the party interested in the subject
matter. In the case of accidental or fortuitous damage to the ship, it is the ship owner, or,
to the extent that he is insured against such loss, his underwriters, who must bear the
loss. Similarly in the case of accidental damage to cargo, the loss rests with the cargo
owner or his underwriter.
There are innumerable variations of particular average, including such things as:-
o Stranding of ship in bad weather
o Loss of masts or spurs through heavy weather
o Damage to hull, machinery or cargo due to heavy weather or fire

As per the Marine Insurance Act, write short notes on the following
(a) Deviation (b) Warranties (c) War Risk Clause (d) Charterers
Contribution Clause

Ans) The Marine Insurance Act 1963 (N/A 1963) of India is substantially a
reproduction of its
Engine counter parts, the Marine Insurance Act 1906. The Act codifies the law
relating to marine Insurance i.e., it defines various terms of the contract and their
amplified contents.
Insurance provides individuals and organizer with financial protection against the
outcome of events which involve monitory loss or liabilities which were not
anticipated or protected and over which they have no effective control. In case of
ship owner or ship manager insurance is usually confined to the financial
consequences if damage to its own ship, damage to other people, property or
death/injury to people.
Warranties: Section 33(1) of the N/A defines a warranty as a promissory warranty,
i.e., to say the warranty by which the assured undertakes that some particular things
share or shall not be done, or that some condition shall be fulfilled, or whereby he
affirms or negatives the existence of a particular mate of fact
A warranty may be expressed or impled.
Express Warranty: An expressed warranty must be written into the policy in any
form of words or contained in some document incorporated by ref. into the policy.
An express warranty does not override an amplified warranty unless the two
Implied warranty: There are not written in the policy but are implied by law to exist
in the contract. There are 2 major important warranties in marine insurance policy.
(a) Seaworthiness: The hip at the commencement of the voyage be seaworthy, for
the purpose of the particular voyage insured in voyage policy. Where with the
assured knowledge and consent, a ship is sent to sea in unseaworthy state, the
insurer is not liable for any loss attributable to unseaworthiness.
(b) Legality: There is an implied warranty that the adventure insured (voyage time
are mixed policy) is lawful and that so far as the assured can control it. The
adventure will be carried out in a lawful manner. If the adventure is illegal at the
time of the insurance is effected, the policy will be void. Thus drug running or gun
running trips or voyages to countries or ports subject to a Govt. embargo would
be deemed unlawful).

WAR RISK CLAUSE: marine I A includes war perils within he meaning of the
term (Maritime perils).
With respect to the hull insurance in order to cover war risks it was at one time
customary to delete the (free of capture and seizure) clause (fc & s) and institute
the war clause. When the ordinary marine insurance market found itself unable to
give adequate cover on account of the enormous losses suffered during the war.
So the cover was obtained by mutual insurance through P&I club. During 1

world war a scheme was brought into operation under which vessel could be
covered 80% by the Govt and 20% by the clubs. At the end of war Govt dropped
With respect to cargo insurance goods are .. insurable against war risks in any
part of the world by the simple expedient of deleting FC&S clause in the cargo
policy and institute war clause on the contract of insurance. Premiums would be
adjusted accordingly. There are also special war clauses drafted to suit the
requirements of particular traders.
Charter Contribution Clause
Where there is 6A loss (general average loss or a personal loss) followed as a direct
consequence of 6/A act. It states that cohere any extraordinary sacrifice or
expenditure is voluntary and reasonably made or incurred in time of peril for the
purpose of preserving the property imperelled in the common adventure.
It should be noticed that the 6/A act embraces both a general average sacrifice and a
general average expenditure. When there is a 6/A loss the party on whom it falls is
entitled to a ratable contribution from the other interested parties. The parties
benefiting by the sacrifice or expenditure may be:
1. The ship owner for the value of the ship saved
2. Cargo owner for the value of the cargo saved
3. The ship owner in respect of freight payable by charter party or bulls of
leading or charter here money
4. The charter under a time charter, for freights payable under bills of lading.

Each will be called upon to contribute according to the value of his interest saved as
a result of the sacrifice or expenditure, the main contributing interest are therefore
ship, freight and cargo. All there contribute to their net values at the place where the
voyage ends or is abandoned. Such values are called contributory values.
Deviation: As per the MIA section 46(1) where a ship worthout lawful excuse,
deviates from the voyage contemplated by the policy, the insurer is discharged from
liability as from the time of deviation and it is immaterial that the ship may have
regained her route before any loss occurs.
Section 46(2)
There is a deviation from the voyage contemplated by the policy (a) Where the
course of the voyage is specifically designated by the policy and that coarse is
departed from or (b) Where the course of voyage Is not specifically designated by
the policy, but the usual or so many course is departed from.
Section 46(3)
The intention to deviate is immaterial; there must be deviation in fact to discharge
the insurer from his liability under the contract.
The next section 47(1) of N/A which requires consideration is that relating o a
voyage when there are several ports of discharge.
Where several ports of discharge are specified by the policy, the ship may proceed to
all or any of them, but in the absence if any usage of sufficient cause to the contrary.
She must proceed to them or such of them as he goes to, in the order designated by
the policy. If she does not than there is a deviation.
47(2) Where policy is to ports of discharge within a given area which are not named
the ship must in the absence of any usage or sufficient cause to the contrary proceed
to them, or such of them as she goes to, in their geographical order. If she does not
there is a deviation. The section 48 deals with voyage policy. In case of a voyage
policy, the adventure insured must be . Throughout its course with
reasonable dispatch and if without lawful excuse it is not so prosecuted, the insuler
is not discharged from liability from the time when the delay becomes reasonable.
Section 49(1)
Deviation or delay in prosecuting the voyage contemplated by the policy is excused.
a) Where authorized by any special term in policy
b) Where caused by the circumstances beyond the control of the master and his
c) Where reasonable necessary in order to comply with an express or implied
d) Where reasonably necessary for the safety of the ship or subject matter
e) For the purpose of saving human life, or aiding a ship in distress where
human life may be in danger
f) Where reasonably necessary for the purpose of obtaining medical or surgical
aid for any person on board the ship

Section 49(2)
When the cause excusing the deveator or delay ceases to operate, the ship must
resume her course and prosecute her voyage with reasonable dispatch.

48. State the different types of Marine Insurance policies that could be
undertaken by owners, shippers or other related parties Explain the salient
liabilities and exclusions related with each case for an insurer.

Ans. There are various types of marine insurance policies available and they could
broadly be classified into 5 types.
1. Time policy - Insures property for a period of time.
2. Voyage policy - It insures property from one place to another it may
include a date limit.
3. Mixed policy - It covers both a voyage and a period of time of voyage and
in port after arrival.
4. Construction policy - It insures vessel while in course of construction not
for a period of time.
5. Floating policy - cargo policy that insures a number of shipments. In
Canada & US this policy is continuous and covers all shipments to a limit
of liability for any 1 loss.
The marine insurance policies that a ship owner can take are
1) Hull & machinery policy
2) Protection & indemnity cover.
The insurance policies for a cargo owner include
1) Marine cargo insurance
2) Goods in transit insurance.

Hull and machinery policies :
These are usually time policies with a maximum period of 12 months.
Normally the items covered will be clearly stated in the clauses of each
policy. Any extra port to be covered will raise the insurance premium.
Perils include 1) Peril of seas 2) Fire / explosion 3) theft from outside 4)
Jettison 5) Piracy 6) Earthquake volcanic eruption, lightening 6)
accidents during loading or discharging 7) Machinery damage 8) Latent
defects in machinery or hull 9) Negligence of master, officer or crew 10)
3/4 collusion liability items not covered under insurance include 1) loss /
damage eg insurer deliberately set fire to ship caused by willful
misconduct willful negligence by owner. 3) loss of charter hire due to
delays 4) loss due to wear and team 5) war risk cover.
6. Cost for scraping & painting vessel underwater part due to fouling
7. Valuation clause i.e. in case the vessel is a constructive total loss, salvage
values are not considered.
8. loss / damage from nuclear weapon or by radioactive material.
P & I cover is available fro the following
1) Cargo claims 2) crew claims 3) claims for various fines eg. customs times
immigration fine for improper documentation fine due to misconduct of
crew etc 4) Collision liability covering the 1/4 liability not covered by H &
m insurance 5) liability against collision with fixed or floating objects 6)
third party injury & death claims 7) oil pollution liability 8) miscellaneous
Restrictions on P & I cover include :
1) Deviation 2) delivery of cargo at port other then port specified in the
contract of carriage. 3) failure to arrive or late arrival at port of loading 4)
delivery of cargo without bill of lading 5) Out dated bill of lading 6) clean
bill of lading in respect to damaged cargo 7) arrest or detention.
Cargo insurance policies :
The policies will incorporate institute of cargo clause A B or Institute of
cargo clause C : This covers only against major casualties eg fire,
explosion, grounding or vessel stranded, sinking or capsizing, collusion or
contact disc at port of distress general average sacrifice and jettison.
Institute of cargo clause B : In addition to the above will also cover
casualties like earthquake, volcanic eruption, lightening strike washing
obd entry of sea.
Institute of cargo clause A - Offers cover against all possible risks.
Items excluded from maritime cargo insurance policy are
1) Claims resulting from insufficient or in suitable packing or protection of
matter insured.
2) Claims for loss or damage arising from financial default of owners
company cannot be responsible for performance of the carrier and this
exclusion is aimed at encouraging the use of reputable company.
3) Claims arising from use of nuclear weapons.
4) Claims arising from damage by terrorists or politically motivated groups.
5) Claims arising from unfitness of vessel ware risk and strike risk cover is
available for cargo insurance for an additional premium for long term insurance,
open cover policy and floating policies are available.

49. How many types of warranties are there in Marine Insurance? Give an
example of each type with reference to a hull and machinery policy of
insurance [Express, Disbursement, Seaworthiness, warranty of Legality

Ans) Warranty is the term used in formatting the
WARRANTY:- A warranty is a promise by the insured that a specified state or
condition will continue to exist for the duration of the policy.[A breach of warranty
makes policy void from time of breach (Notes)]. A breach would entitles the infured
(others) party to claim damages from the party breaching the warranty and the
contract remains in force.
Warranty may be
1) Express Warranty
2) Implied Warranty
1) Express Warranty:- Specifically it is written into the policy or contained in
some document (e.g. institute warranties). An expressed warranty does
not overside an implied warranty unless the two conflict.
2) Implied Warranty:- [Understood, seaworthy and Legality if all activities are
done into a legal way then it is covered by warranty]. These warranties are
not written in the policy but implied by law to exist in the contract. They
must be strictly complied with in the same way as express warranties.
These are two major implied warranties in marine insurance policies
covering seaworthiness and legality.

Under the M/A 1963 ship should be seaworthy at the commencement of voyage
for the purpose of the particular voyage insured. Thus a ship is deemed to be
seaworthy when reasonably fir in all respects to encounter the ordinary perils of the
seas of the Adventure insured where ship is sent to sea unseaworthy with assured
knowledge the insurer is not liable for any loss if the ship sent to sea unseaworthy
condition with the knowledge of the owners senior management knowledge would
include both express, clear knowledge (e.g. after defects have been reported in
writing by Master or Surveyor) and deliberately turning a blind eye cover would only
be lost where the known unseaworthiness had caused the loss.
There is an implied warranty that the adventure insured is lawful and that so far as
the assured can control it, the adventure will be carried out in a lawful manners. If the
adventure is illegal at the time the insurance is affected, the policy will be void. Thus
drug running or gun-running trips or voyages to countries or ports subject to a Govt.
embargo, would be deemed unlawful.

50. List the differences of a Marine Insurance compared to a General Insurance
at shore. Discuss its applicability in a new ship and an old ship
Marine Insurance:
It is conducted on the principal of agreed value. This means that the value as fixed
by the insured (shipowner) at the time of insurance is final. This means that incase of
a total loss the agreed value will be paid in settlement of the claim unless of course
there is fraud.
There are rules how a shipowner may arrive at the value of a vessel for the purpose
of insurance. In short shipowner can insecure the vessel to the extent of the amount
he would loose if the ship sinks. Shipowner cannot make profit out of the loss.
In case the value of the vessel changes during the currency of the policy he is
expected to make upward or downward adjustment as may be appropriate.
GENERAL INSURANCE: In this case, say fire insurance, the claim is paid to the
extent of the value of the building on the date of fire but in no case in excess of the
sum insured. In other words if insured value is less, the insured will get lesser
amount if however the actual value is more than the sum insured then they will get
only sum insured.
In marine insurance the principal New for Old its applicable
In short this means that no depreciation is deducted from the claim in respect of
repairs as is done in case of motor insurance. In case of repuirso to hull following
grounding of old vessel say a 20 year old vessel, the insurance company will pay
new plates although the damaged plates were 20 years old.
In case of marine insurance (say marine hull insurance) when a vessel is old the
policy is automatically terminated. The buyer takes a fresh policy from his owner. In
case of motor insurance when the car is sold the policy can be transferred to the
In case of a new vessel the value is determined by taking into account the following:
1) Cost of vessel is purchase price
2) Expenses incurred by shipowner during the construction period is cost of
superintendent standing by.
3) Cost of all equipment, fuel, ropes in short everything that goes onboard before
the vessel sails. (NOT CARGO). In other words which is required for all
purpose of voyage.
4) Shipowner can also include the insurance cost(i.e., premium) in the value of
the vessel. This amount gets reduced every month by 1/12
in case of old ships principal is the same of value will include a) PURCHASE
B) Same as above p+3, whatever is required for purpose of voyage
C) Same as above p+4
In case of older ships the premium rate will be higher as compared to new vessel

51. Give a brief history of P & I Clubs highlighting its inception, and growth.
It is said Rebirth of P & I Clubs is due to growth of Third Party
Liabilities- Elucidate.
Ans. Shipowners insure against loss of or damage to their ships with hull
underwriters. They look to the P&I Clubs for insurance against their liabilities to
others. P&I stand for Protection and Indemnity. Shipowners take P&I insurance
cover in respect of third party liabilities and expenses arising from owning ships or
operating ships as principals. An insurance mutual, a Club, provides collective self-
insurance to its members. The membership is comprised of a common interest group
who wish to pool their risks together in order to obtain at cost insurance cover.
The beginning of the P&I Clubs
The present P&I Clubs are the remote descendants of the many small hull insurance
Clubs that were formed by British shipowners in the 18
century. These were set up
by groups of shipowners, drawn in each case from a small geographical area, who
were dissatisfied with the scope and cost of the hull insurance then provided by the
two companies who had been granted in 1720 a statutory monopoly which excluded
other companies from such business, namely the Royal Exchange Assurance and
the London Assurance, and by individuals operating in London from, for example,
Lloyds Coffee House. These hull Clubs were essentially unincorporated
associations or co-operatives of shipowners who came together to share with each
other their hull risks on a mutual basis, each being at the same time an insured and
an insurer of others - still the basic concept of the present P&I Clubs, despite the fact
that they are now incorporated so that in law it is the Club and not the individual
Members who provide the insurance.
Temporary decline of the P&I Clubs
After the removal in 1824 of the company monopoly in favor of the Royal Exchange
and the London Assurance, greater competition had a salutary effect on the rates,
terms of cover and service offered by the commercial market and by Lloyds
underwriters. The hull Clubs became less necessary and went into decline. A few
exist today, but their share of the total market is not very significant.
Rebirth due to Growth of Third Party Liabilities
But as the hull Clubs declined, shipowners found the need to create similar
associations for a different purpose. The need sprang partly from the steady
increase from the middle of the 19
century onwards in the burden upon British
shipowners of liabilities to third parties. It became more usual for injured
crewmembers to seek compensation from their employers, and claims by
dependants of crewmembers who were killed were facilitated by Lord Campbells Act
of 1846. The possibility of claims by passengers was greatly increased by the same
Act and by the vast numbers of passengers who constituted the flood of emigrants to
North America and Australia in the second half of the century. Shipowners needed
cover against these risks. They were also becoming increasingly aware of the
inadequacy of the insurance cover that they did have in respect of damage caused
by their ships in collisions with other ships. The usual cover for claims by other ships
and their cargo for damage caused in collision excluded altogether one fourth of
such damage and, more seriously, was limited in amount (apparently the maximum
recovery under the policy, including both damage to the insured ship and liability for
the damage it had caused, was the insured value of the ship).
Eventually, in 1855, the first protection association was formed. This was the
Shipowners Mutual Protection Society, the predecessor of the Britannia P&I Club. It
was intended to operate like a mutual hull club, but to cover liabilities for loss of life
and personal injury and also the collision risks excluded from the current marine
policies, particularly the excess above the limits in those policies. Other similar
associations were formed.
In 1874 the risk of liability for loss of or damage to cargo carried on board the insured
ship was first added to the cover provided by a protection Club. The values of
cargoes had risen and cargo underwriters had become keener on recovering their
losses from shipowners, in which they were encouraged by a somewhat more
sympathetic approach by the courts. After 1874 many Clubs added an indemnity
class to provide the necessary cover. Subsequently, most of these separate classes
have been amalgamated with the class reserved for the original protection risks, and
today the distinction between the two classes has virtually disappeared within the
P&I Clubs.
While all the original P&I Clubs were based on various towns and cities within the
United Kingdom, Clubs were subsequently established and today flourish in
Scandinavia, in the United States and in Japan. Most of the major Clubs now belong
to the International Group for reinsurance and other purposes. Moreover, many
Clubs originally based in the UK have comparatively recently been re-formed in
such places as Bermuda and Luxembourg in order to secure, in respect of Clubs
funds representing calls or premiums paid by their Members but not yet used for the
payment of claims, freedom from exchange controls. Such freedom is demanded by
the shipowners from all parts of the developed and developing world who now
make up the truly international membership of the larger Clubs. The popularity of
the Club system of insuring liability risks can be judged from the fact that
approximately nine out of ten ocean-going ships are currently entered in a P&I Club

52. What is a P & I Insurance ? How these clubs operate worldwide ?
Connected with P & I Clubs, explain control, dividends, scope of cover
and letters of undertaking.

Ans. P & I stands for Protection and Indemnity. Here protection is ship owner's protection from
third party liabilities i.e. the 1/4th of collision liability traditionally H & M insurer
did not cover.
'Indemnity' refers to clubs indemnity' or compensation for liability to cargo under the
contract of carriage.
So ship owners take P & I insurance cover in respect of third party liabilities and expenses
arising from occurring ships as principals. An insurance mutual, a club provides collective self
insurance to its members. The membership is comprised of a common interact groups who wish to
pool their risks together in order to obtain "at cost" insurance over.
How these clubs operate world wide ?
P& I club are associations of member ship owners and charters; which are owned and
controlled by the insured ship owners or charters members for the purpose, precisely of mutual
insurance against third party liabilities which arise in connection with the operation of ships.
P & I clubs operate on non-profit making basis.
For their management, these clubs do hire an organization or agency which can be an
insurance company or a Law firm for their day to day management. For this the manager or
management agency charges the managing fees from the club :
For their operation P & I clubs retain correspondents at numerous ports world wide. In some
countries the correspondent may be a firm of insurance specialist acting for more than one club or
alternatively a ship broking or insurance company or law firm with maritime law practitioners. P & I
clubs issues handbooks containing club rules and list of correspondents which care very useful to a
master seeking advice and assistance when in any kind of trouble.
There are 13 P & I clubs belonging to the International group clubs. Together these clubs
insure over 90% of the worlds blue water tonnage.
Connected with P & I clubs Explain :
CONTROL : Ship owners who are the members of the P & I club are required to maintain their ships
as per clubs rules.
Club may subject a ship of member for random inspection. If on the basis of random
inspection there are reasons to believe that vessel is not being of random inspection there are
reason to believe that vessel is not being operated as per clubs rule. Then ship will be subjected to
more intense condition survey by independent surveyors called by the club manager.
An owner who fails to keep his vessel in the continuous required by the clubs rule may be
expelled from the club.
DIVIDENDS : As the P & I clubs do operate on non-profil making basis, there is no policy of giving
dividends to club members or manager of the club.
P & I clubs may cover their members exposure to claims for damage of compensation of the
following :
- Crew : The members liability for injury, illness or death and medical expenses arising from
injury, illness or death, costs of repatriation and maintenance ashore resulting from injury
illness or death, costs of repatriation and maintenance ashore resulting from injury illness or
- Personnel Injury to or loss of life of stevdores.
- Personnel injury to or illness or loss of life of passengers and others.
- Loss of personnel effects
- Ships Diversion expenses including running expenses and port charges incurred solely for
this purpose.
- Life salvage : award to a person who has saved or attempted to save the life of person
onboard the salvaged vessel.
- One fourth collision liability
- Oil pollution
o Standard oil pollution cover
o Oil pollution cover for USA
- Liabilities under contracts and indemnities
- Wreaks liabilities
- Cargo liabilities
The members liability for cargo loss, shortage, damage or delay occurring in relation
to the carriage of cargo on the entered vessel.
- Cargos proportion of general average or salvages.
- Certain expenses of salvers
- Fines
- Legal Cost
Omnibus Cover : In recognition of the fact that the list of liabilities to which ship owners are
subjected is constantly increasing in unforeseen ways, the valves of the clubs give their
directions discretion to pass for payment certain claim that are not expressly covered by any of
the heads of cover set out in their rules provided that they are within the general scope of the
club cover and are not expressly excluded elsewhere within the rules.
Letter of Undertaking :
When there is an incident of pollution following a bunkering accident or jelly damage to jelly
caused by the ship then club may be required to post the bond to avoid the arrest of the ship
which can lead to delay of ship schedule.
To avoid this the correspondent of the club can offer a letter of undertaking on the
instruction of club; to pay for the possible liabilities of the ship arising from the accident or
53. Illustrate the present service philosophy of P & I Clubs and how they work
on a day- to- day basis world- wide? How is it controlled?

Ans) Introduction:- P&I clubs properly called Pollution and indemnity associations
Protection in the little originally referred to shipowners protection from the of collision
liability that traditionally. London Hull and machinery I owners did not cover while indemnity
referred to club indemnity or compensation for liability to cargo under a contract of carriage.
P&I clubs are association of members ship owners and charteres, owned and controlled by
the in oured shipowner or chatered members for the purpose of basically of mutual insurance
against their party liabilities which arise in connection with the operation of ship.

P&I club include 13 members of the international group of P&I club and their 4
associates clubs
Service philosophy
P&I club offer shipowners and characters various classes of over eg. Protection
and indemnity strike freight demurrage and damage etc. Most clubs offer two
principal classes of

protection and Indemnity cover includes the following liabilities
1) Cargo claims:- For shoot delivery, loss or damage to cargo
2) Crew claims:- Medical expenses, repatriation, substitute expenses, compensation
for death and injury
3) Collision liability: To the extent that the claim is not covered under hull policy
4) Fixed and floating objects: damage to clocks, wharfs and buoys
5) Third party injury and death claims: From stevedores crew members and
6) Oil pollution liability: And liability from pollution by other substances
7) Special compensation: payable in accordance with article 14 of the international
convention of salvage 1999 including payments to assessed under the scopic
8) Miscellaneous claims: Including fries for innocent breaches of regulation,
diversion and other expenses incurred in landing refuges, sick persons,
stowaways, contractual liability including those of customary towage,
unrecoverable general average when in excess of the insured valve.
Salvers expenses under Lloyds opens forum and wreck removal .
9) Freight, Demurrage and damage: This cover indemnifies members of legal and
related expenses incurred in connection with disputes under character parties
and other contracts as define in club rules but does not extend to the principal
amount in dispute.

OMMI Bus Cover: In recognition of the fact that the list of liabilities on a ship
owners are constantly increasing in unforeseen ways the rules of the clubs give
their director discretion to pass for payments, certain claims that are not
expenses by covered by any of the heads of cover set out in their rules, provides
they are with in the general scope of the dust cover and are not expressly
excluded elsewhere within the rules.
This is a most . Provision and is a reminder that the club exists, not us
a profit making insurance company but also an organization for the benefit of the
ship owners who are members
The board of directors will determine what limits and restrictions should be placed
on the cover offered to members (their decision usually taken and announced
shortly before the next annual renewal date of 2oth Feb. following are some
1) Liabilities arising from towage of an entered ship may only be covered if the
member has become liable under the terms of towage contract for normal port
towage of unneutered large. For covers on other types of towage the members
must advise the dub in advance.
2) When the member vessel is touring another vessel, loss or damage to low or
cargo on the tow or wreck removal of the low and cargo is only covered if towage
contract is approved by the managers.
3) Liabilities arising under indemnities in respect of delivery of cargo requested at a
port other than that stated in the bill of lading or without production of bill of lading
may be covered only on approval of the club management and of terms of
indemnity have been approved by the diet.
4) Liability to resumes under a crew contract are carried only if the contract has
been approved in writing by the manger. This also applies to cover for
repatriation loss of seamen effect of ship wreck, unemployment indemnity.
5) Liability arising from carriage under bills of lading are normally only covered if the
bills of lading are subject to the hague rules or Hague Visby rules
6) The board of directors of each club will usually determine in accordance with the
club rules the limit of the club liability in respect of any and all claims for oil
pollution for next policy your. The discussion bring taken towards the end of a
current year.

{Some clubs impose a limit of 1000 million USO for each accident or occurrence in
respect of each ship entered on behalf of owner, demise or bare boat charter}
P&I clubs retain correspondents at numerous ports world wide. In some countries
the correspondent may be firm of insurance specialities acting for more than are club
or alternatively a ship broking or insurance company only handling
In all cases correspondents
1) Are for legal reasons, representations and not agents of the club
2) Will attend member vessels when so requested by the master or agent in order to
protect members interests.
3) They are generally well acquainted with the club rules and policy
4) Will report any occurrence likely to result in a claim on the club to the club
managers, but will generally be able to anticipate the managers reply and
5) May be instructed by club to offer letter of undertaking in cases of possibilities
[In most cases where there is a pollution following bunkering accident or jelly
damage caused by as ship this will avert the need for a bond to be posted to avoid
Most clubs provide each entered ship with a list of correspondent for the use of the
muster. In the absence of a list on board the port agent should be able to furnish the
name of nearest correspondent of most clubs
Reimbursement of claim costs by p& I Clubs
Where a member of P&I club makes any claim against the club
1)The first 5 million will be met by the clubs own resources barring the members
owns deductible
2) 5 million USD to 30 million USD are compensated under group market
reinsurance arrangements also called excess of loss reinsurance contract
(total Commercial market reinsurance is 2000 million USD)
3) Should a claim err exceed the upper limit of excess of loss contract it would then
full back on the pool and be borne by each club on Pro-rata basis (according o its
entered tonnage)

such as claim is called overspill claim and would be funded by each club from club
reserves or by making a special overspill call on the membership
P&I Club Control and Management
P&I clubs are controlled by boards of directors representing the ship owners
members large claims are examined and approved by the directors at regular
melting before payment is made
Are managed by firms of . Experts maritime lawyers and mariners
Operated on a non profit making basis
Club members entered ships may be subjected to random ship inspection
concentrating on management of vessel. If failed a more intensive condition survey
by independent surveyors may be called by the club manager.
An owner who fails to keep the vessel in condition required by the club rules may be
compelled from the club
Mangers generally strive to keep the calls on members to a minimum e.g., through
loss prevention methods and such as information on bulletins, handbooks and
videos aimed at owners and ship officers
[these should be on board entered ship and not kept in owners/managers office]

54.With reference to P &I Club explain
(a) International group (b) Re- Insurance (c) Representative Function
Ans (a) International Group: Although the clubs compete with each other for
business, they have found it beneficial to pool their larger risks under the auspices of
the International Group (I.G). the I.G is an association of 13 leading P&I clubs and
their associates (i.e., a club of clubs). The I.G. Provides a forum for discussion of legal
and technical issues affecting the member clubs, to provide a mutual re-insurance
scheme for the member clubs through the I.G. agreement. The contractual agreement
defines the risks that are to be pooled and exactly how these are to be shares
between the member clubs. The pool provides a mechanism for sharing all claims in
excess of U.S. $6 million up to a limit of about U.S. $4.5 billion. For a layer of claims
between U.S. $50 million and U.S. $ 2.3 billion, reinsurance is purchased from the
commercial market. The pooling system provides member clubs with reinsurance
protection at cost to much higher levels than would normally be available in the
commercial insurance market. I.G. clubs share their claims through the pooling
system which has a common interest in loss prevention and control and in the
maintenance of quality standards throughout the membership. The I.G. provides on
effective voice for the shipowner and charterer members of the individual clubs,
particularly on new conventions and legislations effecting ship owners and
charterers liabilities and the insurance thereof. It carries out this unction in relation
to inter-governmental bodies like IMO and UNCTAD as well as national
governments. The I.G. provides a useful forum for sharing information on matters of
concern to the clubs. These include general issues like oil pollution and personal
injury as well as current problems in certain ports or in relation to carriage of
particular cargoes strategic and policy issues of concern to the I.G. are determined by
each club individually. Its for the board of directors (or committee) of each club
individually. Its for the board of directors (or committee) of each club to decide upon
the extent o which it deserves to delegate authority to its managers to deal on its
behalf on particular matters. Routine business is usually dealt with by
correspondence between the managers of I.G. clubs and their representatives who
also meet in committees to analyse and clarify more complex issues, with a view to
formulating recommendations for the individual clubs to consider. The I.G. club
managers or their representatives working together examine any proposed
alterations or extensions to the cover being provided by each club to access the
continuing compatibility of the risks that are to be pooled. They also review the
accounting policies of each member club to enable other clubs to monitor its
financial strength. They also operate the contractual machinery for sharing pool
claims with the . Of producing on equitable financial result as between the
participating clubs. Finally, they co-ordinate the detail of the pools reinsurance, the
contract itself being annually placed by brokers acting on behalf of all member clubs.
The I.G. includes the following clubs: The ship owner club, The Standard club, The
American club, The U.K. club, The London club, The North of England club, The
west of England club, The West of England club, The Japan club, The Swedish club,
The Britannia, Standard Bermuda, Standard London, Steamship Bermuda,
Steamship London, Gard and skull.
(b) Re-Insurance: the various reasons why an underwriter may find it prudent to
re-insure part or all of a risk for when he has accepted liability are:-

(i) He may find that his commitments on any one ship or in any locality have
become too burdensome. Declarations under open covers or floating
policies and acceptances by his agents in other markets may give him an
accumulated liability considerably in excess of his usual retention.
(ii) He may have accepted a line on all risks terms and then desire to re-
insurance in respect of total loss only.
(iii) There may be a possibility of placing the risk in some other market at a
(iv) He may have decided after due consideration that his acceptance of a
particular risk was an error of judgement. By section 9 of the U.K. Marine
Insurance Act 1906 the insurer has an insurable interest in his risk and
may re-insure in respect of it. Unless the policy otherwise provides, the
original assured has no right or interest in respect of such re-insurance.
Hence if any action is brought by the original assured against his insurer,
the latter cant bring his re insurer is entitled, when sued, to insist upon
strict proof of the loss and of the reassures liability.
An underwriter may re-insure in the following ways:
(i) Facultative: Facultative re-insurance is the direct re-insurance of individual
risks through a broker in the same way as the original insurances are placed.
The re-insuring underwriter may fix the rate of premium or, if the re-insurance
is affected on the identical conditions of the original policy, he may be content
to accept the original premium of the re-insured. The speculative re-insurance
of an overdue vessel or a vessel which is known to have met with same
casualty may be affected in this way. In the early stages, the original
underwriter may be able to re-insure at a reasonable commensurate premium,
but if with the passage of time no good news is received then re-insurance
rates would increase and should the vessel be eventually posted as missing
she may well become uninsurable.
(ii) Open cover re-insurance: Its often used by underwriters in respect of their
cargo business, say to re-insure their interest on particular voyages,
commodities or types of vessels. Such open covers may be effected on free
from particular overage conditions at lower rates of premium than the original
insurances effected on more comprehensive terms.
(iii) By means of a re-insurance treaty: Re insurance treaties can be used for
either hull or a cargo reinsurance. They are usually very elaborate contracts
between insurance companies providing for the session of some proportion of
the whole of the re-assurers business to the re-insuring company at the
original premiums less an over-riding commission.
Irrespective of which of the three methods of reinsurance is used, the original
underwriter has a choice of reinsuring on a first interest basis, a quota-shore
basis or an excess basis. If an underwriter accepts $2,000 on a vessel and re
insurers $ 1000 on a first interest basis and only $1600 is finally closed to
the underwriter, the re-insurers line would still remain at $1000. if the re-
insurance is placed on quota share basis, the re-insurers line would be
reduced to $ 800. If the same re-insurance were arranged excess of $1000,
the re-insurers liability would be $600, whilst the reassured would retain
$1000. Re-insurance policies are in virtually the some form as original policies
but with the addition of the Re-insurance clause. The usual wording of this
clause is Being a re-insurance and subject to the same clauses and
conditions as the original policy and to pay as may be paid thereon. Where
reinsurances are effected on restricted conditions, the clause is qualified by
adding suitable words e.g., w.r.t hull re-insurance there may be added but
against total and/or constructive and/or arranged total loss only. When a P&I
club member makes a claim against his club the first 5 million, is met by the
clubs own resources claims in excess of $5million up to $30 million are
divided among the members of the I.G. pool for claims in excess of pool limit,
the I.G. arranges on excess of less re-insurance contract in the market which
currently provides over for $2billion in excess of $ 30 million in relation to all
types of claims except oil pollution where the limit is $1 billion.
(c) Representative function: P&I clubs retain correspondents at numerous
ports worldwide. In some nations the correspondent may be a firm of
insurance specialists acting for more than one club, or alternatively a ship
broking or insurance company only occasionally handling P&I business. In
the USA a correspondents if often a law firm with maritime law
practitioners. In all cases correspondents:
1. Are for legal reasons, representatives and not agents of the club
2. Will attend members vessels when so requested by the master or agents in
order to protect a members interests.
3. Are well acquainted with the clubs rules and policy etc.
4. Will report only occurrence likely to result in a claim on the club to the clubs
managers, but will generally be able to anticipate o the managers reply and
5. May, pending instructions, appoint surveyors to inspect damage etc.
6. May be instructed by the club to offer a letter of undertaking in cases of
possible liability. In most cases, e.g., where there has been pollution following
a bunkering accident or jetty damage caused by a ship this will avert the need
for a bond to be posted to avoid arrest.
Most clubs provide each entered ship with a list of correspondents for the use
of the master. In the absence of such a list on board the port agent should be
able to furnish the name of the nearest correspondent of the club.

55. What are the salient differences of Marine Insurance with a shore based
installation Insurance? With respect to Marine Insurance explain:
(a) Agreed Value and ACV Policies (b) P & I Liability (c) Water craft
Liability (d) Hull Coverage

Ans. Salient differences between Marine Insurance and shore based insurance are:-

Marine Insurance Shore based Insurance
In this, there exists, an agreed value
between insurer and insured; of a ship or
cargo, etc;
Here valuer goes to site or to a property
and value is obtained by insurer, i.e. he
is not dependent upon insured about
value of property
In hull policy, if damaged plate is: if
renewed or old plate fitted, no
depreciation is taken into account; i.e. full
payment for new plate or old plate, etc;
Depreciation is always taken into
account, i.e. payment made will be
dependent on value of property at that
time; viz, in car insurance plastic renewal
is 50% and steel renewal is 100% paid
These policies, as their nature of cause,
are made for sinking, fire and weather
These are for lightening, fire and burglary
If ownership, flag or class changes; then
policy also to be renewed
In this case, policy need not be renewed;
only name of insured changed
Third party liability is not mandatory by
law, only for oil pollution liability to be
Third party liability is mandatory by law

(a) Agreed Value and ACV Policies:- Agreed Value Contracts or policies will
insure properties for an amount which is agreed to by insurer and the insured at
the time the contract is made; in the event of a total loss a definite amount will be
paid by insurer. These policies are used for insuring items that are difficult to
evaluate after a loss.
Actual Cash Value (ACV) :- In these policies, in case of a loss, the insured will
be put back in to same financial position as just prior to the loss. The insured
must not profit from loss, hence these policies are on actual cash value i.e. the
value of an equivalent piece of property of the same age and condition and
subject to the same wear and tear as the property that was lost or destroyed.
(b) P&I Liability:- Ship owners insure against loss or damage to their ships with hull
underwriters. They look to the P&I clubs for insurance against their liabilities to
others. P&I stands for Protection and Indemnity. Ship owners take P&I insurance
cover in respect of third party liabilities and expenses arising from owning ships
or operating ships as principals. This is based on the principle of mutual interest
between members in a club having common interests and risks in order to obtain
at cost insurance cover.
List of P&I clubs:- There is no Indian P&I club. There are 13 P&I clubs belonging
to the International Group Clubs. Together these groups insure over 90% of
worlds blue water tonnage. List of members of International Group Clubs is given
(1) American Steamship Owners Mutual Protection & Indemnity
(2) Britannia Steamship Insurance Associations Ltd.
(3) The Japan Ship Owners Mutual Protection & Indemnity Association.
(4) The London Steamship Owners Mutual Insurance Associations Ltd.
(5) The North of England Protection & Indemnity Associations
(6) Etc.,
P&I club Insurance Cover:- Damage & Compensation in respect of following are
(1) Crew :- The members liability for injury, illness or death, hospital and
medical expenses arising from injury, illness or death, costs of repatriation
and maintenance ashore resulting from injury, illness or death, the costs of
funeral or sending home of the coffin or ashes, and personal effects of a
deceased crew member, cost of repatriation incurred as a result of leave
to attend the funeral of a close relative who has died or become seriously
ill after crew member signed on, wages to serving crew member or if
deceased, their dependents as a result of injury, illness or death,
compensation for loss of employment to serving crew member as a result
of being signed off due to a major casualty to a vessel, which renders the
vessel unseaworthy and costs of providing a substitute crew member
required as a result of injury, illness or death of a crew member or
(2) Personal injury to or loss of life of stevedores
(3) Personal injury to or illness or loss of life of passengers and others
(4) Loss of personal effects
(5) Diversion expenses :- The ship owner may suffer losses through having to
divert his ship in order to obtain treatment for an injured or sick person on
board or for the purpose of landing stowaways. It covers port charges
(6) Life salvage :- A ship owner may become obliged to pay a life salvage
onward to a person who has saved or attempted to save the life of
persons on board the salvaged vessel.
Collision Liability :- The hull policy covers
of collision liability, rest

is covered under P&I liabilities.
(8) Oil Pollution :- Standard oil pollution cover, actual or threatened escape or
discharge from the entered vessel of oil or other polluting substances,
costs of measuring reasonably when taken for the purpose of preventing &
minimising pollution or any resulting from damage together with any
liability for loss or damage caused by the taking of such measures, costs
incurred in order to comply with an order of any government or authority
for the purpose of preventing or minimising actual or threatened pollution;
is covered.
(9) Oil Pollution Cover for USA :- Separate cover has to be taken for oil
pollution incident in USA, extra premium is to be paid under OPA 90 and
COFR (Certificate of Financial Responsibility) requirements
(10) Liabilities under Contracts and Indemnities
(11) Wreck Liabilities
(12) Cargo Liabilities
(c) Water Craft Liability :- This liability is vast in its nature as there are many
kinds of water crafts to be insured such as (i)sail boat (ii)power boat (iii)yacht
insurance (iv)water craft insurance (v)charter boat insurance (vi)charter
fishing insurance and (vii)motor boat insurance.
In water craft liability, following are the different covers which an owner
(1) Third Party Coverage:- In this, damage or injury to other persons or
property is covered. This policy is mandatory by law.
(2) Agreed Value Coverage:- In this there is an agreed value between owner
and insurance company of water craft i.e. in case of total loss of craft that
value will be reimbursed to owner.
(3) Actual Cash Value:- In this, depreciation is taken into account and re-
imbursement is done; taken into consideration of actual value of craft at
that particular time.
(4) Hull Coverage on Property damage:- In this, damage to boat, machinery,
sails, spars etc. are covered.
(5) Personal Property Coverage:- Covers for clothing, personal effects, fishing
gear & sports equipment.
If a water craft is chartered, to anybody else, then charterer is made
responsible for insurance premiums etc. There are many different clauses for
chartering also. It depends upon owner and insurance company to come to a
conclusion what kind of responsibility is given to charterer. For larger crafts
P&I Club coverage is also available.
(d) Hull Coverage :- This coverage comes under Institute Time Clauses Hull
1.11.95. :- These clauses are 27 in number and named standard clauses with
effect from 1
Nov 95. They are numbered as follows:-
(1)Navigation (2)Contamination (3)Breach of Warranty (4)Classification
(5)Termination (6)Perils (7)Pollution Hazard (8)
Collision Liability
(9)Sister ship (10)General Average and Salvage (11)Duty of assured(Sue
and Labour) (12)Deductible (13)Notice of Claim and Tenders (14)New for
Old (15)Bottom Treatment (16)Wages and Maintenance (17)Agency
Commission (18)Unrepaired Damage (19)Constructive Total Loss
(20)Freight Waiver (21)Assignment (22)Disbursement Warranty (23)Return
for Layup and Cancellation (24)War Exclusion (25)Strikes Exclusion
(26)Malicious Act Exclusion (27)Radioactive Contamination Exclusion
Above stated clauses are very vast and cover almost every thing related to hull.
Important statements are:-
Liability for Collision; New plates for old plate
renewal is paid etc.

51. A serious fire has taken place in the bridge of a vessel arising out of short
circuit. Describe the type of insurance coverage the ship is entitled to and
what type of policy will cover the maximum damage recovery? What is
uninsured boater coverage?

Ans.:- As the case is of a serious fire taken place on the bridge of a vessel, it
will be considered as a partial loss of Particular Average nature.
Particular Average is a partial loss, proximately caused by a peril insured
against & which is not a general average loss. It does not include particular
Particular Average may consist in a loss of quantity, sometimes referred to as a
partial loss, or a loss of quality, or a combination of the two.
Whether or not Particular Average is recoverable under a policy depends upon
the terms of the insurance. If the terms are Free of Particular Average (F.P.A.)
will not be recoverable. If the terms are F.P.A. Institute Clause a Particular
Average is recoverable provided the vessel has been stranded, sunk or as in our
case burnt or damage has been caused by fire. There need not be any
connection between the Particular Average damage & burning of the vessel.
Under these terms underwriters also pay the insured value of any packages lost
in loading, transhipment or discharge.
The merchant whose vessel has been damaged by a fire insured against, has
on his hands a vessel which is not capable as she was before of carrying cargo
and earning freight. The only way to indemnify the ship-owner is to restore the
vessel to her former capability by repairing her. In consequence, the measure of
Particular Average on vessel is the reasonable cost of repairing her and restoring
her to her former efficiency.
As the vessel is classed with any of the Classification Society, the society is
also notified of the survey so that it may attend to make sure that such repairs are
made as are necessary to enable the vessel to meet the societys requirements.
The vessels logbooks should be available to the surveyors at time of survey.
Surveyors are not presumed to have any knowledge of insurance conditions and
have no power to commit underwriters to the payment of any loss. Their approval
of repair costs is always without prejudice & subject to the terms and conditions
of the insurance policies.
Policy of Marine Insurance for this incident which will cover maximum coverage
:- A policy of marine insurance is an instrument embodying a contract of Marine
Insurance. It must specify the assured (principal or agent), the underwriter, the
subject matter and peril insured against, the amount, the beginning & end of the
risk 7 underwriters undertaking to indemnify the assured.
The Policy must be :-
1) Interest Policy as Wager policies are not recognised by the courts
2) Unvalued or Open Policy Instead of valued policy (that specify the
agreed value of the subject matter), it has to be unvalued one, leaving
the value of the subject matter to be determined in accordance with the
law in case of necessity.
3) A policy may be for a voyage or for a period of time or may be mixed
voyage or time.
4) Named Policy showing name of the concerned vessel instead of floating
policy, in which carrying vessels are mentioned only in general terms.
Special clauses adapting general instruments to the requirements of the
specific risk like fire are added by being written or stamped on the face of the
policy or attached to it.
Uninsured Boater Coverage :-
Since boat liability insurance is not mandatory, there are many boaters
operating without liability coverage. Uninsured boater coverage is designed to
compensate you for injuries to persons aboard your boat that are caused by an
operator of another boat who has no liability insurance. If you are legally entitled
to recover damages from the other uninsured boater, or if you or your guests on
your boat are the victims of a hit-and-run boater who cannot be identified, this
coverage can help ease the financial impact of those injuries. Many watercraft
liability policies do not include uninsured boater coverage.

57. Define Marine Insurance. Highlight the importance of Marine Insurance
cover requirements for owners and Shippers. Underline the
risks/liabilities involved in cargo transportation for a ship not covered
under insurance.

Ans) Marine insurance is the method whereby one party called the assurer or
underwriter, agrees; for a stated consideration known as a premium, to indemnity
another party, called the insured or assured, against loss, damage or expenses in
connection with the commodities at risk if caused by perils enumerated in the
contract known as the policy of insurance. This policy pledges to compensate the
insured, for damage derived from the loss of or injury to the property insured, but
does not guarantee the continued existence or replacement of the goods itself. The
insured must not profit from the loss. Policies are on an actual cash value (ACV)
basis i.e., the value of an equivalent piece of property of the same age and condition
and subject to the same wear and tear as the property that was lost or destroyed.
All ship owners and Shipping Merchants should insure their property against losses
or damages. They are not legally bound to insure except for liability for oil pollution
claims. However, the modern methods of financing, trade and shipping make it
essential that they do so. The capital that is exposed to loss in modern ships is so
huge that no shipping company can afford to bear the liability incurred. Besides,
most of the tonnage is mortgaged to banks and other financial institutions and they
require insurance as collateral security.
Insurance provides individuals and organizations with financial protection against
the outcome of events which involve monetary loss or liabilities which were not
anticipated or predicted and over which they have no effective control. In the case of
a ship owner or ship manager, insurance is usually confined to the financial
consequences of damage o its own ship, damage to other peoples property or death
or injury to people. Charters insurance requirements particularly a time charterers
are similar in many respects to those of the ship owner. Cargo owners requirements
are usually confined to loss or damage of its cargo.
Risk/liabilities involved in cargo transportation that are not generally covered
under insurance are as follows:
1) Damage due to war, hostile acts, capture, seizure, arrest, strikes etc. are
excluded from insurance policy. The ship owner may obtain cover for these
risks by taking insurance under institute and war and strike clause.
2) Third party liabilities, including oil pollution removal wreck etc which arise in
connection with the operation of a vessel. This is done by becoming a
member of a P &I club and taking suitable insurance cover. For a ship
involved in cargo transportation, the following risks/liabilities are covered
under insurance.

a) Perils of the seas, rivers, lakes or other navigable waters
b) Fire, explosion
c) Violent theft by persons from outside the vessel
d) Jettison
e) Piracy
f) Contact with land conveyance dock or harbour equipment or installation
g) Earthquakes, volcanic eruption or lighting
h) Accidents in loading, discharging or shifting cargo fuel, sores or parts
i) Contact with satellites, aircraft, helicopters or similar objects or objects
following there from.
j) Bursting of boilers or breakage of shafts but excludes the cost of repairing
or replacing the boiler which bursts or the shaft which breaks.
k) Any latent defect in the machinery or hull but only to the extent that the
cost of repairing the loss or damage caused thereby exceeds the cost that
would have been incurred to correct the latent defect.
l) Negligence of Masters, Officers, crew or pilots
m) Negligence of repairers or charters provided such repairers or charters are
not an assured under this insurance

58. Specify the related bodies and their objectives in Marine Insurance
market. Highlight the purpose and objective of P & I club insurance.
What are its limitations?

The related bodies of marine insurance market and their objectives are as follows :-
1. Syndicates :- Are group of members who band themselves into joint ventures. Each
syndicate has a professional underwriter and support staff.
2. Under Writers : - Are insurance professionals, who on behalf of their syndicates,
asses risks involved in insuring and charge premiums accordingly. They directly deal
with brokers who bring them ships containing information on risks due to be insured.
3. Managing Agents :- Supervise the syndicates, employ the underwriters and provide
administrative back up.
4. Member Agents :- Advise individual member on their underwriting commitments and
provide a link between them and their syndicates.
5. Brokers : - Are the intermediaries between the general public and the market who
supplies business to the market. They give advice to their principals on premiums
and policy types, and buy insurance from underwriters after face to face negotiation
with them. They may also place business with insurance companies.
P & I Clubs :
Are properly called Protection and Indemnity association Protection means ship
owners protection from
on collision liability which traditionally, London H & M
insurer did not cover. Indemnity refers to clubs indemnity or compensation, for
liability to cargo under a contract of carriage.
- It is an association of member ship owners and charters, owned and controlled
by insured ship owner and charterer for the purpose of basically mutual
insurance against third party liability which arise in connection with the operation
of ships.
- Includes 13 members of international group of P & I club, 4 associate members
and no of small independent clubs. Charterer P & I Club Offer cover for lime and
voyage charterers
- mostly offer two types of principal covers :-
1. Protection and indemnity
2. FDD ( Freight, Demurrage and Defence )
-- Retain representatives called Correspondents in many ports as well as
lawyers and surveyors.
-- Issue books containing Club rules and list of correspondence
-- Issue master hand books, which are very useful to a master seeking advice and
assistance when in any kind of trouble on board the ship eg in case and
pollution incident, casualty, when under arrest, when under pressure to sign
Clean BOL etc.
-- Circulate loss prevention information in circulars, bulletins, booklets and videos
etc aimed to keep members premium down.
-- Produce standard forms of letter of indemnity and protest.
P & I Covers include:-
1) Cargo claims Short cargo, loss or damage of cargo
2) Crew claims Medical expense, Repatriation, compensation for death or
3) Collision liability th of collision liability which H & M does not cover
4) Fixed and floating objects Damage to docks, buoys, wharves etc.
5) Third party injury and death claims Stevedores, crewmembers, passengers
6) Oil pollution liability
7) Special compensation
8) Miscellaneous claim Innocent breaches of regulation, expense incurred
landing refugees, stowaways, sick person etc, unrecoverable gen avg.
FD & D Covers
Legal and related expenses incurred in connection with dispute under Charter Party
and other contracts as defined in club rules but do not extend to the principal amount
in dispute.
Limitations and Restrictions of P & I cover
Board of directors will determine what limits and restrictions should be placed on the
cover offered to members, usually done and announced shortly before the next
annual renewal date of 20
Feb. A clubs rule book will reflect the current position in
the club.
Examples of cover restrictions
1. Liabilities arising during towage of an entered ship may be covered if the
liable is under the terms of towage contract for normal port towage
2. When the member vessel is towing another vessel, loss or damage to tow or
cargo on tow, or wreck removal of tow and cargo is only covered if the towage
contract has been approved by managers.
3. Liabilities arising under indemnities ( delivery of cargo requested at a port
other than the port described in Bill of Lading or without production of BOL)
may be covered only on approval of clubs management. However club
directors unlikely to give discretion in favour of owner for such liabilities even
if the indemnity in approved form and signed by a first class bank.
4. Liability to seaman arising under crew contract is covered only if contract has
been approved by managers. This applies to repatriation, loss of seamens
effects and ship wreak unemployment indemnity.
5. Liability arising from carriage under BOL is normally covered only if BOL is
subjected to Hague rules or Hague Visby rules.
Clubs will not cover
1) Ad valorem bill of lading
2) Deviation
3) Delivery of cargo at a port other than specified in contract of carriage
4) Failure to arrive or late arrival at the port of loading
5) Delivery of cargo without production of BOL
6) Post dated or ante dated BOL
7) Clean BOL in respect of damaged cargo
8) Deck cargo carried on terms of an under deck BOL
9) Arrest or detention of an entered ship
The only fines covered by clubs are
1. Custom fines
2. Immigration fines
3. Fines for failure to have proper documentation on board
4. Fines for breaching regulation relating to construction, adoption, alteration etc
of an entered ship.
5. Fines incurred as a result of conduct of crew or agent of the member
6. Fines failure to maintain safe working condition

59. Underlining Marine Insurance Cover, explain (i) Hull & Machinery cover,
(ii) P & I Insurance, (iii) Cargo Insurance, (iv) Pollution Liability

Ans) Hull and Machinery cover:-
Hull & Machinery (H&M) insurance covers the ship itself and equipment on
board the ship including propulsion and auxiliary machinery, cargo handling and
navigation equipments. Marine Hull policy is usually a time policy. The maximum
period of insurance is usually 13 months. Most policy of H&M insurance are
based on the institute of time clauses of hulls which was revised and renamed as
International Hull Clauses on 21/11/2003. The H&M insurance covers loss or
damage by:
1) Perils of the sea, rivers, lakes or other navigational waters
2) Fire & explosion
3) Violent thefts by persons from outside the vessel
4) Jettison
5) Piracy
6) Contact with land conveyance, dock or harbour equipments or
7) Earthquake , volcano eruption or lightening
8) Contact with aircrafts, satellite, helicopter or similar object falling on or
9) Accidents in loading/discharging or shifting of cargo or fuel
10) Bursting of boilers, breakage of shafts or any latent defects in the m/c
or hull
11) Negligence of masters, officers or crew operations
12) Negligence of repairers or charterers provided such repairs are not
assured under this insurance
13) Leased equipment not owned by the assured but installed for use on
14) Parts taken off the vessel where such loss or damage caused by a peril
insured under this insurance
15) Loss or damage caused by any government authority to prevent or
mitigate a pollution hazard or damage to environment or threat thereof
of collision liability, i.e. third party damage
17) Sister ship clause
18) General Average and Salvage of vessel contribution
An H &M policy covers physical damage o the vessel, its machinery and
equipment. In addition, the policy normally covers general average, salvage, sue
and labour and collision liability. Coverage for a vessel under on H&M policy is
written with a vessel value, which has been agreed upon between the ship owner
and the policy underwriters. Most H&M policies include a deductible for partial
losses. Often a ship owner may elect to cover a portion of the value of a vessel
for total loss only. This is done using an increased value policy, which usually
costs significantly less than a full form H&M policy. There are several factors
taken into account when determining the rate being charged for an H&M policy.
They include the type of vessel, the value, the owner/operators experience, the
less record, the size of the deductible and the intended trade. H&M policies can
be written to cover a single vessel or an entire fleet. The different types of H&M
policies a vessel owner can purchase to insure a vessels are:-
a) Navigation policy: it provides coverage when vessels are used in maritime
b) Port risk policy: Used when a vessel is expected to be laid up or non
operational for an extended period of time
c) Builders Risk policy: Used to cover a ship being built from the time its keel is
laid until the ship is completed and accepted by the owner including sea trials
d) Work Risk Policy: Covers damage to the vessel for war and other risks
excluded from the H&M policy by the war, strikes and related exclusions
clause. This policy also covers damages caused by strikes, lockouts, labour
disturbance riots and civil commotions, which may be important in a port

(ii) Protection and Indemnity (P&I) Insurance:
Ship owners take P&I insurance cover in respect of third party liabilities and
expenses arising from owning ships or operating ships as principals
The insurance club provides collective self insurance to its members. The
membership is comprised of a common interest of group who has to pool their
risks together in order to obtain insurance cover. P&I club may cover their
members to claims for damage or compensation in respect of the following:-
1) Crew members liability for injury, illness or death, hospitalisation & allied
2) Personal injury to or loss of life of stevedores
3) Personal injury or illness or loss of life of passengers or others.
4) Loss of personal effects
5) Diversion expenses incurred for the ship in order to obtain treatment for an
injured or sick person on board or for the purpose of landing stowaways
of collision liability
7) Oil pollution liability
8) Liabilities under contracts & indemnities
9) Wreck liabilities
10) Cargo liabilities
11) Cargos proportion of General Average or Salvage
12) Certain expenses of Salvers
13) Fines
14) Legal costs
15) Omnibus cover
A P&I policy is purchased in conjunction with a hull insurance policy to provide
liability protection not found in the hull policy. This type of coverage is usually
placed either through a mutual P&I club or with individual stock insurance
companies. P&I policy provides coverage should on insured vessel cause
damage to piers, whoever, bridges cable or other fixed or removable objects.
Also covered are the cost of raising, destroying or removing a wreck. Which is
sunk and which constitutes a hazard to navigation, bodily injury, loss of life and
sickness of seamen, passengers, ship visitors, stevedores etc, coverage for the
repatriation expenses of seaman who become ill and injured during a voyage and
collision risks not fully covered under a hull policy. P&I policy provides coverage
for damage to cargo caused by the insured vessel should the damage arise from
the negligence of the vessel operator and for pollution risks. Operators often use
this coverage to meet the requirements of the coast guard to obtain certificates of
financial responsibility. Domestically (in U.S) many operators purchase pollution
protection coverage through the water quality Insurance Syndicate. For those
ship owners who are not members of a mutual P&I club, the amount of insurance.
(iii) cargo insurance: Cargo Insurance (also called marine cargo insurance or
goods in transit insurance) covers physical damage to or loss of goods whilst
in transit by land, sea and air. There is no statutory requirement to obtain
insure goods in transit, but in international sale the seller and buyer will
usually agree that one party or the other will obtain cargo insurance. Cargo
insurance can be obtained directly from an insurance company, from
underwriters in the Lloyds and/or companies markets (through a broker) from
freight forwarders and from some carriers in the liner traders. Theres no
standard cargo policy most being tailored to meet individual risks. But most
policies incorporate. Oil bulk as cargo must carry a certificate of Insurance or
other financial security in respect of civil liability for oil pollution damage, also
called oil pollution Insurance certificate (OPIC). For a U.K. ship OPIC must be
issued by MCA. In case of a ship registered in a CLC party state, OPIC must
be issued by the administration (flag state) and in case of a ship registered in
a non-party a state, it must be issued either by the MCA or by or under the
authority of any other CLC party state U.S. federal low required ships using
U.S. navigable waters must carry a certificate of financial responsibility
(COFR) as evidence of financial responsibility for oil pollution certain U.S.
states require carriage of a state COFR. P&I club cover for prolusion liabilities
is usually to the extent that pollution is a result of an escape or discharge or
threatened escape or discharge of oil or any other substances
In the process of transportation, storage, loading and unloading, the cargo
is exposed to various hazards like theft, breakage or damage. This loss is
taken care by marine cargo insurance. The cargo insurance is covered under
the Institute of Cargo Clauses A, B and C.
Institute of Cargo Clause C covers under mentioned risks:-
a. Fire and explosion
b. Vessel or craft stranded or grounded, sunk, capsized or collision
c. Discharge of cargo at port of distress, jettison, General Average
sacrifices. Institute of Cargo Clauses B covers the risks under ICC
plus earthquake, lightning, washing overboard, entry of sea, lake or
river into the vessel. Total loss of package in loading or unloading.
ICC A covers all risks or damages except those which are especially
excluded plus malicious damage or piracy
An open cover is a commonly used form of long term cargo insurance
contract covering all goods, shipments forwarded by an assured during the
period of open covers
Pollution Liability Insurance:-
International Convention on Civil Liability & Oil Pollution Damage 1969 as
amended in 1992 (CLC92) requires ships carrying more than 400 tons of oil
cargo to maintain insurance against oil pollution damage up to CLC 92 limit
(82 min dollars as on March 2003). All these liabilities are insured by the
A certificate will be issued by the contracting govt. which attesting that
the insurance is in accordance with the provisions of this convention. This
certificate shall be carried on board the ship.

60. Explain losses and its categories with respect to Marine Insurance. Why
and where particular average and general average are of importance in
Loss Claims?

Ans. Marine losses may be either :-
1) A Total loss or
2) A Partial loss ( termed Average)
Further a total loss may be categorized under :-
1) An Actual total loss (ATL) or
2) A Constructive total loss ( CTL)
There is a total loss, where the subject matter of insurance is completely destroyed
or so damaged, as to cease to be a thing of kind insured, or when the insured property is
posted missing
As per marine insurance act, a constructive total loss occurs, when the assured is
deprived of possession of his ships or goods, by a peril insured against and where the
subject matter of insurance is reasonably abandoned by the insured on account of its total
loss appearing unavoidable because it could not be preserved from actual total loss without
expenditure, that would exceed its value after expenses have been incurred.
Partial Losses
A partial losses may further be sub divided into
1) Particular Average ( PA) i.e. accidental partial losses or
2) General Average ( GA) i.e. intentional partial losses.
a) Particular Average
It is a partial loss, proximately caused by a peril insured against and which is not a
general avg. Thus structural damage proximately caused by collision grounding
heavy weather etc ( perils of the sea ) would normally be classed as particular
b) General Average:-
It is a system, in which all interests involved in adventure viz hull and machinery,
cargo and fright at risk must contribute to losses voluntarily incurred, to save oil
interests on board.
The principal is that which has been scarified for the benefit of all, shall be made
good by the contributions of all, that got benefit from the general average act.
A GA loss is a partial loss, incurred through a deliberate act performed with the
intention of protecting the interests of all involved in a voyage from danger which
threatens all. GA losses are shared equally by all parties to the adventure.
Example:- Damage done when overworking a ships engine while afloat, to
prevent grounding is ordinary whereas damage done to engines when already
aground in an attempting to refloat the vessel is GA since this is an extraordinary act.

Marine hull policies are usually time policies, the maximum period of insurance being 12 months. It
comes last damage suffered to a ship and machinery hull, the hulls, machinery, materials
and financial interests of all oceangoing vessels/ ../
dredges/tugs/salvage/vessels/launches/ferry/ steams/boats/yachts/other pleasure
craft/self propelled bays/lights craft and other country craft can be insured marine hull
cover is generally arranged by brokers.

The insurance of goods in transit from one place to another by any single mode or combined
modes of sea, rail, road, air and inland waterways under marine cargo export and
import shipments including goods in transit by rail, road or sea can be insured. Most
goods shipped are usually insured on a warehouse to warehouse basis rather than far a sea
voyage only.

Open cover:
An open cover is a commonly used farm of long term cargo insurance contract
covering all goods shipments forwarded by an assured. The period of open
comes is generally fixed at 12 months with a 30 day notice period for cancellation
Documents and information required from the ship:
The addition to copies of the relevant insurance policies (which will be supplied
by owners), the documents and information listed below may be required to
accompany a claim lodged by owners against underwriters. If an adjustment is
prepared, the adjuster will extract the required information from the
documents and incorporate it in the adjustment. But they can any time see the
General documents are:
1. Deck and Engine log books covering the casualty and the repair period
2. Masters and/or chief Engineers details report (as appropriate)
3. Relevant letters of protest
4. Protests and extended protests
5. Underwriters surveyors report
6. Class surveyors report
7. Owners superintendents report
8. Receipted accounts of repairs and/or any spare parts supplied by owners, in
connection with repairs, endorsed by underwriters surveyors as being fair and
9. Accounts covering any dry docking and general expenses relating to the
repairs endorsed as above
10. Accounts for all incidental disbursements at the part of repair
eg: for port charges, watchmen, communication expenses, agency fees etc
11. Details of fuels and E/R stars consumed together with the cost of replacement
12. Accounts for owners repairs effected concurrently with damage repairs
13. Copies of faxes and telexes sent and details of long distance calls made in
connection with the casuals.
14. Accounts for the outward port charges at the last port prior to the repair part,
inward and outward part charges at the repair part, and, if the vessel returns
to her original part from which she originally manned, inwards part charges at
that part.
15. Portage bill showing the officers and the crew during the removal to the repair
part and also for the return passage if the vessel returns to her original part.
16. details of adapters of original/dep at the relevant parts
17. Accounts in respect of and temp repairs effected solely to enable the vessel to
move to the repair port

Information required after a collision
1. Details of steps taken to establish liability for the collision and the
essential settlement made between the two parties
2. A detailed copy of any claim received from the other vessel together
with details of which items included in the claim have been agreed
3. I a recovery has been attempted against the colliding vessel, a detailed
copy of the claim

62. What are the main statutes of marine insurance? Explain with reference
to marine insurance (i) Direct Action (ii) Reinsurance (iii) Marine
insurance and conflict of laws.

Ans. Main Statutes of Marine Insurance Act 1963
A) Insurable Interest :- Before anyone may enter in to marine insurance he must
have or expect to acquire, an insurable interest in the property at risk i.e. he
must stand to benefit by safety or due arrival of insurable property or may be
prejudiced by its loss, or damage or detention. Essential features are, subject
matter insured must be physical objects exposed to peril and assured must
have some legal relationship to it, and must stand to benefit by its
preservation or losses by its loss or damage. If assured has no insurable
interest in marine insurance contract, the policy is deemed to be a gaming or
wagering contract. Such contract is illegal and void.
A carrier has insurable interest in goods because of his liability to goods
owner. A shipper has insurable interest in respect of any advance freight paid
but not earned. Insurer has insured interesting the risk he has written,
allowing him to reinsure and spread the risk. Master or any crew of ship has
an insurable interest in respect of his wages.
B) Indemnity:- Marine insurance defines contract of marine insurance as
contract whereby the insurer undertakes to indemnify the assured, in manner
and to the extent thereby agreed, against marine losses i.e. the losses
incident to a marine adventure. Here insurer will indemnify the assured
against losses he has suffered and will restore him to the position he was in.
Financially, immediately before the loss occurred , the insurer must not profit
from the loss.
Contribution:- is sub-principle of indemnity whereby assured cannot claim
more than once on same risk. Thus if assured has two insurers covering
same risk, each makes a pro-rata contribution to settlement.
Subrogation:- is another sub-principle of indemnity whereby the assured
cannot recoup his loss from another party after insurer has settled the claim.
C) Utmost Good Faith:- Contract of marine insurance is based on utmost good
faith, if it is not observed by either party, contract may be avoided by other
party. Here assured should disclose, to the insurer, before the contract is
concluded, every material circumstances which is known to the assured, so
that premium can be fixed.
D) Warranty:- Promise by insured as part of contract that specified state of
affairs will continue to exist for duration of policy; breach of warranty makes
policy voidable from time of breach. Warranty may be expressed or implied.
1) Direct Action:- In marine insurance, a victim can take direct action against
insurer or the guarantor and the defences available to guarantor for a cargo
claim. Compared to a system where insurer has to reimburse the liable party
for what he has paid the victim, the direct action provides protection against
fraud by the liable party. HNS, CRTD & CLC all recognise a direct action
against the guarantor.
The issue of defences available to the insurer is distinct from that of
direct action. The insurer can in any event invoke the defences which the
liable party can invoke against the victim. It is however, common in this
respect to broaden the victims right by not allowing the insurer to oppose
against the victim all the defences the insurer might have opposed against the
insurer himself, on the basis, e.g. of the insurance contract or principles of
insurance law.
2) Re-insurance:- It is the insurance of insurance. It is the insurance arranged
by an insurer to cover all or part of cost of claims that it may incur under
contracts of insurance it may have written. Insurers reduce their exposure to
risk by insuring themselves against claims. The practice is known as re-
insurance. General insurance corporation was designated as the Indian re-
insurer in November 2000 by act of parliament to function exclusively as Life
and Non-life Reinsurer. The reinsurance regulation of the country aims at
maximum retention of insurance premium within the country. As per existing
statute, GIC is entitled for 20% obligatory cessions on risk underwritten by the
non-life insurers in India. The legislation also provides for utilising GICs
capacity before any risk is offered to the international market. Being an Indian
reinsurer, GIC plays the role of reinsuring facilitator for the Indian insurance
3) Marine Insurance & Conflicts of Law:- In case of any disputes related to
marine insurance the resolution is by mediation or other form of alternative
dispute resolution. Subject to overriding provisions of clause 1.3 disputes
between assured and underwriters may if not settled amicably by
negotiations, be referred at the request of assured or the underwriters to
mediation or other form of alternative dispute resolution and, in default of
agreement as to the procedure to be adopted, any such mediation or other
form of alternative dispute resolution shall be in accordance with the current
CEDR Solve model procedures.

63. With reference to P&I club, write short notes on (i) Medical payment
coverage (ii) Uninsured Boater coverage (iii) Towing coverage

Ans) Ship owners insure against loss of or damage to their ship with hull under
writers. They look to the P&I clubs for insurance against their liabilities o others P&I
stands for protection and indemnity ship-owners take P&I insurance cover in respect
of third party liabilities and expenses arising from owing ships or operating ships as
principals an insurance mutual a club provides collective self insurance to its
members. The membership is comprised of a common interest group who wish to
pool their risk together in order to obtain at cost insurance cover.
P&I clubs may cover their members exposure to claims for damage or compensation
in respect of:
(1) Medical Payment Coverage: The members liability for injury illness or
death hospital and medical expenses arising from injury illness or death
cost of repatriation and maintenance ashore resulting from injury illness or
death. The clubs also cover personal injury to or loss of life of stevedores
and personal injury to or illness or loss of life of passengers and others.

Uninsured boater coverage: Since boat liability insurance is not mandatory
there are many boaters operating without liability coverage uninsured
boater coverage is designed to compensate you for injuries to persons on
board all boat that are caused by an operator at another boat. Who has no
liability insurance if you are legally entitled to recover damages from the
other uninsured boater or if you or your guests on your boat are the victims
of a hit and run boater who cannot be identified. This coverage can help in
covering the financial impact of these injuries many water craft liability
policies do not include uninsured boater coverage.
Coverage that is a secondary medical payment coverage for the insured only.
If you are injured by an uninsured boater or a hit and run vessel, Uninsured
Boater Coverage will pay the insured for any medical expenses above and
beyond the Medical Payment Coverage limit. Many watercraft liability policies
do not include Uninsured Boater coverage
Uninsured Boater Bodily Injury coverage pays for medical treatment, wage
loss and other damages you would have received from the other person's
insurance company, had they been insured. Damages are covered up to the
limit of coverage you select.
When the person at fault for an accident does not have insurance, Uninsured
Boater Bodily Injury will cover injuries and damages you incur that the at-fault
party is legally liable for, such as medical treatment and lost wages.
If your injury expenses exceed the at-fault party's Liability limits, you can use
Underinsured Boater Bodily Injury coverage to pay for the amount not covered
by the at-fault person's insurance. Similar to Uninsured Boater coverage,
Underinsured Boater coverage is designed to cover the gap between the
other person's Liability limits and the amount of your injury expenses, up to
the Underinsured Boater limits you select.
A boater who has no insurance bumps your boat when he is preparing to
dock, which causes you to fall out of your boat and break your ankle on the
planks. Your medical bills total $5,000 because of the injury. Your Uninsured
Boater limits are $20,000/$40,000, which means your injuries fall within your
Uninsured Boater limits and will be covered.
Uninsured boater coverage is a great way to ensure that both you and your
passengers are protected from financial loss if hit by an uninsured boater.
Uninsured Boater Coverage Does Not Apply To :
Claims settled without companys written consent
Any uninsured vessel owned by a governmental body.
Any vessel owned by or furnished for the regular use of any insured or family
Any insured while using a vessel without permission.
Your boat while it is being chartered.
Any loss where no evidence of physical contact exists between your
watercraft and either an uninsured or a hit and run craft.
You cant get paid twice for the same loss under the Uninsured Boater
Coverage and liability coverage of the policy you choose the limits for this
coverage and the insurance company will not pay more than that amount for
all injuries arising out of any one accident or event, regardless of the number
of persons injured, claims made or vessels involved.

Towing Coverage: The liabilities of a ship owner towards the expenses
occurs towards towing a vessel in case of her main propulsion system
becomes in operational are covered by the P&I clubs. Under this coverage
it a vessel has to be towed because of machinery failure or because of
collision or any other. Such perils then the vessel has to be taken to the
nearest repair clock or dry dock then any such financial expenses which
will be incurred by the ship owner or any such liabilities towards the towing
company shall be covered by the P&I insurance cover.
This coverage applies to any service charge the insured may incur by
receiving marine assistance. This may include coverage for a service charge
for towing due to engine failure, mechanical breakdown, grounding and
delivery of fuel.
However, the least expensive towing and assistance comes from membership
in a towing service.
Towing and Salvage are two different beasts
Towing coverage applies only when:-
you are out of fuel
the engine breaks down (or simply wont start)
you are lightly aground (or soft grounding)
Or any situation in which you cant get the boat to go on its own power
Rescue from being hard aground, or from any stage of sinking is salvage work
and is generally not covered by towing insurance or basic membership in a
towing service.
In a salvage situation, you will have to negotiate directly with the salver that
comes to your aid, though some insurance companies might negotiate for you
and will pay the resulting fee to the limits of your policy if you have Salvage

64. What are the general considerations in international maritime law? What
are the general considerations in regard towage and salvage? Explain
life salvage and time for suit.

Ans. Salvage is a service rendered by a person who saves or helps to save maritime
property in danger. Salvage must be considered from three legal aspects :
(a) Common law aspects
(b) Statutory aspects and
(c) The contractual aspects
Common law aspects of salvage :
In common law any salvage service rendered will not qualify for a
salvage reward unless the following conditions are all met :
(1) The salvage service must be voluntary, i.e. the person rendering
salvage service must be volunteer, i.e. he must be under any pre-
existing contract or statutory duty to render the service. E.g. tugs called
out in an emgy.
(2) The salvage service must be rendered to the recognized subject of the
salvage, i.e. maritime property at risk of being lost if salvage service is
not rendered.
(3) The subject of salvage must be in danger, i.e. the real peril must be
threatening the property at the commencement of salvage, but need
not to present.
(4) The salvage must be successful. Since the salvage reward is payable
out of the value of property saved. This is what is meant by well known
no-cure, no-pay salvage.
These common law principles would be applied by court in the absence of
any express contract terms and where no overriding statutory provisions
The main provisions of International Convention on Salvage 1989 which
entered in to force 14
July 1996 :
(1) Salvage operation means any act or activity undertaken to assist a
vessel or any other property in danger in navigable waters or in any other
(2) Standard Towage conditions provides that Towage means any operation
in connection with the holding, pushing, pulling, moving or guiding of or
standing by the hirers vessel in return for fixed remuneration.
(3) Mere difficulty in the performance of towage does not automatically
convert towage in to salvage.
(4) Towage and Salvage cannot be performed concurrently. Where for
example a ship under tow runs aground and requires salvage services,
the towage contract must terminate before the salvage service starts or
must be superseded by the salvage services.
(5) Unless expressly stated to the contrary in the towage contract, salvage
service will not normally be contemplated by the hirer or tug owner as
being within the service contracted for. Furthermore, the agreed towage
fee will cover only those services described in the definition of towing
and will not usually be regarded as reasonable remuneration for any
extraordinary services.
(6) In determining whether services performed by the tug owner were
towage or salvage therefore, two rules must be applied in each case :
A Were the services performed by the tug owner of such
extraordinary nature that they could not have been within
reasonable contemplation of the parties to the original towage
B Would the Salvage service in fact performed and the risks in fact
run have been remunerated if the contractual remuneration only
was paid for towage service
(7) Standard Towing Conditions provide that nothing contained in the
conditions will limit, preclude any legal rights which the tug owner may
have against the hirer of tug including any rights which the tug owner or
his servants or agents may have to claim salvage compensation or
remuneration for any extraordinary work rendered to vessels or
anything aboard vessels by the tug.
(8) Article 17 of International Salvage Convention 1989, provides that no
payment ( of Salvage or special compensation) is due under the
provisions of this convention unless the services rendered exceed what
could be reasonably considered as due performance of a contract
entered into before the danger arose.
LIFE SALVAGE :- The saving of life, called Life Salvage may qualify, provided the property
also saved from which a life salvage award can be made.

What do you understand by state controlled salvage? In context to salvage
explain the key issues of The 1994 York / Antwerp Rules and The
Nordic and Chinese Maritime Codes

Ans. Salvage can be described as a service rendered to save a maritime property in danger. The
salvage undertaken by the state or/and controlled by the state in its water or near its coast is
known as state controlled salvage. This also means that the operation of salvage has to be
controlled and guided by the state which has initiated to undertake the same.
The salvage can be characterised by the following:-
1) Salvage service must be voluntary
2) Salvage property must be a maritime recognised property.
3) Subject must be in danger
4) Salvage must be successful.
Details with example:
1. Vessels crew or pilot cannot claim salvage, as they are bound by contract to protect the
vessel and its cargo from danger. Tugs are arranged previously for towage cannot claim
salvage. However tugs called in an emergency can claim salvage.
2. Subject can be a vessel, cargo, special equipment on board a ship, bunker or any other
maritime property at risk of being lost, if salvage is not rendered. Provisions, crews effects
etc. do not qualify for salvage.
3. Danger must be threatening at commencement of salvage. However it might not be
immediately present or imminent e.g. a vessel which has lost its propeller is not in any
immediate danger, if it is at sea. However, it may lead to grounding later.
4. Salvage claims are paid out of the value of the property saved, hence salvage must be
successful (at least partly). Hence the term No Cure No Pay viz, if salvage operation is
unsuccessful there can be no value to effect payment.
Beneficiaries of salvage are liable to pay salvage. These include:-
1) Owner of the vessel
2) Owner of any equipment fitted on vessel
3) Charterer of vessel
4) Owners of salved cargo
5) Owners of bunker on board
Salvers Maritime Lien:
Salvers Right to a Reward is protected by his lien (i.e. his claim) on the maritime
property. He is paid a security deposit by the beneficiaries, pending the actual
outcome of the salvage award. If no deposit is forthcoming, salver can enforce his
lien by retaining possession of the maritime property salved on applying to the
Maritime Courts to have the property arrested and sold.
-- The York Antwerp rules in context with salvage referred in Maritime contracts for the
purpose of adjustment of G.A. These rules provide a uniform method of adjustment of G.A. and
are usually used by the Average Adjuster for preparing the statement of Adjustment.
The York Antwerp rules comprise of the lettered rules and the numbered rules. The
former pertain to the principles of G.A. while the latter to the practise of G.A.
The general average shall be adjusted according to the lettered rules
In context with salvage Rule B of above refers which is stated below.
There is common maritime adventure when one or more vessel are towing or pushing
another vessel or vessels, provided that they are involved in commercial activities and not in
salvage operation. When measures are taken to preserve the vessels and their cargoes if any,
from a common peril these rules shall apply.
A vessel is not in common peril with another vessel or vessels if by simply disconnecting from
the other vessel or vessels she is in safety; but if the disconnection is itself a general average act
the common maritime adventure continues.
Rule VI of the same refers i.e. Rule VI Salvage Remuneration
(a) Expenditure incurred by the parties to the adventure in the nature of salvage, whether
under contract or otherwise, shall be allowed in G.A. provided that the salvage operations were
carried out for the purpose of preserving from peril the property involved in the common
maritime adventure.
Expenditure allowed in general average shall include any salvage remuneration in which the
skill & efforts of the salvers in preventing or minimising damage to the environment such as
referred to in Article 13 paragraph 1(b) of the international convention on salvage 1989 have
been taken into account.
(b) Special compensation payable to a salver by the ship-owner under article 14 of the said
convention to the extent specified in paragraph 4 of that article or under any provisions similar
in substance shall not be allowed in G.A.

Annual Survey :
The purpose of annual survey is to do the general inspection of items
relating to particular certificate to ensure that they have been maintained and
remain satisfactory for the service for which ship is intended. Annual surveys
are to be held within 3 months of each anniversary date of initial classification
survey or the completion of the last special survey. It consists of examination for
the purpose of ensuring as far as practicable that hull equipment and related
piping are maintained in satisfactory condition.
Items to be checked for annual survey :-
(A) Hull Survey for Cargo Ships
(a) protection of cargo hatch opening :- No unapproved changes have
been made to the hatch covers, hatch coamings, their securing and
sealing devices.
(b) examination of mechanically operated steel covers. This includes
hatch covers, stiffeners, gaskets, compression bars, drainage
channels of longitudinal, transverse and intermediate cross junctions.
Clamping devices, retaining bars, chains, ropes, pulleys, guides,
guide rails, tracks, wheels, stoppers, tensioning devices like
gypsies, wires, safety locks. Loading pads/bars and side plate edge,
chocks, drainage channels & drain pipes.
(c) all mechanically hatch covers should be operating satisfactory
(d) protection of other openings. This includes :-
- Hatchways, manholes, and scuttles in freeboard and
superstructure decks
- m/c casings, funnel annular spaces, skylights
- portholes and all openings
- ventilation, air pipes, together with flame screens, scuppers
- watertight bulkheads, bulkhead penetrations, details in
enclosed superstructures
(e) freeing ports :- together with bars, st.
(f) protection of crew :- guard rails, stanchions, life lines, gangways,
ladders, deck houses
(g) confirmation of loading guidance and stability data.
(h) No alterations have been made to hull or superstructure (relating to
load line)
(i) Anchors and chain cables
(j) Confirmation of operation of manual/automatic fire doors
(k) Salt water ballast spaces :- for corrosion and thickness measurement

(B) For Tankers Hull Survey includes :-
(a) cargo opening including gaskets, covers and coamings
(b) p/v, v/vs, flame arrestors and flame screens
(c) cargo and crude washing equipments, tank vent piping system above
weather deck
(d) electrical equipment :- intrinsically safe, explosion proof areas, physical
condition of cables, cable supports and means of cable protection from
mechanical damage
(e) gas detection system in pump room
(f) confirmation of not having potential source of ignition in pump room or
cargo area
(g) pump room ventilation system
(h) cargo discharge pre-judge level indicators are operational
(i) area designated for helicopter operations
(C) For Chemical Tankers Hull Survey includes
(a) verification of gas and vapour tightness of doors and air ports.
(b) Cargo handling piping to be examined
(c) Ventilation system :- all spaces of cargo area, cargo pump room, cargo
control room, closing devices of all air intakes and opening into
accommodation service.
(d) Cargo tank liquid level indicators, alarms for cargo tanks.
(e) Environmental control of vapour space in cargo tanks and void spaces
surrounding tanks
(f) Pump and pipeline identification.
(g) Electrical bonding
(h) PPE and fire protection

Annual survey of machinery space includes :-
(7) machinery and boiler spaces inspection.
(8) Main and auxiliary steering gear
(9) Testing of communication means between bridge, ECR and
steering gear
(10) Emergency escape routes
(11) Bilge pumping system and bilge wells.
(12) Boiler pressure vessel and external mountings
(13) Electrical machinery, emergency source of power
(14) Fire extinguishing apparatus fire hoses, nozzles, applicators
(15) Testing of emergency fire pump
(16) Fire extinguishers, their testing, inspection
(17) Examination of fixed fire fighting system and fire smoke detection

Annual Audits :- Annual surveys include annual audits to maintain validity of
PMS. This includes records of performance test , maintenance records,
written details of breakdown and malfunctioning.

Condition of Class :- When conducting surveys, any damage , defects, or
breakdown is noticed which is of such nature that does not require
immediate permanent repair but is sufficiently serious to require
rectification by a prescribed date in order to maintain class, suitable
condition of class will be imposed by the surveyor.
Where adequate repair facilities are not available, consideration may be
given to allow the ship to proceed directly to complete the voyage by
imposing this condition of class.
Where condition of class is imposed, a due date will be assigned for
completion and ships class will be subject to a suspension procedure if
condition of class is not dealt with. condition of class can be postponed
by agreement.
If it is ascertained that the owner has failed to comply with regulation of
the class on reported conditions of hull or equipment or machinery of the
ship before the due date assigned by audition of class the class will be
suspended or withdrawn. The suspension or withdrawal of class may be
extended to include other ships controlled by same owner, when failure to
comply with these requirements of class imposed are sufficiently serious. A
vessel must be in class at all times to be covered for insurance and

67. A second hand single hull VLCC built in 1990 is to be acquired by your
Company. The vessel is to be registered under Indian flag As Chief
Engineer / Owner representative, what aspects you would look for, with
respect to:
(a) SOLAS 74 (b) MARPOL 73/78 [CAS 13G] (c) Crew accommodation (d) Machinery/ boilers
(e) Previous survey report

Ans. (1) SOLAS 74:- w.r.t. to Solas 74 is will look in IGS requirement is

8% in tank
5% in scrubbers

Check all IGS Trips and Alarms


1) Oxy high / 100 alarm
2) Scrubber water high / low
3) Deck gear water low.

Flue gas vv / 500t blowing interlock .

Single hull construction

CBT, SBT, SBT PL (Protective Location) I will check that Ballast P/P is of sufficient capacity. I
will check whether motor drive for Ballast P/P is steam or electric.

MARPOL 73/78:- Annex 1 Reg. 9 deals with discharge criteria.

Annex 1 Reg. 9 (a) for tanker cargo important thing is instantaneous rate of discharge 30
/ NM.

Annex 1 Reg 9 (b) all ships 15 PPM machinery space bilges for operation of OWS in
special area 15 PPM (it) should have stopping derive & Alarm.

Calibration of 15 PPM equipment should be every 2 years. (Oil content monitor) every 2 years

I will check that sufficient filters spare are available for OWS.

Reg 13 G Since it is a single hull tanker it is allowed to operate as double hull tanker for 25
years and comply with Regulation 13G. As per this I will check carried out and also survey
DOCUMENT FILE is on board. The survey document file contains

a) Plan for enhance survey
b) Access and lighting arrangement during survey
c) Area for which close up survey should be carried out close up survey is (it arms
d) Thickness measurement.
e) Ships inspection report of cargo comportments and Ballast tanks Regulation 26
Check SOPEP is on board,
Regulation 20 Oil Record book (Old Record to keep on board till 3 years).
SOPEP MUST be stamped and approved by Govt of India, DGS surveyor.

CREW ACCOMODATION:- the Indian Govt has regulations in Merchant Shipping Act because
India complies with ILO Convention No. 55 which gives details of accommodation of crew,
each cabin should be marked as fit for seamen etc. and should comply with the
requirements of size cabin sanitary arrangements etc.

In addition recreation facilities, mess room and washing and drying facilities are required
which I will check whether are satisfactory as per Merchant Shipping Act.
MACH / BOILER:- Boiler should have enough capacity of steam production capacity so as to
meet the needs

d) On many tankers the deck machinery was also seam (driven specially on
old ships)

Boiler combustion control are proper 15 20% excess air are supplied in boiler.

Steering gear of such ship (VLCC) must be fitted with a safematic system so that in case of
Hyd fluid leakage, the pair of rams will automatically be connected & disconnected to retain
control required for tanker above 70000 DWT.

All certificates to be issued by Govt. of India will be checked as issued by Govt of India DGS.


However certificate of class may continue enforced if classification society is not changed.

Therefore continuous Survey of Machinery Record quarterly listing record, will check.

The enhance survey should have been conducted for this ship as per Reg. 13G MARPOL Annex
1 and therefore such certificate and survey document fill will be rechecked.

Classification societies are organisations that establish and apply technical
standards in relation to the design, construction, and survey of marine related
facilities including ships and off shore structures. The vast majority of ships are
built and surveyed as per standards laid down by classification societies. These
standards are issued by classification societies as a published rules A vessel that
has been designed and built to the appropriate rules of a society may apply for a
certificate of classification from that society may apply for a certificate of
classification from that society such certificate is an attestation that a vessel is in
compliance with the standards that have been developed and published by the
society issuing the classification certificate.
In UNCLOS convention of IMO responsibilities of flag state granting the
registration of a ship are outlined. Under article 94, the flag state must effectively
exercise its jurisdiction and control in administrative technical and social matters
over ships flying its flag........ many flag state countries in the world dont have
sufficient expertise, experience and technical manpower to carry out the
responsibilities of flag state nation regarding maintaining the standards of ships
flying their flag so SOLAS and other international conventions permit the flat
Administration to delegate the inspection and survey of ships to Recognised
Requirements for Recognised organisation are as follows :
1) R. O. must have established rules for design, construction and
maintenance of a ship.
2) Government representation is necessary
Classification society organisation structure must include a representative from
flag state nation placed at higher level in organisational hierarchy.
3) R. O. should have adequate resources financial / personal.
4) Society must have internal audit equivalent to ISO 9001-2000
5) Society must present itself to external audits by auditing body approved by
flag state govt.
So classification societies fulfilling above criterias will be given status of
recognised organisation by flag state to do duties on their behalf.
Limitations to the role of classification societies as R. O.:
1) Though many flag status delegate their authority of surveys and
certification to classification societies, flag state may not delegate all
its authority to class what all authorities are to be given to class will be
clearly mentioned in the agreement between flag state and class.
In some cases for e.g. class may undertake the survey of vessels under certain
convention i.e. SOLAS (surveys for safety construction, safety radio and safety
equipment) but class is not authorised to give certificates to vessels under that
convention. But under other conventions like MAROL, L.L. , or Tonnage class
can give certificate as well as carry out surveys also.
This will be mentioned in the agreement between flag state and class.
2) Certain flag states e.g. India require that any statutory deficiency
observed by class surveyor during the survey of a vessel must be
reported o flag state and its permission taken for issuing outstanding
recommendation to the vessel for allowing the vessel to sail. Vessel
will be given certain period of time within that she has to fix that
3) Many flag states dont allow class to carryout ISPS survey. As these
are country specific (port facilities are also involved in ISPS survey)
And due to security reasons flag state prefer to carry out ISPS survey
reasons lag state prefer to carry out ISPS survey themselves instead o
delegating it to class.

Q. 69. A ship on which you have joined as Chief Engineer is scheduled to be put in active service
after major lay-up and necessary repairs. State the survey inspections and trials to be made by the
surveyor in presence of Chief Engineer and Master.

Major Lay Up: In this question it implies that the ship was not operational on account of undertaking
major surveys, repairs inclusive of Docking Survey. In such cases trials are to be carried out.

Trials are not made by the surveyor. The Class surveyor witnesses the trials. It is the responsibility of
the ship owners to carry out the trials in presence of surveyor.

Machinery verification runs at the time of dry docking and at the
completion of significant repairing

-1. A dock trial is to be conducted at the time of dry-docking at least in the following cases.
(1) When Main engine and/or Propulsion shafting system and/or Main generator and/or
Prime mover for Main generator and/or Boiler and/or Steering gear were overhauled for
repairing or inspection.

(2) When docking work was conducted for two weeks or longer.
It may be allowed to conduct mooring run for dock trial of Main engine, Propulsion
shafting system and Main boiler. But, in principle, dock trial must be conducted prior to
sailing, and at least start engine / stop engine, change of ahead / astern and low load
operation must be conducted at the dock trial. The operational test of the machinery
concerned may be acceptable at the discretion of the attending surveyor only for
repairing of Main generator and/or Prime mover for Main generator and/or Auxiliary
boiler and/or Steering gear.

-2. If the following significant repairs are carried out to main or auxiliary machinery or steering
gear, consideration is to be given to a sea trial.
(1) The welding works for cracks of frame or bed plate of Main engine and/or Prime mover
for Main generator.
(2) Renewal or repair of Crankshaft of Main engine and/or Prime mover for Main generator.
(3) The repairing work for Camshaft and/or Camshaft driving device of Main engine and/or
Prime mover for Main generator.
(4) Renewal or repair of main parts for Main engine and/or Prime mover for Main generator.
(5) The repairing work for power transmission system of Propulsion shafting system.
(6) Repair of Propulsion shafting system.
(7) The welding work for Boiler plates subjected to internal pressure.
(8) The repairing work for Propeller blades affected to the balancing of Propeller.
(9) The repairing work for main power transmission part of Steering gear including Rudder
(10) Renewal of Main engine and/or Propulsion shafting system and/or Prime mover for
Main generator and/or Boiler and/or Steering gear.
(11) Other significant repairs found.
The extent of sea trial and survey items depend on at the discretion of attending surveyor in
addition to consideration of contents of the repairing work.
When repairing work for Main generator and/or Prime mover for Main generator and/or
Auxiliary boiler were conducted, it may be allowed to conduct operational test of subject
machinery instead of sea trial.


Certificate of Classification

1 The Society will issue a Certificate of Classification for a ship registered in the
Classification Register in accordance with the provision its Rules. The Society will issue a
Provisional Certificate of Classification, which is valid until the issue of a Certificate of
Classification, for a ship which has been surveyed for classification and reported by the
Surveyors to be fit for classification.

2 The Society will issue a Certificate of Classification for a registered ship once the Special
Survey has been completed in accordance with the provisions of the Rules to the satisfaction
of the Surveyor.

3 The Society will endorse a Certificate of Classification when the Annual Survey or the
Intermediate Survey has been finished to the satisfaction of the Surveyor.

Class Maintenance Surveys

Class Maintenance Surveys consist of Periodical Surveys, Surveys under the Planned
Machinery Surveys and Occasional Surveys, which are as specified in the following (1) to
(3). At each of these surveys, inspections, tests or examinations are to be carried out to
verify that hull, machinery, equipment, fire-fighting equipment, etc, are placed in good

(1) Periodical Surveys
(a)Annual Surveys
The surveys consist of general examinations of hull, machinery, equipment,
fire-fighting equipment, etc. as specified in Chapter 3 of this Part.

(b) Intermediate Surveys
The surveys consist of general examinations of hull, machinery, equipment, fire-fighting
equipment, etc. and detailed examinations of a certain part of them as specified in
Chapter 4 in this Part.

(c) Special Surveys
The surveys consist of detailed examinations of hull, machinery, equipment,
fire-fighting equipment, etc. as specified in Chapter 5 of this Part.

(d) Docking Surveys
The surveys consist of bottom inspections normally carried out in a dry-dock or on
slip-way as specified in Chapter 6 of this Part.

(e) Boiler Surveys
The surveys consist of open-up examinations and performance tests of boilers as
specified in Chapter 7 of this Part.

(f) Propeller Shaft and Stern Tube Shaft Surveys
The surveys consist of open-up examinations etc.of propeller shafts and the stern
tube shafts as specified in Chapter 8 of this Part.

(2) Planned Machinery Survey

(a) Continuous Machinery Survey (CMS):The Survey consists of open-up
examinations of machinery and equipment specified in Chapter 9 of this
Part which are to be carried out systematically, continuously and sequentially so that
each survey interval for all CMS items does not exceed five years.

(b) Planned Machinery Maintenance Scheme (PMS):
The Survey consists of open-up examinations of machinery and equipment specified
in Chapter 9 of this Part which are to be carried out according to the machinery
maintenance scheme approved by the Society.

(c) Preventive Machinery Maintenance Scheme (PMMS):The Survey consists of open-
up examinations of machinery and equipment specified in
Chapter 9 of this Part which are to be carried out on the basis of the results of
regular condition monitoring and diagnoses according to the
machinery maintenance scheme approved by the Society.

(3) Occasional Surveys
The surveys consist of examinations of hull, machinery and equipment including
damaged part and of works for repairs, modifications or conversions, which are
carried out separately from (1) and (2) above.


(1) SAFETY CONSTRUCTION -Initial Survey: The initial survey shall include a COMPLETE
INSPECTION of the structure, machinery and equipment. this survey shall be such as to
ENSURE that the arrangements, materials, scantlings and workmanship of the structure,
boilers and other pressure vessels, their appurtenance, main and auxiliary machinery
including steering gear and associated control systems, electrical installations and other
equipment COMPLY with the requirements of the regulations, are in SATISFACTORY and are
fit for the service for which the ship is intended and that the required stability information is
provided. In case of tankers such a survey shall also include an inspection of the pump
rooms, cargo, bunker and ventilation piping systems and associated safety devices.

(2) Renewal and Periodical Surveys

Shall include an INSPECTION of -------- referred to in para (1) to ENSURE that it COMPLIES
with the relevant requirements of the present regulations.

(3) Annual Survey
Shall include a GENERAL INSPECTION of the ------- referred to in para (1) to ensure that it
has BEEN MAINTAINED in accordance with 11(a) [Maintenance of conditions after survey]
and that it remains satisfactory for the service for which the ship is intended.

(4) Intermediate Survey ( SC, OPP, SE for tanker . 10yrs)
The survey shall include an INSPECTION of (------ ) to ensure that they remain
SATISFACTORY for service for which the ship is intended. In the case of tankers, the survey
shall also include an inspection of the pump rooms, cargo, bunker and ventilation piping
systems and associated safety devices and testing of insulation resistance of electrical
installations in dangerous zones.

71. During Periodic survey of a crosshead bearing of main engine, a
condition of class was imposed by the survey authorities and the vessel
was allowed to sail under said status till the next port of call. As a Chief
Engineer of the vessel enumerate and explain the consequences and
actions to be reciprocated on behalf of owner of the ship and also what
all penalties are attracted if these are not duly followed up?

Ans) Crosshead bearing is one of the most critical component on the ships propelled
by slow speed marine diesel engines. I is a must ship to have atleast one set of open
crosshead bearings on board. When a survey of crosshead bearing is carried out care
should be taken to open one bearing at a time so that if it is found damaged it can be
replaced with spare one. But under certain circumstances it may be possible
considering the commercial aspect that more than one bearing is surveyed when
more than one bearing is surveyed and they are found to be damaged during
periodical survey than only one of the damaged bearing can be renewed. In practice
no clarification society forever could allow the ship to sail or proceed for voyage
until the damaged bearing is either renewed or attended by the manufacturer and
certified for further emergency use.
In this case it is assumed that either due to bad planning the bearing is not on
board or more than and bearing are surveyed and of which one is renewed and the
other one is suspected under such condition a class surveyor is satisfied that as
engine was running before the survey without any trouble and if the bearing is not
appreciably damaged, then may allow the vessel to sail under verbal agreement that
in case of any trouble the C/E will proceed to the return voyage with one unit cut off
class surveyed thereby expenses condition of class. This permits the owner same
time to arrange a new set of crosshead bearing at the next port from the makers.
Therefore C/E must forward the of the said bearing to the company without
delay for procurement he must also send a detail report o the company specifying
the impartation of CoC.
During such a voyage care must be taken to monitor he temp of the bearing shoe,
with the therneosensor, to achieve this C/E may be allowed to even stop the engine
and carryout c/case inspection o ascertain that no further damage has taken place to
the bearing during refitting.
In case such a component is not readily available with the manufacturer, the
production will take time,then the company may look for another such breaking on
its sister vessel. If transportation is feasible, they will go by the cost factor. In case a
new spare bearing cannot be arranged at next port of call, then either classification
society may be allow the ship to sail until the damaged bearing is renewed or may
conduct another subsequent survey to analyse further damage o the bearing on ship
owners request. If on a subsequent survey bearing condition is found to be
unchanged bearing monitoring during the voyage is found to be satisfactory then
under the prevailing conditions the surveyor may extend the deadline of COC.
In case the vessel is not allowed o sail, then vessel will choose its charter or the
caterers may offhire the vessel unnecessary port charges are imposed on the
vessel/owner for lays-ups apart from losing freight/per day. The class may be
surepended and certification withdrawn act this will account o a huge cost to the
owner. He may fire the managers or the C/E for inefficient and incompetent
performance if I is established due to poor management

72. As a Chief Engineer on a vessel scheduled to make a voyage from India
to the U.S. Coast, list the salient items you will inspect, machinery
installations you will ensure for satisfactory operation and documents
you will keep handy for making a satisfactory voyage. Give reasoning in
each case.

Ans. The salient items to be injected on a vessel scheduled to make a voyage from India to US coast

I.S.M. Code

(a) Confirm that there is a Company Safety & Environmental Protection Policy on board &
that all the key Personnel are familiar with Safety Management System (SMS).

(b) Ensure the Safety Management Documentation & Manual are upto date & reality

(c) All personnel should be able to give the identity at D.P.A. (Designated Person Ashore)
who is to be contacted for a energy ensure procedure are in place to establishing to
maintaining contact with shore management through the DPA in an emergency.

(d) Records for maintenance, periodic testing, training drills, books & safety register are to
be updated.

(e) Ensue that you (C/E) are familiar with any non conformity that has been reported to
the company & what corrective action is to be taken.


Ensure that all key personnel are able to communicate & understand each others signals
during drills.

Fire drills & Fire equipment:-

Confirm that all crew members can titrate the fire alarm & know the location of battens & are
familiar within the documented procedures for reporting the fire to the bridge & sections to
be taken check whether all the fire fighting parties promptly master at the Designated
Station, when the alarms sounded during a smelted fire drill, confirm that all crew members
are able to demonstrate he correct are at the appropriate fire fighting equipments. Ensure
that the following items are functioning correctly

- the doors, including remote operation (if applicable)
- fire dangers & smoke pips, quick closing valves; spicy stops of fans & F.O. pumps; Fire
detection & Fire alarm system; Main & Spicy fire pumps.

Bunkering Operation:-

Ensure Bunkers Procedures are posted, understood by all personnel & Spill Equipments are
readily available. Test the means of communication between ships bunkering personnel &
shore procedures to report & detail with oil spills should be understood by all (SOPEP)

Control of oily mixtures from machinery spaces:-

Ensure that all the operational requirements of Marpol Annex I have been complied
within taking rate account

1) The quantity of sludge / oil residues being generated daily

2) The capacity at sludge & bilge water holding tanks

3) The capacity at oily water separator / incinerator. Ensure both OWS & incinerates are
functioning properly.

4) Check that oil record book is upto date & correctly filled up.

5) Ensure correct use at reception facilities, inadequate facilities noted & reported by the
master to the has state

6) Ensure that responsible persons are familiar with the procedure for handling sludge &
bilge water.

Operation of Machinery Installations:-

1) Emergency & stlby sources at electrical power to be listed but they are readily available.
Especially in a black art situation stand by generator engines automatic start to be tried

2) Check that the load sharing system at generators is tested is functioning correctly.

3) Confirm Emergency stop for pump & blower functioning properly.

4) Emergency generator, Emergency Air Compressor, Emergency steering arrangement
Emergency bilge suction & bilge pumps to be working with record of all maintenance upto
date .

5) Try out M.E. start from local control station.

6) Check life boat & rescue boat engines are working correctly.
7) Check proper functioning of safety cut-outs of ME; Aux / engine & boiler.

Basically the most important aspect at ship operation is conformance at ISM on board as any
deviation will mean a major non conformity.

Communication is the next single most important factor while dealing with emergencies.

Most common emergencies on board is a fire hence impacting knowledge about fighting fire
& its equipments is paramount in savings line ship.

Oil pollution liabilities may be so with that may can even shake up big oil companies, hence
control oil / bunker operation is important in day to day operation as a Chief Engineer.

Lastly keeping all machinery installations up to the mark with documentations
can enable satisfactory peacefully sailing for Chief Engineer & all onboard

Highlight the role of Classification Societies in providing set of standards
for sound merchant ship construction. Also state the importance of
International Association of Classification Societies and how they
contribute in improving standards of hull and machineries?

Ans) Role of classification society
The classification society, publish rules and regulations concerning:-
1) The structural strength of (and where necessary the water tight integrity of) all
essential ports of the hull and its appendages
2) The safety and reliability of the propulsion and steering systems and those other
features and auxiliary systems which here been built into the ship in order to
establish and maintain basic conditions on boards
3) All machineries (including electrical)
4) Materials of construction
5) Rules for special type of vessels
6) Rules for ships equipments etc.

Classification societies service to vessels trading in International waters is mainly on
setting/updating, and monitored application of standards for hull structures and
essential shipboard engineering system during and construction and through out a
ships service life. They have a dual role. They deliver classification services by
providing third party engineering analyses, followed by periodical verification of the
ships hull structure and mechanical and electrical systems and provide statutory
certification in requirements on behalf of flag administrations.
The main areas of classification societies activities are:
1) Ship classification service
Classification societies establish and continually update standards and guideline
for the structural and
engineering design, construction and survey of ships and other marine structural
units, such as mobile
offshore units.
The classification certificate is the document which confirms that a ship has been
designed and built
in accordance with societys rules. A vessel must be in class at all times while in
service; vessel
must be surveyed annually, with major surveys every five years
2) Statutory Service
Though its extensive resources of manpower, expertise and technology, the
classification society
have the capability to undertake surveys, maintain records and conduct the
technical reviews to
fulfill the right of various IMO International Conventions and Codes.
Based on national standards of the flag states, classification society work on behalf
of IMO member
states. Over 100 members states/ Government bodies delegate this authority to
classification society.
The most common authorization is loadline, SOLAS, MARPOL, Tonnage
convention as well as ISM
3) Research & Development
Classification society role in R&D is more prominent in ships structure,
engineering design and
other safety aspects e.g.,
Fatigue damage assessment procedure
Advanced fracture mechanics
Structural performance of bulk carriers
Hull condition monitoring

4) Technical Advisory Services
Classification societies aim to provide a variety of technical services to ship owners
and operators
International conventions and national regulations
Statutory surveys and certification
Contingency Plannings
Hull and Performance monitoring
International Association of classification societies
Ans) IACS was formed initially by seven leading societies on 11
September 1968.
in the year 1969, IACS was given consultative status with IMO, and its first
permanent representative appointed in 1976. it remains the only non government
organization with observer status which is the able to develop and apply rules for
structure, equipment and machinery. More than 90% of world cargo carrying
tonnage is covered by the classification design, construction and through life
compliance rules and standards set by the member societies and associates.
IACS frequently provides technical input to IMO-notably for studies into specific
ship types and various safety and pollution prevention issues. IACS is also playing
a vital role in the introduction/implementation of ISM code.
IACS has also been publishing a series of manuals with the in tension of giving
guidelines to assist the surveyors of IACS members societies and other interested
parties involved on the surveys, asseeement and repair of hull structure for certain
ship types.
IACS liaisons closely with numerous maritime safety organizations, shipping
interest griups and other associations, including the ICS, OCIMF, BIMCO.
The guidelines focus to the IACS member societies the survey procedures, and are
also informative to provide inspection/examination schemes of other regulatory
bodies, owners and operators, e.g. The IACS early warning scheme EWS with
emphasis on the proper reporting, will enable the classification societies, to analyse
the problems as they arise.
The programme of periodical hull survey consists of Annual, intermediate and
special surveys. These are carried out to assess any damage or defect which would
impair the structural capability or water tight integrity of hull.
Besides above, surveys in New construction are carried out-ships are built under
supervision; for this the constructional details and all necessary particulars relevant
to hull, equipment and machinery are submitted for approval of classification
society before work is commenced. Materials used and workmanship should be
satisfactory accordingly to rules.
Under IACS the following parts/Machinery of ship are notified as follows:
A - Mooring & Anchoring
D - M.O.D.U
E - Electricity
F - Fire Protection
G - Gas Tankers
K - Propellers
L - Subdivision, Stability and Loadline
M - Machinery installations
N - Navigation
P - Pipe and Pressure vessel
S - Strength of ships
W - Materials and welding
Z - Surveys and certification

5) Strength of ship
There are unified rules for thickness measurement and how much deterioration in
thickness of various shell plating is permitted.

. The united Nations convention on the law of the sea (UNCLOS) is an umbrella convention
concerned with many aspects of the sea and its uses, including the granting of registration of a ship
by a state. Once a ship is registered, the flag state has certain duties laid out in UNCLOS.
In particular under Article 94 the flag state must effectively exercise its jurisdiction and
control in administrative technical and social matters over ships flying its flag and take such
measures for ships flying its flag as are necessary to ensure safety at sea and protection of the
marine environment.
International conventions have been agreed, setting out uniform standards to facilitate
acceptance of a ship registered in one country, in the waters and parts of another and in general
furtherance of safety at sea and protection of Marine environment. These standards are commonly
referred to as statutory requirements Broadly they cover three distinct areas.
i) Aspects of the ships design and its structural integrity load line and stability in the intact and
damaged condition, essential propulsion steering equipment etc.
ii) Accident prevention including navigational aids and pollution and for prevention.
iii) The situation after an accident (tere flooding) including containment and escape.
iv) Manning of ships labor conditions and the training of crews.
The above mentioned areas need inspection to ensure that each ship
i) Is constructed and equipped as appropriate for safety at sea pollution prevention and safe
navigation of the ship.
ii) Is manned by master / officers and crew appropriate in number and qualification.
iii) and that master officers and crew are fully conversant with the requirements of applicable
international regulation concerning safety of life at sea prevention of collisions prevention /
reduction and control of marine pollution.
The responsibility of implementation of international conventions and codes lies with
individual governments. In additions for maritime countries which have experienced administrations
the survey and certification of ships did not represent great difficulties for other nations however,
these tasks caused a demand on technical skills which most governments found and still find difficult
to fulfill, bearing in mind the number of existing international conventions and codes and their
SOLAS and the other International conventions permit the flag Administration to delegate
the inspection and survey of ships to a Recognized organization. The organization is empower to
require repairs or other corrective action to a ship and in most cases to with draw or invalidate the
relevant certificate if the necessary action is not taken.
IMO Resolution A 739 (18) lays down minimum standards. It requires organisation to
demonstrate its technical competence and be governed by the principles of ethical behaviour.
Resolution A 789 (19) presents specification on the survey and certification functions of R.O.
Both those resolutions provide the criteria and framework to which a flag must be certified that
their RO's meet.
Following are some salient point regarding delegation of statutory surveys to classification so
- Due to the international nature of shipping the ship may not call its port at registry or the
country for years. Hence surveying such ships would be difficult by the flag state.
- International presence of classification societies at many ports around the world.
- Good experience and technical expertise of the classification sureties.
- Statutory regulations are built on the classification foundation class rules are a vital part of
the statutory legislation.
- A holistic approach to the constructional safety of the ship benefits from one organization
verifying compliance with both statutory and class requirements.
- IACS is the only non-governmental organization with observer status at IMO able to develop
rules. These rules implemented by its member societies are accepted by maritime
community as technical standards.
Some of the surveys entrusted to classification are
i) International load line
ii) Safety Equipment
iii) Safety construction ship safety
iv) Safety Radio

75. If a period of a statutory Certificate has just expired on your joining a
vessel in a port having inadequate survey facility, state the actions you
will take to revalidate.
Ans. If a statutory certificate has just expired and the vessel is in a port having
inadequate survey facility, then the Class or the concerned authority should be
notified immediately upon which the Class or concerned Authority will extend the
period of validity of the certificate.
Extension of Certificates:
Extension of certificates in India - In Indian waters
Whenever a vessel is in port in India with an expired statutory certificate and it is not
possible to carry out the survey due to non-availability of necessary repair facilities or
other causes, the Principal Officer concerned may permit the ship to proceed from
that port to another port of survey in India. Such extensions shall not exceed a period
of one month.
Extension of certificates abroad -
Whenever an Indian ship arrives at a port abroad and her certificate is likely to
expire, the Master shall intimate the nearest Indian Consular officer authorized to
deal with extension of certificates telegraphically giving him details of further voyage.
The Consular Officer on receipt of this information shall extend the certificate for an
adequate period to enable the vessel to return to a port in India but in no case shall
such period exceed five months. Where a vessel is not likely to return to India, the
Consular Officer may either request the local administration at that port for a survey
and issue of an appropriate certificate on behalf of the Government of India or
extend the certificate to enable the vessel to reach her next port of call where such
survey facilities are available.
All statutory certificates for cargo ships, tankers, containers, refrigerated vessels, will
be valid for a maximum period of 5 years. For passenger ships validity will be 1 year.
Ships have to follow Harmonized system of surveys and certification (HSSC).
Every six-month: De-ratting certificate. May be extended by one month. Under PSC,
ships to be considered for priority inspection.
Every Year: Annual surveys / Endorsements of all statutory certificates and class
certificates. Window period is (
3 months).
Every 30 months: Intermediate survey. Window period is (
6 months).
Every five years: Certificates to be renewed

76. A vessel having continued and repeated crosshead bearing failures of
main propulsion engine was allowed to reach the one leg of its voyage
with a Condition of Class. The condition of the said bearing is
suggested to be in more degraded condition. As a Chief Engineer,
describe the action you will initiate for successful return leg journey.

Ans. As the condition of the one of the cross head bearing has degraded further, when the condition
of class was applied chief engineer has to take a decision so as to maintain the
seaworthiness of the vessel and at the same time has to ensure that the condition
of the bearing does not degrade further.
If the vessel is on a port where classification surveyor can visit the ship, he should ask the
agent through the company to arrange for the classification surveyor to visit the vessel. He
should also forward the report of the inspection of said bearing to the classification society and
to technical superintendent of the vessel (i.e. company)
After the comments of the classification surveyor he should take the necessary step if due to
any reason classification surveyor cannot visit the ship, then he should ask the company to get
the feed back from the classification society.
Now depending on classification society comments he should do the needful if the
classification society says to use your own judgment and plan the action for the safer return
voyage then chief engineer should check with the master and if time permits and he has spare x-
head bearing shell on board, then he can plan to renew the bearing.
But before renewing the bearing he should try to find out the actual cause for the frequent
damage of the bearing. He should check the oil flow around the bearing and the condition of
lubricating oil.
He should check the x-head bearing pin for its surface finish. If only damage has been done
to the pin surface then he should decide about the renewal of the bearing. He should take the
photographs of the old bearing in place and after fitting new bearing shells to show these to the
classification surveyor. On the completion of the job he should inform the class and should
request the company to arrange for the bearing survey at the next port if not possible on the
repair port.
If commercial aspects of the vessel, non-availability of the spare x-head bearing shell,
condition of the x-head pin surface finish, does not allow for the renewal of the bearing, then to
prevent further damage to the bearing and x-head pin, he should cut off the affected unit. He
should ask the company to arrange necessary spare's and workshop if assistance required on the
next port. He should try to complete the return leg by cutting off the affected unit. He should
keep the load on the engine as per the instructions of makers operating manual and should
inform the master about RPM that will be available. When the engine is running with one unit
cutoff, normal watch should be maintained in the engine room and attention has to be paid to
the thermal stresses coming on to the engine parts and the vibration of the engine. These should
be maintained within limits by adjusting the R.P.M.
Whatever action is taken for the safer return voyage, classification society have to be
informed about that and only after the permission of the class vessel should sail out of the port.


1. Classification Societies live on their reputation. Acceptance of their technical work can only
be maintained by continuously proving integrity and competence.

2. The decisive bodies by which demand for work and therefore for the existence of the
Classification Societies is ultimately governed are National Administrations and

3. The Societies cover fields with their classification work which are theirs for historic reasons.
Recognized Classification Societies basic requirement for structural strength, and
mechanical and electrical systems have thus been made mandatory.

National Administrations delegate some of their responsibilities to Classification
Societies. However the ultimate responsibility of the ships under its flag
lies with the administration

4. Therefore the Societies shall consider all submitted information and survey reports to be
proprietary and the contents or copies shall not be made available to another party, except
as defined in the Rules of the Society required by applicable legislation court order, legal
proceedings, adherence to Flag State request, or by Owners authorization.
Any information published in the Register, including due dates of periodical surveys, are
considered public information and available to any interested parties.

5. The Societies shall honour the confidentiality provision of IACS Procedural
Requirements (and as may be amended subsequently).

78. Underline the validity of the following statements:
i) Classification body as survey societies ii) Classification society as
neutral third party
iii)Classification society as Recognised Organisation iv) Classification
society and duty of confidentiality.

Ans. Classification Societies are organisations that establish and apply technical
standards in relation to design, construction and survey of marine related facilities
including ships and offshore structures. These standards are issued by the
Classification Society as published rules. A vessel that has been designed and
built to the appropriate rules of a Society may apply for a Certificate of
Classification from that Society. The Society issues this Certificate up on
completion of relevant Classification surveys.
This Certificate is not an express warranty of safety, fitness for purpose or
seaworthiness of ship. It is an attestation only that a vessel is up to that standard.
(1) Classification Society as survey bodies :- As an independent, self
regulating body, a classification society has no commercial interests related to
ship design, ship building, ship ownership, ship operation, ship management,
ship maintenance, or repairs, insurance or chartering. In establishing its rules,
each society may draw upon the advice and review of members of the industry
who are considered experts in their field.
A ship built according to standards of a society will be assigned a class
designation by the society on satisfactory completion of relevant survey. For
ships in service, the society carries out survey to ascertain that the ship remains
in compliance with those rules. Should any defects present which affect class,
should be promptly attended to and rectified.
A ship is maintained in class provided that the relevant rules have been
complied with and surveys carried out in accordance with its rules. The surveys
normally falling under the category of class are:-
(a) Continuous Survey of Machinery, etc. A classification survey is a visual
examination that normally consists of
- An overall survey of the items for survey
- Detailed checks of selected parts
- Witnessing tests, measurements and trials where applicable.
A condition of class provision is given to owner for a specified job which is to
be carried out within specified period of time. Each classed vessel is subject
to a specified program of periodic surveys after delivery. These are based on
a 5 yr cycle and consists of annual surveys, an intermediate survey and a
class renewal/special survey(held every 5 yrs). The rigor of each specified
survey increases with the age of the vessel.
Special Surveys :- These are very strict and extensive surveys normally in dry
dock or maybe in water also. Main and auxiliary machineries are also
checked. Hull survey requires ultrasonic thickness measurements in presence
of surveyor mostly. Purpose is to assess whether the structural integrity
remains effective and to identify areas that exhibit substantial corrosion,
significant deformation, fractures, damages or other structural deterioration.
Depending upon size and type of vessel it may take several weeks to
The Intermediate Survey :- It is held halfway approximately between special
surveys. Ultrasonic thickness gauging is done to find out whether plates are
within limits, where necessary surveyor attends gauging.
Annual Survey :- Ship is generally examined. The survey includes an external,
general inspection of the hull, equipment and machinery of ship and some
witnessing of tests; so far as is necessary and practical in order to determine
whether the ship remained in a general condition which satisfies the rule
requirements. Older ships of certain types may also be subject to a general
examination of some internal areas of the hull. It generally takes several hours
to a few days.
(2) Classification Society as neutral third party :- The responsibility of safe
operation of a ship lies squarely with the ship owner. If a vessel is to operate
successfully, it is necessary to demonstrate that it is being maintained
properly and is fit for its intended purpose from the perspective of insurers,
cargo shippers, administrative authorities and other parties. Ship owners own
declaration of condition of ship may not be acceptable to insurers and cargo
interests. Knowing that the insurer or other third parties may not be in
agreement with his above assurance, the owner often engages a
classification society to survey and class the ship. The classification society,
as an independent neutral third party with broad technical knowledge and
expertise in naval architecture and shipbuilding, confirms or declines to
confirm the acceptable condition of the ship according to classification society
(3) Classification Societies as Recognised Organisation :- United Nations
convention on the law of the sea has empowered all contracting governments
to exercise its jurisdiction and control in administrative, technical and social
matters over ships flying its flag. Such measures are necessary to ensure
safety at sea. That is why UNCLOS is also termed as UMBRELLA
CONVENTION giving shelter to all other IMO conventions.
SOLAS Chapter II-1, Reg 3-1 states that, in addition to the requirements of
the other SOLAS regulations; ships shall be designed, constructed and
maintained in compliance with the structural, mechanical and electrical
requirements of a classification society which is recognised by the
Administration in accordance with the provisions of regulation XI-1 or with
applicable national standards of the administration which provide an
equivalent level of safety.
Where the classification survey is taken as evidence of compliance with
flag state; administration immediately issues a statutory certificate. And if a
ship is served a Condition of Class or suspension, immediately administration
withdraws its statutory certificate concerning construction and equipment i.e.
SAFCON and SEQ certificates.
Conclusively, SOLAS and other international conventions permit the flag
state to delegate the inspection and surveys of ships to a Recognised
Organisation(RO). IMO resolutions A739(18) lays down minimum standards
for ROs. fundamentally it requires their competence(technical) on the basis of
ethical behaviour. IACS (International Association of Classification Societies)
members have been found to meet criteria for Resolution A739(18) by all the
administrations(approx.100) that are parties to SOLAS.
(4) Classification Society and duty of confidentiality :- Classification Societies
have recently supported to disclose class information. In addition to disclosing
information when required to do so by law, they readily disclose information
when providers/owners give consent to do so. They provide details of the due
dates of surveys and status of ships under class. According to IACS,
societies are not in a position to disclose all information provided by clients.
IACS says such calls for transparency should be directed et the parties who
provide such information to class that is ship owners, ship builders,
manufacturers and others. If the consent of these parties is obtained, there
would be no resistance whatsoever on the part of class to the disclosure of
such information.

79. As a Chief Engineer on a fully loaded ship you are stranded in an island
near UK coast having no survey facility where the forepeak of the vessel
is severely damaged. Explain your reciprocatory actions with reasons
and the procedures to be adopted for making a safe return voyage to

Ans: Under such a condition the master of the vessel should inform the class. Each
classification society has got an emergency cell for such accidental incident. Like
NKK has ETAS (Emergency Technical Assistance Services) and Lloyds has Ship
Emergency Response Services. This cell of the class should be contacted and a
reciprocatory actions established accordingly.
The companys emergency code procedures contain checklist of actions to be
taken in case of grounding or stranding. Master or chief engineer should take
action based on structured approach such as contingency plan.
A prompt re-floating is critical to reduce risks to the environment and to the
structural integrity of the vessel. P&I clubs recognise the urgency attached to
their emergency situation and protect an owner against the financial
consequences associated with the need for the master to make decisions without
the benefit of cost estimates. Master should not delay his decision in asking for
outside help to re-float the vessel.
In case of stranding, attempts should not be made to re-float the ship under
her own power if wind and sea conditions indicate the possibility of ship working
harder aground, pounding or breaching to sea. Anchors to seaward should be
quickly laid if possible to prevent the ship from washing further ashore. Ship
should be weighed down and not alighted in an effort to help keep the ship from
working harder on the beach and secondly to prevent damage caused by working
and pounding ship on the bottom.
In consultation with the emergency technical assistance service or class,
repair for the damaged fore peak tank should be carried out for surveyor in the
next port. Keep record of all the inspections and work carried out including
photographs wherever possible. The diver will go in and assess the extent of
damage. If the extent of damage is such that it affects the seaworthiness of the
ship, then with the temporary repairs she should sail to nearest port (or ask for
the use of tugs to tow the ship to the nearest port if necessary) of refuge for
further and permanent repairs. If class allows ship to sail in such conditions to
India with temporary repairs then chief engineer should take under mentioned
DB tanks to be kept filled at all times, ships draft should be monitored, shaft
generators should not be used, low sea chest to be used, engine room to be
manned, regular tank soundings to be taken, regular checks of affected area by
senior officers, etc.,
To return to India the safest route shall be via Gibraltar so the draft must be
adjusted accordingly. Isolate all the electrical power to forward like IPCC,
windlass, lighting etc. In some ships fresh water tanks are in the forward. In that
case all the fresh water will have been lost so FWG is to be run continuously
(control water supply if need be). The engine speed must be adjusted so as to
keep the scavenge pressure minimum because blower may not be rated to run
continuously. Engine must be run 75% MCR maximum.

World Scene

There are many international Conventions in force or waiting to come into force today. And yet,
ships are often found not fully complying with the requirements in the Conventions. Flag State control is identified
as inadequate in many instances causing the problem. As a result, the international community is prompted to
carry out Port State Control (PSC) inspections to alleviate the problem but realizing that PSC regime is an
imperfect test. The ultimate solution should come from proper flag State implementation.

Reasons for Changes Made to the Hong Kong Shipping Register

Hong Kong is a responsible flag administration. She had inherited the British practices in dealing with registration
and ship inspection. The general attitude in MD was one of strict regulation
enforcement with customer convenience coming second. This attitude was not helpful in attracting new tonnage
to the register.

As a Flag State, Hong Kong always ensures that ships registered with the register are meeting
international standards and the RO's, who are delegated with the powers, are carrying out their work
satisfactorily. Some statutory inspections were carried out by MD(Marine Department) which served to monitor
the work of ROs and to ensure the safety standards of the ships. Inspections carried out by MD were more costly
than ROs. Technically speaking, these inspections duplicated the work of ROs at the expense of the ship-
owners. Ways had to be found to reduce the cost to ship-owners while adhering to our international obligations.

The objective of maintaining the Hong Kong register is not to obtain financial gain for the Hong
Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) Government through the registration service but to
enhance the status of Hong Kong as an international maritime centre and the consequent economic benefits
arising from being such a centre.

Hong Kong Shipping Register

It was realised that the traditional ship inspection schemes followed by all advanced maritime
administrations were costly and user unfriendly.

The Hong Kong Shipping Register reformed its operation based on the total flag State quality
control philosophy. A scheme known as the Flag State Quality Control (FSQC) System was developed under the
philosophy. Quality ships are believed to be the products of the hard work of four parties, namely, crew, ship-
owners, ROs and the flag administration. The main elements of the scheme are:
* The flag State should take the responsibilities in ensuring the safety of its ships.
* All inspection and certification functions should be delegated to ROs to minimize flag State interference on the
efficient operation of the vessels.
* Monitoring can be carried out through the information from ROs, Port State Control inspections, casualties etc.
The information is analysed to identify ships which qualities are declining.
* After the analysis, the bottom 10% of ships and their operating companies will be identified and selected for
inspections (FSQC inspections) by MD. However the cost of such inspections will not be passed on to the ship-
owners but absorbed by the revenue generated by the HKSR.
* FSQC inspections will concentrate on management deficiencies rather than
rectification of the technical deficiencies found.
* Reports of FSQC inspections will be sent to the relevant ship operators and ROs and
meetings held with them to discuss the findings and for the remedial actions.

The implementation of the FSQC System has made it possible to monitor the performance of
the ships, recognized organisations (ROs) and ship management companies better. The ability to
select ships and inspect them on our own accord has made it possible to assess the true quality of
ships. The performance of both the ships, ROs and ship management companies can be assessed
more accurately than in the previous practice of inspecting all ships at regular intervals.

80. What is meant by FSQC ? How this is maintained by classification
bodies ? Explain the area of related services as offered by classification
bodies in case of (i) Towing voyage inspection (ii) Equipment approval

World Scene
There are many international conventions in force or waiting to come in to force
today. And yet, ships are often found not fully complying with the requirements in the
conventions. Flag state control is identified as inadequate in many instances causing
the problem. As a result, the international community is prompted to carry out Port
State Control (PSC) inspections to alleviate the problem but realizing that PSC
regime is an imperfect test. The ultimate solution should come from proper flag state
Reasons for changes made to the Hongkong Shipping Register :-
Hongkong is a responsible flag administration. She had inherited the British
practices in dealing with registration & ship inspection
The FSQC system is introduce in 1999 & is a systematic & interactive system. It
stresses on assuring that ship management company discharges its responsibilities
properly and that recognised organisation carries out effective & decent surveys as
well as audits on Hongkong registered ships. The FSQC system is supported by a
computer based information system to monitor the quality of Hongkong registered
system. With the information collected & analysed, a ship being suspected of
undesirable conditions will be identified & selected for a flag state inspection.
All FSQC ship inspections & company audits are free of charge initially but the ship
owner will be charged if re-occurrence happened. If a HK registered ship is detained
abroad with serious deficiencies under PSC inspection or subjected to a serious
accident, the Director of Marine may request a special inspection of the ship by a
Marine Departments surveyor. If deemed necessary, the safety management of the
company may also be audited to verify compliance with ISM code. A fee will also be
charged for such ship inspections & company audits.
Recognised Organisations:-
Under the FSQC system, the Marine department will not be directly involved in the
surveys & issue relevant certificates to HK registered cargo ships except when
requested by the ship owners. The following Classification Societies are authorised
to carry out statutory surveys & issue related certificates on behalf of the flag
- American Bureau of Shipping
- Bureau Veritas
- China Classification Society
- Det Norske Veritas
- Germanischer Lloyd
- Korean Register of Shipping
- Llyods Register
- Nippon Kaiji Kyokai
- Registro Italiano Navale (RINA)
Surveyors of the Classification Societies also provide the following services:-
1) Type-Rating of officers manning gigh speed crafts
2) Assessment of failure mode & effect analysis (FMEA) for high speed craft
3) Towing Voyage Inspection
4) Assessment & issue of minimum safe manning certificate
5) Equipment Approval
Towing Voyage Inspection:-
This includes inspection:-
1) in all respect capable of maintaining safe control over the oil barge in all
foreseeable conditions during the intended voyage, &
2) the towing equipment, including towline, winches, tow hook, chains, bridles,
shackles & associated gear, is in all respects adequate for the intended
operation & is maintained to a high standard of reliability.
3) that the towing vessel is properly equipped to pick up the floating
messenger line from the sea, & to haul aboard & properly secure the
emergency towline, &
4) that all gear provided is compatible, one part with another.
5) All vessels engaged in towing operations and in navigating to comply with
6) When a manned tow is planned, National Administration must be consulted
and itll be necessary to comply with Statutory safety requirements including
those for life-saving, fire appliances & radio
7) Route to be followed by tow is to be planned taking into account factors
such as weather, tidal streams & currents, the size, shape and weight of the
tow and the navigational hazards to be avoided. Careful consideration is to
be given to the number of towing vessels to be employed
8) There is to be contingency planning to cover the onset of bad weather
particularly in respect of arrangements for heaving to or taking shelter.
9) The towing arrangements are to be suitable for the particular tow and the
towing gear is to be adequate & of suitable strength
10) The towing operation is to be in the care of a competent tow master. Other
towing personnel are to be suitably experienced & sufficient in number
11) Wherever practicable, secondary or emergency towing arrangements are to
be fitted on board the tow so as to be easily recoverable by the towing
vessel in the event of a breakage of the prime towing wire or ancillary
12) The tow must exhibit proper navigation lights and shapes and if manned,
make proper sound signals as set out by Colreg, 1972, as amended.
Similarly towing vessel must also exhibit proper navigational lights & sound
The durability/reliability of the lights to function for long unattended
periods should be considered. It is desirable to provide lights in duplicate
13) Prior sailing, watertight integrity of the tow should be assured by an
inspection of the closing arrangements for all hatches, valves, air pipes, and
any other openings through which water might enter the hull.
The tow should be at suitable draft for the intended passage. Where
the tow is manned, there should be adequate arrangements for ballasting it
to a condition in which itll survive bad weather.
14) The securing arrangements for the cargo and stores carried on the tow are
to be carefully examined to ensure that they are adequate for the duration of
passage, especially on an unmanned tow. The deck cargo should be so
stowed as to provide the tow with adequate stability.
15) Where appropriate the rudder is to be secured in the amidships position &
measures to be taken to prevent the propeller shaft turning
16) Life saving appliances in the form of life jackets & life buoys must be
provided whenever personnel are on board the tow even if only for short
17) To minimize risk of pollution, the amount of oil carried on tow should be
limited to what is required for the safety of the tow & its normal operations.
18) Before departure, the towing vessel and tow, and the towage and stowage
arrangements are to be inspected by the tow master and another competent
person who are to agree that everything is satisfactory
19) Where tow presents a potential hazard to shipping, off-shore structures or
marine environment, the accompanying towing vessel should immediately
take steps to broadcast an urgency signal
Equipment Approval:-
Certain equipment & materials not required by regulation to be approved may be
accepted by the commandant for use aboard inspected vessels, uninspected
vessels, & boats after certain control actions have been taken. Unlike approved
equipment & materials, accepted items are not normally published in the Federal
Register. However, they are listed in Equipment Lists & in the proceedings of the
Marine Safety Council. E.g. valves, fittings, flanges can be accepted on an affidavit
basis if certain regulatory requirements are met. Welding filler metals, elect.
equipment, ships stores & supplies to be of approved type. Each item approved is
assigned a basic approval number. This includes the number of the CFR subpart
under which an item was approved, thus identifying the general requirements for its
e.g. a) Approval of Equipment & Materials (General) 46 CFR Part 159
Certification & Approvals:-
Manufacturers of items considered satisfactory for the purpose(s) intended are
issued an approval certificate by the CS Notice of the approval & the items approval
no. are published in the Federal Register & Equipment Lists. The approval number
applies only to an item that is manufactured in accordance with approved plans,
specifications, or other data submitted during the approval process. An item that is
manufactured with changes in design, or with materials that are not previously
approved by the CS, is not approved under the approved number listed for a
particular item.

81. What are the principle functions conducted by a classification body
towards survey/ management of high-speed crafts? In which way these
surveys differ from conventional ship surveys?

Ans) Traditionally, ships have been built of steel and with minimum of operational
controls. The requirements for ships engaged on long international voyages are
therefore framed in such a way that providing the ship is presented for survey and a
ship safety certificate is issued, the ship may go anywhere in the world without any
operational restrictions being imposed.
The traditional method of regulating ships should not be accepted as being only
possible way of providing an appropriate level of safety. Numerous new designs
have been developed and have been in provide demonstrating their ability to
operate at an equivalent level of safety when engaged in restricted voyages under
restricted operational weather conditions and with approved maintenance and
supervision schedules.
High Speed Craft Code (HSC Code) 1994, means the International Code of Safety for
High Speed Craft was derived from the code of Safety for dynamically supported
Crafts (DSC Code) adopted in 1977, recognizing that safety levels can be
significantly enhanced by the infrastructure associated with regular service on a
particular route.
The safety philosophy of this code is based on the management and reduction of
risks as well as the traditional philosophy of passive protection in the event of an
accident. Risk management through accommodation arrangement active safety
systems, restricted operation. Quality management and human factors engineering
should be considered in evaluating safety equivalent to current conventions
applications of mathematical analysis should be encouraged to assess risk and
determine the validity of safety measures.
Failure Mode Effects Analysis (FMEA)
Analysis of failure performance is used to assess the safety operations of HSCs
FMEA fot HSC is based on a single failure concept under which each system at
various levels, a systems functional hierarchy is assumed to fail by one probable
cause at a time.
The effects of postulated failures are analysed and classified according to their
severity. Any failure mode which may cause a catastrophic effect to the craft shall be
guarded against by system or equipment redundancy unless the occurrence of such
probable failure is extremely improbable. Results of FMEA are to be implemented
while designing and manufacturing the craft.
The HSC is of light displacement compared with conventional ship. The advantages
are high reserve buoyancy reducing the hazards addressed by ILL, 1966 height
displacement is required for higher speeds which necessitate the use of non-
conventional ship building materials
I) All craft classed with the society are to be subjected to the following periodical
a) Annual Surveys
b) Intermediate Surveys
c) Special Surveys
d) Propeller shaft and stern tube shaft surveys.

II) All craft classed with the society are to be subjected to planned machinery
III) All examinations and tests in accordance with the requirements in this chapter
are to be carried out to the satisfaction of the surveyor

Docking : For periodical surveys, Annual, Intermediate or special surveys the craft is
to be dry docked or placed on blocks of sufficient height and proper stagring except
where-in-water surveys is requested by the owner and approved by the society and
substitution for surveys in dry docks or on shipways. Any consecutive in water
survey is not accepted.
Propulsion Systems: HSCs are normally shallow draft crafts water jet propulsion is
widely used in such crafts.
The HSC requires the following rules:
a) the craft will take a proper step, for e.g., refuge or declaration when the craft
runs into a sudden storm.
b) the craft will at all times be in reasonable proximity to a place of refuge
c) adequate communication facilities, weather forecasts and maintenance
facilities are available within the area of operation.
d) in the intended areas of operation, there will be suitable rescue facilities
readily available.
e) the stability requirements are framed for craft having appropriate stability in all
conceivable conditions. Special attention is o be paid to the stability by the
builders in design and construction stage and by the craft owners and craft
masters while in service.

Classification society are neutral third party survey organization under taking ship survey in support
of insurers. The societies are the primary means by which the shipping industry
regulates itself and verifies the maintenance of ship safety. Classification society
establish and apply technical requirements for the design, construction and survey of
marine related facilities. The requirements are published as classification rules.
SOLAS and other International conventions permit the flag administration to delegate
inspection and survey of ships to classification society. Thus a classification society
becomes a recognized organization by the flag state. When issuing or endorsing
statutory certificate on behalf of the flag administration verify that the condition of ship
confirms with relevant rules and regulations of the flag state (i.e.) it performs a
Governmental function). However, it needs to be clearly understood that the primary
objective of a classification society is to undertake ship survey in accordance with the
class rules.
Maintenance of class depends on the program of periodical Hull and machinery surveys,
being carried out within stipulated periods. Survey programmes comprise of special,
annual and Intermediate surveys.
Classification societies however, are private entities and class surveyors are not a
substitute for governmental officials who have enforcement powers.
1. Special Surveys : Special surveys of hull and machinery are carried out at 5 yearly
intervals in order to establish the condition of hull structure / machinery respectively, to
confirm that the same is in accordance with the class requirements. Special surveys are
intended to detect possible damages and establish that extent of any deterioration
following satisfactory completion of special surveys, a new certificate of class is issued
by the society.
2. Annual Survey : Must be carried-out 3 months before or after each anniversary date of
completion, commissioning or special survey in order to confirm that the general
condition of the vessel is maintained at a satisfactory level. following satisfactory
completion of annual survey, the certificate of class is endorsed by the class surveyor.
3. Intermediate surveys : are carried out on all ships, instead of either second or third
annual survey.
4. Docking Surveys : Docking surveys are carried-out by arrangement with owners ships
under 15 years old must be examined in dry dock twice in any 5 year period, not more
than 3 years may elapse between docking ships with 15 or more years old, must be
examined in dry dock at 2 yearly intervals with extension to 2 1/2 years, when suitable
high resistance paint is applied to the underwater portion of the hull.
5. Continuous Surveys : Continuous survey of hull are permitted on all ships other than
bulk carriers, combination carriers and oil tankers, which are now subjected to enhanced
surveys. All hull compartments are to be opened up for survey and testing in rotation
with 5 years interval between examination of each part.
6. Continuous survey of machinery : are carried-out every 5 years, with parallel
arrangement as for the hull.
7. C/E's examination of Machinery : May be made where the society agrees to some items
of machinery being examined by the Chief Engineer at ports where the society is not
represented or where practicable at sea. A limited confirmatory survey is carried out at
the next post where the society surveyor is available. Where an approved planned
maintenance system operates.
Confirmatory surveys may be held at annual intervals.
8. In-water surveys : May be accepted in line of one of the two docking surveys required
every the information, normally obtained from docking surveys. The beam must be
greater than 30m (or as agreed) and a suitable high resistance paint must have been
applied to the under water portion of the hull.
9. I. G. System Survey : Annual survey. In addition, on ship to which IGS notation has been
assigned, a special survey of the IG plant must be carried out every 5 years.

While the authority to carry-out statutory surveys and inspections on behalf of flag
administration may be delegated to the RO, the powers of enforcement of R.O. are
limited when required repairs or corrective actions are not carried out or a survey is not
passed satisfactorily, R.O.'s do not have the powers need to detain the ship. At the most
R.O. can withdraw the statutory certificates or declare them invalid, and notify the ships
flag state and the port state where vessel happens to be located for further action.
Also, classification societies are not guarantors of safety of life at sea or the
seaworthiness of vessel because classification society has no control over how a vessel is
operated and maintained in between the periodic surveys which it conducts. Therefore,
responsible ship owners employ highly qualified superintendents, carry out vessels
maintenance on a regular basis and ensure that their ships undergo all class surveys and
retain class.

83. Differentiate between statutory, classification and regulatory surveys.
List under these categories the surveys which are to be conducted (i)
every six months (ii) every year (iii) every thirty months (iv) every four
years & (v) every five years.

Ans. STATUTORY:- Surveys/Certificates issued are those which must comply with
the law. The flag state lays down the rules/regulations as how the ships must be
built/equipped with regard to structure, equipment and machinery. Those rules in
various flag states are similar to each other as they have been based on IMO
Conventions. These are carried out by a government surveyor or as authorised
by the govt./administration to Classification Societies.
CLASSIFICATION: Classification Society may be defined as an independent
third party body which develops and updates adequate published rules,
regulations and standards for the safe design, construction and periodical
maintenance of ships which are capable of trading internationally. Though Class
has no legal status, a vessel must be in Class at all times so that it is covered for
employment and insurance. As they work in interest of ship owner, their fee and
expenses are paid for every visit on ship. Classification Societies recommend
that periodical surveys for the issue of Statutory Certificate be carried out
concurrently with the Classification Special Survey so that anniversary dates of
both Statutory and Classification Certification coincide.
REGULATORY: Regulatory Surveys are those which are required by Class,
various conventions etc., and are necessary to be complied and fulfilled with.
Harmonized Survey and Certification System is planned to operate for SOLAS
and LOAD LINE Convention surveys.
OWNERS & SHIPS RESPONSIBILITIES: To maintain validity of any SOLAS
or MARPOL certificate the owner and master must ensure that the vessel and its
equipment are properly maintained. No material changes are made to the vessel
after survey without notifying the flag state. Any accident or defect is reported to
the flag state or authorised Classification Society (any of whom may decide
whether a survey is needed)
STATUTORY SURVEYS: They include the following types of surveys and
5) Initial survey
6) Mandatory annual surveys
7) Intermediate surveys
8) Periodical surveys
9) Additional surveys and General inspections.
They do not include:
- Cargo hold or tank surveys other than statutory
inspections of hazardous cargoes or their stowage
arrangements etc.
- Draft Surveys
- Application for survey should be made to the flag state
by the owner or manager well before the survey is due.
- Records of survey of ship are enclosed by the surveyor
on the appropriate certificate stating that as completion
of the surveys the ships complied with the relevant
provisions of the appropriate regulation.
Initial Survey: This is a detailed examination including tests when
required of a ship and its equipment in accordance with the provisions of the
appropriate convention or other instrument to enable the relevant certificates to
be issued for the first time. Typically the survey will include a complete
examination of the structure, equipment, systems, fittings, arrangements and
ships materials.
Intermediate Survey(every 30 months): This is an examination of the
ship and its equipment at specified periods between periodical surveys. An
intermediate survey in respect of a 5 year certificate is normally held within 6
months either side of midpoint of the validity period of the CERTIFICATE i.e.
between 24 months and 36 months. This allows the intermediate survey to
coincide with due date of either the second or third mandatory annual survey,
which reduces the survey burden on owners. Ends of Falls used in lifeboat davit
must be turned at intervals of 30 months.
Mandatory Annual Survey(every year): This is an annual general
examination of a ship and its equipment. It may include operational tests of the
ships systems and equipments to the extent necessary to confirm that the ship
and its equipment remain satisfactory for the service for which the ship is
intended. Normally an annual survey is required within 3 months before or after
the anniversary date of the relevant CERTIFICATE i.e. between 21 months and
27 months.
Periodical Survey : This is a survey which will be carried out at a
maximum of 5 years from the date of completion of the initial or last periodical
survey. For passenger ships it will be 12 months.
Periodical Inspection : This is a general examination under the Load Line
Convention of the ship to ensure that no alteration has been made and that
routine maintenance has been carried out. It is equivalent to an annual survey.
Additional Survey : This is a survey either general or partial after repair
resulting from an investigation or whenever any repairs or renewals are made
which materially affect the safety and condition of the ship. The survey ensures
that the repairs or renewals has been effectively made, that the materials or
workmanship are satisfactory and that the ship is fit to proceed to sea without
presenting an unreasonable threat or harm to safety or the marine environment.
HSSC : Amendments to SOLAS, MARPOL & LOAD LINE have allowed for
Harmonisation of Surveys and Certification required by these conventions
permitting all SOLAS Certificates other than the passenger ship safety certificate
to become 5-year certificates like MARPOL & LOAD LINE Certificate.
Special Surveys : By Classification special surveys of the hull are carried
out at 5-yearly intervals, in order to establish the condition of the hull structure; to
confirm that the structural integrity is satisfactory in accordance with the Class
requirement and will remain fit for its intended purpose until the next spl. survey
subject to proper maintenance and operation. Spl. surveys of machinery are
carried out at the same intervals, periodic inspection of Falls used in launching
(LSA) and their renewal at intervals of not more than 4 years.
Every Six Months : Article 53 of International Health Regulation (IHR)
provides that every ship must be, either permanently kept in such a condition that
it is free of rodents and plague-free or periodically de-ratted. A de-ratting
certificate or re-ratting exemption certificate will be issued by Health Authority for
a port approved for that purpose under article 17. This certificate will be valid for
6 months.
Every Year :
6) Annual Surveys : Endorsement of all Statutory certificates and Class
Window Period -- 3 months
Issuing Authority ADMN/CLASS on behalf
7) Renewals of Regulatory Certificates such as Medical Chest Locker,
Annual Cargo Gear inspection etc.
Issuing Authority As authorised by IMO/Flag State.
Every Thirty Months :
Window Period 6 months
Authority Admin/Class on behalf
Scope of survey As per rules
Validity Up to 8 years every 30 months
After 8 years every year
Issuing Authority Classification
Scope As per rules
Validity Every 30 months
Issuing Authority Classification
Scope As per rules
Every Five Years :
(i) Load Line Certificate (1966) LL Convention, Art 16, 1988 LL Protocol
Art 18
Issuing Authority Administration
Scope of Survey Covers watertight integrity of vessel which includes
all openings on deck, hatch covers, watertight doors, etc.
(j) Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate (SAFCON) SOLAS 1974,
Reg I/12 as amended by GMDSS amendments 1998, SOLAS Protocol,
Reg I/12
Issuing Authority Administration
Scope of Survey Construction of hull, special survey and CSM
without and COC. Class will recommend to Administration to issue
SAFCON. In this memo last bottom survey (DRYDOCK) which is not
older than 3 months is included.
(k) IOPP CERTIFICATE MARPOL 73/78, Annex I, Reg 5
Issuing Authority Administration
Scope of Survey :
1) Oily Bilge Separator Operation
2) Sludge Tank Operation and Outlet Connection
3) Oil Record Book inspection
4) ODMCS Operation (for tankers)
5) Cargo Record book
Issuing Authority Administration
Scope of Survey: As per Reg 4; survey shall cover complete survey
of its structure, equipment, systems, fittings, arrangements and
(e) DOC (OFFICE) SOLAS 74, Reg IX/4, ISM Code, Para 13
Issuing Authority Administration
Certified by Initial Audit; Annually audited by Company HO
(f) SMC (Ship) SOLAS 74, Reg IX/4, ISM Code, Para 13
Issuing Authority Administration
Initial Audit is carried out before issue of SMC (interim). After 3
months operation of SMS on board/office , the SMC is issued and
window period for intermediate audit is 6 months
(g) ISSC SOLAS 74(2002 Amendments)Reg XI -2/ 9.H;ISPS Code
Part A Section19
Issuing Authority Administration/ R.O. on behalf
Scope : Security Audit as per ISPS Code
Cargo Ship Safety Certificate in lieu of SAFCON, SEQ & SR
1988 SOLAS Protocol Reg 1/1 (2000
Issuing Authority Administration
Passenger Ship Safety Certificate SOLAS 74, Reg I/12 as
amended by GMDSS
amendment, 1988 SOLAS
Protocol, Reg I/12
(2000 amendments)
SPL Trade Passenger Ship Safety Certificate STP 71, Rule 5
SPL Trade Passenger Ship Space Certificate SSTP 73, Rule 5
Issuing Authority Administration
(j) IAPP CERTIFICATE MARPOL 73/78, Annex VI, Reg 6
Issuing Authority Administration
Scope Reg 5, Annex VI
(k) CHEMICAL TANKERS MARPOL 73/78 Annex II Reg 11/12A
Noxious Liquid Substance Certificate
Issuing Authority Administration
Scope Reg 8 of Annex II, MARPOL 73/78
(l) BOTTOM SURVEY (DRYDOCK) 2 times within 5 year period.
Issuing Authority Classification Society
The interval between two successive dry dockings not to exceed 3
Scope Bottom inspection & steel renewals, sea suction/discharge
valves, storm valves, rudder pintle clearance, propeller inspection,
anchor chain calibration, hull cleaning & painting.
Issuing Authority Classification Society
Scope inspection to inspect any corrosion hair line cracks, lignum
vitae or oil cooled stern tube condition 3 years/5 years respectively
and 7 years for monitored oil lubricated stern tube.
Issuing Authority Classification Society / Dock Safety Manager
Scope Load testing of cranes or derricks and inspection of
Issuing Authority Classification Society
Scope Renewal survey in 5
year of validity. It includes :
1) dry dock bottom survey 2)closed inspection of hull
internal parts, hold, cargo tanks, db tanks, tests. 3)as per
thickness gauging as required under the rules. All hull
equipment items. 4)CSM cycle to be completed with no
(p) CSM Survey of all m/c in e/r, steering pumps and rams,
windlass, mooring
winch m/c, all m/c items to be examined in dismantled
Issuing Authority Classification Society
Scope Ship Type Notation, survey during construction notation. It
Vessel is fully safe for navigation / propulsion / steering.

84. Document File is a vital tool required during survey. Briefly explain its
purpose, containment and support documentation. What is the process
of identifying a survey in the Document File

Ans. A document file is prepared for the survey or before survey to enable quick
access to all documents available to the surveyor to carry out the tasks. It saves
valuable time of ship as well as surveyor the loss to the owner is minimum. Also it
helps shipboard personnel to know what all things are involved during the survey.
Generally a questionnaire as regards to the requirements of documentation will be
sent on board before considerable time, so that ships crew can arrange accordingly
beforehand and last minute running can be avoided.
The following documents kept on board are to be presented to the attending
surveyor prior to the surveys:
1. Certificates
a) Certificate of Class
b) Registration Certificate
c) Statutory Certificates
- Cargo ship safety construction certificate
- Cargo ship safety equipment certificate
- Cargo ship safety radio certificate
- International Load line Certificate
- International Pollution Prevention certificate
- IMO fitness certificate
d) Condition Evaluation report (Executive hull survey)
e) Cargo gear booklet
2. Survey record files
a) Black file (for class survey record)
b) Blue file (for statutory survey record of ships other than Japanese flag
c) Green file (for condition evaluation report of ships to which ESP has
been applied.
3. Finished plan of hull, machinery and equipment, approved manuals and
documents (loading manual, stability information etc.)
4. Service records/maintenance records.
a) Hull thickness measurement record
b) Periodical inspection table for automatic and remote control system.
c) Insulation resistance test record
d) Chief engineers report for continuous machinery survey
e) Others
5. Enhanced survey programme (ESP)
a) Condition evaluation report (Executive hull survey)
b) Main structural plans of hull
c) Cargo and ballast history
d) Repair history
e) Thickness measurement reports
f) Survey programme
g) Planning document
h) Inspection report by ship staff with reference to
- Structural deterioration in general
- Leakage in bulkheads and pipings
- Condition of coating and/or corrosion prevention systems if
- Record of use of IGS and COW system (if provided in oil
The surveys are to be identified in a document file because the survey
can be done on behalf of classification society to maintain class, a survey can be
done by classification society on behalf of administration of flag state for statutory
certificates or a survey can be done by classification society on behalf of the flag
state to which the owner is a nationality. In such cases, if the surveys are clearly
class coded, then it becomes very convenient to distinguish in the document and
need not go through again if it is not required.

85. During inspection of propellers in the dry dock, a surface crack has
been noticed on one of the blades. State the steps taking by you as chief
engineer for successful handling of the situation. Also if some surface
cracks are noticed on the keyway of a tail-end shaft, state the steps
taken by you for tackling the problem.

Ans. Surface cracks have been noticed on one of the propeller blades:-
As soon as a crack has been observed on the propeller blade, the head
office as well as the Classification Society must be notified. The services of a
propeller expert would also be needed in certain cases.
Cracks on a propeller surface may be due to:-
19) Physical damage
20) Faults during casting
Physical Damage:- These types of cracks generally occur on the tips and the
leading edge of the propeller. Pitting may occur near the tips on the driving face
and on the whole of the fore side due to cavitation. Propeller blades are
sometimes damaged by floating debris which is drawn into the propeller stream.
Such damage must be made good as it reduces the propeller efficiency, while the
performance is improved by polishing the blade surface. If a built propeller is
fitted, it is necessary to ensure that the blades are tight and the pitch should be
checked at the same time. Small surface cracks can be ground out. Cracks at the
blade tips may require the cropping of the blade section. If this is carried out, a
matching section on the opposite blade would also have to be cropped in order to
maintain balance. Since thrust developed by such a cropped propeller would be
reduced, the main engine rpm will have to be adjusted to compensate for the
loss. All actions must be taken in consultation with the classification society and
propeller experts. It must be noted that most classification societies do not permit
any welding on the propeller as heat treatment and annealing is an extremely
complicated process. Therefore in extreme cases of cracks, it may be necessary
to replace the entire propeller
Cracks due to Faulty Casting:- These are extremely small cracks of the order
of length 3mm and depth 1mm. the region of the blade most prone to such cracks
are within o.2 0.4 of the radius of the propeller. These cracks are extremely
difficult to spot when the propeller is stationery. The cracks only open when the
propeller develops thrust in operation due to the bending moment induced. The
only lasting solution to such a faulty fabricated propeller is to change it with a new
Surface cracks on the keyway of a tail-end shaft:- The area of the cracks
is to be inspected visually as well as ultrasonically (or with dye penetrant) to
detect all the cracks. Causes of this are quoted as inadequate force fit between
propeller and tailshaft causing loss of peripheral grip which allows propeller to
move and make contact with key. This causes excessive dynamic load to fall on
key and shaft adjacent to keyway. This causes incipient cracks (small and
superficial) which usually begin at high stress concentration areas i.e. around the
leading edge of the keyway. Fatigue failures may occur due to corrosion and
temperature variations in seawater, altering the force fits.
The key is also to be inspected for any damage. Also the dimensions of the
key must be accurately measured to ensure no play is present between key and
keyway. Abrupt changes of shape of section cause stress concentration to build
up due to interruption of the stress flow lines. This build up in stress causes
cracks to develop and supports crack propagation. With this in mind it can be
seen that shapes or sections which may be subject to great stresses; should be
well rounded or gradually tapered off to give smooth stress flow.
Round end keys should be used, and the keyway in propeller boss and
cone of the tailshaft are to be provided with a smooth fillet at bottom of keyways,
fillet radius at least 0.0125 of shaft diameter at top of cone. Sharp edges at top of
keyway to be removed. Two screw pins should secure key in keyway and forward
pin should be at least of key length from forward end. Pin holes should have a
depth not exceeding pin diameter. Hole edges to be bevelled.

The cracks in the keyway can be ground depending on the depth of the
cracks. Large cracks would require welding and machining. Welding will only be
carried out after appropriate heat treatment and annealing. The annealing period
required for a tail end shaft of a large ship may extend up to 7 days. It must be
noted that, in a tailshaft with key and keyed propeller, the thrust of the propeller is
not absorbed by the key but by the shrink fit between propeller hub and shaft.
Therefore cracks in the keyway of the tail end shaft do not pose as much a
problem as cracks on the shaft itself or cracks on the propeller

86. Foreign going vessels are required to possess a valid safety equipment
certificate renewed at intervals after survey of safety equipment.
Compile a list of items that are contained in the safety equipment
survey. From the above list, select two ship systems, explain how they
would be examined and identify possible defects.

Ans) Safety equipment Certificate: Issued by P.O. of MMD. Issued under sec 300(1)
of M.S. Act 1958 surveyed as per M.S. (L.S.A) rule 1982. M.S. (fire appliance) rules
1969 as amended in 1977 M.S. (Prevention of collision at sea) regulation 1975 and
amended 1983 to SOLAS 1974.
Validity: 2 yrs subjected to annual mandatory survey. Basically deals with
maintenance of the LSAs FFAs emergency equipment like emergency fore P/P etc.
the equipments contained in safety equipment survey are:
1. Alarm and shut down testing
2. quick closing valves
3. engines trips
4. telephone/talkleacks
5. fixed fire detection system and auto . System
6. emergency fire pump
7. emergency air compressor
8. emergency generator/auto start
9. portable safety equipments
10. fixed safety equipments
11. fire flaps
12. electrical emergency stops
13. remote valve operation
14. Bilge injection valves
15. Emergency steering gear
16. Engine side control (Local maneouvering)
17. Standby equipments
18. Alarm bells
19. watertight doors

Examination of Steering System
1) Ships must have a man and an auxiliary steering gear, arranged so that the
failure of one does not render the other operative. An auxiliary steering gear need
not be fitted, however when the main steering gear has two or more identical
power unit and is arranged such that after a single failure in its piping system or
one of it power units, steering capability can be maintained. To meet this latter
alternative the steering gear has to comply with the operating condition of
paragraph 2 in the case of passenger ships while any one of the power units is at
of operation. In the case of large tankers chemical tanker and gas carriers the
provision of two or more identical power units for the main steering gear is
2) The main steering gear must be able to steer the ship at maximum ahead service
speed and be capable at this speed, and at the ships deepest service draught, of
putting the rudder from 35
on one side to 30
on the other side in not more than
28 sec.
3) The auxiliary steering gear must be capable of being brought speedily into
operation and be able to put the rudder over from 15
on one side to 15
on the
other side in not more than 60 secs with the ship at its deepest service draught
and running ahead at the greater of one half of the maximum service speed at 7
4) It must be possible to living into operation main and auxiliary steering gear power
units from the navigating bridge of power failure to any one of the steering gear
power units or to its control system must result in an audible and visual alarm on
the navigating bridge and the power units must be arranged o restart
automatically when power is restored.
5) Steering gear control must be provided within the bridge and in the steering gear
room for the main steering gear. In case the main steering gear comprises two or
more identical power units there must be 2 independent control systems both
operable from bridge.
6) The law level alarm of the header tank should be tried out. Check for any
leakages in the hydraulic system.
7) Where the rudder stock is required to be over 230mm diameter at the tiller an
alternative power supply capable of providing automatically within 45 seconds.
Except in case of ships regularly engaged on short voyages, the steering gear should
be thoroughly checked and tested with 12 hrs before departive.
Every 3 months an emergency steering drill should be held and should include
direct control from within the steering compartment at which time the use of
communication procedure with the navigating bridge should be practiced.
Examination of Lifeboat
1) Check the condition of lifeboat externally (No cracks or
2) Check the davit condition
3) Check that the wires have been greased and renewed at
stipulated intervals
4) Check the launching procedure is posted
5) Check the life boat engines, UT engines, FO flash point
C. If power then 2 rechargeable servers should be
provided should start at 15
C in 2 muter
6) Ensure that .. routines are regularly carried out
7) All items (pyrotechniques, ration, Immersion suit, TPA etc)
8) Ships call sign is posted on top of the lift boat by retro
reflective tape.
9) Ensure life boat is lowered upto embarkation . every month
upto the water level every 3 months
10) Check the lights are in working condition

87. Differentiate between harmonised system of surveys and enhanced hull
survey system. Since when these systems have come in force. What all
statutory certificates are issued under HSSC ? List the periodicity of all
certificates issued under HSSC.

Ans) Harmonized system of surveys (HSSC)
HSSC entered into force on 3
February 2000 as a result of the protocol adopted on
Nov 1988 by the International Conference on the Harmonized System of Survey
and certification (1988 SOLAS Protocol) Resolution A 883(21) which introduces
Global and uniform and implementation of the HSSC other than the 1988 SOLAS
and load line protocol amendments has been adopted to introduce HSSC in the
1) Annex I & II of MARPOL 73/78 by resolution MEPC39(29)
2) International code for construction and equipment of ships carrying
dangerous chemical in bulk (IBC code) by resolution MEPC 40(29) and
MSC 16 (58)
3) International code for construction and equipment of ships carrying
liquefied gases in bulk (IGC code) by resolution MSC 17(58) and
4) Code for construction and equipment of ships carrying dangerous
chemicals in bulk (BCH code) by resolution MEPC 41(29) and MSC

The global and uniform implementation of the HSSC and certification it should be
applied to all types of ships and in respect of all relevant instruments. All statutory
certificates for cargo ships tankers containers, refrigerated vessels will be valid for a
maximum period of 5 years for passenger vessels validity will be one year
This system provides for a one year standard interval between surveys based on
initial annual intermediate periodical and renewal surveys as appropriate. The
scheme also provides the necessary flexibility for exception of each survey with the
provision that the renewal survey may be completed within 3 months before
expiry of the existing certificate with no loss of its period of validity.
External inspections of ships bottom are required for all cargo ships. A minimum of
two such inspections are required during a five year period and the interval between
any two such inspections shall not exceed 36 months. Various certificates issued
under HSSC are:
1. International Loadline certificate - 5 years
2. IOPP certificate - 5 years
3. Passenger Ship Safety certificate - 1 year
4. SAFCON certificate 5 years
5. Safety Equipment certificate 5 years
6. Ship Radio Telegraphy 5 years
7. EAIPP and IAPP certificate 5 years
8. ISSC 5 years
9. International pollution certificate for Noxious liquid substances in bulk 5
Certificate of fitness for carriage of dangerous chemical in bulk - 5 years

Enhanced hull survey system: There has been pressure on the shipping industry to
improve the ships structural integrity by more stringent survey methods. A
specification for such a method was derived from discussion with owners
classification and regulatory bodies. The stresses subjected to a ships hull due to
extreme climatic conditions improper loading cargo handling berthing corrosion
have resulted in the earlier years loss of ships due to structural failures.
In order to prevent such occurrences an enhanced hull safety program for bulk
carriers has been made mandatory. SOLAS chapter XI-1 reg2 in accordance to the
guidelines adopted by the assembly of the organization by resolution A 744(18).
Chapter XII of SOLAS specifies these survey requirements for bulk carriers.
The program gives special attention to cargo holds and ballast tanks. Further ships
carrying high density cargoes are subjected to more stringent surveys. These require
close up surveys of the welded attachment of side shell frames inspected holds and
thickness measurements regulations 136 of MARPOL 73/78 provides that crude oil
tankers at 20000 dwt and above shall also be subject the enhanced program of
Guide lines for bulk carriers are given in Annex A of IMO resolution A 7444(18)
whereas guidelines for tankers are in ANNEX B of IMO resolution. The rules
applicable in 20 years special survey for bulk carriers have been enhanced so that
these are applicable/ carried out when the vessel dry docks in the 171/2
intermediate period of dry docking. The survey/inspection comprised of:
1) Overall survey of all cargo holds ballast tanks.
2) Close up examination of sufficient extent to establish the condition of lower
region of shell frames and their end attachments in a cargo hold. It
remedial measures are needed here there all holds should be surveyed for
tankers the survey includes examination of cargo tanks openings including
gas nets cover flame screen P.V. valves. vents COW vent piping systems
pump rooms examination of bulkheads for signs of oil leakage/fractures
sealing arrangements at all penetration of bulkheads.
In general areas found suspect should be subject to thickness measurement to
determine both general and local corrosion levels.
The owner has to maintain documentation onboard as follows:
a) Survey file comprising reports of structural survey then new
measurements and executive hull
b) Support documents consist of:
1) Structural plans of cargo tanks
2) Previous repairs history
3) Cargo and Ballast history
4) Reports on leakage in bulkheads and piping system
5) Condition of coating or corrosion prevention system
6) Information to help identity critical areas
7) Survey programme prepared 6 months in advanced including the
proposals for survey
means of providing access for close up survey thickness measurement and tank
88. To ensure that a ship remains worthy of its 100 A1 classification, annual
and special surveys are carried out by classification surveyors. Detail
the parts of the ship that would be examined during each of the
following (a) annual survey (b) special survey.

Ans. According to load line convention 1966 ships are divided into types A and B freeboard
computation Type A is the ship designed to carry only liquid cargos in bulk.
Type B-All ships which do not come within the provisions of type A ships.
- All closed ships will be assigned with character symbols.
- 100 A1 ships - 100 to all ships considered suitable for sea going.
- A - To all ships which have been build or accepted into class in accordance with LR rules
& regulations.
- 1 - ships having good & efficient condition anchoring and /or mooring equipments in
accordance with rules and hence these ships are classed for special service.
Vessel are surveyed annually to ensure that they fulfill condition of assignment.
These are the conditions which must be met before is issued. After issuing load line
certificated ships are enable to engrave load line & marks.
o Condition of assignment are related to water tight integrity of the ship
o They state details for
a) Strength
b) Height of comings and closing arrangements of items such as superstructures, end
bulkheads, hatch ways machinery opening.
The ship must have sufficient strength, (structural) stability and ability to withstand
flooding of compartments.
Condition of Assignment deed periodic inspection to ensure that ship conditions are
such that the above mentioned items are maintained in good order.
Annual Surveys :
o Purpose of annual survey is to do the general inspection of items in relation to
particular certificate.
o General inspections of items are done to determine if they are maintained in good
condition so that they can fulfill the functional requirements for which they are
installed on the vessel.
o If all items are in good condition ship will remain in good condition to render
services required from her.
o Annual surveys are carried out at anniversary date with window period of 3
o Annual survey of how surveyor will examine hull & its closing appliance to ascertain
watertight integrity of the ship.
Items included
a) Water tight bulkhead penetrations.
b) Hull openings on freeboard decks, superstructures ventilators, air pipes.
c) Hatch openings, tank domes.
d) Machinery operated hater covers, rubber, sealing.
e) Freeing ports.
f) Confirmation of loading guidance & stability data.
g) No alternation made to hull or superstructure related to load line.
h) Anchor chain cables.
i) Sea water ballast spaces for corrosion & thickness measurements.
j) Vent pipes of all bunker tanks, flame screen, of oily water, oily ballast slop tanks.
for tankers
i) Cargo tanks opening on freeboard deck (Tank domes).
ii) P. V. valves, flame arresters, flame screen.
iii) Cargo & crude oil washing equipments.
iv) Pipe ducts, vault piping on weather decks.
Annual survey of machinery includes
1) Machinery & Boiler space inspection
2) Emergency escape routes.
3) Main and auxiliary steering gear.
4) Testing of communication between bridge ECR & SG.
5) Bilge pumping system & bilge well.
6) Boiler pressure vessel & external mounting.
7) Electrical machinery & emergency source of power.
8) Fire extinguisher apparatus, fire hoses nozzles & applicators.
9) Testing of emergency fire pumps.
10) Examination of fixed fire fighting system & fire smoke detection system.
Special survey : Whenever it is required to renew the class of the ship renewal survey is
carried out hence it is called class renewal survey or special. This survey is carried out by
class surveyor.
Renewal survey comes under statutory survey and done by administration and special
survey comes under class survey and done by classification society.
These surveys are carried out at the interval of 5 yrs. with special giant of 3 months can
be given by classification society under exceptional circumstances.
o These surveys includes extensive inspection to check that
o Ships structural strength, watertight integrity stability.
o Main and auxiliary machinery system and equipment remains in condition which
satisfies the rules.
o Ships hull examination is supplemented by thickness measurement and witnessing
of test as specified in the rules.
o Main aim to asses that the structural integrity remains effective.
o To help discovering substantial corrosion significant determination of fractures,
damage or other structural deteriorations.
o This survey is more stringent than annual or intermediate survey.

89. Differentiate between continuous hull surveys (CHS) and enhanced hull
survey system. What advantage CHS provides to the ship owner ?
Underlining the salient features of enhanced survey programme and
explain Planning of Survey, Close- up Examination and Overall

Ans. Continuous Hull Survey are permitted on all ships other than bulk carriers,
combination carriers, chemical tankers and oil tankers, which are subjected to
Enhanced Survey. In Continuous Hull Survey, all compartments of hull are
opened for survey and testing, in rotation, with an interval of 5 years between
consecutive examinations of each port. In general, approximately 1/5
of the
Special Survey is to be completed each year and all the requirements of the
particular hull special survey must be completed at the end of the 5 year cycle.
Enhanced surveys are mandatory for bulk carriers and tankers under Solas
Chapter XI-I (Special measure to enhance maritime safety). In this survey
programme ship is subjected to annual, intermediate and renewal or periodical
surveys. During periodical surveys all cargo hold/ tanks, ballast tanks, pipe
tunnels, cofferdams and void spaces surrounding cargo holds/tanks, decks and
outer hull should be examined, and this examination should be supplemented by
thickness measurements and testing as deemed necessary to ensure that the
structural integrity remains effective. The examination should be sufficient to
discover substantial corrosion, significant deformation, fractures, damages or
other structural deterioration.
In CHS planning of surveys is done using mandatory minimum survey
programme which is worked out for ship taking in to account the mandatory
minimum requirements for overall examination, close-up survey and thickness
measurements that have been prescribed by the classification society.
Preparation to be carried out and equipment required is also described. While
Enhanced Survey programme is based on survey planning document, which
identifies critical structural areas on an individual ship which are high risk based
on vessels structural features, operational features and its damage/repair history.
It stipulates the location, extent and means of close-up examination of the areas.
In Continuous Hull Survey reports basically report on the deficiencies and repair
on ship. In the absence of these, it is generally assumed that the condition of the
ship is to surveyors satisfaction. While in Enhanced Survey System reporting is
expanded to include statements concerning:-
(i) Extent of survey (including location, means of access, whether
close-up or overall etc)
(ii) Coating condition of each space
(iii) Structural conditions of each space and identifying the spaces
actually found satisfactory
(iv) Thickness measurement report
In Enhanced Survey system requisite documents are to be maintained on
board for the lifetime of the ship which also contains Condition Evaluation
reports. It forms the basis of future surveys
Continuous Hull Survey Advantages:- It was required by the ship-owner to
open up every tank, space and equipment and produce it for survey to the
class surveyor. This caused a huge workload and delay to the ship at the time
of survey. To avoid this, the continuous hull survey and continuous machinery
survey system was developed. This system is of great advantage to the ship-
owner as he does not have to open up equipment, and hold up the vessel
every year and every 5 year for the purpose of classification society surveyor.
Instead different items are opened up and inspected on a continuous basis
during a period of 5 years at the ship-owners convenience. The society
provides a quarterly report to ship of the items that are due for survey during
that quarter.
Salient features of Enhanced Survey Programme are:-
1) Survey Planning
2) Document File maintained (on board)
3) Improved procedures for thickness measurement
4) Harmonization between dry dock and renewal surveys
5) Extended intermediate survey
6) Possible annual examination of tanks/spaces
7) Phase-out of Continuous Hull Survey arrangements
The basic purpose of Enhanced Survey is an extensive examination of the

Planning of Survey:- It is expected that the quality of the survey will be improved
by the proper planning and co-operation between the owner and the
administration and classification society. A specific survey programme should be
worked out in advance and submitted to the classification society for approval
- Proper preparation must be carried out by cleaning, gas freeing, descaling
and safe access
- One of the following means of access, acceptable to the surveyor will have
to be provided by the ship, together with proper illumination
(h) permanent or temporary stages
(i) lifts or movable platforms
(j) boats and rafts
(k) other equivalent means
Planning of Survey is based on survey planning document approved by
administration. It identifies critical structural areas on an individual ship which
are high risk areas based on vessel structural and operational features and its
damage/repair history. It stipulates the location, extent and means of close-up
examination of the areas.
Where a proper survey planning document is established for a ship, a
provision exists for reduced examination of low risk areas during the renewal
survey provided the condition of the vessel is good after inspection of the high
risk areas.
The Survey Planning Document contains:-
(1) Main particulars of the ship
(2) Plans of tanks/holds with information on their use, cathodic
protection and condition of coating
(3) Corrosion risk nomination of tanks
(4) Design risk nomination of structures
(5) Tanks and areas nominated for close-up examination
(6) Structures and sections nominated for thickness measurement
(7) List of acceptable corrosion allowance for different structures.

Close-Up Examination:- It is one where details of structural components are
within the inspection range of the surveyor i.e. normally within reach of hand

Overall Survey:- It is intended to report on the overall conditions of the tank/hold/hull
structure and determine the extent of additional close-up surveys.


Continuous Hull Surveys
-1. Application
(1) This system covers internal examinations, close-up surveys and thickness measurements
of tanks and spaces and pressure tests of tanks.
(2) This system is not applicable to oil tankers, bulk carriers, ships carrying dangerous
chemicals in bulk and general dry cargo ships of not less than 500 gross tonnage.
(3) For ships more than 10 years of age, the ballast tanks are to be internally examined twice
in each five-year class period, ie. once within the scope of the intermediate survey and
once within the scope of the continuous system for the special survey.

In other words CHS is not applicable to ESP ships (For ESP ships refer A.744(18)


(1) Each cycle of Continuous Hull Surveys is to be planned to commence at the time of the
next survey to classification survey or any special survey and complete internal
examinations (including thickness measurements) of each tank and space and pressure
tests by the completion of the subsequent special surveys.

Continuous Hull Survey Record survey file is to be maintained on board..

(2) After confirming that the submitted CHS plan complies with the requirements for all tanks
and spaces, the application is to be approved and returned to the applicant for placing in the onboard
survey file. (One copy is to be forwarded to Classification Department.)

Critical Structural Areas [ A.744(18)/ 1.2.10]:
These are locations which have been identified from calculations, monitoring or from the service
history of the subject ship or from similar or sister ships to be sensitive to cracking, buckling or
corrosion which would impair the structural integrity of the ship.

Thickness measurements taken during following surveys will enable specific software programmes
developed by the classification societies to forecast structural soundness of the ship.

1. Bulk Carrier Safety : Cargo Hold No. 1 with corrugated WT Bulkhead STRENGTH MEMBERS / bulk
head plate thickness / stiffeners scantlings/ stool strength/ DB under hold strength members.

These readings are taken to determine if the ship can load cargoes with densities more than

2. Strengthening of frames of Other Cargo holds .Readings are taken to assess strength as per UR

3. Thickness measurements at Intermediate, Special Surveys, CAS surveys to assess longitudinal

4. CAP to carry out Fatigue analysis.

5. Analysis carried out at any structural failure.

Above referred surveys provide input data for structural analysis carried out by soft ware
programmes developed by each Classification Society.

These inputs acquired are:
1. Fatigue Analysis is computed on basis of the design and application of finite element analysis
to arrive at fatigue life of various structural strength members. Such theoretically derived
data is validated and cross checked by actual results emanating from surveys.
2. Results of thickness measurements obtained at instances mentioned above give residual

Above data is used during the surveys by surveyors to concentrate on areas of concern.

91. Protective coating has come into a lot of debate in recent years. With
reference to seawater ballast tanks how the condition is assessed for
paint coatings and how grading is done by society surveyors. Outline
the problem that occur with self polishing copolymer paints when a
vessel is at anchor for long periods or proceeding at reduced speed.

Ans. Marine paints are solvent based heavy duty paints. The deterioration of condition of ballast
tanks is not due to sea water which contains salt, but also partially filled tanks contain air and
climatic condition which adds to the corrosion problem. Applying coatings to the complex
structure found in ballast tanks is never easy and dry film thickness which is 3 to 4 times higher
than the specification are typical on areas such as welds and corners. Common sense may
suggest that more is better but this is not the case with many coating systems. Excessive DFT
can give rise to stress within coating, which can cause cracking, detachment and subsequent
corrosion. There is realistic ballast tank cycling test to assess the performance of coatings at
high DFT. Each system is applied to welded T pieces at 3 times the recommended DFT. The test
pieces are then cycled in natural seawater followed by hot and humid atmospheric exposure
and checked at the end of every two months cycle for cracking, detachment and corrosion.
Using a very simple & highly indicative test method called a DFT ladder it is possible to
compare the various coating long term anti corrosive performance in relatively short period of
time. The test involves application of a single coat to suitably prepared steel or shop primed
panels at range of DFTs. The panels are then immersed in seawater & the degree of rusting
and blistering is monitored with time.
The other factors to be checked are integrity of coating; this gives an idea as to how well
the paint has adhered to the surface and how uniform are paint layers. Thickness of coating;
the initial thickness of paint is about 300 which reduces over a period of time. The condition
of scantling, frames, portion, corners are checked. The scratch test also gives fair idea of
adherences of paints to the surface
The above tests and inspections gives the idea of coating inside tanks. This is then
compared with the standard paint chart available and is then graded accordingly.
Premature failure of protective coatings is often found in ballast tanks of ships in service and as a
consequence will lead to rapid corrosion of unprotected steel. Following coating breakdown it is
extremely difficult, if not impossible to repair or reinstate the coating to new building standard.
The IMO committee felt that the best way to achieve this would be the development of
mandatory performance standards, including minimum target life, for ballast tank coatings. MSC
76 in December 2002 noted that SOLAS regulation II-1/3-2 made the coating of dedicated sea
water ballast tanks mandatory for oil tankers and bulk carriers with reference to the
guidelines for the selection, application and maintenance of corrosion prevention systems of
such tanks. The committee considered prevention systems of such tanks. The committee
considered that there was a need for international performance standard for protective
coatings and requested its sub-committee on ship designed and equipment (DE) to develop such
Inspection of surface preparation and coating process shall be agreed between the
shipowner, the shipyard and the coating manufacturer and presented to the administration or
its recognized organization for review.
Clear evidence of these inspection shall be reported and be included in the coating
technical file (ITF) which documents the specification of the coating system applied to the sea
water ballast tanks and double side skin spaces, record of the shipyards and ship-owners
coating work, detailed criteria for coating selection job specifications, inspection maintenance
and repair of coating systems will be developed by DE sub-committee (DEGO) in March 2007
Coating inspectors shall inspect surface preparation and coating application. During
the water process by carrying out as minimum, inspections of primary surface preparations,
thickness block assembly and erection o ensure compliance with the standard. Results from
the inspection shall be recorded by the inspector and shall be included in the coating technical

As per IMO standards mentioned in A.744 (18) grading is done in three types:
Good : light spotting
Fair : local area cannot have wastage more than 20% R 50% and general
wastage <10%
Poor : Local wastage > 20%
General wastage > 20%
And hard Scale < 10%

As per IACS standards URZ 10 grading is done by society surveyors as

(i) Good : Local Wastage < 20%
General Wastage < 3%

Fair : Local Wastage 20-50%
Hard Scale < 10%
General Wastage < 10%

Poor : General wastage > 20%
Local Wastage > 20%
Hard Scale > 10%
Self-polishing copolymers(SPC) are paint polymer or binder system is made soluble in
seawater by hydrolysis. This is a controlled chemical reaction and only occurs at the surface of
coating. SPC technology combines controlled polishing rate and optimum biocide release with
inherent self smoothing for hull roughness control & maximum fuel efficiency. Leached layer are
always thin <15 providing the smooth surface. The two most important factors which
determines the effectiveness of any biocide anti-fouling are the type and quantity of biocides in
formation. The delivery mechanism used to control the release of biocides.
The problems that occurs with self-polishing copolymer paints when vessel is at long
anchorage period or proceeding at reduced speed are:-
(8) Decrease in speed of vessel
(9) Specific fuel consumption increases.
This is basically due to hull roughness. Hull roughness is defined as maximum peak to trough
height expressed in microns, for any given length of 50mm along the underwater hull. There are
two main types of roughness, biological and physical. Biological roughness is accumulation of
plant or animal growth on ships hull(fouling). Physical roughness can be attributed to vessel age
and design plus the type of coating system used. This includes anti-corrosive, abrasion resistance
and anti-fouling coatings. Increased physical roughness commonly result from mechanical
damage, poor maintenance practise. Both the types of hull roughness however will increase
frictional resistance or vessel drag resulting in additional power requirement and increased fuel
cost to maintain vessel speed. TBT free SPC anti-foulings are formulated to provide high levels of
biological roughness control and through self-polishing & smoothing, high levels of physical
roughness control.

92. Enlist the salient items consisting additional survey for tankers. On
examination of tankers hull in a dry dock some areas covered with paint
were found damaged. Describe a procedure for repair of the said area
and precautions taken thereof.
Ans. Additional survey for Tankers :
Normal initial, annual, intermediate and special / renewal surveys are
applicable to all the tankers for ensuring their compliance with all statutory and
class requirements.
Occasional or Additional surveys are carried out in the event of any accident,
modifications or repairs carried out on a ship. In this case classification society
has to be informed about the repair / modification of ship. The repair /
modificaiton will be attended by the surveyor. It should be accomplished to the
satisfaction of surveyor.
In addition, oil tankers are also subjected to enhanced program of surveys
under marpol 73/78 enhanced surveys should be carried out during the periodical
annual and intermediate surveys prescribed by the MARPOL and SOLAS
conventions. The related guidelines on the enhanced surveys pay special
attention to corrosion coatings and tank corrosion prevention systems must be
thoroughly checked and measurements must also be carried out to check
thickness of the plates.
Repair of Damaged hull :
Following course of Action can be taken to repair damaged portion of hull in
i) During docking survey, careful examination of the ships hull structure
should be carried out to note any defects, damage occurred.
ii) If any defect / damage is noticed on the hull, that area must be thoroughly
cleaned of the paint so that the damage is clearly visible
iii) Carry out various tests like magnetic particle test, dye penetrant test,
thickness measurement to know the extent of damage.
iv) Take photographs of the damaged area which will be useful for record of
the repair, inform superintendent.
v) Inform class surveyor taking his advice decide upon how the repair will be
carried out.
vi) Superintendent will make the repair request to the shipyard.
vii) Carry out the repair with due care and precautions. i.e. Take hot work
permit from yard.
Ensure all combustible material in the vicinity removed
Keep fire watch
Check periodically atmosphere inside the tank to ensure safe
viii) After repair call the surveyor he will inspect and approve the repair if it is
done up to his satisfaction.
ix) Take photographs after repair for record keeping.
x) Create a detailed report of the repairs which will be useful in future as a

93. Describe the differences and features of hull surveys of a very large
crude carrier compared to a conventional one. Which zone/ tanks/
components are awarded special precaution while carrying out bulk
carrier survey ?

Ans. Hull survey is done during every special survey and the intermediate survey.
This includes examination, tests and checks of sufficient extent that the hull and
related piping is in satisfactory condition and it is fit for its intended purpose for
the new period of validity of the cargo ship safety construction certificate. All
cargo holds, ballast tanks, pipe tunnels, cofferdams and void spaces bounding
cargo holds, decks and outer hull should be examined, and this examination
should be supplemented by thickness measurement and testing as deemed
necessary, to ensure that the structural integrity remains effective. The
examination should be sufficient to discover substantial corrosion, significant
deformation, fractures, damages or other structural deterioration. This can be
part of Enhanced Survey Program. For different types of ships there are
different critical areas/zones which should draw special attention during the hull
survey. The VLCC and smaller tankers differs in this respect at cargo area side
structure and transverse bulkhead structure. Following are the critical areas in
each situation:
Critical areas for side structure
Stress concentrations at :-
21) joining of bottom hopper plate with side longitudinal bulkhead & tank
22) joining of web transverse for centreline bulkhead to tank top
23) joining of transverse bottom bracket to tank top & centreline bulkhead
24) joining of transverse web to side longitudinal bulkhead at the top
25) joining of transverse bracket to centreline bulkhead at the top
critical areas in transverse bulkhead
1) join of vertical corrugated bulkhead with upper & lower stool
2) join of vertical corrugated bulkhead with external deck girders
3) join of vertical corrugated bulkhead with horizontal stringers
Critical areas for side structure
1) all joins of cross ties in centre tank
2) all joins of cross ties in wing tank
critical areas in transverse bulkhead
1) all joins of cross ties in centre tank
2) all joins of cross ties in wing tank
For the survey of the bulk carrier the due attention to be given to cargo holds,
ballast tanks, pipe tunnels, cofferdam and void spaces bounding cargo holds,
decks, and outer hull.
Thorough attention to be given particularly in bulk carriers in place of hatch
covers and its coaming.
Random checking of the satisfactory operation of mechanically operated
hatch covers should be made. Thickness measurement of the hatch covers
and coaming plating and stiffeners be carried out.



Conditions of Assignments deal with following in order to determine the load lines.
Master of the ship must be provided with information on conditions implemented on their
It is imperative that the items coming under each heads below are maintained as
described. It is only when the conditions are met that the assumptions considered for
maximum inclination hold true. Unfortunately poor maintenance of these items, however
trivial they may appear can be catastrophic and lead to uncontrolled flooding

REG 10 _- REG 26






AND 2) (Reg. 19).


10. SIDE SCUTTLES (Reg. 23)
11. FREEING PORTS (Reg. 24)

12. PROTECTION OF THE CREW (Regs. 25 & 26)



95. You have been appointed as the Chief Engineer of an older vessel which
is in dry dock and recently been purchased by your shipping
company. Describe in a letter addressed to Engineering Superintendent,
your inspection to ensure that the conditions of assignment are
satisfactorily complied with.

Ans) It has been recognised that situation in the draught to which a ship may be
loaded makes a significant contribution to hell reserve buoyancy and hence the
safety of a ship. These limits are given in the form of freeboards.
Freeboards should also ensure adequate stability and avoid excessive stress on ships
hull as a result of overloading.
Freeboards are assigned to ships according to the rules of load lines convention 1966.
The convention deals with determining the freeboards by sub-divisible and damage
stability calculations. The regulations take into account the potential hazards present
in different zones and different seasons.
Condition of Assignment
These are the conditions which must be met by any ship, before the freeboard is
assigned and load line certificate is issued.
Initial survey of the ship is carried out by an authorized classification society prior to
the issue of international load line certificate (1966) to ascertain condition of
assignment of freeboard are fulfilled.
Mr. S.S. Kumar
Chief Engineer
M.V. Damato
Sambhavang Shipyard

The Mr. Ravi Shankar
Tech Supt
Engineering Dept
Ding Dong Shipping Co.Pvt. Ltd
Hong Kong

Subject: Condition of assignment for freeboard

Dear Sir,
As per your instructions to me in the head office during my visit regarding the
condition of assignment please find the following;
Following checks were carried out
1. A complete and thorough examination of the ships structure, both internally
and externally
2. Hatchways
3. Openings in the ships tide, below the freeboard deck and in the sides and
ends of the enclosed super structure
4. Machinery casing, companion ways and deck houses
5. Freeing ports and shutters
6. Ventilators and air pipes
7. An examination of all fittings and appliances for the protection of opening
giving access to spaces below the freeboards and superstructure decks the
guard rails and of access to the crew quarters
8. Examination of the stability and loading and ballasting information
9. The determination of are necessary data required for the computation of

After carrying out the above inspection the load line certificate was checked and
found to be satisfactory. The ship complies with the highest standard of structured
strength required by the rules. I hope above is in order and to the satisfaction of the


Statutory certificates & documents to be carried on board by all ships.

Sr. No. Name of Certificate Reference







International Tonnage certificate
International Load line certificate

International load line exemption

Intact stability Book let

Damage control Plans & Booklets.

Minimum safe manning

Fire safety Training manual

Fire control Plan / Book let

Onboard Training & Drills Record.

Tonnage convention Article 7

L.L. convention (1966) Article 16
L.L. Protocol (1988) Article 18
L.L. convention (1966) Article 6
LL. Protocol (1988) Article 18

Solas (1974) Reg. II-1/22 & II - 1/25 - 8
L.L. Protocol (1988)
Regulation 10
Solas 74 Reg. II - 1/23
2-3-1, 25-8
MSC / Circ 919.

2000 Amendment
Reg. V/14-2

Solas'74 (2000 Amend)
Reg. II 2/15.2.3

Solas 1974 (2000 Amend)










Fire Safety Operational Booklet

Certificates for masters, officers or

International oil pollution
Prevention Certificate.
Oil Record Book

International sewage pollution
prevention certificate.

Garbage uanacement Plan

Garbage Record Book

Voyage data recorder system
certificate of compliance
Document of compliance
Reg. II-2 / 15.2.4
Solas'74 (2000 Amend't)
Reg. II-2 / 15.2.25

Solas '74 (2000 Amendt)
Reg. II-2/16-2
STCW 1978 Art VI Reg I/2
STCW Code Sect A-I/2

Marpol 73/78
Annex I, Reg. 5
MARPOL - 73/78
Annex I Reg. 26
MARPOL 73/78
Annex IV Reg.5
MEPC / circ 408
MARPOL 73/78
Annex V Reg. 9

MARPOL 73/78
Annex V Reg. 9
Solas 74 Reg.
V / 18-8
Reg. IX / 4
ISM Code, Para 13

A. Additional certificates carried by the vessels carrying Dangerous Goods.
1. Document of compliance :
With the special requirements for ships carrying dangerous goods as per SOLAS 1974
(2000 Amendments) regulation II-2/19.4.
The administration shall provide the ship with an appropriate document as evidence of
compliance of construction and equipment with the requirements of regulations II-2/19
of solas 1974.
2. Dangerous Goods manifest or STOWAGE PLAN Detailed in IMDG code.
B. Additional certificates carried by the vessels carrying NOXIOUS LIQUID CHEMICAL
1. International pollution prevention certificate for the carriage of Noxious Liquid
substances in Bulk (NLS Certificate)
This certificate will be issued after survey in accordance with the provision of regulations
10 of Annex II of MARPOL 73/78 and regulation 11 & 12 A.
2. Cargo Record Book
As per MARPOL 73/78 Annex II, Req.9 Every ship to which annex II of Marpol 73/78
applies shall be provided with a cargo Record Book, whether as part of the ships official
log book or other wise in the form specified in appendix IV to the Annex.
C. Additional Certificates carried by Gas Tankers
1. Certificate of Fitness for the carriage of liquefied Gases in Bulk.
This certificate should be issued after an initial or periodical survey to a Gas carrier
which complies with the relevant requirements of the Gas carrier code (G.C. Code)
Section 1.6.
2. International Certificate of Fitness for the carriage of liquefied Gases in Bulk.
This certificate should be issued after an initial or periodical survey to a gas carrier which
complies with the relevant requirements of the International Gas carrier Code.
The code is mandatory under Chapter VII of SOLAS 1974 for gas carriers constructed on
or after 1 July 1986.
Reference : IGC Code Section 1.5
IGC Code as modified by
resolution nsc 17 (58)
Section 1.5

96. What are the primary strategies for coping with stress affected
personnel? How these elements can be best implemented in ships
personnel motivating them, for better teamwork?

Ans) Now-a-days it I major problem regarding stress. Everyone is stress affected to
some extents (with stress stages). In Shipping people work in isolation as man is a
social animal so it leads to dissatisfaction and unnecessary stress. Companies often
employ multinational crew, which create a interpersonal conflict and it also leads to
stress. As man power is also less on board so if any thing goes wrong then
manpower is not sufficient to deal with the problem. This is the main reasons leading
to stress which could either be physical or psychological.
Coping the stress:- There are some strategies to managing stress:
1) Effective coping strategies
2) Ineffective coping strategies: Research has shown that social and emotional
cop with stress. Person maintaining close interpersonal relations with friends
and family are able to use more appropriate strategies to cop with the stress
social support includes material support (providing resources) and emotional
support (listening to person and encouraging him/her) studies have shown
that when one does not want support, if given it may prove negative
Approaches or effective strategies of coping stress includes:-
1) Efforts to increase physical and mental preparedness for coping by
(a) Physical exercising (b) Yoga (c) meditation (d) diet management

2) Creative diversions for emotional enrichment
(a) Music (b) Art (c) Theatre etc.
3) Strategies of dealing with basic problem causing stress + Collaborative work
strategies to overcome stress application (i.e.,) how to overcome pain/ grief
etc. which has been caused by stress

Take a hard cook at yourself
Determine from where stress originated
Initially examine your own contribution to stress experienced by others around
Stay alert:- To thing other than you job
Takes risks
Avoid isolation withdrawing from task
Keep communication with colleagues, friends and family
Update knowledge and skills to take the challenges brought by changing
technological environment
Besides the above mentioned strategies to overcome stress, all persons should
progress stress safety valve. It serves almost two important functions.
1) Enable one to escape the direct pressure of work load.
2) Counteract the biochemical and psychological changes that occur when
mobilized to deal with stress

Few safety valves are suggested below:-
Changing gears:- Shifting from one work to another
Pampering yourself
Get involved
Warm up slowly
Cut back on excessive work hours

Now-a-days, rules/regulations by ILO (International Labour Organiation) IMO,
WHO etc also helping to overcome stress.
For example: In ILO there are lots of convention line
(a) Working hours (minimum) and rest
(b) Accommodation with facilities
(c) Responsibilities for each person companies are also helpful to overcome stress
i) With telephone/email facility (one can talk to home/friends/relatives) so good
communication is helpful (in all levels)
ii) Training of ship personnel
iii) Developing good plans for safe operation of ship
iv) Checklists for safe working
v) Providing gymnasium (sport, exercising etc) welfare club (movies, magazines,
newspapers etc)
vi) Previleges to go ashore (boat services or other assistance etc) so it can be
said that if a person is provided support (financially guidance, understanding
and looking after etc) then stress levels can be reduced to some extent.

Motivation theory: This theory can be applied to such persons (stressed) to change
them by using:
1) Loyalty: creating greater trust, better communication and sharing problems. The
sense of belonging will motivate the person to work for a team
2) Understanding needs/grievances with respect to
money/wages/appraisal/promotion, special recognition for good work by seeking
to clear a more transparent atmosphere, so that no ambiguities remain.
3) Rewarding performance which will motivate the performances to work harder and
create an environment of willingness to improve
4) E40 is he key factor of motivation
Praise raises their self esteem and encourages them to work
5) Making responsible: Assigning responsibility for doing a particular job makes a
person feel important
6) Encourage interaction
7) Genuine empathy: Understanding the person will improve relationships and
hence the performance of every individuals in the team.
8) Providing rest when no requirement for work
9) Making proper plans/guideline for doing a task and also providing necessary
10) To share the work load

As per Maslow theory : Maslow he one of the best framework by which one can
understand employees, needs and use the motivation theory to help the individuals
satisfy needs while helping the person to satisfy its own need

Most of the merchant ships trade internationally all over the world. Many companies today employ
multinational crew on board. People from different countries not only have different cultures but
have different beliefs values and attitudes. This kind of backgrounds can lead to differences in
opinions / perceptions which may create problems on board ships.
While satisfying organizational needs, A person in addition will try to satisfy his own
individual needs. As a result of this individuals join together knowingly or unknowingly to form
groups and social systems. Being a social animal, he has to interact with other fellow working men.
Hence there are chances of interpersonal conflict.
Attitude and behavior makes a person liked or disliked among others in a group. This results
in the formation of groups with like minded people. Wherever there are groups, there are different
arms and goals. Hence chances of conflict.
In an organization conflicts can be due to
- Unnaturally competitive environment
- Differences in values, goals, attitudes expectations
- Stereotyped behavior stubbornness unfair decisions or wrong judgement due to some
- Someone taking under advantage and not sharing in team work.
- Misunderstanding lack of understanding or communication
- Ego.
Conflicts may be actual or even threatened with the misuse of force, which proves hindrance
in any continuing social or working relationship interpersonal conflicts creates an unhealthy
atmosphere on board. It not only affects the efficient running /operation of the vessel but could also
become a safety hazard.
Strategies for Interpersonal conflicts resolution
There are lot of theories about interpersonal conflict resolution. A few of them are :
i) Lose - Lose : wherein both parties lose
This could be achieved by
a) Compromise
b) Pay off one of the party
c) Arbitration or the use of outside party
d) Resort to bureaucratic rules.

ii) Win - Lose : wherein one party attempts to marshal its forces to win and the other party
iii) Win - Win : This is the most desirable strategy of conflict resolution from a human and
organizational stand point. Energies and creativity are aimed at solving the problem rather
than defeating the other party. The needs of both parties in the conflict situation are met and
both parties receive rewarding outcomes. Win-win decision strategies are associated with
better judgments, favourable organizational experience and more favourable bargains.
Interpersonal conflict can be resolved by taking into consideration the nature of differences.
Amicable solution could be found where acceptance of differences can be agreed upon.
Interpersonal conflict can be resolved by developing a co-operative relationship based on
job related performance rather than on communal / race basis.
To avoid interpersonal conflicts or to minimize
- A biased approach should be avoided
- A common language should be used for communication to minimize misunderstanding.
- Individual must be respected for his skill / effort.
- Everybody should be made to realize that a team effort is required for efficient running of
the ship.
- Instructions / Directives should be clearly explained to all.

99. State the elements of strategies needed for improving performance from a
team member of engine room personal looked upon as an organization.
Underline the steps taken to reduce mutual conflict and clarify their role
The elements of strategies needed in a good manager / chief engineers are
Inspires a Shared Vision
An effective manager / chief engineer is often described as having a vision of where
to go and the ability to articulate it. Visionaries thrive on change and being able to
draw new boundaries. A U.S. Senator once said that a leader is someone who lifts
us up, gives us a reason for being and gives the vision and spirit to change.
Visionary leaders enable people to feel they have a real stake in the project. They
empower them to experience the vision on their own. According to Bennis They
offer people opportunities to create their own vision, to explore what the vision will
mean to their jobs and lives, and to envision their future as part of the vision for the
Good Communicator
The ability to communicate with people at all levels is almost always named as the
second most important skill by managers and team members. Leadership calls for
clear communication about goals, responsibility, performance, expectations and
feedback. There is a great deal of value placed on openness and directness. The
manager / chief engineer is also the teams link to the larger organization. The leader
must have the ability to effectively negotiate and use persuasion when necessary to
ensure the success of the team. Through effective communication, manager / chief
engineer support individual and team achievements by creating explicit guidelines for
accomplishing results and for the career advancement of team members.
One of the most important things a manager / chief engineer must remember is that
their actions, and not words, set the modus operandi for the team. Good leadership
demands commitment to, and demonstration of ethical practices. Creating standards
for ethical behavior for oneself and living by these standards, as well as rewarding
those who exemplify these practices, are responsibilities of manager / chief
engineer. Leadership motivated by self-interest does not serve the well being of the
team. Leadership based on integrity represents nothing less than a set of values
others share, behavior consistent with values, and dedication to honesty with self
and team members. In other words the leader walks the talk and in the process
earns trust.
Plain and simple, we dont like leaders who are negative-they bring us down. We
want leaders with enthusiasm, with a bounce in their step, with a can-do attitude. We
want to be believed that we are part of an invigorating journey-we want to feel alive.
We tend to follow people with a can-do attitude, not those that give us 200 reasons
why something cant be done. Enthusiastic leaders are committed to their goals and
express this commitment through optimism. Leadership emerges as someone
expresses such confident commitment to a project that others want to share his or
her optimistic expectations. Enthusiasm is contagious and effective leaders know it.
What is the difference between empathy and sympathy? Although the words are
similar they are, in fact, mutually exclusive. According to Norman Paul, in sympathy
the subject is principally absorbed in his or her own feelings as they are projected
into the object and has little concern for the reality and validity of the objects special
experience. Empathy, on the other hand, presupposes the existence of the object as
a separate individual, entitled to his or her own feelings, ideas and emotional history
(Paul 1970). As one student so eloquently put it its nice when a manager / chief
engineer acknowledges that we all have a life outside of work.
Simply put, to enlist in anothers cause, we must believe that that person knows what
they are doing. Leadership competence does not however necessarily refer to the
manager / chief engineers technical abilities in the core technology of the business.
Having a winning track record is the surest way to be considered competent.
Expertise in leadership skills is another dimension in competence. The ability to
challenge, inspire, enable, model and encourage must be demonstrated if leaders
are to be seen as capable and thus competent.
Ability to Delegate Tasks
Trust is an essential element in the relationship of a manager / chief engineer and
their team. You demonstrate your trust in others through your actions. How much
you check and control their work, how much you delegate and how much you allow
people to participate. Individuals who are unable to trust other people often fail as
leaders and forever remain little more than micro-managers, or end up doing all of
the work themselves. As one management student put it a good leader is a little
lazy. An interesting perspective!
Cool Under Pressure
A leader with a hardy attitude will take problems in stride. When a leader encounters
a stressful event, they consider it interesting, they feel they can influence the
outcome and they see it as an opportunity. Out of the uncertainty and chaos of
change, leaders rise up and articulate a new image of the future that pulls the project
together (Bennis 1997). And remember, never let them see you sweat.
Team Building Skills
A team builder can best be defined as a strong person who provides the substance
that holds the team together in common purpose toward the right objective. In order
for a team to progress from a group of strangers to a single cohesive unit, the leader
must understand the process and dynamics required for this transformation. He or
she must also know the appropriate leadership style to use during each stage of
team development. The leader must also have an understanding of the different
team players styles and how to capitalize on each at the proper time, for the problem
at hand.
Problem Solving Skills
Although an effective leader is said to share problem solving responsibilities with the
team, we expect our manager / chief engineers to have excellent problem solving
skills themselves. They have a fresh, creative response to here-and-now
opportunities, and not too much concern with how others have performed then.
Earned Value Management is a methodology used to measure and communicate the
real physical progress of a project taking into account the work complete, the time
taken and the costs incurred to complete that work.
Earned Value helps evaluate and control project risk by measuring project progress
in monetary terms.
We spend time and materials in completing a task. If we are efficient we complete
the task with time to spare and with minimum wasted materials. If we are inefficient
we take longer and waste materials.
We also plan how we will accomplish the task. How long it will take, the resources
we need and the estimated costs.
Following the above strategies and making each individual aware of these strategies
can reduce mutual conflicts amongst staff.
Also the individual should be motivated and make them realize the importance of
their job for the ship.
Teamwork should be explained to them as:
Team building is a process of awareness building.
Its helping people to understand that they are greater collectively than individually.
It is an understanding that all of our decisions will be better when some degree of
collaboration is applied.

100. As Chief Engineer Officer how will you motivate good inter
personal relationships and teamwork.

Ans. A Chief - Engineer officer has to be a good manager to achieve his goals safely and successfully.
On board a vessel, chief engineers goals are mostly related to physical work
such as maintenance of machinery and running of engine room operation
smoothly etc.
Jobs involved on board ship cannot be done alone or just with the involvement of 2 or 3
persons. If needs 'team work' and good 'Inter personnel relationship' among the team member
to complete a job smoothly and safety so it becomes very important for chief engineer to
inculcate good inter personal relationship and team work in the engine room staff to get the job
But there are some factors which causes dissatisfaction and de motivation on-board. Chief
Engineer should try to remove the causes for this dissatisfaction and de-motivation to achieve
his goals as teamwork.
Following are the reasons for dissatisfaction and denomination:-
1) Multinational crew onboard: Difference of culture, values language religion and poor
understanding of each others problem.
2) Reduced number of crew manpower: Leeds to overwork and work stress.
3) Commercial pressure: C Need to finish job within the short time frame, lead to overload and
extra working hours.
4) Frequent port of Call: Duties at port require more physical effort and longer working hours.
All these factors lead to do silly mistakes by a person. He adopts shortcuts to finish his job.
Following factors also leads to psychological stress and ultimately to de-motivation.
1) Problem at home e. g. family problem.
2) Not being relieved on time.
3) Difference of opinions among colleagues
4) Dissatisfaction with company policies / arguments with regard to salary / promotion / leave and
found on board.
Inter personnel Relationship : The key to good inter personnel relation ship is that the people
should know each other well so that they are able to understand the values, knowledge and the
skill other people do have. For this to happen people should come together so that they can
interact with each other. So chief engineer should try to ensure that people interact with each
other. Quite often this can be done by:-
i) Morning tool Box meeting : Should involve whole engine room staff during assigning the daily E /
Room work, safety precautions to be taken and suggestion for the improvement of work process
should be discussed.
ii) During tea Breaks : All E/Room personnel shook sit together for tea in the tea break session
during working hours where crew can discuss the work in progress or other things which they
feel to discuss.
iii) There should be training session onboard in which all crew sit together and in safety committee
meeting should try to ensure the participation of the maximum no of crew.
iv) People should sit together in officer lounge or crew lounge to watch movies or play games.
v) In a month there can be kept a day for sport where all the people should participate.
vi) Parties and get together should be organized so that people can inter act with each other.
If these above mentioned problems are addressed a good team work can be obtained while
maintaining good inter personnel relationship and goals can be achieved safely within time
frame and peacefully using resources properly.
To motivate the good inter personnel relationship and team work C/E should do the
1) C/E has to communicate with people onboard (E/R staff) one should create a trust in him of
others. C/E should understand the problems of individuals through open communication. Good
communication skills help to interact with each other and create good harmony among the
2) C/E should understand needs / grievances with respect to money / wages approval / promotion,
special recognition for good work by seeking to create a more transparent atmosphere so that
no ambiguities remain.
3) Recording Performance: Which will motivate the performer to work harder and create an
environment of "willingness to improve".
4) Assigning responsibilities to an individual / team for doing a particular job makes him feel
important (Give feeling of an important part of team and perform with greater skill and
5) Justifiable praising: which should be specific to his / her actual performance this makes
performer feel good" often a pat on back works under this motivated person will work harder
than who works for money
6) Conduct small gathering / parties / meeting: this makes the people to feel a part of the team,
interact and understand the others it helps in good inter personnel relationship and motivation.
7) Discuss problems regarding signing off, payment and through master contact the company office
to solve the problems.
8) Use common language which every crew understand, while communicating with others
9) Also try to ensure that food is served onboard without any discrimination.

101. As Chief Engineer on board stress the issues you will address for
lack of motivation, differences in attitude and to increase sense of
competitiveness for better management and effective control? Also
formulate a flow chart for a work programme to be availed within a
target date from a group of Engine Room Personnel of above
mentioned mixed thought processes.

Ans. Lack of Motivation: - Man is a social animal and to make him work in isolation
will lead to dissatisfaction and unnecessary stress. Companies often employ
multinational crew, which may lead to potential conflicts. In order to improve
profitability, companies try to reduce the number of crews on board to a
minimum. In case every thing works properly, there is no perceived problem. In
case something should go wrong, the manpower available is not sufficient to deal
with the problem. This is one of the main reasons leading to stress, which would
either be physical or psychological.
Reasons leading to physical stress & then to lack of motivation could be
reduction in manpower on ships to reduce costs or frequent calling at ports. This
leads to an imbalance in the human biological clock, when working/rest hours (in
port) are different from those at sea... Duties in ports may require far more
physical effort and longer working hours due to the work load completing the
work to sail.
Therefore officers and crew members, working in above environment, will
reveal typical symptoms of fatigue. Reasons leading to de-motivation could be:-
Problems at home/family end
Not being relieved on time which could lead to home sickness.
Differences of opinion among colleagues
Job pressures
Dissatisfaction due to companys policy; arguments with regards to
salaries/promotion/leave etc.,
Issues and reasons related to differences in attitude:-
INTEREST: - Different people have different interests in a work organisation.
In ships environment different people like different jobs. Some people are
expert in finding out solutions to a problem, some are very good in
workmanship, and some are good in planning. But, the problem is usually
confronted when these interest are not met. Thus attitude of a person
changes. KEITH DAVIS (professor of management in the School of Business
Indiana University) said, Human relations, an area of management practise,
are the integration of people in to work situation in a way that motivates them
to work together productively, cooperatively and with economic, psychological
and social satisfaction. It simply means that there should be no diversity in
interest; but an attempt should be made to integrate the interest of each
person with the interest of all others in the organisation.
COOPERATION: - No objective can be achieved without cooperation among
people. In shipboard management also if subordinates are not satisfied with
cooperation of their superiors, attitude of a person is bound to change as a
result, a problem of disobedience, lack of interest or even confrontational
behaviour itself will be evident. In KEITH DAVIS definition; secondly, principal
objectives of integration should be to secure the willing cooperation of the
employees. As a result of sincere efforts on the part of management, the
workman can be motivated to offer their willing cooperation for achieving the
targets of greater, better and cheaper production. In ships, an environment of
cooperation is essential due to diversity in kind of work/jobs required on board
at a given time. To do this, personnel have to understand each others comfort
and care for their help in any situation.
PERCEPTION: - Human beings react to different situations differently. Even
the same human beings may react to different situations differently at different
points of time. The way a human being looks at a thing is called perception.
It is worth noting that perception of a fact may not be the fact itself. Then
reality as it is and the reality as we see it may be quite different. As a matter
of fact we see realities in our own way and consider that to be the only way.
There are various need levels which a human being attempts to satisfy
through work; which was first written by Mr. A. H. MASLOW, known as

Maslow viewed human motivation as a hierarchy of five needs, ranging from
the most basic physiological needs to the highest needs for self actualization.
- Physiological needs are the most basic physical needs for food, water
shelter, etc. On shipboard environment, engine room temperature,
proper ventilation/E/R blowers; engine control room A/C not working
and accommodation A/C not functional or food served is not of taste,
then attitudes of people are definitely bound to change.
- Security needs are the needs for a safe and secure environment in the
work place. If people are not happy with wages, bonuses, etc; their
behaviour will show in negative approach towards job requirements.
- Belonging needs relate with their relationship with other ship staff. If
people are involved in backbiting, lot of politics, then peoples
behaviour will not be in favour of ships efficient running. Hence
atmosphere has to be guarded against these factors
- Esteem needs relate to pat on the back when certain jobs are done.
This creates lot of wonders. Every one wants word of appreciation
from others/superiors. That creates a lot of faith between themselves.
- Self actualization need relate to peoples self fulfilment. This is highest
& most matured approach towards a situation/persons. In this, person
wants to help others; impart some knowledge to them; guide them and
be happy in himself. These types of people to be regarded in same

As a manager, I have to be seeing always above stated needs
when dealing with persons on board. I have to see that where a person
concerned stands and accordingly I have to make an atmosphere of
cooperation, to increase fair competitiveness to achieve another step in
the hierarchy triangle. Once faith is established, manager has full control
over situations/persons.
People may have their own mixed thought processes; that means in
a group of people, some may be on first step or others may be on say
second or third step; but as far as manager knows where they stand and
why a particular person behaves in a particular manner. He has to act
according to that. Here, mixed thought processes and different attitudes
can be turned around to make positive effect on efficient running of ship.
FLOW CHART: - for a work program to be availed within a target date
from a group of engine room personnel of mixed thought processes.
Liner renewal within 12 hours
Ship Name :- M. V. Darya Ganj
Co. Name :- Chellaram Shipping (HK) Ltd., Hong Kong
Last departure port :- GOA (INDIA)
Arrival Port :- DALIAN (CHINA)
ETA :- 15
May07 @ 0200 hrs
Engine :- 6S42MC, MAN B&W
BHP :- 8370
Personnel :- C/E, myself, INDIAN; age 34 yrs
:- 2/E, Bangladeshi, -- 39 yrs
:- 3/E, Ukrainian, -- 39 yrs
:- E/O, INDIAN, -- 50 yrs
:- Fitter, INDIAN, -- 45 yrs
:- Oiler, INDIAN, -- 50 yrs
:- Tr. Wpr. 1, INDIAN, -- 22 yrs
:- Tr. Wpr. 2, INDIAN, -- 22 yrs
Perceived behavior & thinking of E/R personnel:-
2/E: - is in the company from long time, wants to pursue a career with
company and wants to become chief engineer as fast as possible. Full of
motivation, fast worker, but expects others also to be in same speed, but
looses control if expectations are not met. Do not get along well with fitter
and 3/E.
3/E: - is new in company and due for sign off; hence has casual attitude
and lacks in interest, motivation. Do not believe in PMS. Believes that if
this is working OK, why to open it. Very hard working but chooses work
according to his wish. Small jobs, he does not consider for himself. He is
not always obedient to me and 2/E.
E/O: - Old hand of company. Specialist in deck cranes and other electrical
jobs. Has good knowledge and experience. Has drinking habit, due to
which is not reliable. Does not like late night or early morning working.
Has complaining nature. Do not get along with C/O. But, gets along nicely
with 2/E and 3/E.
Fitter: - Old hand of company. Very hard working and full of motivation,
but highly short tempered. Likes others to work/help with him; especially
2/E. He wants superiors to give ideas for work. Does not like only orders,
expects others to have a discussion prior bigger, technical jobs. Does not
like late evening and early morning working.
Oiler: - Old hand. Not much interested in jobs. Wants to finish his time for
the day and leave E/R. Does only jobs which are ordered. Sometimes
shows short temper. Does not participate in technical job discussion.
Wants good overtime. Always complains about tr. wprs. Is not interested
in their training also.
Tr. wprs: - Both are young and obedient and hard working. Cannot be
given independent jobs, and they are under training.
On 1
May07, while making/checking maintenance status of Main
Engine, found out that a liner renewal is coming due this month. Spare
new liner is found OK after calibration. New piston rings made ready and
put in spare piston with new stuffing box after calibrations. During sailing
itself, spare piston removed and kept on cyl. head platform, i.e. on
14/05/07 pm.
I have checked tools with the help of 2/E.
1) Liner measuring tool
2) Feeler gauges
3) Liner lifting tool
4) Hydraulic jacks
5) Hydraulic p/p and pipes
6) All required spanners(told to fitter)
7) Crankcase job to 3/E; his spanner and jacks are made ready with
him. As he likes working independently, he himself has prepared for the
job. But, 2/E is in between checking all the tools. I have personally told
3/E that night 12 oclock will be 2 hrs notice; hence he can take leave
from E/R @ 1500 hrs, after preparing for crankcase job with oiler. He has
prepared and left, very happy as he is signing off and new 3/E (with
higher ticket) is signing on.
I have clearly communicated to Co. that new 3/E must be sent in the
morning or may be up to noon; so that new 3/E gives hand to old 3/E and
handing over-taking over is done timely.
Since job is lengthy and requires continuous stressful working, fitter
is also given rest @ 1500 hrs.
3/E @ standby has to call me and 2/E in the morning. Job is
scheduled to start @ 0630 hrs. My effort has been to make engine room
personnel happy and sufficiently rested before starting job. 2/E will stay
up to 1730 hrs, put watch in 3/E cabin and take leave. Now all tools
ready, job planning is:-
0630 to 8000 hrs cyl. head out & banjo bolts for quills out.
1000 hrs piston out
1200 hrs cyl. liner out
1300 hrs new cyl. liner in (people have lunch one by one and work
1400 hrs spare piston in
1500 hrs spare piston tightened and quills bolts tightened
1600 hrs cyl. head tightened
1700 hrs all connections finished
1800 hrs water opened up
1900 hrs engine to try out.
3/E is conveyed that, since he will depart @ 2000 hrs only and since
he has been working very hard and I had been happy with his jobs; hence
not to loose interest in the job; finish it with all his vigor and interest and
utilize new 3/E also fully.
New 3/E is told you have to help him as he is signing off and you
have to face the problem; if anything goes wrong and he has been offered
a promotion by Co. when present 2/E signs off. Hence he will be thorough
with all the jobs of Main Engine and fully responsible for this job. He is not
given the impression that I will be judging him for his promotion, and this
fact is communicated that I have all the faith in him (by body language),
but simultaneously watching him also.
The entire job finished at 2000 hrs as jacks started leaking. Liner
came out easily and new one went in easily. In between 2/E took over
crank case job and I was at cyl. head. 3/E took over fully. It has taken
13 hrs. 3/E has signed off happily with a warm hug by me and 2/E.
Happiness was there on every face and one tr. wpr. and fitter; 2/E
& E/O went out together for relaxation. Although people are of mixed
thinking, but if faith is developed and love and affection is communicated
honestly it does wonders

Man is a social animal and to make work in isolation will lead to dissatisfaction and unnecessary
stress. Many companies are trying hard to remove this dissatisfaction by implementing
motivational techniques as below.
i) Loyalty : Gearing greater trust, better communication and sharing problems. The sense
of belonging motivates the person to work for the team.
ii) Understanding needs / grievances w.r.t. money / wages apparel / promotion, special
recognition for good work by seeking to create a more transparent atmosphere, so that
no ambiguities remain.
iii) Rewarding performance, which will motivate the performer to work harder and create
an environment of willingness to improve.
iv) Justifiable praising as per performance, creates a feel good factor in the workers. Often a
pat on the back works wonders. The motivated worker will work harder than one who is
only doing it for money.
v) Responsibility helps the person to participate willingly as responsibility imparts a sense
of importance.
vi) Encourage in action thereby facilitating team work.
1. INCENTIVE PROGRAMME : Considering the motivational techniques, money can never
be overlooked as motivation. Whether in form of wages, bonus incentives etc. An
incentive program based on performances may be developed for the engine room and
deck crew on quality basis. This is turn increases the effectiveness and performance level
of the workers. Crew members may be rewarded for good work by either giving extra
overtime, bows etc. Junior officers may work harder for the much sought after
promotion, which in turn brings better wages. Thus incentive in any form increases the
over all effectiveness of the crew.
2. Long term personnel development concept : An individual is judged for his skill and job
competence special skills and innovative jobs should be recognized and entered in his
appraisal report, for further development without delay. By developing such a
transparent atmosphere individual will have long term in personnel relation
3. Human resources quality assurance : Shipping companies are very particular while
recruiting personnel for deployment on their ships. The background of the person is
known, and his qualification and last company records are checked. Their skills are
tested before finally employing them. These techniques are really working and quality of
personnel on board the ships is getting better day by day. An individual is also assessed
and appraised on board ships. On board training helps to improve the individuals over all
4. Attitude and motivation development : Shipping companies are trying various theories
to develop individual's attitude and motivation by applying techniques like positive
reinforcement, behaviour modification, stress relief etc. It may be in manner of
continuous employment in company and on rotation basis, so that the individual can
plan his leave and come back on finishing his leave, for better prospect and need of
money, self esteem, security etc. As a chief engineer, one should deploy techniques to
identify and slowly change the behaviour of dissatisfied personnel. Due to the
complexity of the world and increase in personal needs, competition is also increasing.
One has to prove that he can fit into any organization. The attitude and motivation is
also improving by the fear of losing job.
5. Emergency response : Each and every person should be allotted his duties in case of
different types of emergencies. All personnel should be educated about their duties and
responsibilities. Frequent drills and energizes on board ships help the personnel to be
familiar with the procedures and improves their response to any type of emergency
situation. Also during drills the important of team work is emphasized which motivates
people in acting faster and in an organized manner in any kind of emergency.
6. Training Programs : The drills conducted on board should be as realistic as possible. The
response of personnel is assessed and any need of training is considered. Training
programs make people more confident in all aspects of their jobs and enhances their
complements. Different techniques adopted for training may include videos, lifetimes,
demonstrations, computer based training programs etc.
7. COPING WITH STRESS : The personnel on board a ship are burned with the magnitude of
work due to reduced crew strength on ships. This along with the fear of doing something
wrongly, differences among various people and lack of sleep may lead to tremendous
amount of stress in the personnel living a way from home for months together
compounds this problem many folds. It is the duty of C/E to ensure that his staff do not
get over stressed. This can be done by encouraging better in the personnel relations,
praising persons for good jobs done, briefing them how to avoid mistakes and delegating
work so that nobody is overburdened. In addition to all these, talking personally to
people, engaging about their family and other personal matters sometimes helps in
keeping the environment cool and thereby reducing the chance of over stressing.

103. What planning means for a Chief Engineer being the technical head on
board ships and how he can determine in advance of a personnel
programme that will contribute to goals established for the vessel?

Ans. Role of Chief Engineer:- Chief Engineer being the head of engine room
department, can play a vital role in enforcing the elements of STCW training
such as:-
1) Identifying/training all seafarers who are newly employed on board ship
before they are assigned any duties.
2) Providing an opportunity to all newly joined seafarers to
a) Visit the spaces in which their primary duties will be performed,
b) Get acquainted with the location, controls and display features of the
equipment they will be operating or using
c) Activate the equipment when possible & perform the function using the
control on the equipment & clearing any doubt about the operation/safety
precautions to be followed
3) C/E should establish a time period, within which a newly joined person is fully
with area of his work, safe operation & maintenance procedures of
equipment, specific watch keeping, safety and environmental procedure
4) He can designate an officer who is responsible for giving training to a newly
joined person
5) He should make sure that drills are carried out in a realistic manner & during
drills he can judge the persons performance. If some crew members are
not performing up to the required standard additional training can be given to
6) Seafarers should be invited for discussion in meetings like safety meetings,
to make him feel he is part of this important system
7) Any short comings of an individual must be brought to his notice & further
training required on board given to him.
8) Regular training sessions should be conducted on board & crew member
should be invited to participate in the meeting

STCW 95 Section A- 1/6, deals with the training & assessment of seafarers. It
states that training and assessment of seafarers should be structured in
accordance with written programs which include methods/media of delivery
procedures and course material as are necessary to achieve the prescribed
standard of competency. Also Section B- 1/6 deals with the qualification of
instructors and assessors. It says that each party should ensure that instructors
and assessors are appropriately qualified and experienced, for the particular
types & levels of training or assessment of competence of seafarers.

A Training Program can be structured for an engine room personnel on board in
a following manner:-
Safety First :- Observe safe working practices
(a) Importance of safety
(b) Ship familiarization hazards
(c) Nature of ship board hazards
(d) Personal Protective Equipment
(e) Use of demonstration of L.S.A.
(f) Checklists for hazardous operations like hot work permit, enclosed
space entry
(g) Loading and unloading cargo
(h) Handling deck machineries
Operation & Maintenance of All Machineries :-
(a) Starting & stopping of M.E.
(b) Starting & paralleling of generators
(c) Operation & maintenance of auxiliary machineries including pumping
and piping system, auxiliary boiler plant, steering gear system, ref. &
a/c plant
(d) Manage F.O. & L.O. operations such that pollution of marine
environment is prevented
(e) Operation of all internal communication systems on board
(f) Methods for pollution prevention, pollution avoidance and
containment of pollutants
(g) Pollution by sewage from ships, pollution by garbage from ships,
pollution by oil from ships etc
(h) Contents of maintenance of log books, chemical consumption book,
spare part consumption book, work done book, oil record book.

Complying with Emergency Procedures :-
(a) Explain the term Emergency; as a situation which is a threat to life,
property or environment
(b) Types of emergencies i.e. fire, collision, grounding, piracy, terrorism,
flooding, electrical system failure resulting in black out, oil pollution
(c) Ship board contingency plans for response to emergencies
(d) Drills, musters & review to combat emergency situations
(e) Value and need of drills and training.

Understand orders and be understood in relation to ship board duties :-
(a) Importance of communication
(b) Methods of communication
(c) Barriers in communication
(d) Effective transmission skills
(e) Consequences of wrong & ineffective communication

Contribute to Effective Human Relationships on board ship :-
(a) Interpersonal relationships
(b) Team building & team work
(c) Health & hygiene on board.

If engine room personnel do not attain the standards within the
specified time periods of a well structured training program, the
person/s may need special shore-based training and the proposal
should be forwarded to the training cell of the company. The company
can then make sure that the person gets appropriate shore-based
training & can rejoin the ship later.

104. State definition of organisation and its key components. As a
Chief Engineer on board perceive how this issue can be best addressed for
effective crew and engine room management?

Ans. Organising is the process of arranging and allocating work, authority, and
resources among an organisations members so they can achieve an
organisations goals efficiently. Different goals, of course, require different
structures. E.g. an organisation that aims to develop computer software needs a
different structure than a manufacturer of blue jeans. Both requires organising
teams of professional having different skills. Thus managers must match an
organisations structure to its goals and resources, a process called
organisational design.
Key components of organising:-
1) list the work that needs to be done to accomplish organisation goals.
2) Division of work Divide the total work load into tasks that can logically &
comfortably be performed by individuals or groups.
3) Departmentalisation Combine tasks in a logical & efficient manner. The
grouping of employees & tasks is generally referred to as
4) Coordination Set up mechanisms for coordination. This integration of
individual, group & department efforts makes it easier to achieve goals.
5) Monitoring Monitor the organisational structures effectiveness & make
adjustments as needed.
In view of organising, the tasks/goals of a chief engineer are multi-faceted:-
Know and understand team members.
Assess, analyse & determine each individual members strengths &
Help team members in developing specific skills, based on various
situations encountered, in order to address the various challenges
likely to be faced.
Set goals, for the development of each member of the team.
Motivate by setting an example for others.

105. Establish relationship between power and control underline the various potential
barriers that must be overcome for successful implementation of crew management on board
Ans) Power may be defined as the ability or the potential ability of a person or a group to
influence another person or group. A key component of that definition is the concept of
influence as the means for affecting others. Another critical dimension of the definition is the
notion of the potential to influence others whereas control may be viewed as the process by
which management assures that the actual activities conform to what was planned. Controlling
assures that the right things are done in the right manner and at the right time.

Control is the managerial process for measuring progress towards planned
performances and when required taking corrective actions. Whereas power is
found in individuals who are managers or informal leaders. Scholars debate as to
how pervasively power networks affect any organisation, but same believe that
almost all interpersonal relationships are affected by power or by its potential.
In an organizational context, many people prefer to work for a superior, whos
successful at getting things dare and is able to obtain support from others. Such
a superior has power or clout and as a result can get:
(i) Better than average pay for subordinates
(ii) Good jobs and promotions for subordinates
(iii) Early warnings on policy shifts and procedural changes
(iv) Resources and expenditure approvals that exceed budget
(v) Personal access to top management decision makers

Control fulfills a member of organizational purposes. First, control helps to merge
short range and long range plans into a state of greater consistency. It makes certain
over long periods of time, that original goals and plans are still being followed:
Second, control helps bring consistency to the activities and accomplishments
throughout the organization in an ends means manner i.e., the final outcome of one
work unit becomes, the means or input by which the next work unit begins.
Third, control can help bring individual behaviors in line with organizational goals
by monitoring absenteeism working hours and performance
Thus, control is the mechanism by which organisations adapt to changing conditions
in the business environment mistakes and errors organizational complexity, costs
and delegation etc.
Man is a social animal and to make him work in isolation will bad to dissatisfaction
and unnecessary stress. Companies often employ multinational crew, which may
lead to potential conflicts. In order to improve profitability companies try to reduce
the numbers of crew on board to a minimum. In case everything works properly
there is no perceived problem. In case something goes wrong, the manpower
available is sometimes insufficient to deal with the problem. This is one of the main
reasons leading o stress which could either be physical or psychological.
Reasons leading to physical stress could be reduction in man power on ships to
reduce costs or frequent calling at ports. This leads to an imbalance in the human
biological clock, as working/rest hours (in port) are different from those at sea.
Duties in ports may require for more physical effort and longer working hours due
to the work load completing the work in time to sail. Hence, officers or crew
members working in the above environment, will reveal typical symptoms of fatigue
like.]a) Lack of invest/motivation b) Tendency to take short-cuts to somehow
complete the work on time c) Short tempers leading to conflicts over trivial issues.
d) Doing silly mistakes, out of carelessness/due to overwork.
Such a person could now be a potential hazard on board ships.
Reasons leading to psychological stress could be:
a) Problems at home/family end
b) Not being relieved on time, which could lead to home sickness
c) Differences of opinion among colleagues
d) Stringent dead-lines at work, job pressures
e) Dissatisfaction with company policies with regard to salaries, promotion, leave etc.

Officers/crew under psychological stress will reveal particular symptoms like
(i) Repeating mistakes
(ii) Become quarrelsome or obstructive
(iii) refusal to follow instructions
(iv) Reduced interaction/remaining in solitude withdrawal symptoms
(v) Reduced output/work efficiency some other potential barriers are as discussed

a) Lack of adequate and clear knowledge of the subject: This requires specific details
about the topic you wish to communicate without which you cannot guide anyone
b) Too much detailed communication whereby the message can become too complex
to be comprehensible only relevant material must be included, otherwise the
communication will end up being unnecessarily confusing and vague.
c) Lack of transparency in dealing with the crew should be avoided. Developing a
cooperative relationship, based on job related performance rather than a
command/race basis with motivate people to work as a team in a healthy
A common language should be used for communication to reduce the possibility of
misunderstanding orders. Team work and cooperation should be emphasized when
addressing a group.
If you have reason to believe that two or more people do not get along well together,
either get them to sort out their differences or, they should not be put together for
any particular task. They must be made to realize that we must always see each
others strength and not weakness. This can go a long way in overcoming the
potential barriers leading to an effective crew management.

106. As a team leader and resource manager identify the issues that
could be addressed for maximum utilisation of potential of technical
personnel on board ships. Examine the development in compensation and
benefit practices and trends followed thereof?

Ans. Resource management as a team leader is very important and can be discussed under
the following heads.

1. Incentive programmes.

2. Long term personal development concept

3. Human Resource quality assurance

4. Attitude and motivation development

5. Emergency Responses.

1. Incentive programme :- Incentive is normally a reward that encourages on action or efforts on
board various motivating procedure and techniques are followed to encourage people to
carryout their work. Hard work should always be recognized and appreciated person can be
various types on board for eg a person can be given early off. Once he reaches target job for the

He can also be given little extra overtime for quality & quantity of job input for the crew
hours is not just the sum of money. It's the port of recognition.

2. Long term personal development concept:- It is gaining attention in all the industries service
providers sector especially. In shipping most of the company follow the practice of keeping
personal on contract basis and one the contract is over company has nothing to do financially
with the seafarer. It is difficult to retain talent as people get altercated to the monitory benefits
offered by other companies so it is essential for the companies to retain talent for long term use
and their personal development.

Different methods & means are employed by the companies to retain seafarers like for eg pay
round the year wages or put the seafarer to the same vessel or sister vessel etc.

Small favors done by companies can go a long way in developing personnel relationship between
company and seafarers.

Human Resource Quality Assurance

It is notified that 20% of the accidents in shipping are caused by human error. He operating
hands are more valuable concern than the equipment quality of personal employed onboard is
achieved by following techniques of management with respect to selection of seafarer. Training of
seafarer and subsequent exposer of seafarer with the environment.

Manning dept need to asses the potential of seafarer prior selecting them.

Various psychological, professional & aptitude tests are carried out followed by through
personal interview. Right person for the right job at right time is selected.

Altitude and Motivation Development

Most successful leaders have learned to understand the concept of human motivation and are
able to use that understanding to achieve high standards of subordinate work performance.

107. As a Chief Engineer how do you perceive an error committed by
an engine room staff? While classifying an error common onboard ships
state a modality to prevent such occurrence.

Ans. As a chief engineer, perception of an error committed by an engine room staff
depends on whether the staff member is a rating or an officer. If the staff is a
rating, then the chief engineer need not take it so seriously since the rating need
not have much expertise and responsibility. The rating needs to be told to be
careful the next time he does something. Preferably, he should do it under the
supervision of an officer till the rating gains enough confidence to do the job
If the error is committed by an officer, it should be viewed with seriousness
especially if the officer is a senior person. This is because an officer should have
sufficient expertise and responsibility to do the job correctly on his own and also
to guide his juniors.
Irrespective of whether an officer or a rating is involved, if there is evidence
or suspicion of foul play, the matter should warrant a serious investigation and
consequent disciplinary action against the guilty party.
If a person on board is under-performing, he/she needs to be politely but
firmly told that such a state of affairs will not be tolerated. The person who is at
fault, should never be humiliated in front of his juniors or in front of others. This
will only lead to loss of self esteem and a vindictive attitude. It will not improve his
performance. Instead, he should be told in private about the error. Constructive
criticism should be offered. The sandwich treatment should be meted out, i.e.
praise, then criticise, then praise again. The person should be made to
understand that his wrong action, is being targeted and not he as a person.
Proper communication skill should be used in dealing with the concerned person.
Make sure that the person understands what he is told. Find out the reason why
the error was made. It could be because of lack of knowledge, reluctance to do
that job, lapse of concentration or some personal problem or some health
problem. The underlying cause should be identified and corrective action taken.
Another way to prevent error is for an officer to use his judgement while allocating
work. People who have difficulty in getting along with each other should not be
made part of the same team. Before allocating work, see whether the concerned
person is capable of doing the work alone or he needs supervision or assistance.
Also, people who have a liking for a particular job, should, as far as possible, be
given that job. E.g. a rating who likes to overhaul an auxiliary engine cylinder
head, should be allocated that work; while some other rating can be made to
clean the engine room.

109. Classify the common type of technical and humane crisis
situation prevalent on board ships? In each case as a Chief Engineer
how do you propose to plan, manage and handle such situations
arising on board?

Ans. The common types of situations are as follows:-
1. Deficiency in Knowledge and skill: There could be bad relationship of a
subordinate with his/her immediate superior or with co-workers; e.g. a
person having insufficient knowledge or poor skills could be unaware that
his/her work is not up to the mark. This could lead to erroneous
perception, that he/she is being victimised by the superior.
2. Different styles of functioning: This may happen, when a superior
doesnt make expectations/style of functioning clear upfront. E.g. a new
chief engineer joins a vessel and starts pushing his staff for not providing
him the required inputs, which he has not specified, unaware that his
methods are different in comparison with the outgoing chief engineer who
preferred to collect data himself and neglected to train staff in doing the
3. Breakdown of Support system:- This could arise if there is poor
technical support or lack of communication with the ship staff, which
would then be de-motivated, i.e. not interested in
communicating/completing the work assigned to them.
4. Broken promises:- Integrity means that you Do what you say. Dont
make promises that you cannot keep. If this happens then the team will
loose all enthusiasm to perform their duties as they loose trust in your
words. Examples of such promises could be; those made for promotion
after a short interval, but finally not granted during the contract, refusal of
overtime/allowances which were earlier given, refusal of supply of
personal protective equipment, when same is needed as per SMS,
budgeting supply of important spares, etc,. If something is not in your
power to grant, make this known in your dealings, so that it should not be
misunderstood as a broken promise.
Success is the achievement of ones goals. All the above listed issues are
important for safe running of the ship & profitability of ships operations.
Safety on a ship is critically dependent on not just the safe running of various
machinery, but also on the existence of the values and relationships the
officer and crew have with each other. It is not always the tech savvy
approach that makes the difference in safety, but the relationship the people
build that may play a greater role.
Failures of any machinery item, may not necessarily lead to an accident. As
a matter of fact, in the majority of accidents reported the single largest cause
is mistake done by staff despite knowing how and when a task is to be done!
This is difficult to pinpoint. One of the likely cause is in the wrong attitudes of
people, like lack of motivation.
A chief engineer has a very important role as a manager basically to keep
conflicts among his staff to minimum, so that it doesnt affect working
atmosphere in the engine room.
Interpersonal conflict can occur due to:
A. Personality clashes
B. Human expectations
C. Lack of communication skills
D. Poor organisation
E. Wrong style of functioning
F. Limited resources
G. Drug and alcohol abuse
Such matters which may lead to conflict, should be taken by the chief engineer
and resolved at the earliest by holding a joint meeting between the concerned
parties. He should make them understand the importance of team in running the
vessel and how their conflicts may lead to safety being jeopardised. Both parties
must be led as far as practicable to a win-win situation. A close interpersonal
relationship is maintained by building trust, acceptance and support.
Apart from the above the C/E must:-
- Ensure healthy environment on board ship
- Have good managerial skills to get best out of the limited manpower
- Have good technical skills to advice his staff in proper running and
maintenance of ship machinery
- Ensure good planning and proper utilisation of time(work/rest hours)
- Select right person for a particular job
- Conduct training sessions to ensure competency of his staff
- Management of spares & stores efficiently and economically
- Manage F.O. & L.O. consumption, record regularly and investigate any
deviation from normal
- Communicate effectively from time to time with the office to avoid
unnecessary reminders
- Ensure proper housekeeping
There is no thumb rule or formula to resolve conflicts and one should go by
his/her own judgements and experience. Adopt strategies based on rather than
prejudices, to achieve trouble free peaceful relationships, which would yield
positive results

110. What is perception and perceived behaviour? As a Chief Engineer
on board how do you foresee such issues can be a critical area in man

Ans. Perception:- is the set of processes by which an individual becomes aware of
and interprets information about the environment. Basic perceptual processes
that are particularly relevant to organisation are:- (1) Selective Perception
and (2) Stereotyping
Selective Perception:- is the process of screening out information with which we
are uncomfortable or that contradicts our beliefs, e.g. suppose manager is
exceptionally fond of particular worker. The manager has a very positive attitude
about the worker and thinks he is a top performer. The manager may notice the
worker goofing off. Selective perception may cause the manager to quickly forget
what he observed. Similarly manager might form a negative image of a particular
worker. In such case the manager may not recognize the good job done by the
same worker; hence it may be quite detrimental.
Stereotyping:- is the process of categorizing or labelling people on the basis of
single attribute. Common attributes from which people often stereotype are face
and gender. Of course, stereotypes along these lines are inaccurate and can be
harmful. For example, suppose that manager forms the stereotype, that women
can perform only certain tasks and that men are best suited for other tasks. This
can affect managers hiring practices. On the other hand, certain forms of
stereotyping can be useful and efficient. Suppose manager believes that common
skills are important for a particular job and that communications majors tend to
have exceptionally good communication skills. As a result, at the time of
interviewing he pays close attention to speech communications major.
As a chief engineer, selective perception will affect the performance of his
staff. Say even though third engineer is doing his job satisfactorily, but to chief
engineer has already made up his mind. This will not help the full potential of third
engineer to be exploited. The company on the other hand may loose this
persons service in future. Senior management personnel must judge person
based on the facts rather than selective perception.
Stereotyping perception; say a person may not be able to express himself
properly even though he understood his job. Well , in such case chief engineer
has to judge person at work rather than judging him on the basis of his
communication skills.
Stereotype perception of his boss may dissuade him from taking initiative.
Sometimes it is necessary for chief engineer to leave his office, if not always to
evaluate competence of his team on site. At other times chief engineer may have
come across different nationalities of crew on board. Under such circumstances it
becomes all the more important to exercise professional judgement based on
facts rather than perception to deal with people on board and run engine room.

111. Perceived threat is a critical issue in Organisational Management.
Underline how this issue can affect the day- to- day functioning of
Engine Room and ship and also instability arising out of it. How the
situation may be countered?

Ans) Modern day seafarers work in multi-cultural environment. People from
different cultures have different beliefs values and attitudes such delivered
backgrounds can lead to differences of opinion/perception of any situation. Since
different persons may perceive a situation differently which may create problems on
Generally attitude and behaviour make a person liked or disliked among others in a
group. Like minded people tend to form closer association at the work place. This
could be viewed as grouping by others. Especially in a multi national set up such
diverse behaviors can lead to conflicts.
This gets more pronounced when a superior may not approve of a subordinate who
is not another culture although they appear to be working together towards similar
goals the work can be hampered by these perceived differences. Since both may
perceive a situation differently even though the end goal is the same. These conflicts
and divisions on board a ship can seriously hamper not just the team effort but also
become a safety hazard and cal also affect the day to day functioning of the engine
room and the ship as a whole. These inter personal conflicts can be resolved by
taking into consideration the nature of differences between people of different
nationalities/cultures working together on board a ship. As far as possible an
amicable solution could be found where acceptance at differences without conflict
can be agreed upon.
Developing a cooperative relationship based on job related performance rather than
on communal/race basis will motivate people to work as a team in a healthy
atmosphere. As far as possible a biased approach should be avoided by examining
your own behaviour and prejudices so that these should not come in the way of a
fair treatment to all. Everybody resents unfairness your dealings should be
transparent and based on tact such that there is no ambiguity or scope for bias. A
common language should b used for communication to reduce the possibility of
misunderstanding orders. Team work and cooperation should be emphasized when
addressing a group although individual efforts are also important. Every individual
must be respected for his/her skill and effort irrespective of nationality and culture.
This will increase trust and will finally result in dedication towards duties assigned.
If you have reason to believe that two or more people do not get along well together
either get them to sort out there different or they should not be put together for any
particular task. They can be advised in confidence about how their conflicts and
resentment can atleast others and hamper cooperation they must be made to realize
that we must always see each other strength and not weakness. This can go a long
way in resolving interpersonal conflicts and bring a harmonious atmosphere on
board. A chief engineer must lead by example.

112. Continued physical and psychological stress is a common
phenomenon on board ships. State the salient indicative changes in
crew behaviour criterion to identify such problems and formulate a
strategy to best encounter such a situation at sea.

Ans) Man is a social employ multinational crew, which may had to potential
In order to improve profitability, companies try to reduce the number of crew and
manpower available is not sufficient to dial with the problem. This is one of the main
reason leading stress which could be either physical or psychological.
Reasons leading to physical stress could be reduction in man power on ship to
reduce cost ore frequent calling at port. This leads to imbalance in human biological
clock, when working rest hours in port are different from the those at sea.
Duties in port require for most physical efforts and longer working hours due o the
work load.
Therefore officers and crew members working in above environment will have
typical symptoms of fatigue/stress like
a) Lack of interest/motivation
b) Tendency o take short cuts o some how complete the work at time
c) Short tempers
d) Doing silly mistakes out of carelessness/due o over work
e) Frustration
f) Blaming people or colleagues for mistakes
Reasons leading to psychological stress could be
a) Problem at home, family and
b) Not leaving relived on time lead to home sickness
c) Difference of opinion among colleagues
d) Job pressure
e) Dissatisfaction with company policies, arguments with regard to salary/promotion leave etc
f) Dissatisfaction with food quality
g) Dissatisfaction with the welfare provisions i.e., entertainment onboard.

Officers and crew under psychological stress will reveal particular symptoms like:
a) Repeating mistakes
b) Become quarrel some or obstructive
c) Refusal to follow instructions
d) Reduced interaction /withdrawl symptoms
e) Reduced output/work efficiency

motivation theory can be applied to such persons to change them by asing
a) Loyalty: Creating greater trust, better communication and sharing problems. The
sense of belonging will motivate the person may work for them
b) Understanding nuds, grievances with respect to money/wages,
appraisal/promotion, special recognition for good work
c) Rewarding performance, which will motivate the performer o work harder and
create an environment of willingness to improve
d) Justifiable praising which should be specific to his/her actual performance. This
make the performance feel good. The motivated person works harder than one who
is only doing it for money
e) Responsibility: This helps the persons to willingly participate. This is an important
factor, greatly affecting motivation assigning responsibility for doing a particular job
makes a person feel important
f) Encourage interactions: This is to help the member in sorting out is uses amongst
g) Genuine Empathy: Understanding the person, will improve relationship hence the
performance of every individual in the team.











114. Define Communication and its importance? How it can be
the root of all personnel problems arising onboard ships ?

Ans. Communication:- It is the transfer of ones ideas to another for mutual
benefit. Communication is said to be effective when delivered at the right
time. Communication provides a means by which human element of the
system can be motivated such that the plans are executed willingly and
enthusiastically; thus more effectively. Hence communication plays vital role
in motivating a person even though there are differences in attitude of
people. If communication is not established properly, then lack of motivation
can result in the group. This is known as communication barrier. These are
as follows:-
+ Badly expressed message
+ Defective and faulty translation/interpretation
+ Media transmission loss(attenuation)
+ Inattention of receiver
+ Premature evaluation
+ Distrust between the communicator and recipients of the message
+ Unclassified assumptions by the sender as well as the receiver
+ Failure to communicate in time
+ Insufficient adjustment period for the receiver and sender
All above stated shortcomings can be overcome by:-
1. Immediate feedback and verification
2. Communicate face to face as far as possible
3. Be sensitive to receivers reaction
4. Time your communication carefully
5. Reinforce words with actions
6. Use simple language
7. Convey in symbols as far as possible and also be aware
of symbolic meanings
8. Provide proper orientation
9. Have informal relations
10. Reorganize wherever necessary
11. Ensure against redundancy.(Repetition of same things)
Then there are certain guidelines for effective communication:-
Plan your communication properly
Know your own abilities and limitations
Cash on your abilities and weakness of opponents
Verify your ideas before communication
Consult others where necessary
Communicate at right time
Put right information in right amount
Be consistent with follow-up action and feedback
Make your message original, colourful and interesting
Gain interest and attention first
Execute thoroughly
As communication structure has 3 kinds of flow of communication;
which may be called official:-
1) Downward
2) Upward
3) Lateral
But 3
one is most important i.e. INFORMAL
Hence communication has to be properly utilised among colleagues as
well as superiors and subordinates; to create an atmosphere full of faith,
trust and competiveness.

115. State the types of communication envisaged on board ? Analyse its flow and how
they can be best improved which generally experienced onboard ships ?
Feed back is important to make sure other person is understood your intentions
& your ideas are explained properly.
- To avoid misinterpretation.
- To know the status of the given command or request to make sure,
involvement of both the parties.
- For continuous improvement in the system.
It is always advisable of having close loop communication instead of open loop
communication to avoid communication barriers to effective executive of command /
If the communication is open loop, then there are certain barrier which can lead to
any miss-happenings or accidents. Ex. Fear barrier, anxiety barrier. psychological
barrier, physical barrier, social barrier; language barrier; cultural barrier; economic
barrier, & barrier of hierarchy etc.
Eg. : On board the ship during de-ballasting operation, chief officer or duty officer
asked the duty engineer from tank 1p to 2p but because of no feed back
communicate from the engine side due to the engine room noise, duty engineer by
mistake change over the tank to 3 port which was already empty during previous de-
ballasting operation & on deck chief officer, on assuming that the tank is full & will
take certain time for the sounding to go down; he didnt check the sounding; but as
the tank was already empty the pump runs dry for a long time leading to over heating
of the parts & ultimately to the seizure.
Now after doing the case study it was found that there was no feed back from the
duty E/R Engineer & because of bad or lack of communication, he changed over the
wrong tank which leads to an accident. Had he given the feed back, then duty officer
would have corrected then & there to prevent any breakdown.
The table below gives the information richness & different media.
information richness Medium feedback type of
language source
High face to face immediate Personal body, natural
High / Moderate Telephone personal /
fast personal Natural
Moderate formal / written slow personal Natural
Moderate / slow Formal / written Very Slow Impersonal Natural
Low Formal / Numeric Very slow Impersonal Natural

116. With the advent of information technology there had been a
revolution in communication between ship to shore personnel.
Discuss its types, barriers, problems arising thereof and ways of
improving such issues?

Ans. Now a days information Technology has entered the field of marine
communication as well. Things which were thought to be impossible have
become possible today due to advent of information Technology in maritime
communication. Communication now a days have become economical, easier
and more reliable information Technology can be used for nautical
communication and achieve safety needs at sea. Various types of communication
achievable through it are GPS, GMDSS, fleet tracking, vessel monitoring,
messaging and communication technologies that will keep the ship in touch with
feet and shore organisation it provides reliable and high value communication.
Companies like inmarsat, network innovations, iridium are active players in
maritime communication e. g. network innovations has different communication
systems suitable for different uses like few are more suitable for ocean going
vessels and other for near coastal vessels. prominent features of some of
reputed omm. systems like fleet 77, fleet 55, fleet 33 are
+ High speed communication too (128 kbps with ISDN connection)
+ Provides with phone, Fax, email, Internet services (24/7)
+ Meets with latest GMDSS requirements
+ Global voice distress function.
+ Email
+ Fax, Voice calls, Distress calls, VPN & LAN connections
+ Video conferencing
+ Position Reporting
+ Onshore management system
Problems, causes and remedies in communication :
As these communication systems are used on the ships which move around
the globe and can be at the middle of the oceans, thousands of miles away from
land, these systems have to be highly reliable. Only specialised companies do
this job of providing uncompromising services.
Main problem areas are familiarising the ships crew with correct operational
procedures of the equipment. Main problems occur due to improper, handling of
the equipment. Crew should be trained, familiarised with equipment and
operation procedures using the Application notes, user manuals and service
guides provided by the maker, only competent persons should be allowed to
handle the equipment.
Minor problems can be solved using the trouble shooting guidlines given by the
maker of the equipment.
These ompanys have a 24/7 monitoring and technical support system
operational for a problem which can not be tackled onboard the maker company
should be contacted. They will suggest a solution of send a person to help the
ship ASAP contact details for this technical support should be always kept ready.
If it is a high priority matter, it should be specially mentioned in the support
request made to the maker company.

117. Underline the general procedures followed for flow of
information among ships personnel. Considering you being the
Chief Engineer on a ship having multinational crew how the
process of effective information to the team can be approached
by you and also how a certain instruction received by you from
shore office for engine management can be best utilised?

Ans. General flow of information on board from office or vice versa is as follows:-
i. E-mails
ii. Telex
iii. Fax
iv. Telephone
v. Technical circulars, videos, etc.
Information received on board is sorted out and routed by master to various


Master sorts out the information received from shore/office to engineering
and deck departments and pass it on to responsible persons as the case may be.
Certain information not required to pass to crew, master discusses the
matter with departmental head as may be. Information regarding safety, pollution
prevention, security related issues can best be conveyed by conducting ships
crew meeting. In these meetings issues can be discussed and difficulty of crew in
understanding any of the matter can be addressed & resolved.
Certain meetings must be conducted before arrival port. Master must
address crew regarding the port schedule, loading/discharging etc.
From office, various circulars are sent to ships regarding pollution
prevention, safeties, various incident reports. Such circulars must be kept
available at common place so that people during free time, go through it. Such
circulars must be read and signed by crew & same matter can be discussed
during safety committee meeting for proper understanding & implementation.
Also feedback can be taken from crew for implementing previously discussed
topics, any problems therein have to be resolved.
Information can be passed on showing videos & followed by feedback
In case of multi-national crew, understanding the matter becomes difficult.
Then as a chief engineer following ways can be used:-
a. Paste the important safety instructions translated in their
b. Showing them drawings, photographs.
c. If at all instructions are in English, it should be simple, short
and to the (not descriptive)
d. Proper meetings to be organised by chief engineer for engine
room staff explaining them the scope of information.
Requirements from ship personnel & feedback taken from
them to ascertain that information is understood clearly by
each of them.
As a chief engineer he has to make sure proper information is conveyed to
the staff, understood by them and complied with as required.

118. Why is feedback so important to communication? Considering a
common example of an incident onboard ships list some guidelines for the
effective use of feedback ?

Ans. Definition of Communication :
Any act by which one person gives to or receives from another person information
about that person's needs, desires, perception, knowledge or affective states.
Communication may be intentional or unintentional, may involve conventional or
unconventional signals, may take linguistic or non linguistic forms and may occur
through spoken or other modes,
Feed back is communication to a person or a team of people regarding the effect
their behavior is having on another person.
Feedback plays a very imp role in successful communication. Without feedback, one
may be able to convey his message across but may not be sure whether the other
person has understood the message the way he wanted to. There should always be
a two-day communication for better results.
Effective feedback is specific and not general. It is always on a specific behavior. It
involves sharing of information and observations. It doesn't include advice unless
you have permission or advice was requested. Effective feedback is well timed. The
main purpose of constructive feed back is to help people understand where they
stand in relation to expected job behavior.
An example of on board ship incident will help us understand better.
Consider a situation where a decarburization of a generator needs to be done while
sailing. The chief engineer asks the 4th eng to be prepared in all aspects and to
report to him after consulting with the 2nd eng. Here he conveys his message across
to the 4th eng. Now if the 4/e asks him back about the time and date he would want
to carry out the decarb so that he can well prepared availability of essential spares
and tools required for decarb without which the entire process would not take
Guideline for effective use of feedback.
To be most effective feedback should be
1. timely
2. Specific
3. 'owned' by giver
4. understood by receiver
5. delivered in a supportive climate
6. followed up with an action plan.

119. Briefly summarise the four selfs in the Johari Window. What
Implications does each have for interpersonal conflict onboard?

Ans) In any management it is very important to develop Interpersonal skills for
manager while there are many methods skills, that a manager has to develop to
attain the goals assigned developing interpersonal skills is considered to be meet
The quality of Interpersonal relationship is largely affected by the manner in
which parties relate to each other. How to relate to or affect another person,
reflects our personality. In order to develop a close and binding relationship all
parties must expose themselves to each other, so that they can really get o know
each others strengths and weakness.
Joseph luff and Harry Ingham developed a conceptual way of developing
Inter personnel skills
The Johari Model reflects how people expose themselves to each other and
receive feedback in there interpersonal relationship.
In this model a square box has been made and divided into 4 equal parts.
ARENA (Information/feelings known neutrally and shared with others)
BLIND-SPOT (Known duly to others)
CLOSED (Known duly to self)
DARK (Unknown to self or others)











Every person has to develop in such a manner that the area marked arena
increases which will result in the decrease of other areas i.e., the blind , closed
and dark areas i.e., keep decreasing. A good manager has to develop the Arena
as much as possible
Implications of the model:--
Whenever the Arena is small, free and spontaneous interactions will be minimum. If the
Arena is large there will be a greater chance of participation, in any relationship, to make
any perceptual judgement of each other. This perceptual judgement helps the parties to
achieve/develop realities and mutual expectations meeting these expectations improves
relationships. As arena increases closed area or private self shrinks. It does not become
necessary to hide or deny things especially or known matters.
Self disclosure is the act of showing respect for an sharing intimacy with another person. Such
an act of sharing requires much trust in another person and is likely to encourage the another
person to follow suit in trusting you. There can be no team work without trust.
Feed back reduces blind spot area help to increase our self awareness. Others see us by our actions
which may not be clear to the self. Unless we receive this feedback we will not know, as to how our
behaviour/ actions have influenced others. Without any feedback we are likely to be blind o their
feelings and reaches

120. What are the various kinds of conflict? Explain any one of them
experienced onboard ships and means to prevent the same?

Ans. A conflict may be defined as a disagreement between individuals or groups or
a process in which a person makes an effort to offset the work of another
person, depriving him/her of the wanted result. This leads to frustration and
gives birth to a conflict between the two persons. A conflict can also be
described as the actual or threatened use of force in any social relationship.
Conflicts are normally expected in a group, especially in the early stages of
group formation. Conflicts have been found to have a strong negative influence
on organisational performance. The causes of interpersonal conflicts on board
can be:-
1. Limitation of Resources: On board a ship, the organisational resources
can be information, materials or human resources etc. An example of
material resource limitation can be a lack of some particular spare parts on
board which are required for overhauling of some equipment. The C/E on
board wants to start the job but 2/E is against it as spares are not
available. An example of human resource limitation may be that
simultaneously 2 or 3 operations are going on, and due to the shortage of
crew members, one of the operations are getting affected; and the person
in charge for the particular operation is getting overloaded. Above
situations may lead to conflict. As a good manager one has to keep in
mind these factors and should discuss and plan things according to the
availability of resources.
2. Competition:- If the competence of only one person is rewarded, this may
create some dissatisfaction among others. For example if someone gets
good appraisal report or gets a promotion, then some other persons on
board may feel isolated or overlooked. In such cases, a face to face
confrontation could be best way to resolve the conflict. Or unfair
competition need not be practised to avoid the start of a possible conflict.
3. Personality Clashes:- These occur due to differences in (a)values
(b)goals (c)attitudes (d)expectations. Due to such differences person
cannot get along with each other or do not seem to agree on anything.
Special management skills are required to resolve such problems.
4. Communication Breakdown:- Defective or inadequate communication
may cause misunderstanding and conflicts may occur among people and
groups. To resolve the conflict communication needs to be restored.
Resolving Conflict::- Conflict is a natural ingredient in every organisation,
so the manager must have to resolve it to achieve the organisational
goals. The following strategies may be used:-
Constructive Confrontation: It is a deliberate attempt to help another
person examine his behaviour. It provides feedback that is useful and
harmless. In shallow relationships one party may ignore the behaviour of
the other, but in mature relationships, this is not the case and constructive
confrontation is helpful in fortifying the relationship on board a ship. If two
persons are having a conflict, as a manager one should engage the
persons concerned in such activity and supervise the proceedings if
required. Another path could be to confront the persons involved
separately and resolve the conflict. As a manager in this situation, one
should be completely impartial.
Since the total no. of persons on board is very less and is
continuously being reduced or changed, it is very important that deep
rooted relationships are made and harmony must exist so that
organisational goals can be achieved smoothly.
This requires the top management personnel on board to be good
managers themselves and maintain good relations among themselves as
these helps in better inter-departmental co-operation. Communication
barriers must be removed to the extent possible. Social gatherings must
be organised as they help in strengthening the relations. Sufficient rest
must be given to personnel as far as possible, lack of which can generate
stress inducing behavioural changes leading to conflicts.
Other strategies are use of power, i.e. superiority of rank are also
there, but such practices lead to dissatisfaction of at least one of the
parties and hence must not be used. Open discussions involving all crew
members may prove helpful in cementing the relationship and reduction of

121. Describe the elements in management to counter sources of
conflicts in an Organisation? Considering such conflict has arisen on a
ship due to cultural and social diversity.

Ans) When trying to resolve conflicts the strategies adopted should always aim at
achieving a win-win situation, unlike most cases where people think win-lose
which actually turns out to be lose-lose because the lack of teamwork causes
combine effort to be ineffective.
Present days seafarers work in multi-culture environment. Onboard people are from
different beliefs values, attitudes and background which may create conflict among
them. These conflicts onboard ship can seriously hamper not just the team effort and
efficient running of the vessel, but could also become a safety hazard.
This Interpersonal Conflicts can be resolved by taking into consideration the nature
of differences between people of different nationalities/cultures working together
onboard a ship. As far as possible, an amicable solution could be found, where
acceptance of differences without conflict can be agreed upon.
Developing a cooperative relationship, based on job related performance rather than
on communal/race basis will not motivate people to work as a team in a healthy
atmosphere. As far as possible a biased approach should be avoided by examining
your own behaviour and prejudices so that these should not come in the way of fair
treatment to all your dealing should be transport and based on fact.
A common language should be used for communication to reduce the possibility of
misunderstanding orders. Team work and cooperation should be emphasized when
addressing a group although individual efforts are also important. Every individual
must be respected for his/her skill and effort, irrespective of nationality and culture.
This will increase trust and will finally result in dedication towards duties assigned.
If you found two or more people do not get along well together, either get then to
sort out differences or do not allot task together. They can be advised in confidence
about how their conflicts and resentment can affect others and hamper cooperation.
They must be made to realize that we must always see each others strength and not
weakness. This can go a long way in resolving Interpersonal Conflicts and bring a
harmonious atmosphere on board.

122. Considering Engine Room operation as a vital system onboard,
discuss the influence of human factor in the same? What will be the
common characteristics of such a system- Explain with example
prevalent on board?

Ans. An organized enterprise doesn't exist in a vacuum. Rather, it is dependent on its external
environment, it is a part of larger systems such as the industry to which it belongs the economic
system. Thus the enterprise receives inputs, transforms them and exports the outputs to the
environment. Any organisation must be described by an open system model that includes
interactions between the enterprise and the external environment. Considering the ship, the Engine
room is a subsystem responsible for propulsion power and maintenance of all machinery or the ship.
The inputs from the external environment may include people, capital, managerial skills as well as
technical knowledge and skills.


Consider the human factor one of the inputs to the system i.e. the engine room on board a
The individuals involved have needs and objectives that are important to them some of the
needs are
- Basic material (food, shelter, security)
- Job security
- Needs of affiliation acceptance esteem
- Self actualization
Many companies today employ multinational crew our board. People from different
countries not only have different cultures, but have different beliefs, values and attitudes. This kind
of backgrounds can lead to differences in opinions perceptions which may create problems on board
In an organization conflicts can be due to
- Unnaturally competitive environment
- Differences in values, goals, attitudes expectations.
- Stereotyped behavior stubbornness unfair decisions or wrong judgment due to some
- Misunderstanding lack of understanding or communication.
- Ego
Conflicts may be actual or even threatened, with the misuse of force, which proves a
hindrance in any continuing social or working relationship Interpersonal conflicts create an
unhealthy atmosphere on board. It not only affects the efficient running / operation of the vessel
but could also become a safety hazard.
Man is a social animal to make here work in isolation will lead to dissatisfaction and
unnecessary stress. On board a ship, a persons place of work and rest is the same. As a result of
which there is dissatisfaction stress and demonstration.
Some of the reasons for dissatisfaction are :
- Multinational crew on board (deff. in culture values, language beliefs)
- Reduced manpower (overwork)
- Commercial pressures (user / faster)
- turn around times
- Frequent part of calls.
Also a person can get demonstrated because of the following personal reasons.
- Family problem
- Not being relieved in time
- Diff in opinion among colleagues.
- Dissatisfaction with company polices.

123. What is understood by an open and a closed system? For
effective maintenance of ships machineries and fruitful teamwork
which system you will prefer and why?
Open System - A system that must interact with the environment to survive.
- Contingent / Dependent.
- Resource consumption and exportation.
- Dynamic.
- External focus.
Closed System - A system that exists without dependence on its environment.
- Autonomous / Independent.
- Enclosed / Non-interactive with external environment.
- Stable.
- Internal focus.

Do on your own: choose a tool or tools to create more of the desired culture.
Choose Open culture tools to promote more honest interaction, dialogue and
Choose Closed system tools to build efficient processes and structures.
Choose Synchronous culture tools to get people on the same page.
Choose Random culture tools to promote more flexibility, creativity and
individual action.
For effective maintenance of ships machinery and fruitful teamwork a good system
that suits the environment should be selected. In management we talk about
flexibility, so sticking to one system may rule out the benefits of other. Although open
system is the current way of thinking about organizations, closed system cannot be
disregarded completely.
A good system possess following characteristics:
1. Effective: A system is effective to achieve the pre-designed goal within a
stipulated time.
2. Efficient: A well-designed system can materialize the desired goal at a cost
less than the value of the output with a minimum deviation.
3. Reliable: A well-designed system is reliable to show desired results with a
minimum loss of time and cost.
4. Simple: A good system is necessarily simple since simplicity makes the
system easy to understand and operate.
5. Acceptable: A well-designed system is acceptable to the employees. If
employees do not accept the system then it is a failure.
6. Economic: A well-designed system is economical as it uses the organizational
resources appropriately.
7. Flexible: A well-designed system is flexible enough to be useful in an unusual
8. Logical: An effective system is always logical.
9. Adaptable: A well-designed system is adaptable, since changes in it do not
create difficulties in its functioning.

124. Mechanistic approach to personnel as opposed to Scientific
Movement is an evolution from industrial re- valuation, which is true
for the systems existing onboard ships. Establish with example.

Ans. Before going with the statement that what is true with regard to system existing onboard I
would like to explain the term "scientific movement" and "mechanistic approach"
Scientific management : It can be regarded as the management which conducts a business or
affairs by standards established by facts or truths gained through systematic observation,
experiment or reasoning so scientific management involves.
Develop a scientific method for each job with standardized work implements and efficient
methods (through complete time and motion study)
Select workers with skills and abilities that match each job and then train them in most efficient
way to complete task.
Ensure co-operation through incentives and provide the work environment that reinforces
optional work results in scientific manner.
Divide responsibility for managing and for working while supporting individuals in work group for
what they do best some people are more capable of managing whereas other are better at
performing tasks aid out for them.
Mechanical Approach : In the mechanistic approach job experience is considered as a criterion
for the reliability and skill of the workforce. It is based on idiom "practice makes a man perfect".
People are selected on the basis of their qualification as per the requirement of the job and
after initial training (on job training) he is made to work as per the training or experience he get
during the job then he haves skills with the experience and learn from his mistakes may be
required to do different job as per organizational requirement.
Approach to personnel on board therefore can be considered as a combination of both i.e.
mechanistic as well as scientific approach.
Now a days crew is selected as per the job requirements and they are provided initial basic
training as per STCW 95 requirement ashore and on board ship then they are but on board for
their job. Their skills are upgraded continuously by onboard or ashore trainings. This is where the
scientific approach toward personnel onboard ends.
After this there comes the mechanistic approach. As with the increasing cost of putting extra
crew onboard. One person has to do different jobs. For example i.e. an engineer officer has to
keep an engineering watch, he has to carryout maintenance work on different equipment of and
connections he may have to do welding job. As per scientific approach we should put different
individuals for the different jobs so as to optimize the work process. But due to work economies
one person is during different jobs which he might not be able to do with the same perfection as
an individual who shelties only in one job as a welder or a service engineer for the maintenance
of a equipment.

125. A successful voyage for a Chief Engineer is a combination of
trouble free run of machineries, optimum use of fuel, minimum
interpersonal conflicts and less intervention from shore authorities.
Considering the ship as an Organisation how this can be best

Ans. Conflict is a process in which an effort is purposely made by 'A' to offset the offset of 'B' That
will result in frustrating 'B' in attaining his goals or frustrating his interest. It would also
be defined as the actual or threatened use of force in any continuing social relation ship
conflict surface due to :
1) Limitation of resources
2) Difference in values, goals, attitudes, expectation, etc.
3) Competitive environment as in any organizations competency is rewarded.
4) Stereo typing or sharp judgment leads to elevate others list & form hurried opinion of
5) Biased behaviour
6) Habit of taking under advantage of others.
The interpersonal conflict because of above said reasons, can be best resolved or taken
case of by adopting win-win attitude. In this need of both parties in the conflict are met
and both parties in the conflict receive rewarding outcome win-win decision strategies
are associated with better judgment, favourable organization, experience and more
favorable bargains. A close interpersonal relations is maintained by building trust,
acceptance and support, in case one party becomes angry with other when failing to
meet psychological contact, these first party should constructively confront other party.
The effectiveness of constructive confrontation can & improved by observing the
following principles
i) Importance of relationship
ii) Use of empathy, View the problem from the confutes perspective
iii) Ability to confront with other persons only when you perceive he or she has the ability
to act on your feed back. If the confrontation is not changing the behaviour the
confrontation may lead to frustration.
iv) Focusing on behaviour. Focus your feedback on specific behaviour rather than the
v) Use the I language such as words like I, me or we to reduce the defensiveness of
confronted your language is more closely to related to criticism.
vi) Use of descriptive statements. Describe how you are and fact about the situations
Evaluating Judgmental statement can easily evolve defensive behaviour because such
statements can be interpreted as criticism.
vii) Exploring alternative behaviour Instead of suggesting any specified solution to the
problem help the person to explore various means of overcoming it.
viii) Importance of Privacy : confront the person in private. Open confrontation can be taken
as a personal attack rather than helpful encounter.
ix) Use of non verbal behaviour use of non-verbal behaviour which speaks louder than
words to express yourself to others. Eye contact, appropriate tone of voice and correct
posture can all add the effectiveness of confrontations.
x) Selection of time since time is important for as effective confrontation select a time
when the confrontee is released or more open to receive feed back without being
Rules and procedures should be established in advance which will regulate
interdepartmental contact.
Hierarchy : This condition is achieved by referring the problem to the common superior
in the organization (ship).
Planning : If each workgroup has specific goals for which they are responsible then each
know what it is supposed to do. Intra group tasks that create problem are resolved in
terms of goal & contribution of each group.
Potential source of conflict and dissatisfactions should be avoided and properly taken
care of These sources are as follows.
i) Inadequate training program and familiarization
ii) Poorly designed equipment and technology.
iii) Wrong choice of person for a particular job.
iv) Physical environment and lack of amenities (e.g. A/C, drinking water, sanitations etc.)
v) Personality clash.
vi) Use of alcohol
vii) Insecurity of employment
viii) Class structure and attitude
ix) Failure or insensitivity to appreciate social, personal and community relation.
Efficient of economical running of equipments / machineries.
To achieve the efficient and economical operation the following stops should be
1) Ensure a good healthy atmosphere or ship
2) Chief Engineer should know how to get best out of his mess. For this he has to develop
managerial skills.
3) Chief Engineer should try his best for economy and maximum possible output. Wastage
of material, time, money should be avoided.
Wastage of time can be avoided by minimizing fatigue and proper planning of job.
Ability of C/E to take proper decision at proper time will save lot of man house and avoid
lot of machinery breakdown.
4) Right selection of passes for a particular job is very important as it will help in
completing the job efficiently and quickly.
5) Make sure that all officers are proficient in their job. If anybody is lacking in carrying out
their job additional training programs should be developed. This may help to avoid lot of
break downs.
6) All machineries to be properly run and maintained so as to give optimum performance.
7) Planned maintenance system and conditions monitoring system to be followed strictly
to minimize the machinery breakdowns.
8) Spares and stores to be consumed only when required.
9) F.O. & C.O. consumption to be recorded regularly and any deviation from optimum
consumption should be avoided.
10) Any leakage of C.O. I.O. should be rectified immediately.
For efficient and economic running of machinery C/E should know how to get best out of
his man, how to operate machineries to optimum performance and how to minimize the
store & spares consumption.

126. With respect to engine room man management enlist the key
issues you will address with proper justification in the following areas
(a) Training programmes (b)Long term personnel development concept
(c)Attitude and motivation development

Ans. A man being a social animal does not like to work in isolation working an a ship is somewhat
skin to working in isolation which leads to discontent away the workers and may lead to a
stressful environment.

To reduce this companies need to reduce the discontent & motivate the people. This can be
done by

(i) Loyalty: creating trust, better communication & sharing problems. The sense of
belonging motivates the person to work.

(ii) Understanding needs, grievances w.r.t. wages, appraisal / promotion etc locates * at
creating more transparent atmosphere

(iii) Rewarding performance, thus motivating the person.

(iv) Giving more responsibility helps the person to participate more in the activities.

(v) Encouraging interaction among people & departments leads to teamwork

(vi) Showing genuine empathy improves relationships & individual performance.

(vii) Upgrading skills & giving necessary training manpower the quality of work

As regarding shipping training is continues process and every day persons to learns
something .

Drills for emergencies should be regularly conducted and in realistic manner. Training
programmes make people more confident in carrying out the various aspects of then jobs &
enhances then competencies.

A varity of methods & means can be adopted for training purpose an boad the ships this can

1) Hands or training
2) Video or audio
3) Giving short lecturers
4) Practical demonstration etc.

A well established and thought out training programme for junior officers & crew can should
be used so that it improves their knowledge & competence regarding the various aspects of their

Now a days CBT or computer based training programme are available which enables easy &
effective training of personnel

b) Long term personnel development concept

A person is judged for his knowledge, skills and job competence. If any special skills &
innovative jobs have been carried out then they should be appreciated and recognised. This can be
entered in his appraisal report for further development without delay & can be recommended for
promotion. If a person is appreciated and this needs are fulfilled by the employer then a transparent
environment conductive to his growth is developed and this will lead to a long term interpersonal
relationship development.

a) Attitude & Motivation development

Some theories like positive reinforcement behaviour modification, stress relief etc. are being
implemented by various companies for developing an individuals attitude and motivating him. If
can be in a manner of continuous employment in company & an rotation being so that the
individual can plan his leave & join back after finishing his leave. This is done for better
prospects, need for monetary gains, self-esteem & security are should deploy techniques to
identify & slowly change this behaviour of dissatisfied personnel. Due to the complexity of would
increase in consumerism etc. competition is an the rise. A parson has to prove that the can fit in
any organisation due fear of loosing a good job weights more an a person mind and thus leads to
attitudinal change & motivation

127. A successful voyage for a Chief Engineer is a combination of
trouble free run of machineries, optimum use of fuel, minimum
interpersonal conflicts and less intervention from shore authorities.
Considering the ship as an Organization, give in detail how can this be
best achieved.

Ans. As a Chief Engineer all the listed are including in requisites of the job they can be achieved by:-

1. A clear understanding of all the elements involved this being

Chief Engineer

Personnel Equipment Egos, Human elements Efficiency


This is achieved by:

2. Knowledge / Experience / Competence:

This is subjective to the person involved however they can be added upon by keeping an open
eye and ears to other people, their experience, knowledge and this will only be showed with the
Chief Engineer if he is a good listener who encourages his to are to come up with solutions
involves their in the decision making, makes than feel important and encourage participation.

3. Equipment: machineries, equipments can be run with as less trouble as possible by:

a) having a good knowledge of the systems, their strengths and weaknesses.

b) A very good panning, with time personnel spares allocation, this planning should also be
allowing for breakdown and unscheduled maintenance.

- Plan, work, stores, spares, personnel such that the will be minimum interruption to normal
(commercial operations of the vessel keeping safety as the top priority

- Personal conflicts : This can best be avoided by or at least mitigated by skills man-
management understanding the basic psyche of the team involved this might necessitate
encouraging someone, training some one restraining anthers "cracking the with" with
someone else, however in some cases it might also be necessary to keep same individuals
out of each others preferential interaction .

- Fuel consumption / efficiency

Personnel Equipments Planning

Chief Engineers



All the elements in the organization if harnessed by the Chief Engineer should enable him to
increase the efficiency of the shipboard organization.

128. With respect to engine room man management enlist the key
issues you will address with proper justification in the following areas
(i) incentive programmes (ii) Long term personnel development
concept (iii) Human resources quality assurance (iv) attitude and
motivation development (v) Emergency response.

Ans. As a chief engineer, following issues will be addressed with an objective
of safe, efficient & effective team management in consideration with relevant
compliance with international regulations.
(1) Incentive Programmes Incentive programmes, especially safety incentive
programmes have their intended effect : a reduction in the loss due to accidents.
They also have positive side effects. For one thing, they are a profitable
proposition in industry, as the savings usually exceed the costs. Incentive
programmes can help improve the general organisational climate &, therefore,
make a positive contribution to productivity over & above the gain due to accident
reduction. Reinforcing safe acts removes the unwanted side effects with
discipline & the use of penalties; it increases the employees job satisfaction; it
enhances the relationship between the supervisor & employees. E.g. gift for
reporting near-misses.
This is one of the methods of motivation. This can be effective in the sense that
people will work hard, thereby improving the performance of the team, due to
either greed or some need. Many companies have framed an incentive program
for the ships crew on a quarterly basis which is entirely based on their
performance. Crew members are rewarded by either giving them extra overtime,
bonuses etc. Junior officers may work that much harder when promotion is used
as an incentive, which would also bring better wages.
(2) Long term personal development concept The success of any industry do
not only depend on the technical qualification of existing & potential employees
but also on the social competence, decision making qualities, team spirit,
guidance qualities, ability to communicate etc. Senior management on board
must observe the performance of the engine room personnel in due regard with
the above mentioned criteria. Accordingly, crew must be advised to improve upon
the area which they are lacking by providing them the respective assistance.
Moreover, company must be informed for the specific training requirement of the
concerned crew by Appraisal Report. In due course, resources invested in long
term personnel development programme earns higher return by the service of the
effective & efficient personnel involved.
An individual is judged for his skill and special work in a particular field or an
innovative job performed by him should be recognized & the same can be
entered in his appraisal report for further deployment without delay & can be
recommended for promotion. By developing such a transparent atmosphere, an
individual will look at a long term personal development concept as beneficial to
his own needs
(3) Human Resource quality assurance:- Human resource quality refers to the
competence of the personnel involved in any of the specific job on board. STCW
(adopted on 7
July 1978) was the first convention to establish mandatory
minimum requirements on training, certification and watch-keeping for seafarers
on an international level. In due respect to the code, companies have to assure
that they employ the personnel in compliance with the code:-
Chapter 1 deals with general provisions & includes mandatory medical
standards, communication skills, simulator training, revalidation of certificates,
companies responsibilities etc.
Chapter 2 gives mandatory minimum requirement for master & deck
department officers/ratings.
Chapter 3 deals with engine department officers/ratings.
Chapter 5 deals with special training required for personnel on certain type of
Chapter 6 deals with emergency, occupational safety, medical care & survival
Chapter 7 deals with alternative certification.
Several shipping companies are very particular while recruiting personnel
for deployment in their ships. The background of the person is checked, his
qualifications and last company records scrutinized as well as the reasons for
leaving his last company. There are also some computer based test programs
that are conducted to ascertain his knowledge & skill as also interviews
conducted to check that he will fit into the new organization. These techniques
are working and quality of personnel on board are substantially increasing. Also
an individual is assessed based on his on board performance in the form of an
appraisal report & mentioned whether any additional shore based training (value
added courses) is required or not
(4) Attitude & Motivation development:- It seems likely that peoples attitude all cohere, in other
words they fit together without contradicting one another. They do not contradict one
another, because they derive from underlying core system of values. This view of the internal
consistency of attitudes seems to be supported by liberal-conservative factor. Shipping
companies are trying various theories to develop an individuals attitude and ways to motivate
him to perform better. A persons attitude is influenced by various factors such as his needs,
his state of mind i.e. stress levels, feeling of security, self esteem etc. The most important step
before trying to develop an individuals attitude & to motivate him is understanding. Only after
understanding him & realizing his needs, aims etc. can one go about trying to improve his
attitude & motivate him. The feeling of belonging / incentives, both promotion & monetary
wise / recognition of a job well done etc. go a long way in improving an individuals attitude &
thereby also motivating him to give more to the team.
For developing attitudes, it is essential to know following Assuming that we
can actually determine what peoples attitudes are in the first place, then it seems
that attitudes work best as predictions of behaviour when:-
1) they are strong and consistent
2) they are based on and related to personal experience
3) they are specifically related to the behaviour being predicted.
Common barriers in attitude change:-
1) they are likely to have arisen at an early age and are therefore virtually
personality traits.
2) because each attitude is correlated with others in the whole scheme of
attitudes & is therefore likely to be difficult to change piecemeal.
Motivation Development:- Five factors stood out as strong determiners of job
- Achievement
- Recognition
- Work itself
- Responsibility
- Advancement
The last three factors were found to be most important for bringing about
lasting changes of attitude. Recognition here refers to recognition for
achievement as opposed to recognition in the human relations sense.
The determinants of job dissatisfaction were found to be :-
Company policy
Administrative policies
Interpersonal relations
Working conditions
Motivation development, henceforth, must be issued keeping following two-
dimensional need structure :- 1) one need structure for the avoidance of
unpleasantness, &
2) a parallel need system for personal growth
Corrective Motivation is :-
Job enrichment: adding different tasks to a job to provide greater
involvement and interaction with the task
Job loading: adding meaningful tasks that will lead to growth
Monetary incentives
Support style of leadership techniques
(5) Emergency response:- By assigning every person on board a particular duty for different
emergencies & also responsibilities, every individual will know exactly what to do in a given
situation. Drills & pre & post drills briefing/debriefings also help the crew members
understand what is expected of them & where they could improve. Drills should be made as
realistic as possible & not made a routine that persons labour through. Different emergencies
at different locations should be practiced so that crew members are exposed to as far as
possible all the emergencies they may be faced with. By doing this the response of the crew
members will be swift as they will know what is expected of them in any given emergency.
Clause 8 of ISM code deals with the emergency preparedness. As per this
clause, company should have an integrated ship and shore contingency plan,
which should comprise of the following
o Composition and duties of each person in various .
o Procedure for mobilisation
o Procedure to be followed in response to different types of accidents
& hazardous occurrences.
o Procedure for establishing & maintaining contact between ship &
shore based management.
o Availability of ships particulars, plans & stability information, safety
& environmental protection equipment on board.
o List of contact names & telecommunication details of all relevant
parties, who may need to be informed & consulted.
o Reporting methods for both ship & shore based management.
o Procedure for notifying with next of kin of the persons on board.
o Backup arrangement for companys initial response in the event of
a protected emergency
o Procedure for issuing information bulletin to media & answering
queries from media & public.

129. You are required to send a Voyage abstract to the head office
containing all salient data as per regulatory feature. For making the
spreadsheet, underline the specific computer application tools you will
use and formulate a format for the abstract, which will show the salient
data within available format of software to the best advantage. Use
realistic data.

Ans. Specific computer application tools that will be for making the voyage abstract
spreadsheet is Microsoft Office software and in that we will use Microsoft Office
The abstract of the voyage should contain all salient data pertaining to a
particular voyage. The abstract is sent to head office, hence it should have all
items which can give a fair idea to owners/managers/charterers about the
voyage, related to but not necessarily limited to fuel consumption of each
machinery, different grades of lube oil consumption and their ROBs, running
hours in that voyage of important machineries, any major breakdown or repair
during voyage, any stoppages etc. A format of abstract which will show the
salient data of a voyage abstract is drawn below.

Name of Company Ship Name
MV Canmar
Pride Date
Abstract Voyage No. 004/ L LADEN BALLAST
Departure from BITUNG Date DEC,17
hrs 21:30
Arrival to
M Date JAN, 24
hrs 12:30
Displacement t 54150
miles 9906
Mean Draft m 11.8
revs. 4857980
Sea Passage hrs h 713
m 4.08
Maneuvering hrs h 27
rpm 113.63
hrs h 145
speed 13.9
total voyage hrs h 885 %age slip 7.44
M.E.HFO cons. Sea
passage tons 863.2
daily cons 29.08
M.E.HFO cons.
tons 9.7
M.E. cyl. Oil cons for
passage ltrs 7750
M.E.cyl oil
daily cons 261.05
M.E. lube oil cons
for passage ltrs 1000
oil daily
cons 85

Running hours
since decarb.
Aux. Eng 1 460 1410 285
Aux. Eng 2 440 1030 275
Aux. Eng 3 480 600 300
Aux. Eng 4
Shaft Gen.
A/E HFO total cons. tons 73 cons/day 2.1
A/E lube oil total
cons. ltrs 860 cons/day 23.8

F.O. / L.O.
before Quantity Bunker ROB end total
voyage bunkered Port voyage cons.
HFO 326 1697 Singapore 919
7 1104
DO -- -- -- -- -- --
MGO 109 102 7
Cyl Oil 16500 15250 24000 7750
C/Case Oil 30000 29000 1000
A/E Oil 15000 14140 860
Hyd Oil 8200 8000 200
Gear Oil 3050 3000 50
Grease 200 185 15

130. Detail the inspection that you as the new Chief Engineer of a
passenger ship, would make on joining the ship with regard to (i)
Stability (ii) Damage control (iii) Fire fighting (iv) Critical Machinery
and equipment installed.

Ans. As a New Chief Engineer on joining I will check w.r.t. to stability following

1) Stability:- I will check if chief officer has the book called Trim and Stability which give
details of GM, GZ area under GZ curve and other parameters for different conditions.

I will check whether the basic intact stability criterion for passenger ship is being
complied with .

I will double check that this important book is approved and endorsed by Director
General of Shipping or DGS surveyor.

a) Damage Stability for:- Damage Stability Passenger ship has to comply with Solas Chapter
II 1 for adequate stability in damaged condition from this I will know the nimbersand
location of the transverse bulkheads which divide the hull.
b) Damage Control:- A passenger ship must have a damage control plan and damage
control booklet.
These documents will contain boundaries of water tight compartments location of
water tight doors, pumping out arrangements cross flooding arrangements etc.

I will check that all the water tight doors in water tight bulkheads are in good
working order & check the controlling and indicating panels which will be found in
central control station.

In addition, I will also test the bilge alarm in EIR check that the Emergency bilge
suction is looking good order.

Also I will confirm that the bilge pump (Emergency bilge PIP) require on passenger
ship are in good working order.

I will also ensure that damage control equipment for structure welding equipment
Nuts, bolts studs, canvas are available for stopping any leaks and carrying any damage

c) Fire Fighting:-
(a) Fire plan I will study the fire plan, check the maintenance Registers for which 3

officer / 2
Engineer may be responsible officer and no urgent fire fighting stores
are outstand ting.

I will personally inspect the CO
room, the farm system fitted and inspect all the
outlets to confirm that everything is in order.

As per Solas Chapter II 2 FSS fire safety system & FTP
Fire Test Procedure are mandatory w.e.f. 1.7. 2002.

I will ensure that Training Manual and Training booklet for fire are available in officer
& crew mess room and that all persons are well aware the contents of these

d) Critical Machinery:- As per safety management system required by ISM Code element
10 maintenance, E/R should have a list of critical items of machinery and procedures
for inspecting and maintaining such machineries such as.

1) Steering gear
2) Emergency comp
3) Emerges
4) Emerge Fire P/P
5) Breathing air comp
6) Anchor handling equipment
7) Cargo gear
8) Main & Aux machinery
9) All ISA / FFA items
11) Water fight doors
12) Anti pollution comp.
13) Bilge / ballast pumping & separator system
14) Navigational equipments
15) Fire gas and heat detection system
16) I.G. System.
17) Communication equipment.

Critical spare list

1) At least one liner (spare)
2) At least one spare (cylinder head complete)
3) At least one lubricator
4) Some mechanical seals
5) Some fuel pump plungers
6) Bilge alarms
7) Calibration equipments for thermometers and Pr gauges.

Maintenance routing as per Solas Chapter III for fie fighting equipments and critical
machinery is carried out.

131. Detail the inspection that you as the new CE on an Oil Tanker /
Gas carrier would make on joining the ship with regard to (i) Stability
(u) Damage Control (iii) Critical Machinery

Ans. With regard to stability most important document provided on board of ship is stability booklet
which gives an accurate guidelines regarding the stability of ship under various
conditions of service. Chief Engineer must have knowledge of details given in stability
booklet. If any alternation is made to ship then C/E should ensure that amended stability
booklet is availability. He should ascertain the validity of oil Tanker / gas carrier safety
load line certificate watertight integrity of peak & space bulk heads, drainage & scupper
arrangements must be checked look for cracks, deformation or repairs carried out, if
any. Ensure that these are no opening for manhole, ventilation, pipe cable in collision
bulkhead check the effectiveness of stern tube sealing management stability aspect of
oil container / gas carrier is dealt. With in detail in SOLAS.
As stability & damage is concerned all tankers gas carrier are safest as they have zero
permeability all tight integrity of deck and low free surface effect double her
requirement for oil tanker / gas carrier provided then extra buoyancy but this lead to
high permeability due to double hulls.
Damage control : This is in dealt with SOLAS Ch-2 C/E should aware of permanently
exhibited & readily available damage control plan on navigation bridge for guidance of
officers. A plan showing clearly each tank double bottom boundaries of water tight
compartments opening wherein means of closers & position of any controls there of
arrangement of correction of any hit due to flooding. All ballasting, de-ballasting & bilge
arrangement should be properly studied. Most important is emergency power supply CE
should check handing over reports, condition of class, previous dry dock reports for any
damage faced by vessel in history damage plates or structure should be verified.
Critical Machinery : New CE for tanker & gas carrier test out critical machinery operating
procedures for along with out going CE & deficiencies rectified if any. He should
thoroughly undergo with part stay control & class surveyor inspection reports
superintendent give quite close picture of these machinery Saturday routine books
should be check for proper working of these emergency machinery. Responsible person
should be concerned for any deficiencies for operational problems. As soon as possible
all emergency equipment must practically tried out for e.g. main engine change or
procedure to emergency mode from remote / bridge control.
- Emergency steering gear.
- Fire pumps & emergency fire pumps.
- Emergency generated & emergency batteries.
- Emergency air compressor, these taken for filling up emergency air battle.
- Sprinkler, S.W. pumps, cut in / out & compressor lifeboat engines.
Water tight doors & their indicator mechanics
- O.W.S.
- Indicator
- Sewage Treatment plant.

132. Suggest with reasons, why each of the following courses of
action are appropriate if a ship operating in heavy seas: (a) frequently
sound all hold bilges (b) frequently sound bilges in chain locker, fore
and aft peak tanks, cofferdams and other void spaces (c) sound all fuel,
fresh water and ballast tanks (d) if satisfied with (a), (b) and (c) trim
ship by the stern and correct any list (e) reduce speed of the main

Ans (a) If a ship is operating in heavy seas, there is more likelihood of structural
damage to the hull, hatch covers, ventilators, etc. due to green seas. This
could allow water ingress in to the hold & there will be an increase in the
mean draft, as a result of flooding, to make up for the lost buoyancy. In
addition, if the centre of buoyancy of the intact volume after bilging does not
lie in the same transverse plane as the centre of gravity, there will be a
change in trim, and if the bilged space is asymmetrical with respect to the
centreline of the ship, the ship will heel till the centre of buoyancy of the intact
underwater volume lies in the same fore and aft plane(perpendicular to the
equilibrium water line) as the centre of gravity. If the metacentric height GM in
the flooded condition is negative, the resulting moment will cause the vessel
to heel to the angle of loll, even though the bilged space is symmetrical with
respect to centreline. This is a permanent list, due to instability due to shift of
centre of gravity.
The result of heel and trim may also result in further entry of seawater
through non-watertight openings which would further aggravate the situation;
by causing loss of stability by flooding and free surface effect & could cause
cargo damage. So frequent soundings of the bilges give an indication of any
such damage
(b) Again, checking and sounding bilges in chain locker, fore and aft peak
tanks, cofferdams and other void spaces for water ingress will indicate any
structural damage affecting watertight integrity, e.g. chain(spurling) pipe
covers to the chain locker, air pipes to the tanks. The effect on stability would
be the same as in case of (a) above & there also may be a problem of
increased trim by head, with more green seas being taken at forward,
aggravating the problems.
(c) Checking for watertight integrity problems & particularly with fuel tanks &
fresh water tanks for sea water contamination. Fuel oil contamination with
seawater would increase the amount of water & sodium content in the fuel oil.
The presence of sodium is determined for main engine, when sodium to
vanadium ratio increases more than 1:3, this could lead to main engine
components failure due to hot corrosion with serious consequences. Fresh
water tanks contamination would lead to water shortage on board. Flooding of
ballast tanks will affect the stability of the vessel due to free surface effect and
unbalanced moments. So sounding of all above mentioned tanks is important
for vessel safety.
(d) Generally even keel is the desirable sailing condition, but in heavy seas if
a trim by stern is maintained particularly in ballast condition, then there would
be less likelihood of propeller/rudder emerging out of water. Thus propeller
racing and engine load fluctuation is avoided giving better power and steering.
A trim by the head would cause more green seas to be taken over the bows
making the condition worse. Any list would reduce the roll angle necessary for
deck immersion, hence any list should be corrected.
(e) Reduction in main engine speed would lower the effect of green seas &
thus reduce the possibility of structural damage, particularly at the fore end.
Ship motion(rolling, pitching, etc.) would generally be better & the change in
speed would cause a change in the periodic time of wave encounter; which
would reduce resonant motions & vibrations if they had been occurring.

133. Describe the responsibilities of a Chief Engineer under the
relevant requirements of the International Convention on Load Lines. In
case of a debate arising out of tonnage calculation for a ship in transit
through a canal, describe the modalities a Chief Engineer can adopt.

Ans. According to 1996 Load Line convention adopted by IMO the freeboard of
tankers is determined by subdivision and the damage stability calculations,
while the earlier convention was based on the reserve buoyancy.
According to this new convention different hazards that could be present in
different zones in different seasons are taken into account. Different measures
are taken into account to ensure that the watertight integrity of the ship is
maintained below the freeboard deck.
According to this convention the duties of the chief engineer would be the
safeguard of the items listed below:
He has to make sure that the hatchways, doorways and the ventilation are kept
free of obstruction and they could be made watertight shut. Also the air pipes,
scuppers and the discharges should be maintained so that there is no ingress
of water. This is done because the freeboard is computed assuming the ship as
watertight and weathertight envelope. It states that adequate protection and
means of closure should be provided for all openings in the ships hull and
superstructure with a view to prevent seawater entering the ship thereby
reducing the reserve buoyancy. Also the regulation states that freeing ports
should be put in the bulwarks to prevent water accumulating on the deck. Also
guard rails and walk ways to be provided for safe passage of ships personnel.
The freeboard marks are calculated according to the geometry of the ship.
Thus the minimum computed summer freeboard (corresponding to maximum
summer draft) is known as the minimum summer geometric freeboard. Before
assigning this and prior to establishing condition of assignment regarding
protection and closure of openings and protection of crew, it must be confirmed
that the ships strength is adequate for corresponding max summer draft. This is
not always the case since a ship carrying a light density cargo may not attain
the max obtainable draft when fully laden. In such case the owner may choose
not to incur the expenses involved in the provision of adequate strength for the
deepest draft and have a greater than minimum geometric freeboard
corresponding to a maximum permissible draft for strength purposes, known as
the scantling draft. In most cases however the maximum scantling draft is as
same as that corresponding to the minimum geometric summer freeboard. The
minimum geometric summer freeboard is computed first by taking a freeboard
for a standard ship of the same length and correcting it for those geometric
properties of the ship which differ from those of the standard ship. The
geometric corrections prescribed in the regulations are those for block
coefficient, depth, superstructure trunks and sheer. There is also a regulation
which stipulates a minimum bow height. Once the summer freeboard mark has
been established it is a simple matter to further compute the additional marks
for fresh water, tropical fresh water and WNA.
International Load Line convention: It has long been recognised that limitation
on the draft to which a ship may be loaded makes a significant contribution to
her safety. These limits are given in terms of freeboard which constitute besides
external weathertight and watertight integrity. The main objective of the load line
convention to accordingly the ships are assigned load lines depending upon the
type of cargo they carry and watertight integrity they maintain. It is the
responsibility of the company as well as the ship staff to maintain the watertight
integrity and condition of assignment to retain its certificate. In this context
master and c/e play a key role. Condition of assignment is applied to any
required opening and prescribed means of protection and closure of such
opening which alternately guard or take care of watertight integrity of ships. As
a c/e one should know in detail the requirement to be fulfilled to retain the
certificate. It is master and c/e responsibility to maintain all the means which
constitute the condition of assignment.
Following are the areas to be directed and maintained for compliance
under international load line convention listed under chapter II, conditions of
assignment of freeboard.
They include the watertight integrity of hull and machinery spaces and
requirement for strength and height of hatch coaming and closing arrangement
of superstructure and bulkheads hatchways machinery space opening in
freeboard and superstructure deck, ventilator and vent pipes, cargo ports,
freeing ports, side scuttles, scuppers, inlet and discharge.

134. Detail the inspection that you, as the new Chief Engineer of a Ro-
Ro passenger ship, would make on vehicle decks. The followings
headings are suggested:
(i) Stability (ii) Damage control (iii) Fire fighting (iv) Machinery
Give reasoning in each clause of your inspection.
Ans. IMO - Ship constructions standard for passenger ship:- Standards for the
construction of the equipment of passenger ship on international voyage are set out in
Solas chapter II1 (Construction, structure, Fire fighting, Protection, Fire detection and
fire extinction regulations imposed for the supervision on their closing. They also impose
requirement for the control of watertight and weather tight door fitted in bulkhead above
the bulkhead decks.
1. Stability: Under stability the subdivision load lines applicable under the different type
of voyages depending on the number of passenger carrying or cargo carrying in
passenger spaces. Regulation 31 of the MS Regulation Act 1998 provides that every
subdivided ship of the classes III, IV, V or VI (A) on completion must be inclined and
the elements of her stability determined.
For passenger ships, the angle of heel due to crowding should not exceed

Similarly, the angle of heel due to turning should not exceed 10
. RoRo ship
has to conform to the Severe Wind Rolling Criterion as ships has high windage
2. Damage Control: Solas Regulation chapter II- 1B damage control plan shall be
permanently exhibited for the guidance of officer in charge of the passenger showing
clearly for each deck and hold. The boundaries of water tight compartment, the
openings therein and means of closure the arrangement for correction of list due to
flooding. In addition to damage control plan booklets containing the same information
must be made available by the owners for the use the officers of the ship. Ramp door
seals are satisfactory and in accordance with the regulations.
3. Fire Fighting: Prior to being assigned ship board passenger ships (as per regulation
II-1) seafarer must have completed the following training:-
- Training in crowd management.
- Training in passenger safety and hull integrity.
- Training in crisis management and human behavior and other training like the
standard modular courses for all ship types as per STCW-95.
The Chief Engineer to understand that fire protection for Ro-Ro spaces comes under
Special Category ships, requiring horizontal zoning as vertical zoning is not
The Chief Engineer to ensure following safety and fire-fighting items to be ready for
any emergency use:
1. Sprinkle system.
2. Co
flooding system.
3. Familiarization with all portable and fixed fire extinguisher.
4. Location of fire hoses and hydrants.
5. SCBA fireman outfit &its location.
6. Familiarization of all areas of E/R, accommodation & cargo spaces.
7. Fire pumps & emergency fire P/P.
8. Location of fire dampers.
9. Location of quick closing valves and remote stops for fire control station.
10. Location of water tight door local and remote operation and their control room.
11. Location of fire control plan and with international shore coupling.
The following items to be inspected for condition and operation:-
1. Confirming that the fire control plans are properly posted.
2. An examination of the fire main system and confirming that each fire pump including
emergency fire P/P can be operated separately so that required jet of water can be
produced simultaneously from different hydrants and different pumps
3. An examination as far as possible and testing of the fire and/or smoke detection
4. Confirming as far as practical that remote control for stopping fan and fuel P/P and
for shutting off fuel supplies in machinery spares are in working order.
5. An examination of the closing arrangement for ventilators, funnel flaps skylights door
ways etc.
4. Machinery(including critical machinery): The new Chief Engineer for passenger
ship should list out critical machinery operating procedure along with out going C/E if
any deficiency observed should be rectified.
1. Main engine change over procedures to emergency mode from remote / bridge
2. Emergency steering gear.
3. Fire pumps and emergency fire P/P.
4. Emergency generator and emergency battery.
5. Emergency air compressor, time taken for filling up the emergency air bottle.
6. Sprinkler sea water P/P in/ out and compressor.
7. Satisfactory operation of bow thrusters (if any fitted)
8. Satisfactory operation of fin stabilizers (if any fitted)

The only way to increase the ships dead weight without increasing her
length is to increase her draught without compromising the safety
to achieve a smaller free board by improving the condition of
assignment of free board.
1. Structural Strength and Stability: The ship is required to have the
necessary structural strength for the free board assigned. Certain
criteria with regard to the stability must be met by changes in design
and an inclining experiment must be carried out in order to
demonstrate compliances with regulations.
2. Superstructure and Bulkheads: Bulkheads for enclosed
superstructures must be adequately constructed. Any opening must
have a minimum height of 380 mm above deck.
3. Hatchways: Efficient closing arrangements for hatches ensures
minimum permissible free board substantial coamings if M.S. or
equivalent material must be fitted to all hatchways. Minimum heights as
600mm in position 1 and 450mm in ..
4. Machinery Space Opening: These must be efficiently framed and
plated for strength. Minimum sill height for water tight doors to be 600
mm in position-1 and 380 mm in position 2. all other openings are
to have attached steel covers which can be secured weather tight if
5. Side Scuttles: Every side of Scuttle below the free board deck is to be
fitted with a hinged cover plated all dead weight which may be securely
closed and made water tight
6. Ventilators: Minimum height should b 900 mm in position 1 and 760
mm in position 2
7. Air pipes: Air pipes must be of efficient construction and have a
permanently attached means of closing. The opening height must be
minimum of 760mm above the free board deck and 50mm above the
super structure deck.
8. Scappers inlet and discharges: All o/b discharges either from above
or below the free board deck of enclosed spaces and to have an
efficient non return arrangement fitted arrangement and their control
are specified accordingly to the distance of the o/b discharge from the
summer load water line scappers from open spaces may be led directly
over board.
9. Freeing Ports: Where bul works on provided on any exposed decks
they must be provided with an efficient means for rapidly freeing
any accumulated sea water on deck.

The lower edge of freeing area should be located near the lowest point of the
sheer curve where sheer exists on the deck. Railings in place of closed bul
works increases the efficiency.
10. Protection of the crew: All exposed free boards and super structure
deck must have bulk works or guad rails fitted at their perimeter with a
minimum height of 1m where rails are fitted. The deck and lower rail
capacity must not exceed 230mm and other rails 380mm.

Effective protection and safety in the form of gang ways, passages and any other
means of access required in the course of work must be provided for the safety of
the crew.

136. Underline the factors, which is required for quantitative evaluation
of ships intact stability. On a ship where you are appointed as Chief
Engineer, describe the procedure you will adopt, for computing intact
stability of the vessel. Conclude your assessment with some realistic

Ans. Intact stability for all types of vessels is covered under a single IMO Instrument
Resolution A. 749 (18), adopted on 4
November 1993, which is known as the
Code of Intact Stability.
Intact Stability criteria :
1) Area under GZ curve not less than
i) 0.055 m-rad up to 30

ii) 0.09 m-rad up to 40
or down flooding angle whichever is earlier
iii) 0.03 m-rad between 30
and angle mentioned in ii)
2 )Max. GZ 0.20 m at preferable > 30
but not < 25

3) Initial metacentric height GM 0.15 m
In addition to above for passenger ships :
4) Angle of heel on account of crowding of passengers to one side 10

5) Angle of heel on account of turning 10

For above purposes, the down flooding angle (
) is defined as the angle of
heel at which openings in the hull, superstructure or deck houses which
cannot be closed weathertight immerse. Small openings through which
progressive flooding cannot take place need not be considered as open.
Factors for quantitative evaluation of intact stability :
A)Standard loading condition
a. Ship fully laden with cargo/passengers, full stores
& fuel
b. Ship is fully laden arrival condition with cargo, passengers and
10% fuel & stores
c. Ship in ballast departure condition without cargo/passengers but
with full stores & fuel
d. Ship in ballast arrival condition without cargo/passengers & 10%
fuel & stores

B) Assumption
1) with or without cargo/passengers
2) arrival or departure
3) ballast
4) cargo assumed to be homogenously distributed
5) change of trim
6) free surface effect correction
7) all conditions of cargo transfer operation, ballasting de-ballasting
8) watertight integrity for hatchways, machinery space openings,
doors, cargo port, side-scuttles, window scuppers, inlets and
discharges, other deck openings, ventilators, air pipes &
sounding devices, freeing ports.

C) Drawing of stability curves to assess intact stability for standard
loading condition.

As a chief engineer on a ship, follow the below mentioned procedure for
computing intact stability of the vessel :
- Locate the intact stability booklet (usually in the custody of the
master). This booklet contains all the information relating to the
stability of the ship. This information is determined on the basis of
an inclining experiment. It will contain information regarding.
a) light ship weight
b) longitudinal centre of gravity
c) vertical centre of gravity
d) also the LCG & VCG for all cargo holds, tanks & other
spaces will be given
- Check that all the assumptions mentioned before are valid
- Checking the soundings of tanks & other spaces, we then calculate
the VCG & LCG of the ship under various conditions of loading
- Draw the curve of statistical stability ( GZ v/s angle of heel) from the
cross curves of stability. This curve gives the range of stability,
angle of vanishing stability, initial metacentric height, max. GZ,
dynamical stability (area under the curve)
- Compare with the intact stability criteria mentioned at the start, to
check whether the ship meets with the intact stability criteria.

137. What is parametric rolling of a ship? How it is originated? Under
what consideration it has become important in todays scenario?
Considering a post Panamax Container vessel carrying a load of 1300
containers is overtaken by a hailstorm. Enlist the effects on the ship
due the condition under parametric rolling. J ustify your answer with

Ans. The term Parametric Roll is used to describe the phenomenon of large
unstable roll motion, suddenly occurring in head or stern seas. Due to its
violent nature, the large accelerations associated with the onset of parametric
roll cause concern for the safety of container ships. Possible consequences
include loss of containers, machinery failure, structural damage and even
Parametric Roll is a threshold phenomenon. This means that a
combination of environmental, operational and design parameters needs to
occur before it is encountered. Parametric rolling is an unstable phenomenon
which can quickly generate large roll angles that are coupled with significant
pitch and yaw motions when the following requirements are satisfied:
1. The ship is in head or near head seas
2. The natural period of roll is equal to about twice the wave encountered
3. The wave length is of the order of the ship length
4. The wave height exceeds the critical level
5. The roll damping is low
The rolling occurs in phase with pitch and on container ship introduces
high loads in to the containers and their securing systems. It appears that
post-Panamax container ship may be particularly prone to this behaviour. This
is an important issue considering the large number of these vessels
scheduled for delivery in the next few years. In October 1998, a post-
Panamax C- 11 class container ship encountered extreme weather and
sustained extensive loss and damage to deck stowed containers.
A transversely symmetrical ship moving in pure head or following long
crested seas, will have motions of pitch , heave and surge but will experience
no transverse roll moment. Nevertheless, under certain conditions of
encounter frequency, a rolling motion can exist. The roll motion once started,
may grow to large amplitude limited by roll damping and in extreme
conditions, may result in danger to the ship or its contents. This phenomenon
is referred to as auto parametrical excited motion. The term describes a state
of motion that results not from direct excitation but by a time varying external
force or moment, but from the periodic variation of certain numerical
parameters of the oscillating system.
For a ship in head or stern seas the uneven wave surface together with the pitch heave
motion of the ship results in a time varying underwater hull geometry. This varying geometry, in turn
results in time varying changes in the metacentric height, i.e. the static roll stability.

138. Differentiate between static and dynamic stability? Can a ship,
high on GM, be low on stability? J ustify your answer with reasoning.
Enlist the governing factors you will inspect, while taking over a new
ship in shipyard as Chief Engineer for having optimum stability in both
categories. Substantiate your answer with reasons.

Ans. The differences between statical stability and dynamical stability are as

Statical Stability Dynamical Stability
1) Statical stability is defined as the
ability of a ship to regain its upright
equilibrium position, after the removal
of the external factor which caused
the vessel to heel at an angle
2) It gives the stability information of a
vessel under the condition that the
outside water is static(i.e. still)
3) It is expressed in terms of metacentric
height i.e. GM (for angle of heel up to
)and righting lever GZ (for angle
of heel above10
4) Its unit is meters
5) The static stability at two different
angle of heel can be the same
statical stability curve
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
angle of heel
Area 1
equal GZ

GZ value at 10
& 58
angle of heel are
same i.e. static stability is same

1) Dynamical stability is defined as the
energy required to heel the ship from
upright equilibrium till the angle of
heel in question

2) It gives the stability information of a
vessel considering dynamic behaviour
of the sea.

3) It is expressed in terms of the area
under righting moment curve(or GZ
curve multiplied by displacement of
the ship in tons)
4) Its unit is ton-meter-radian
5) The dynamic stability at two different
angle of heel cannot be the same
statical stability curve
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
angle of heel
Area 1
equal GZ

Area under the GZ curve up to 10
of heel is far less than the area up to
angle of heel i.e. dynamical
stability are different

A value of metacentric height is usually found only for the zero heel
condition. Hence, it is an accurate measure of stability only for small disturbances
i.e., one that causes heeling of no more than about 10
. For larger angles of
heel, the righting arm GZ is used to measure stability. In any stability analysis,
the value of GZ is plotted over the entire range of heel angles for which it is
positive or restoring. The resultant curve of statical stability shows thereby the
angle beyond which the ship cannot return upright and the angle of heel at which
the restoring moment is maximum. The area of the curve between its origin and
any specified angle is proportional to the energy required to heel the ship to that
The off-shore supply vessels that are built with high focle and low working
after, posses a large upright GM value due to a generous beam to length ratio,
but heel angles of maximum and vanishing stability are relatively low. This is due
to the free trim affect i.e. heeling of these vessels produces a trimming moment
by the stern. These vessels will suffer a significant trimming moment by the stern
when heeled over beyond a certain point. The resulting loss of stability beyond
this angle of heel, is partly compensated for by the relatively large beam that
such ships tend to be built with, which is an operational requirement to provide
the ship with a large working deck area aft for cargo stowage.

Such ships usually have to operate with a trim by the head and this must be
allowed for in the vessels design.
While taking over a new ship in shipyard as chief engineer, the following
governing factors for having optimum stability in both the categories(i.e. statical &
dynamical) should be inspected:-
(i) The new ship must fulfil six criteria of intact stability as follows:-
Angle of Heel
(1) The area under GZ curve should not be less than 0.055 meter-radian up
to 30
(2) The area under GZ curve should not be less than 0.090 meter-radian up
to 40
(3) The area under GZ curve between 30
heel and 40
heel should not be
less than 0.30 meter-radians
(4) The angle of heel for the maximum GZ must be at least 25
preferably >30

(5) The righting lever GZ should be at least 0.20m at an angle of heel 30

(6) The minimum upright GM value must not be less than 0.15m
(ii) Where anti-rolling devices are installed in a ship, the above intact stability
criteria must be met when the device is in operation
(iii) A number of influences such as beam winds on ships with large windage
area, icing of topsides, water trapped on deck, rolling characteristics, following
seas etc. adversely affect stability, same to be taken in to account as far as is
deemed necessary.
(iv) Provision should be made for a safe margin of stability at all stages of
voyages; regard being given to addition of weights such as those due to the
absorption of water and icing and to losses of weights, such as those due to
consumption of fuels and stores.
(v) For ships carrying oil based pollutants in bulk, the above intact stability criteria
should be met during all loading and ballasting operations.
(vi) For ships carrying passengers, in addition to the general intact stability
criteria, the angle of heel on account of turning of the ship through rudder
should not exceed 10
. Also, the angle of heel on account of crowding of
passengers to one side should not exceed 10
(vii) For all the loading conditions, the GM and GZ curve should be corrected for
the effect of free surfaces of liquids in tanks.
After inspecting all the data and provisions, the vessel will be considered to be sea
worthy, when all the conditions mentioned above are met with. Thus we can say that the vessel has
adequate optimum stability in both categories.

139. Explain damage buoyancy and damage stability. Highlight One
compartment standard for ships towards damage control. Ships
carrying liquid cargo are at hazard from groundings and explosions,
but their sinking from collisions is very rare J ustify the statement
with reasoning.

Ans) Damage stability and buoyancy are indications of the ability of the ship to
survive a collision, grounding or explosion in which the hull is breached and water
enters one or more compartments of the ship.
There are two methods for damaged stability condition calculations
a)Deterministic calculation in which a limited number of important compartment or
combination of compartments are flooded after which the floating position of the
ship and remaining positive stability are assessed.
b) Probabilistic calculation in which a all compartments or all combination of two or
three compartments are flooded after which the floating position of the ship and the
remaining positive stability are assessed. The results of these calculations are
corrected for the chance that a damage occurs and the corrected outcome is
compared with a prescribed minimum.
The most likely cause of sinking ship would be branching of the hull envelope by
collision. The consequences of the resulting flooding are minimized by subdividing
of the hull into compartments by watertight bulkheads. The extent to which such
bulkheads are fitted is determined by IMO standards that are based on the size and
type of ship.
At minimum ships that must have a high probability of surviving a collusion are
built to the one compartment standard meaning that at least one compartment
bounded by watertight bulk head must be flooded without sinking the ship.
A two compartment standard is common for larger passenger carrying ships a
measure that presua protects the ship against a collision at the boundary between
two compartments
Titanic the victim of the most famous sinking in the North Atlantic was built to the
two compartment standard, but it collision with an iceburg just before midnight,
ripped open at least five compartments. Thus titanic could not survive the damage,
but its many water tight bulkhead did retared the flooding so that the ship required
two hours and forty minutes to sink.
To build a passenger ship that would survive all possible floodings is impractical,
since the required five subdivisions would preclude effective use of the interior
space. On the other hand a ship carrying liquid cargo can be subdivided quite finely,
since most of its interior space is an advantage. Such ships are at hazard from
groundings and explosions but their sinking from a collision is very rare.
In contrast to the titanic the lusitamia a passenger line of similar size and type sank
within 20 min after being hit by two torpedoes on May 7, 1915. its fault lay not in
sufficient subdivision but in lack of damage stability. Longitudinal bulk heads in the
vicinity of the torpedo hits limited the flooding to one side causing the ship to fuel
quickly to the point where normal hull openings were submerged.
As a consequence of this disaster, commercial ships are now forbidden from
having internal structures that in pale flooding across the hull. An exception to his
regulation is tanker, whose subdivision is fine enough that flooding of several side
tanks in insufficient to capsize the ships. One important hazard in considering
damage stability is the surface effect

140. Explain ship squat and its relevance on super tankers or OBO
vessels. What are the factors governing ship squat ? Using relevant
diagrams explain your answers.

Ans) When a ship proceeds through shallow water, it pushes water aside. This
volume of water must return down. The sides and under the bottom of the ship. The
streamlines of the return flow are speeded up under The ship. This causes a pressure
drop, which results in the ship dropping (vertically) in the water.
Besides the dropping vertically the ship generally trims either forward aft. The
overall decrease in the static underkeel clearance (UKC) forward or aft, is referred to
as the phenomenon of ship squat. It is not just the difference between the draughts
when stationery and when the ship is moving ahead.
The squat depends on the square of the speed hence a super tanker/OBO moving
forward at a comparatively slow speed, in shallow water, would have a marginal
drop in under keel clearance due to squat. A passenger/ cruise ship, on the other
hand, moving at a very high speed, in the water of the some depth, would
experience a drastic drop, which would result in the vessel running aground, even
with a comparatively higher static under keel clearance as in the case of the Queen
Elizabeth, when she touched bottom with several damage to her hull.
Thus ship squat has been marginal on smaller and slower vessels, even when
underway. These squats have been a matter of a few centimetres and thus had been
considered in consequential. However, with the growth of ship size, as in the case of
modern super tankers i.e., VLCCs/ULCCs (3,50,000-5,50,000t DWT) which have
almost outgrown the ports they visit, resulting in small static under keel clearance
(of 1.0 to 1.5m) this can be a cause fro concern.
As a static even keel/under keel clearance have decreased and the service speeds
have increased, ship squat has gradually increased. This can now be of the order of
1.5m to 1.75m by no means inconsequential.
For full form vessels such as supertankers or OBOs grounding will occur generally
at the low, while fine form vessels, such as cruise ships or container ships, risk
grounding generally at the storm. This is assuming they are at even keel when
In the last few decades, ships types have tended to be greater in length (LBP) and
wider in breadth (moulded). This has led to reported groundings at the bilge strake,
at or near amidships, when slight rolling motions have been present.
Signs that a ship has entered shallow water condition can be seen from one as
more of the following:
1. Wave making increase, especially at the forwarded end of the ship
2. V/L becomes more sluggish to manoeuvre. To quote a pilot almost like
sailing through porridge
3. Draught indicator on the bridge or echo sounders will indicate changes in the
end draughts.
4. Propeller RPM (tachometer) will show a decrease. If the ship is in open
waters i.e., without breadth restrictions, this decrease may be upto 15% of
the service rpm in deep water. If the ship is in a confined channel, however
this decrease in rpm can be upto 20% of the service rpm.
5. There will be a drop in speed. If the ship is in open water conditions, this
decrease may be upto 30% if the ship is in a confined channel, such as a rites
or a channel, then this decrease can be upto 60%
6. The ship may start to vibrate suddenly. This is because of the entrained water
effects, causing the natural hull frequency to become resonant with another
frequency associated with the vessel. The engines load indicator will show an
7. Any rolling pitching and heaving motions will be reduced as the ship moves
from deep to shallow water conditions. This is because of the cushioning
effects, produced by the narrow layer of water under the bottom shell of the
8. The appearance of mud could show in water around the ships hull in the
extent of passing over a raised shelf or a submerged wreck.
9. Turning circle diameter (TCD) increases, TCD in shallow water, could
increase by 100%.
10. Stopping distances and stopping times increase, compared to those in deep

1) The main factor is ships speed: squat varies approximately with the square of the
speed. If we double the speed the squat increases four times. Here speed is the ships
speed relative to the water, i.e., effect of current (tide with or against the ships
direction of motion) must be taken into account.
2) Another factor is the block coefficient CB squat varies directly with CB. Oil
tankers, having a greater CB will have comparatively more squat than a containers
ship at the same speed
3) Blockage factors S. this is the immersed cross section of the ships midship section
divided by the cross section of water within the canal or .
4) The presence of another ship, in a narrow rises will also effect squat, so much so,
that squat can even divide in value as you pass (cross) the other vessel.
Formulae have been developed for estimating the maximum ships squats, for vessels
operating in confirmed channels, as well as in .. conditions. These formulae
have produced several graphs of maximum squat against ships speed. Three items
of information are needed to use this diagram first, an idea of the ships CB value,
secondly the speed and thirdly to whether the ship is in open water or in confined
rives/ canal conditions

The conclusion, it can be stated that if we can find the maximum ship squat, for a
given situation then the following advantages can be gained:
1. The ships operator will know which speed to reduce to, in order to prevent
running aground and thus ensure the safety of the vessel. This could save the
cost of a very large repair bill.
2. The ships officers could safely load the ship to the maximum up to the load
line limits, thus giving the ship on extra earning capacity.
3. There is no loss of earnings grounding could lead to the ship being off hire
4. when a vessel goes aground there is a high possibility of oil leakage/pollution
resulting in serious claims which will have to be paid by hips owner.

141. Enlist the factors of capsizing of a vessel. Give your observation
with reasoning that a smaller vessel is more prone to capsize than a
bigger one. State the actions that can undertaken for improving
resistance of a vessel against capsizing?

Ans. Following are the factors for capsizing of a vessel:-
e. FREE SURFACE EFFECT:-Large free surface effect , owing to the
presence of slack tanks and improper subdivision of tanks (no
longitudinal bulkhead, which results in reduction of metacentric height,
GM, and hence the possibility of capsizing). Certain tankers designed
with no longitudinal bulkheads in cargo tanks, are more prone to capsize
due to large free surface effect. Sometimes, when deeply laden, in heavy
weather, large amounts of water are shipped. If not drained quickly(if
freeing arrangements not adequate), may cause a considerable free
surface effect.
f. SHIFTING OF CARGO:- Shifting of cargo can result in a heavy list,
which may increase the progressive rolling and this can capsize the
vessel. To avoid this by good design, hopper tanks are provided, in bulk
g. NATURE OF CARGO:- Some types of bulk cargo are susceptible to
absorbing moisture(hydroscopic). When moisture content rises above
the safe limit, the cargo behaves like a liquid cargo, giving rise to high
free surface effects.
h. GROUNDING:- If the vessel runs aground, at a spot off the centreline,
and if the water level further drops, there is a virtual rise in the centre of
gravity, thus there is chance of the metacentric height becoming
negative, resulting in the vessel capsizing. Hence, if the vessel slides of
upright, there is sometimes a chance of the vessel capsizing, while trying
to pull off the ground.
i. FLOODING:- Any flooding due to internal or external reasons, will result
in loss of buoyancy. If this loss is greater than the reserve buoyancy of
the vessel, the vessel will capsize.
j. HEAVY WEATHER DAMAGE:- Any heavy weather damage that leads to
progressive flooding will cause loss of buoyancy. If this loss is greater
than the reserve buoyancy of the vessel, the vessel will capsize.
k. SYNCHRONOUS ROLLING:- Every vessel has a natural rolling period,
which is inversely proportional to the square root of the metacentric
height and directly proportional to the beam. If the vessel encounters a
series of swells, in such a manner, that a wave period matches the
rolling period, the vessel will have no time for righting itself, before the
next wave strikes. This situation, if not corrected, can result in capsizing.
l. PARAMETRIC ROLLING:- This phenomenon has been observed in
large container vessels, when the length is comparable to the length of
the hull, which flares at a higher level. Parametric rolling is known as
such, because it is caused by changes in the parameters of transverse
stability. It is a common belief, that the vessels roll is maximum, while
encountering a beam swell; this is not always true. The maximum rolling
maybe experienced in the following cases:
e) When angle of encounter is such that the crest of the
wave strikes the vessel, at the same frequency, as the
vessels natural rolling period.
f) A long ship has its ends supported by crests, while the
midship section is in a trough or vice versa. These
situations occur alternatively, depending on whether the
ship is encountering head sea or following sea. In
following seas, vessels need a much longer righting lever,
as the stability provided by the flare is lost. The water
plane area is reduced, so the BM and righting lever will
reduce. This combined with synchronous rolling, results
in very heavy rolling, which can cause a capsize.
1) Surface of the wave is trochoidal in cross section, having sharp crests
and diffused troughs. This gives a semi circular profile to the waves.
When a small vessel rides over such a wave, she acquires a circular
motion, which reduces her weight(virtually). This in turn, reduces the
righting moment and may result in capsizing.
2) Drastic change in water plane area: Smaller vessels, such as supply
vessels, have rapid changes in the water plane area, especially during
pitching. At high angles of heel, the BM makes a measured contribution
to the righting lever, GZ=sin(GM +BMtan
). Since BM is dependent
upon water plane area, so the righting lever can be considerably
reduced. Thus there are more chances of capsizing.
The resistance against capsizing can be improved by minimizing the factors
responsible for capsizing as follows:-
a) Cargo Loading:- Cargo should be trimmed properly to prevent the
cargo from shifting.
b) Slack tanks should be avoided, to reduce free surface effects.
Longitudinal subdivision of tanks reduces the free surface effects
drastically. Single longitudinal subdivision reduces the free surface
effect by a factor of 4(
of original without subdivision). Twin
longitudinal sub-divisions would reduce it to
and so on.
c) The speed and direction of the ship can be checked, so as to avoid ill
effects of synchronous rolling
d) Proper weather routeing to avoid heavy weather.
e) Adequate vigilance to ensure no grounding occurs
f) Hull watertight and weathertight integrity to be maintained at all times

GM= Slope of GZ curve at origin
Tan= Value of GZ at 57.3
= value of GZ
1. Area under GZ curve shall not be less than 0.055 meter-radian up to
; 0.09 meter-radian up to 40
or down flooding.
0.03 meter-radian between 30
to 40

2. GZ> 0.2 m at 30
3. GZ
must be at an angle greater than 30

4. GM 0.15 m

Increasing GZ Decreasing GZ
Angle of heel
142. Explain transient flooding phenomenon. Underline the risk
involved with transient flooding. Considering that transient flooding
condition may lead to capsizing of a vessel, explain the phases of
ships movement from upright to overturn position due to transient

Ans. Transient flooding phenomena are related to the initial stages of flooding of a
damaged ship. They could be defined, in terms of time, as phenomena
occurring in the time period required for the damaged compartment to become
fully flooded in case of a damage opening starting from the intact ship
conditions. The risks associated with transient flooding are the large
intermediate heeling angles that could lead the ship even to capsize, before it
reaches a static equilibrium after damage and the prolongation of the time of
ship exposure to wind and waves at undesired heeling angles. The latter risk is
met especially in cases of slow flooding where a long time is required to
complete the flooding.
During the transient flooding the ship generally moves under the action of
the unbalanced flood water moments and environmental forces. As the water
flows in to the damaged compartment and considering the compartments
geometry it will be first distributed in an asymmetrical unbalanced way. Even in
symmetrical spaces, free surface effects and the time lag observed from the
instance of water passing the damage opening until it is spread to the whole
compartment (noting the effect of internally fitted equipment), unbalanced
distribution will arise causing heeling moments. Internal phenomena increase
the moments acting on the damaged ship, affecting her motions. Therefore, the
ships heeling in transient flooding is clearly a dynamic phenomenon. The ship
heels under the action of various time dependent moments, absorbing potential
energy to the extent available. The magnitude of ships heel motion depends on
the amount of the instantly flooded water related to damage geometry, ships
inertia and hydrostatic characteristics as well as energy dissipation components
of ships hull that act as damping forces on the ship, e.g. rudder, bilge keels.
Because of the continuous kinetic-potential energy balance, the ships mean
position (especially her hull) deviates from the position it could reach, if moving

144. State the factors on which damage stability of the vessel is
dependent. State the principle consequences of flooding ships hull.
Defining floodable length, illustrate how a floodable length curve can
be used to test the locations of the subdivision bulkheads in a ship

Factors on which damage stability of the v/l is dependent are :
1) Type of ship, length of ship, form of ship, permeability of compartments, draft and
other characteristics of ship, and ships nature of service
2) Beam wind on ships with large 'windage area', icing of topsides, water trapped on
deck, rolling characteristics, following seas adversely effect the stability & hence
should be taken into account.
3) Addition of weights such as absorption of water and icing, & loss of weights such as
fuel and water consumption.
4) Effect of 'free surfaces' of liquids in tanks.
5) Loading condition of ship.
6) Openings in superstructure deck, small openings on deck such as for passages of
wires, tackles and anchors.
7) Trunks & hatchways & their closures water tight integrity.
8) Heel of vessel due to crowding of passengers on one side
9) Heel of vessel due to turning

Principle consequences of flooding :-
1) Change of list, trim due to flooding; ship will sink more in water & depending on flooding,
ship will have trim or list which can make it impossible to launch a life boat.
2) Loss of GM :- As the compartment gets flooded, there's loss of buoyancy. This loss of
buoyancy is covered by loosing reserve buoyancy and hence loss in free board.
3) Any water flooding the compartment will reduce the GM due to the free surface effect &
actual loss of GM depends on permeability of the compartment.
4) Due to ingress of water, there is possibility of collapsing of bulkhead, which may increase the
extent of flooding and hence damage the structure of ship, or result in total loss of ship.
5) Flooding may cause undue stresses on structure of ship, due to weight of water. Because of
unbalanced forces, Bending Moment. may lead to deformation of structure, which further
reduces the strength and ability to survive.
Floodable length : Floodable length at any point along the length of ship is the maximum
length (fore & Aft) with its centre at a given point, which can be flooded, without the ship
being submerged beyond the margin line.

Margine line.
Bulkhead deck
Point at which
F.L. Is to be

Floodable length at various points along the length of the ship hull will be different. Its
calculation is done using standard floodable length curves, given for a ship of standard shape. To find
for a specific condition, we must use numerous other curves to correct the floodable length found
from standard curves, to suit the free board, sheer profile and block co-efficient.

L/2 L/2
B/head B/head

The figure shows a floodable length curve. Ordinate at any point represents the length which
can be flooded, with the centre at that point concerned. It is the floodable length at point A, the
position of b/heads giving the required compartment length are given by setting off distances L/2
either side of point A. The lines, at the end of the curves are caused as forward and after terminals.
The permeability's out average permeability figures for machinery spaces and compartments
forward & aft of it. This leads to 3 curves for the complete ship as shown in the figure.

Aft End
Fwd End

A factor of subdivision should be applied, to the floodable length curve, to give permissible
length of the compartment. The factor is to be sub-divided, which depends on the length of the ship.
So the sub-dividing bulkheads can be located, at permissible lengths apart, from each other giving
required sub-division.
Permissible length = Floodable length X factor of sub-division. Permissible length is always
less than F.L. to give factor of safety for flooding of the compartment.

Considering an adequate standard of damage stability protection for Ro-Ro ferries
following amendments have been made by (i) IMO to 1974 SOLAS Convention
The 1981 amendments
Adoption 20 November 1981
Entry into force: 1 September 1984
Chapter II-1 and II-2 were re-written and updated
Regulation 8
Stability of passenger ships in damaged condition
1.1- Sufficient intact stability shall be provided in all service conditions so as
tonnable the ship to withstand the final stage of following of any one main
compartment which is required to be within the floodable length.
1.2- Where two adjacent main compartments are separated by a bulkhead which is
stepped unclear the conditions of regulations 7.5.1. the intact stability shall be
adequate to withstand the following of those two adjacent main compartments.
1.3- Where the required factor of subdivision is 0.5 or less but more than 0.33 intact
stability shall be adequate to withstand the flooding of any two adjacent main
1.4- Where the required factor of subdivision is 0.33 or less the intact stability shall
be to withstand the flooding of any three adjacent main compartments.
The 1988 (October) amendments
Adoption: 28 October 1988
Entry into force: 29 April 1990

Some of these amendments also resulted from the Herald of free enterprise disaster
and included details of how stability of passenger ships in a damaged condition
should be determined and a requirement for all cargo loading doors to be locked
before a ship leaves a berth. The amendments also made it compulsory for the
passenger ships to have a light weight survey at least every five years to ensure their
stability as not been adversely affected by the accumulation of extra weight or any
alterations to the superstructures.
The November 1995 amendments (conference)
Adopted: 29 November 1995
Entry into force: 1 July 1999

The most important changes relate to the stability of ro-ro passenger ship built since
1990, was extended to existing ships in accordance with an agreed phase-in
programme. Ships that only meet 85% of the standard had to comply fully by 1
October 1998 and those meeting 97.5% over above, by 1 October 2005. The SOLAS 90
standard refers to the damage stability standard in the 1988 (October) amendments
to SOLAS adopted 28 October 1988 and entering into force on 29 April 1990.
The conference also adopted a new regulation 8-2, containing special requirements
for ro-ro passenger ships carrying 400 passenger or more. This is intended to phase
out ships built to a one compartment standard and ensure that they can survive
without capsizing with two main compartments flooded following damage.
(ii) By IACS on flood control doors

Type A a door which may be left open
Type B a door which should be closed. It may remain open only whilst personnel are
working in the adjacent compartment
Type C a door which should be closed. It may only be opened for sufficient time to permit
through passage

All power operated door must be capable of being closed from the remote position
within one minute
Alarm 10-20 sec
Closing time 20-40 sec
Doors must be closed promptly in a emergency to prevent progressive flooding
potentially very hazardous specially on ro-ro ships. Doors should be closed in not
less than 20 seconds, but not more than 40 secs.
W.T. doors and controls gear must be inspected at least once every week.
All doors in normal use should be opened and closed daily
All crew members should be instructed on the safe operation of W.T. doors
Written instructions must also be available posted
When more than 5 doors are fitted all doors must be capable of being closed
simultaneously from central control with open/closed indicators. This central control
position gives quick, convenient, simultaneous closing of all doors.
All doors must be closed in a potentially hazardous situation except for the passage
of personnel.
A potentially hazardous situation occurs when
i. in condition of restricted visibility
ii. in port limits of compulsory pilotage limits
iii. where adopt of water is less than 3 times draught
iv. in proximity of underwater hazards
v. density of traffic if high
any other factor constitutes a hazard

146. Describe the amendments made in SOLAS Chapter II-1 Parts A, B
and B-1 towards consideration of trim in the calculation of attained
subdivision A. What are the provisions made thereof for passenger
ships? What provisions made against intermediate stages of flooding?

Ans) Chapter II-1 of SOLAS was revised by the amendments of May 2005
with entry into force set for 1 Jan 2009. The revision of SOLAS Chapter II-1 Part
A,B,and -1 will be applicable to new ships built after the expected entry into force
date of 1 January 2009. The amendments which have been intensively
developed are based on probabilistic methods of determining damage stability.
The amendments made in part A regulation 1.3.4 states that the expression
alterations and modifications of major character means in the context of cargo
ship subdivision and stability and modification to the construction which effects
the level of subdivision of that ship. Where a cargo ship in subject to such
modification, it shall be demonstrated that the AIR ratio calculated for the ship
offer such modification is not less the AIR ratio calculated for the ship before the
modification. However, in those cases when the ship A/R ratio before
modification is equal to or greater than unity it is only necessary that the ship
after modifications has an A value which is not less than R. calculated for the
modified ship. Chapter II-Part B Regulation 4 was amended as mentioned below.
The ship shall be efficiently subdivided as is possible having regard to the
nature of service for which they are intended. The degree of subdivision shall
vary with the subdivision Length (Ls) of the ship and with the service in such a
manner that the highest a degree of subdivision corresponds with the ships of
greatest subdivision Length (Ls) primarily engaged in the carriage of passengers.

The amendments carried out in chapter II-1-B-1 with respect to trim in
regulation 5-1-4 which sags that for ships which have to fulfill the stability
requirements of B-1 information referred to in paragraph 2 are determined from
considerations related to the subdivision index in the following manner minimum
required for the three draughts ds,dp and de one equal to the am (or Ka value) of
corresponding loading cases used for the calculation of survival factor for
intermediate draughts, values to be used shall be obtained by union interpolation
applied to an value only between the deepest subdivision draught and the partial
subdivision draught and between the partial load line and the light service
draught respectively. Intact stability criteria will also be taken into account by
retaining for each draft the maximum among minimum required am values on the
minimum of maximum permissible KG values for both criteria. If the subdivision
index is calculated for different trims, several required am curves will be
established in the same way.
Chapter II-1-B-1 regulations 8 given the requirements for passenger ships
according to which
A passenger ship carrying more than or 400 passengers shall have water light
subdivision abaft the collision bulkhead so that sc=1 for three loading condition
A passenger ship should be able to withstand the damage along the side shall
to an extent specified in paragraph 3 of the regulation.
Paragraph 3 is regarding evaluation of extent of damage to be assumed when
demonstrating the compliance with paragraph 2. it depends on both N as defined
in regulation 6 an Ls as defined in regulation 2
Regulation 8-1 was modified which is regarding system capabilities after a
flooding casuality on passenger ships..
According to the above regulation a passenger ship shall be designed so that
the system specified in regulation II-2/21-4 remains operational when the ship is
subject to flooding of any single water tight compartment.

A collision bulkhead is a watertight bulkhead installed at the forward part of the
vessel to
protect the vessel from flooding in case of damage to the bow.
Peak and machinery space bulkheads, shaft tunnels, etc.
1 A collision bulkhead shall be fitted which shall be watertight up to the bulkhead
This bulkhead shall be located at a distance from the forward perpendicular of not
less than 0.05L or 10 m whichever is the less, and, except as may be permitted by
the Administration, not more than 0.08L or 0.05L + 3 m, whichever is the greater.
2 Where any part of the ship below the waterline extends forward of the forward
Perpendicular, e.g., a bulbous bow, the distances stipulated in paragraph 1 shall be
measured from a point either:
.1 at the mid-length of such extension;
.2 at a distance 1.5% of the length of the ship forward of the forward perpendicular;
.3 at a distance 3 m forward of the forward perpendicular,
Whichever gives the smallest measurement.
3 the bulkhead may have steps or recesses provided they are within the limits
prescribed in paragraph 1 or 2.
4 No doors, manholes, access openings, ventilation ducts or any other openings
shall be fitted in the collision bulkhead below the bulkhead deck.
5.1 Except as provided in paragraph 5.2, the collision bulkhead may be pierced
below the bulkhead deck by not more than one pipe for dealing with fluid in the
forepaw tank, provided that the pipe is fitted with a screw-down valve capable of
being operated from above the bulkhead deck, the valve chest being secured inside
the forepaw to the collision bulkhead. The Administration may, however, authorize
the fitting of this valve on the after side of the collision bulkhead provided that the
valve is readily accessible under all service conditions and the space in which it is
located is not a cargo space. All valves shall be of steel, bronze or other approved
ductile material. Valves of ordinary cast iron or similar material are not acceptable.
5.2 If the forepeak is divided to hold two different kinds of liquids the Administration
allow the collision bulkhead to be pierced below the bulkhead by two pipes, each of
which is fitted as required by paragraph 5.1, provided the Administration is satisfied
that there is no practical alternative to the fitting of such a second pipe and that,
having regard to the additional subdivision provided in the forepeak, the safety of the
ship is maintained.
6 Where a long forward superstructure is fitted the collision bulkhead shall be
extended weathertight to the deck next above the bulkhead deck. The extension
need not be fitted directly above the bulkhead below provided that all parts of the
extension, including any part of the ramp attached to it are / it is located within the
limits prescribed in paragraph 1 or 2 with the exception permitted by paragraph 7
and that the part of the deck which forms the step is made effectively weathertight.
The extension shall be so arranged as to preclude the possibility of the bow door or
ramp, where fitted, causing damage to it in the case of damage to, or detachment of
a bow door or any part of the ramp.
7 where bow doors are fitted and a sloping loading ramp forms part of the extension
of the collision bulkhead above the bulkhead deck the ramp shall be weathertight
over its complete length. In cargo ships the part of the ramp which is more than 2.3
m above the bulkhead deck may extend forward of the limit specified in paragraph 1
or 2. Ramps not meeting the above requirements shall be disregarded as an
extension of the collision bulkhead.
[In passenger ships constructed before [1 July 1997], if any part of the ramp is
attached to the extension, it shall not extend forward more than 1 m forward of the
forward limit specified in paragraph 1 or 2.]
8 The number of openings in the extension of the collision bulkhead above the
freeboard deck shall be restricted to the minimum compatible with the design and
normal operation of the ship. All such openings shall be capable of being closed
9 Bulkheads shall be fitted separating the machinery space from cargo and
accommodation spaces forward and aft and made watertight up to the bulkhead
deck. In passenger ships an afterpeak bulkhead shall also be fitted and made
watertight up to the bulkhead deck. The afterpeak bulkhead may, however, be
stepped below the bulkhead deck, provided the degree of safety of the ship as
regards subdivision is not thereby diminished.
10 in all cases stern tubes shall be enclosed in watertight spaces of moderate
volume. In passenger ships the stern gland shall be situated in a watertight shaft
tunnel or other watertight spaces separate from the stern tube compartment and of
such volume that, if flooded by leakage through the stern gland, the bulkhead deck
will not be immersed. In cargo ships other measures to minimize the danger of water
penetrating into the ship in case of damage to stern tube arrangements may be
taken at the discretion of the Administration.
SOLAS Regulation XII/13.1 reads:
1. On bulk carriers, the means for draining and pumping ballast tanks forward of the
collision bulkhead, and bilges of dry spaces any part of which extends forward of the
foremost cargo hold, shall be capable of being brought into operation from a readily
accessible enclosed space, the location of which is accessible from the navigation
bridge or propulsion machinery control position without traversing exposed freeboard
or superstructure decks. Where pipes serving such tanks or bilges pierce the
collision bulkhead, as an alternative to the valve control, valve operation by means of
remotely operated actuators may be accepted, provided that the location of such
valve controls complies with this regulation.
MSC/Circ. 1069 reads:
1. The spaces where availability of pumping systems is required in accordance with
paragraph 1 of SOLAS regulation XII/13 should be the same watertight spaces
where water level detectors are required in accordance with paragraph 1.3 of
SOLAS regulation XII/12.
2. This means that paragraph 1 of regulation XII/13 does not apply to the enclosed
spaces the volume of which does not exceed 0.1% of the ships maximum
displacement volume and to the chain locker.
2. Under this SOLAS regulation XII/13.1:
2.1 the valve specified under SOLAS regulation is to be capable of being controlled
from the navigation bridge, the propulsion machinery control position or enclosed
space which is readily accessible from the navigation bridge or the propulsion
machinery control position without travelling exposed freeboard or superstructure
decks. In this context, a position which is accessible via an under deck passage, a
pipe trunk or other similar means of access is not to taken as being in the readily
accessible enclosed space;
2.2 the valve is not to move from the demanded position in the case of failure of the
control system power or actuator power;
2.3 positive indication is to be provided at the remote control station to show that the
valve is fully open or closed;
2.4 local hand powered valve operation from above the freeboard deck, as permitted
under SOLAS regulation is requested, but is not an acceptable alternative to SOLAS
regulation XII/13.1.
3. The dewatering arrangements are to be such that any accumulated water can be
drained directly by a pump or eductor.
4. The dewatering arrangements are to be such that when they are in operation,
other systems essential for the safety of the ship including fire-fighting and bilge
systems remain available and ready for immediate use. The systems for normal
operation of electric power supplies, propulsion and steering should not be affected
by the operation of the dewatering systems. It must also be possible to immediately
start fire pumps and have a ready available supply of fire-fighting water and to be
able to configure and use bilge system for any compartment when the dewatering
system is in operation.
5. Bilge wells are to be provided with gratings or strainers that will prevent blockage
of the dewatering system with debris.
6. The enclosures of electrical equipment for the dewatering system installed in any
of the forward dry spaces are to provide protection to IPX8 standard as defined in
IEC Publication 60529 for a water head equal to the height of the space in which the
electrical equipment is installed for a time duration of at least 24 hours.
The length definition issue for application of damage stability requirements:
The location of the collision bulkhead is determined by first determining the Length
Between Perpendiculars (LBP). LBP is the horizontal distance measured between
perpendiculars taken at the forward most and after most points on the waterline
corresponding to the deepest operating draft.
The collision bulkhead must be located between 5% and 15% of LBP as
measured aft of the forward perpendicular.

. (ADOPTED : 1-11-1974, IN FORCE : 25-5-1980)
Main Objects : Of the convention is
1) To specify the minimum standards for the construction, equipment and operation of ships, and
their reliability toward safety.
2) Flag states are responsible for ensuring that ships under their flag, comply with its requirements.
3) A no. of certificates are prescribed in the convention as a proof of compliance.
4) Control provisions allow contracting governments to inspect the ships of other contracting
governments if their are clear grounds for believing that the ship and its equipment do not
substantially comply with the requirements of the convention this procedure is known as PORT
STATE control.
Chapter 1 : General provisions of the SOLAS 1974 convention includes provisions for the control
of ships in ports of other contracting Governments.
a) The contracting governments undertake to give effect to provisions of the present convention
and the Annex there to, which shall continue an integral part of the present convention
b) The contracting governments undertake to promulgate all laws, decreases, orders and
regulations and to take all other steps which may be necessary to make the present convention
effective, so as to ensure that the safety of seafarers on board is not impaired and the ship is fit
for the service for which it is intended.
The current SOLAS convention articles setting out general obligations, amendments
procedure and so on followed by an annexure divided into 12 chapters.
CHAPTER General Provisions
This Chapter includes regulations concerning the survey of the various types of ships and the
issuing of the documents signifying that the ship meets the requirements of the convention. This
chapter also include the provisions for the control of the ship in the ports of the contracting
Chapter II - 1 Construction : subdivision and stability machinery and Electrical installations.
The Subdivision of passenger ships into watertight compartments must be such that after
assumed damage to the ships hull the vessel will remain afloat and stable. The degree of sub
division measured by the maximum permissible distance between two adjacent bulkhead varies
with ships length and the service in which it is engaged the highest degree of subdivision apply
to passenger ships.
Requirements covering machinery and electrical installation are designed to ensure that the
services which are essential for the safety of the ship are maintained under various emergency
CHAPTER 2-II Construction : Five protection, Five detention and fire extinction
This chapter includes detailed five safety provisions for all ships and specific measures for
passenger ships, cargo ships and tankers they include the following principle.
1) Division of ships into main and vertical zones by thermal and structural soundness.
2) Separation of the accommodation spaces from the reminder of the ship by thermal and
structural boundary.
3) Restricted use of combustible materials
4) Detection of any five in the zone of origin.
5) Containment and extension of five in the space of origin.
6) Protection of the means of escape of excepts for fire fighting purpose
7) Ready stability of fire extinguishing appliances
8) Minimization of the possibility of ignition of flammable cargo vapor.
CHAPTER - 3 Deal with the life saving appliances and arrangements for passenger and
cargo ships
CHAPTER - 4 Deals with Radio communications provision of radio communication
services, GMDSS and ship requirements
CHAPTER - 5 Deals with the safety of navigation which includes navigational warnings, life
saving signals, ship reporting system ship meaning, carriage requirement for
ship borne navigational systems.
CHAPTER - 6 Deals with carriage of cargoes which deal with special provision for bulk
cargo other then given are carriage of grains.
CHAPTER - 7 Deal with the carriage of dangerous goods which includes carriage of
delivery goods in packaged form, in solid form in bulk, covers construction of
ships carrying dangerous liquids chemicals in bulk and construction of ship
carrying liquefied gasses in bulk,
CHAPTER - 8 Nuclear ships : Give requirement for nuclear powered ships and is
particularly concerned with reduction hazards.
CHAPTER - 9 Management for safe operation of ships. The chapter makes mandatory the
international safety management (ISM) code, which requires a safety
management system to be established by the ship owner or any person who
how taken responsibility of managing the ship.
CHAPTER - 10 Safety measures for High speed craft
CHAPTER - II - I Deals with special measured to enhance maritime safety which include
enhanced surveys, ships ID number PSC operational requirement.
CHAPTER II - 2 Deals with special measures to enhance maritime security which includes
'ISPS' codes and responsibility of company, ship and port.
CHAPTER 12 Deals with additional safety measures for bulk carriers which include
damage stability requirement applicable to bulk carriers & structured
strength of Bulk carriers.


149. Highlight the following amendments to IMO Conventions and its effects in ship
operation thereof. Mention their date of entry into force
(a) CLC and Fund Convention (b) SOLAS-IMDG Code
An older version of CLC convention was adopted by IMCO in 1969 and came into force on 19-6-75.
An amendment was adopted in 1992 and entered into force on 30th May 1996. In
October 2002 another amendment, giving the new limits for liability was adopted and
entered into force on 1-11-2003.
Objectives:1. Ensure adequate compensation is available to persons who suffer from oil
pollution by ships even if the owner is unable to pay the same.
2. Adopt uniform international rules & produces to determine civil liability etc., for losses
due to pollution of oil from ships. (Note : civil liability means responsibility to
compensation etc. in money. It does not include criminal liability may be finalized by
fines and / or imprisonment etc.,)
3. To encourage government and others to feel more confident in taking early and decisive
action in containing / minimizing the adverse effects of oil pollution .
Salient features of this convention :
The owner of every tanker is liable for pollution damage caused by his tanker (even
though he may have taken all possible care and precautions) unless the damage is
caused by reasons external to (i.e., not connected with) the ownership and operation of
the tanker) This strict liability is based on the principle "polluter may pay.
The owner of every tanker may limit his total liability in the following manner. For a ship
not exceeding 500 gt liability is limited to 4.51 million SDR.
For a ship 5000 to 140,000 gt liability is limited to 4.51 million SDR plus 631 SDR for each
additional gross tonnage over 5000.
For a ship over 140,000 gt liability is limited to 89.77 million SDR (1 SDR = 15 GF, 1 GF =
65.5 mg of Gold of 900 fineness).
No claim can be made against the charter include Bare boat, master, pilot crew, salver or
agent of the ship.
After a pollution incident, if owner wishes to avail of the benefit of limitation as
described above, he deposits a run equal to its maximum liability either with the court or
with any other competent authority of the country.
If the owner incurs any expenses to prevent or minimize pollution damage, then such
expenses are deductible from the amount deposited by the owner in the same ratio as
other claims on the fund. The object of this provision is to encourage immediate
measures by the owner to minimize / contain damage and be willing to spend money
Every tanker of 2000 GT and above has to maintain an insurance or other financial
security (such as a bank guarantor) to ensure that the tanker can meet her pollution
damage liabilities to the extent indicated above.
The flag state shall issue a certificate to each ship after she has complied with the above
condition regarding financial security.
The certificate must be carried on the ship and must show the name of the insurer etc.,
giving security in respect of the ship certificates by all countries that have ratified the
The liability insurer (P & I clubs) of the ship owner usually provides the proof of
insurance policy / financial security. On the basis of this document the flag state issues
the "certificate of civil liability of oil pollution damage" (CLC certificate)
The certificate shall not be valid beyond the validity of the insurance policy.
Any one who suffers loss due to oil pollution from a ship may she either the owner of
the V/L or even the insurer who has issued the policy within three years of the loss. Ever
if the owner goes into liquidation, the insurer continuous to be liable to those who may
have suffered a loss.
Fund Convention was first adopted in 1971. This was amended and renamed in 1992.
Entered into force 30-5-96. Aim of this convention is to provide compensation for losses
due to pollution where the security provided by the 1992 CLC convention is inadequate.
Fund provides supplementary compensation to oil pollution disasters. The fund
convention is an attempt to ensure that losses due to oil pollution damage are borne not
only by the shipping industry, but in part also borne by the cargo interests.
Salient features : 1. All persons / companies in any country importing more than
150,000 tons of oil in any year shall make contributions to the fund. This fund is
managed as an independent entity under the overall supervision of al director who is
appointed by and responsible to IMO.
2. October 2000 amendments which entered into force in 1-11-2003 raised the max.
amount of compensation to 203 million SDR as compared to 135 million SDR. However,
if three states contribute to the fund receive more than 600 million tones of oil per
annum, the maximum amount is raised to 300, 740,000 SDR.
Effects of CLC and fund convention in ship operation :
1. After the implementation of CLC convention every tanker of 2000 GT and above has to
maintain an insurance or other financial security and obtain a certificate of CLC for oil
pollution damage based on that.
2. CLC convention fixed a upper limit to liability of ship owners in case of oil pollution from
tankers so, ship owners were encouraged to invest in high risk venture like oil
3. Both CLC & fund convention ensured adequate compensation is available to parties who
suffer from oil pollution by ships even if the owner is located in a country for away from
the scene of disaster or he may not have sufficient financial resources to meet all the
4. These conventions encourage government and others to take early and decisive action
in containing or minimizing the adverse effects of oil pollution, because these
conventions ensure adequate compensation. If owner incase any expenses to prevent of
minimize pollution damage, then such expenses are deductible from his total liability.
IMDG Code :
The IMDG code was developed as a uniform international code for the transport of
dangerous goods in packaged form by sea covering such matters pas packing, container
traffic and stowage with particular reference to the segregation of in compatible
substances. The IMDG code lays down basic principles; detailed recommendations for
individual substances, materials and articles and a number recommendations for good
operational practices including advice on terminology, packing, labeling, storage,
segregation and handling and energy response action.
The IMDG code was made mandatory from 1st Jan. 2004 by IMO, by adopting SOLAS
chapter VII on 24 May 2002.
This code applies to all ships carrying dangerous goods in packaged form. Provisions of
this code do not apply to ships stores.
Effects of IMDG code in ships operation.
1) In documents relating to the carriage of dangerous goods, a proper shipping name of
this goods shall be used.
2) The transport document prepared by the shipper shall be included a signed declaration
or certificate that the consignment is properly packaged mark, labelled and in proper
condition for carriage.
3) The person responsible for loading a dangerous goods in a container shall provided a
signed container packing certificate stating that cargo has been properly packed.
4) Ship shall have a detailed storage plan which identify by class and sets out the location
of all dangerous goods onboard.
5) Administration shall issued detailed instruction on emergency response guide and
medical first aid guide relevant to incidents involving dangerous goods.

150. Briefly discuss the reasons for Bulk-Carrier losses in the last decade
and explain how provisions detailed in Chapter XII of SOLAS 74 as
amended will contribute towards the safety of bulk-carriers?

Ans. Originally grain was carried in sacks

Then Bulk carrying concept


1948 & 1960, Solas required expensive temporary fittings
and/or bagged grain

Next 4 years 6 ships loaded according to 1960 Solas were lost

Because it underestimated the Sinkage

IMO assembly in 1969 adopted new resolution
1969 equivalent grain regulation

These (1969 rules) were adopted in Solas 1974

IMO also adopted - Code of safe practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes
which was adopted in 1965

It categorized cargoes
highlights dangers associated with shipment of particular cargo.
Gives properties of different cargoes and handling procedures.
It emphasis the need to distribute cargo throughout the ship to avoid
overstressing and improve stability.
Cone when loaded
Angle between slope of cone and bottom of hold is called angle of repose
Iron has high angle of repose
Grain has low angle of repose (more shifting ability)
hence more prone to dry surface movement
o To overcome this code states that cargo should be trimmed reasonably level
and all spaces should be filled as fully as possible.
o Use of shifting boards or bins

No. of accidents dropped during 1980s and it seemed to many that the problem of
bulk carriers safety has been solved.

Until: 1990 20 Bulk carrier sank 94 lives lost
1991 24 Bulk carrier sank 154 dead
Investigation proceeded :-
1. Importance of age:-
There was a clear link between accidents and age of bulk carriers
o 1990 18/20 ships lost were over 18 years old
o In 1995 LR of shipping published a table giving details of accidents involving
88 Bulk carriers between Jan 1990 and Dec 1994 only 3 ships were less than
10 years old and nearly half were over 20 years
2. Corrosion and fatigue:-
The main reason why age is so relevant here is that corrosion and general
fatigue increases as ship grows older.
This is partly because of stress to which the ship is inevitably subjected by
routine operation, cargo handling, weather, waves and partly due to sea water effect
on steel.
Bulk carriers is great lakes survive to 50 or 60years sulphur residues present in
coal also aggravate the corrosion.

Intercargo investigations shows:-
of 15 losses in 1994 40% were caused by plate failure followed by
ingress of sea water.
6 - 7% losses never explained because ships
disappeared too quickly.
70% losses occurred in heavy weather
American B.S. in 1991 said
The recent spate of casualties on conventional bulk carrier appears to be directly
traceable to failure of cargo hold structure.
L.R said :that prime cause of most casualties is the inability of the side structure to withstand
the combination of local corrosion, fatigue cracking and operational damage.
Operational Factors:-
Corrosion was important so was physical damage suffered during operations.
Loading pattern can make the effect worse.
A) Dense cargoes like iron ore often carried in alternate holds to raise (CG). This
according to LR increases the stress on inner hull components (Bulkheads etc)
B) Cargo handling method:-
For faster turn-around the loading rate is increased some terminals can
load up to 16000 ton / hr. iron ore. IACS in a report said high cargo rates under
uncontrolled process could result in an over loading which can cause local or
global damage.
1994 - One proof was when vessel TRADE DRINKING, Cyprus, 1974, 145000 dwt, breaks
at Ponta Madeira
July 1993 - wreck of Derbyshire (went down Sept 1980)
1991 Mineral Diamond (Anglo Eastern) but in 1976 all 26 died
In a study by IACS showed that a
5% overload increases still water bending moment by 15% & shear forces
by 5%
10% overload increases still water bending moment by 40% and shear force by
A 10 percent overload could be caused by a 5 to 8 min delay in stopping conveyor belt
with capacity of 16000 t/hr
Last of the cargoes are removed by bull dozers and hydraulic hammers fitted to
extended arms of tractors
Question of attitude
Owners try to run ships where Port State Controls are relaxed
High tensile steel:-
In early 1980s increasing use has been made of high tensile steel, especially
in construction of bulk carriers. As thinner plates can be used without loosing any
A normal MS plate will be 24-29 mm thick, using HT steel this can be reduced to
20mm. The weight saving might amount to several thousand tons. This cuts building
costs and enables to carry more cargo. But there is a price to pay one simple fact
that HT corrodes just as quickly as MS. As HT plates are thinner, corrosion is likely to
reach danger point more quickly.
IACS observed that most common example where failure had occurred on HTS built
bulk carriers was at side longitudinal connection to web frame.
According to LR in Sep 1995, HTS ships are also prone to a phenomenon known as
Chapter XII:- (13 Regulations)

1. Enhanced survey schedule
2. Old fore most cargo hold flooding
New any cargo hold flooding
3. Code of safe practice for loading & unloading (BLU Booklet)
4. Any restriction of cargo type.
5. Loadicator
6. Bilge Alarms
7. Pumping system

151. List the amendments to the existing Conventions of IMO to come
into force in the year 2005. Briefly describe the amendments. What
changes are likely to be foreseen on ship operation worldwide on
implementation of these amendments?

Ans) The amendments to the existing conventions of IMO to come into force in the
year 2005 are as under:-
2) MARPOL 73/78 (Adopted: 4 Dec 03, Enforced: Apr. 05)
Annex I - Phasing out cat 1 tanker 2005 from 2007 cat 2 & 3 tanker 2010 from
CAS for all single hull tanker more than 15 yrs new reg 13H
3) LL 1966 ( Adopted: jun-03, Enforced:1 Jan 05)
Amend to annex B
4) FUND 1971 (Adopted:16 May 03, Enforced : 3 Mar 05) supplementary

1)MARPOL 73/78 (Adopted 1 Apr 04, Enforced: 1 Aug 05) amend annex IV and V
5) MARPOL 73/78 (Adopted: 26 Sept 97, Enforced 19 May 05) Protocol of
1997 add annex VI

MARPOL 73/78
1) The protocol of 1997 (Annex VI-Regulations for the prevention of Air
Pollution from ships) Adoption : 26 September 1997 Entry into force : 19
May 2005
The protocol adds a new Annex VI on Regulation for the prevention of Air pollution
from ships to the convention. The rules set limits on sulphur oxide (Sox) and nitrogen oxide
) emission from exhaust and prohibit deliberate emissions of ozone depleting

Annex VI
Includes a global cap of 4.5% m/m on the sulphur content of fuel oil and calls for IMO to
monitor the world wide avg sulphur content of fuel oil

Contains provisions allowing for special Sox emission Control Areas to be
established with more stringent control on sulphur emissions.

In this area the sulphur content of fuel oil used on board ships must not exceed 1.5%
m/m or alternatively ships must fit an exhaust gas cleaning system or use any other technological
method to limit SO
emissions. The Baltic sea is designated as a Sox Emission control area in the

It prohibits deliberate emissions of ozone depleting substances, which includes
halons and chlorofluorocarbons

(i) new installations are prohibited on all ships
(ii) new installations containing HDFCs are permitted until 1 Jan 2020

Note:- These requirements of IMO are in accordance with the Montreal Protocol of
1987, as amended in London in 1990
The Montreal Protocol is an international environmental treaty, drawn up under the
auspices of the UN, under which nations agreed to cut CFC consumption and production in order to
protect the ozone layer.

It sets limits or emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO
) from diesel engines. A mandatory
technical code developed by IMO defines how this is to be done.

It also prohibit he incineration on board ships of certain products, such as
contaminated packaging materials and polychlorinated .. (PCBs).

Also, appendices of the Annex VI give criteria and procedures for

(i) designation of Sox emission control areas
(ii) information for inclusion in the tanker delivery note
(iii) approval and operating limits for shipboard incinerators
(iv) test cycles and weighting factors for verification of compliance of
marine diesel engines with the NOx limits and
(v) details of surveys and inspections to be carried out.

2) The 2003 Amendments
Adoption : 4 December 2003
Entry into force : April 2005
Regulation 13G of Annex I was revised:
The final phasing out date for cat 1 tankers (pre-MARPOL) is brought forward to
2005 from 2007.
The final phasing out date for Cat 2 and Cat 3 tankers (MARPOL tankers and small
tankers) is brought forward to 2010 from 2015
Under the revised regulations, the condition Assessment Scheme (CAS) is to be
made applicable to all single hull tankers of 15 yrs or older
It allows the Admin to permit continued operation of Cat 2 or 3 tankers beyond 2010
subject to satisfactory results from the CAS, but the continued operation must not go
beyond the anniv of the date of delivery of the ship in 2015 or the date on which the
ship reaches 25 years of age after the date of its delivery whichever is earlier.
A new regulation 134 to Annex I of MARPOL on the prevention of oil pollution from
oil tankers when carrying heavy grade oil (HGO) the carriage of HGO

(i) In single hull tankers of 5000 tons dwt and above (ii) in single hull oil
tankers of 600 tons dwt and above but less than 5000 tons dwt not
later than the anniv. of their delivery date in 2008.
The regulation defines HFO as any of the following:
(i) Crude oils having a density higher than 900 kg/m
@ 15
(ii) fuel oils having a density higher than 900 kg/m
C or a
kinematic viscosity higher than 180mm
/s @ 15
(iii) bitumen, tar and their emulsions.

The regulation has some exemption like it may allow operation of
(i) Oil r\tankers 5000 tons dwt and above carrying crude oil with a
density higher than 900kg/m
but lower than 945kg/m
@ 15
C with
satisfactory CAS results and
(ii) single hull oil tankers of 600 tons dwt and above dwt less than 5000
tons dwt, if in the opinion of the Admin the ship is fit o continue such
operation and
(iii) an oil tanker 600 tons dwt and above engaged in voyages
exclusively with in an area under the Partys jurisdiction or
under the jurisdiction of another party, provided it aggress and
(iv) the same applies to floating storage units (FSUs)
all the above may be denied if the party feels this is necessary for
the purpose of securing the safety of a ship or caving life at

3) The 2004 (April) Amendments
Adoption : 1 April 2004
Entry into force : 1 August 2005
The revised Annex will apply to new ships engaged in international voyages of 400
GRT and above or which are certified to carry more than 15 persons.
Existing ships will be required to comply with the provisions of the revised Annex IV
five years after the date of its entry into force.
The Annex requires ships to be equipped with either a sewage treatment plant or a
sewage commuting and disinfecting system or a sewage holding tank.
The discharge of sewage into the sea will be prohibited, except when
(i) the ship has in operation an approved sewage treatment plant or
(ii) in discharging comminuted and disinfected sewage using an approved
system at a distance or more than three nautical miles from the nearest
land or
(iii) is discharging sewage which is not comminuted or disinfected at a
distance of more than 12 nautical miles from the nearest land
Also, amendments to the appendix to MARPOL Annex V on prevention of pollution
by garbage from ships which relate to the recording of the disposal of cargo residues in the
Garbage record Book.
International Convention on Loadlines, 1966 2003 Amendments
Adopted : June 2003
Entry into Force : 1 January 2005
The amendments to Annex B to the 1988 load lines protocol include a number of
important revisions, in particular to regulations concerning strength and intact stability of
International Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund
Compensation for Oil pollution Damage (Fund), 1971
The 2003 Protocol (Supplementary Fund)
Adoption : 16 May 2003
Entry into Force : 3 March 005

The 2003 protocol establishing an International Oil Pollution Compensation
Supplementary Fund was adopted by a diplomatic Conference held at IMO headquarters in
London. The aim of the established fund is to supplement the compensation available under
the 1992 civil liability and fun conventions with an additional their tier of compensation. It
is optional and the total amount of compensation payable for any one incident will be
limited to a combined total of 750 million special Drawings Rights (SDR) (just over Rs 1000
million) including the amount of compensation paid under the existing CLC/fund
Various IMO convention have been developed to deal with the prevention of pollution by ships.
Various IMO instruments are listed below.:
1) MARPOL - 73/78 : International convention for the prevention of pollution from ships
1973, as modified by the protocol of 1978. The various annexes to this conventions are
as follows :
Annex - I : Deals with regulations for the prevention of pollution by oil. Entry into force
on 2nd October 1983.
Methods and aids to prevents pollution includes following :
a) International oil pollution prevention certificate (IOPP) - (Reg.5) This certificate is
mandatory / statutory certificate to be issued in initial or renewal survey, to any takes of
> 150GT and other ships > 400 GT. Valid for 5 years issued by administration.
b) Oil Discharge monitoring and control system (ODMCS) shall be provided for tankers to
control oil in shops (Reg.-15)
c) Oil filtering equipment, OWS, for any ship > 10,000 GT, should be provided with alarm
and automatic stopping device, in case the effluent exceeds 15 ppm, for E/R bilges.
d) Bilge water, sludge and dirty oil reception facilities to be provided at all ports or
terminals (Reg.-12)
e) Segregated clean ballast tanks (SBT) and crude it working system (COW) to be provided
for oil tankers.
f) Imploding the requirements for the design & construction of oil tankers to prevent oil
pollution in the Event of collision and standing. Reg. 13F for new tankers & Reg. 13G for
hinting tankers which apply to crude carriers > 20,000 DWT and product carriers
> 30,000. Introduction of Enhanced survey programs during periodical almost &
intermediate surveys.
(phasing out of single hull tankers)
g) Oil record book : Every tanker > 180 GT & other ships > 400 GT shall have an oil record
book. Reg. 20
h) Shipboard oil pollution Emergency plan (SOPEP) Reg.26 Every tanker > 150 GT and
others > 400 GT shall carry supplied SOPEP plan by Administration.
i) Sufficient sludge and bilge water holding tanks stop should be provided to all ships.
j) Double hull and double bottom requirements for oil tanks delivered after 6 July 1996 &
before 6 July 1996. (reg.19)
k) Pump room (cargo) bottom protection (Reg.22)
l) Limitation of size & arrangement of cargo tanks.
Annex - II Defines regulations for the control of pollution by noxious liquid substances in
Methods and aids to prevent pollution includes :
a) Categorization and control of noxious liquid substances in and outside special areas Reg.
3 & 5
b) Cargo record book : To record loading, unloading cleaning and ballasting facilities at
terminals for discharge of residues and mixtures containing NLS Reg.7.
c) To have shipboard marine pollution prevention Emergency plan (SMPEP) along with
SOPEP or a combined plan.
Annex - III Defines regulations for the prevention of pollution by harmful substances
carried by sea in packaged form E/F = 1st July 1992
a) Marking and labeling - Reg 3.
b) Storage shall be properly stored and secured so as to minimize hazards Reg.5.
c) Document correct technical names to be used and further identified by the words
marine pollutant.
International maritime dangerous goods (IMDG) Code : defines the harmful substances,
which are identified as marine pollutants.
Annex IV : Defines regulations for the prevention of pollution by sewage from ships
forced on 27th Sept. 2003.
Methods and aids :
a) An International sewage pollution prevention certificate is issued by the administration
after survey has been carried out in accordance with reg.3.
b) Ship must have in operation an administration approved sewage treatment plant Reg.8
c) Reception facilities at ports & terminals Reg.10.
d) Standard discharge connection.
Annex V - Regulation for prevention of pollution by garbage from ships E/F 31st dec.
Methods and Aids
a) Requirements for disposal of garbage with in & outside sp. areas.
b) Reception facilities in parts & terminals.
c) Placards shall be displayed for every 12 m ship for the crew.
d) Every ship > 400 GT to carry garbage management plan.
e) Garbage record book required for ship > 400 GT and preserved for 2 years after last
Annex VI : Regulation for prevention of air pollution from ships enforced 19th May 2005
Methods and Aids :
a) Ships must have an International Air Pollution prevention (IAPP) certificate by
administration, after initial survey. valid for 5 years.
b) Restriction of use of ozone depleting substances (ODS) such as HCFCs. phasing out of
existing ODSs by 1st January 2020. (i.e. R-22)
c) Control of emissions of sulphur oxides (SOx) by limiting sulphur contest of fuel oil to
4.5% m/m and 1.5% for sulphur emission control areas (SECAs) Reg.13
e) Installation of approved incinerators with monitoring devices for fuel gas outlet and
combustion chamber temperatures.
f) Reception facilities for exh. gas cleaning residues, oil etc.
g) Bunker delivery notes must specify parameters of fuel supplied,
h) F.O. samples must be taken in continuous drip method, stored for not less than 12
i) VOC system for tankers sailing to VOC designated port.
As a Chief Engineer on board ship, one must ensure the following, for successful
implementation of methods and aids to prevent pollution to the Environment.
1) Familiarization of personnel's responsible for operating pollution preventing equipment,
with the operation & maintenance of equipment
2) Familiarization of personnel with MARPOL regulations.
3) Regular testing of parts / million equipment, (15ppm), alarms and stops.
4) Must ensure minimum recommended spares always onboard for pollution prevention
equipment. Eg. spare set of filter cartridge.
5) Proper documentation via IOPP, LAPP, ISPP certificate and their validity.
6) Surveys due for pollution prevention equipment.
7) Bunker checklist bunker transfer procedures are clearly posted.
8) To properly keep bunker samples & delivery notes.
9) Operating procedures for pollution prevention equipments must be clearly posted.
10) Regular testing of pollution prevention equipments.
11) Entries in oil record book.
12) Ensure sounding records updated.
13) Good E/R house keeping minimum leakages.

153. List the IMO Conventions and guidelines dealing with marine
environment protection. State how each of the convention contributes
to the protection of the marine environment.

Ans) Convention are the main instruments of IMO, a binding legal instrument
regulating some aspect of maritime affairs of major concern to IMO (eg safety,
pollution). Various conventions have been developed to deal with the
prevention of pollution by ships some of which are as listed below:
(1) International Convention for the prevention of pollution from ships, 1973 as
modified by the protocol of 1978 (MARPOL 73/78). The various annexes to
this convention are as follows:

a] Annexe-1: Deals with regulations for the prevention of pollution by oil.
Entered into force on 2
October 1983 few important regulations in this
annexe includes the following
(i) International Oil pollution prevention certificate (IOPP):- The IOPP
certificate is issued after an initial or renewal survey to any oil tanker of
ISO GT and above and other ships of 400 GT and above. The certificate is
valid for 5 years and issued by the administration as per regulation 5.
(ii) Oil discharging monitoring and control system of approved type to be fitted
in tankers to provide a continuous record of the discharge in terms of
quantity, oil content, rate etc as per regulation 15 which also regulates the
retention quantity of oil on board.
(iii) Oil filtering equipment or any ship of 10000 GT and above should be
provided with arrangements for an alarm and automatic stopping device in
case the effluent exceeds 15ppm
(iv) Reception facilities to be provided at ports and terminals as per regulation
(v) Segregated clean ballast tanks (SBT) and crude oil washing system
(COW) to be provided for oil tankers
(vi) Improving the requirements for the design and construction of oil tankers
to prevent oil pollution in the event of collision and stranding for new
tankers and for existing ships. Which apply to crude carriers of 20000
DWT and above and product carriers more than 30000 DWT, which shall
be subject to enhanced programme of inspections, during periodicals
intermediate and annual surveys.
(vii) Oil record book: Every oil tanker of 150 GT and above and all other
ships of 400 GT and above shall have an oil record book for recording all
oil transfers as well as recording all bilge and sludge transfers, oily water
separator operations and incineration/disposal to shore regulam 20
(viii) Shipboard Oil pollution Emergency Plan (SOPEP) Reg 26 : Every
tanker of 150 GT and above and all other ships of 400 GT and above shall
carry on board an oil pollution emergency plan approved by the

b] Annexe II: Defines regulations for the control of pollution by noxious liquid
substance in bulk. This involves entered into force on 6thn April 1987.
(i) Categorization and control of discharge of noxious liquid substances in
and outside special areas as per reg 3&5
(ii) Cargo record book which records loading unloading cleaning and
ballasting facilities at terminals for discharge of residues and mixtures
containing NLS-reg7
c] Annexe III: Defines regulations for the prevention of pollution by harmful
substances in packaged form entered into force on 1
July 1992. Important points in
their annexe are
(i) It contains general requirements for the issuing of detailed standards on
packing, marking, labeling, documentation, stowage, quantity limitations
and exceptions and notifications for preventing pollution by harmful

d] Annexe iv: Regulations for the prevention of pollution by sewage from ships
entered into force 27
Sept 2003. The following are the important points in this
(i) An International Sewage pollution Prevention certificate is issued by the
administration, after survey has been carried out in accordance with
regulation 3
(ii) Ship must have in operation an administration approved sewage treatment
plant to meet the operational requirements regulation 8
(iii) Reception facilities at ports and terminals for reception of sewage .
Regulation 10
(iv) Standard discharge connections for discharge of sewage to terminals

e] Annexe v: Regulations for prevention of pollution by garbage from ships. Entered
into force 31
Dec 1988
(i) It lays down requirements for disposal of garbage within and outside
special areas.
(ii) Reception facilities at terminals and ports to be provided for reception of
(iii)Placards to be displayed for every ship of 12m or more in length which
notifies the crew of disposal regulations
(iv) Every ship>400GT, certified to carry 15 persons or more shall have a
garbage management plan, which provides written procedures for storing,
collecting, processing and disposing of garbage.
(v) Garbage Record book required for ships>400GT and carrying more than
15 persons which shall be preserved for 2 years after the last entry is

Annexe vi: Regulations for prevention of air pollution from ships. Entered
into force 19
May 2005
(i) Issue of International Air Pollution Prevention (IAPP) certificate by the
administration after initial survey as per regulation which will be valid for 5
(ii) Restriction on use of ozone depleting substances (ODS) such as HCFCs
on board ship
(iii) Control of emission of Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) from diesel engines and
other modes of propulsion (Reg 13)
(iv) Control of emission of Sulphur Oxides (Sox) by limiting Sulphur content of
fuel to 4.5% m/m and 1.5% m/m for Sulphur Emission Control Areas
(SECA) (Reg 14)
(v) Installation of approved incinerators for shipboard incineration of sludge
and oil waste. The fuel gas outlet temperature and combustion chamber
outlet temperatures are monitored
(vi) Bunker delivery Note (BDN) must specify in detail the parameters of the
fuel supplied and these are to be retained on board for a period of 3 years
after the bunkers are received.
(vii) F.O.Sample to be taken continuously by an approved sampling method
and stored in a clearly marked designated place for a period of not less
than 12 months from the time of delivery.
(viii) ODCs should be clearly marked and stored in a designated place
assigned for that purpose
(ix) VOC system for tankers sailing to a VOC designated port.

2) International Convention relating to Intervention on the High seas in cases of
Oil pollution causalities 1969.
Entered into force on 6
May 1975. this convention affirms the right of coastal
state to take such measures on the high seas as may be necessary to prevent
mitigate or eliminate danger to its coastline. The 1973 protocol extends
convention to even cover pollutants other than oil.
3) Convention on the prevention of marine pollution by dumping of wastes and
other matter (LDC), 1972. Entered into force on 30
Aug 1975. This is also
known as the LONDON Convention 1972. it prohibits dumping of certain
hazardous materials, requires a prior special permit for the dumping of a
number of other identified materials and a prior general permit for other
wastes or matter.
4) International Convention on oil pollution preparedness, response and
cooperation (OPRC 1990)
entered into force on 13
MAY 1995
The convention requires
(a) Ships must carry an approved plan
(b) Provide for establishment of a stock of oil spill combating equipment.
Holding of oil spill combating drills and development of detailed plans
for dealing with pollution incidents
(c) All parties must provide assistance to others in the event of an
5) Protocol on preparedness response and cooperation to pollution incidents by
hazardous and Noxious substances, 2000: Adoption 15 March 2000. Entry
into force: twelve months after ratification by not less than fifteen states which
are states party to the OPRC conventions.
6) International Convention on the control of Harmful anti fouling systems on
ships (AFS), 2001
Adoption: 5
October 2001. Entry into force: the convention will enter into
force 12 months after 25 states representing 25% the worlds merchant
shipping tonnage have ratified it.This convention prohibits the use of harmful
organisations (in antifouling paints) used on ships and establishes a
procedure to prevent potential suture use of other harmful substances in anti
fouling systems
7) International convention for the control and Management of ships ballast
water and sediments, 2004
Adoption 13
February 2004. Entry into force 12 months after ratification by
30 states, representing 35 per cent of world Merchant Shipping tonnage.

154. Highlighting the importance of the dates shown below as towards
entry into force of IMO Conventions/ Codes/ Amendments, describe the
effect it will have on maritime ship operation worldwide
(a) 1
J an 2003 (b) 1
May 2003 (c) 27
Sept. 2003 (d) 1
Sept. 2002

Ans. Entry into force:- Usually a convention enters into force according to
procedures set out in the convention itself. For instance, a convention may
provide that it shall come in force (i.e. become binding on the countries that
have ratified it) after a certain number of countries with the stipulated
minimum tonnage have ratified it. If no such provision exists, then the
convention enters into force after all the negotiating parties have formally
conveyed their consent. When stipulated entry conditions have been met, the
convention enters into force for all states which have accepted it, generally
after a period of grace to enable states to take measures for implementation
(a) 1
Jan 2003
(i) The June 2001 Amendments (SOLAS)
( Adoption: Jun 2001 ; Entry into force 1
Jan 2003)
Amendments to Chapter VII (SOLAS) Carriage of Dangerous Goods and to
the International Code for the Safe Carriage of Packaged Irradiated Nuclear Fuel,
Plutonium & High-Level Radioactive Wastes on board ships (INF Code) to align
them with amendment 30 to the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG)
Code. The regulations are contained in three parts:-
Part A:- Carriage of dangerous goods in packaged form or in solid form
includes provisions for classification, packing, marking, labelling and placarding,
documentation and stowage of dangerous goods. Contracting governments are
required to issue instructions at the national level and the chapter refers to IMDG
code, developed by IMO, which is constantly updated to accommodate new
dangerous goods and to revise and supplement existing provisions. A 12 month
period (1/1/2003 to 12/12/2003) is allowed for users to become familiar with the
new format.
Part B:- Covers construction and equipment of ships carrying dangerous
liquid chemicals in bulk and requires chemical tankers built after 1/7/1986 to
comply with the International Bulk Chemical code(IBC code)
Part C:- Covers construction and equipment of ships carrying liquefied
gases in bulk and gas carriers construction after 1/7/1986 to comply with the
requirements of the International Gas Carrier code(IGC code).
Part D:- Includes special requirements for the carriage of packaged
irradiated nuclear fuel, plutonium and high level radioactive wastes on board
ships to comply with INF code. Specific regulations in the code cover a no. of
issues, including damage stability, fire protection, temperature control of cargo
spaces, structural consideration, cargo securing arrangements, electrical
supplies, radiological protection equipment and management training and
shipboard emergency plans. Ships carrying INF cargo are assigned one of three
classes (class INF1, INF2, OR INF3 ships depending on the total radioactivity of
INF cargo which is carried on board and regulations vary slightly according to
The IMDG code and the INF code were harmonised, with contracting
governments required to issue instructions at national level regards same.
The effect of IMDG and INF code on maritime ship operation worldwide:-
i. Handling and transport of dangerous goods, by safe means
and with great care in order to prevent incidents as well as
contamination of other cargoes and the pollution of the
ii. The person involved in handling and transport of dangerous
goods can be advised beforehand as to the characteristics and
hazardous properties of the goods and of any necessary
safety precautions etc, information are available in the code.
iii. Latest updated list of dangerous goods available and provided
with information about safety rules, first aid treatment,
emergency procedures to be followed and action to be taken in
case of an incident.
iv. Harmonisation of INF code amendment with IMDG code
amendment will give compiled information of dangerous goods
in single text.
v. This will avoid unnecessary paper work and repetition of some
procedures followed in shipping industries worldwide.
vi. Training of officers and ratings, responsible for cargo handling
on board ships carrying dangerous goods and hazardous
substances in packaged form become mandatory

(ii) The 1998 Amendments (STCW)
(Adoption 9 Dec 1998, entry into force 1stJan 2003)
Amendments to the STCW code are aimed at improving minimum
standards of competence of crews, in particular relating to cargo securing,
loading and unloading on bulk carriers, since these procedures have the
potential to put undue stresses on the ships structure. The amendments
concern sections A-II/I and A-II/2 under Cargo handling and stowage at
the operational & management levels.
The effect on maritime operation on ships worldwide:-
At operational level:
- Communications are improved
- The inspections are carried out in accordance with laid down
procedures and defects and damages are detected and properly
- Ability to distinguish between normal and defective or damaged
parts of the ship
At management level:
- Unacceptable or unforeseen variations in the condition or specification
of cargo is promptly recognised and remedial action is immediately
taken and designed to safeguard the safety of the ship and those on
- Cargo operations are planned and executed in accordance with
established procedures and legislative requirements.
- Stowage and securing of cargoes ensures that stability and stress
conditions remain within safe limits at all times during the voyage
(b) 1
May 2003
Convention on Facilitation of International Maritime Traffic, 1965 (FAL
The 2002 Amendments
(Adoption : 10 Jan 2002 : Entry into force 1
May 2003)
The amendments add new standards and recommended practices
for dealing with stowaways. Another amendment relates to the
Dangerous Goods Manifest (FAL Form 7), which becomes the basic
document providing public authorities with the information regarding
dangerous goods on board ships.
The amendment recommends practises for ships as preventive measures:-
- Doors, hatches and means of access to holds or stores, which are
not used during the vessels stay in port should be locked
- Access points to the ship should be kept to a minimum and be
adequately secured
- Adequate deck watch should be kept
- Adequate lighting should be maintained both sides along the hull.
- While receiving stores and provisions, watch on every big items
- Good communication should be maintained.
- Before leaving the port thorough search to be carried out for
Stowaway incidents should be dealt consistent with humanitarian principles
and due consideration must be given to the operational safety of the vessel and
the safety of stowaways. Master should not deviate from planned voyage to
seek the disembarkation of stowaway, after ship has left the territorial water of
the country where the stowaway embarked unless:
a. permission has been granted by the public authorities of the state to
whose port the ship deviates
b. repatriation has been arranged with documentation and permission
c. there are extenuating security, health or compassionate reasons
Cost of return and maintenance of stowaway covered by ship owner as per
national legislation
Effect on maritime shipping:-
Decrease in stowaway incidents reported by IMO News issue 3/2005
Amendment relating to the dangerous goods manifest ( FAL Form7)
Basic document providing public authorities(customs, immigration) with the
information regarding dangerous goods on board ships. FAL form7 is the IMO
standardised form & the documents with maximum information and number of
copies which should be required
Effect of FAL amendments on maritime ship operation worldwide:
The convention reduces just eight the number of declarations which
can be required by public authority( customs, immigration)
Unnecessary paperwork and red tapism is reduced in shipping
industries worldwide
The convention has made an important contribution to the removal of
trade barriers
Transparent system of transporting dangerous goods make
concerned traders more responsible
Increases personnel safety and environmental protection.
(c) 27
Sept 2003
MARPOL 73/78 Annexe IV Prevention of pollution by sewage from ships
(entry into force, 27thSept 2003)
Annexe IV contains requirements to control pollution of the sea by sewage.
A revised annexe was adopted in 2004.
The ship is discharging communited and disinfected sewage using a
system approved by the Administration at a distance of more than 3 nautical
miles from the nearest land or sewage which is not communited or
disinfected at a distance of more than 12 nautical miles from the nearest
land, provided that, in any case, the sewage that has been stored in holding
tanks shall not be discharged instantaneously but a moderate rate when the
ship is enroute & proceeding at not less than 4 knots; the rate of discharge
shall be approved by the Administration based upon standards developed by
the organisation.
Effect on maritime ship operation worldwide:
- Certain countries adopted this annexe in their own national and
regional control
- As this annexe applies to ships engaged in international voyages, the
contracting governments are free to adopt this, in their own national
and regional control. So not opted at regional control levels.
- The aim of this annexe will serve its purpose only when this will be
adopted by contracting government at international and regional level
- Ship shall be fitted approved type of sewage treatment plant. So
financial burden on owner and more responsibilities on ship staff
- Any deficiency in operation, maintenance and records will cause heavy
fine and detention of ship
(d) 1
Sept 2002
MARPOL 73/78 The 2001 Amendments.
(Adoption : 27 April 2001 ; Entry into force 1
Sept 2002)
The amendment to Annexe I brought in a new global timetable for
accelerating the phase-out of single-hull oil tankers which was subsequently
revised again by the 2003 amendments.
The flag state administration may allow for some newer single hull ships
registered in its country that conform to certain technical specifications to
continue trading until the 25
anniversary of their delivery.
However, under the provision of paragraph 8(b), any port state can deny
entry to those single hull tankers, which are allowed to operate until their 25

anniversary to ports or offshore terminals. They must communicate their
intention to do this to IMO. As an additional precautionary measure, a
Condition Assessment Scheme (CAS) will have to be applied to all category
1 vessels continuity to trade after 2005 and all category 2 vessels after 2010.
Although the CAS does not specify structural standards in excess of the
provisions of other IMO conventions, codes and recommendations, its
requirements stipulate more stringent and transparent verification of the
reported structural condition of the ship and that documentary and survey
procedures have been properly carried out and completed.
The requirements of the CAS include enhanced & transparent verification
of the reported condition and of the ship & verification that the documentary &
procedures have been properly carried out & completed. The scheme
requires that compliance with the CAS is assessed during the Enhanced
Survey Programme of Inspections Concurrent with intermediate or renewal
surveys currently required by resolution A.744(18), as amended.
Effect on maritime ship operation worldwide:-
- Phase out of single hull tankers as per their anniversary date, operation
does not go beyond the date on which the ship reaches 25 years
- Increased workload on ship builders due to new orders of double hull
- Enhanced ship safety and pollution prevention
- Category 2 or 3 oil tankers with double bottom or double sides not used for
the carriage of oil and extending to the entire cargo tank length.
Administration may allow continued operation of such a ship beyond the
date specified, provided that, the administration is satisfied by the
verification of the official records that the ship complied with the conditions
specified above
- Category 2 or 3 oil tankers specified above, administration may allow
continued operation of such a ship beyond the date specified or 25 years
which ever is earlier, provide that:
(a) Wing tank or double bottom spaces, not used for the carriage of oil
and meeting the width and height requirements of regulation 13E(4)
(b) The tanker operates with hydrostatically balanced loading, taking
into account the guidelines developed by the organisation
- A category 1 oil tanker of 25 years and over, and after the date of its delivery
shall comply with either of following provisions:
(a) The tanker operates with hydrostatically balanced loading, taking
into account the guidelines developed by the organisation

155. What are the liabilities of a ship owner in carriage of passengers
onboard ships? Explain the importance and relevance of Pre-Athens
Convention Legislation and The Athens Passenger Convention

Ans. First of all, let us see the implication of carriage of passengers on a ship in
view of Article 2 & 3 of the Athens Convention 1974.
Article 2 of the above said convention applies to:
a) Any international carriage if the ship is flagged or registered in a state
party to the convention
b) The Contract of Carriage is made in a state party to the convention
between ship-owner/carrier & the passenger
c) The Passenger is defined as any person carried in a ship
d) The ship is defined as a sea going vessel
e) The place of departure or destination is, according to the Contract of
Carriage, in a state party to the convention
Article 3 stipulates that the Carrier i.e. contracting carrier or performing carrier,
both are liable for damages suffered due to death or personal injury of the
passenger or for the loss or damage to the passengers luggage where:
(1) the incident which caused the damage occurred during the course of
(2) the damage was due to the fault or neglect of the carrier or his servants
or agents etc.
(3) fault of a carrier is presumed where loss of life/injury or loss of cabin
luggage arose out of ship wreck, collision, stranding, fire or defect in ship. But
in case of other luggage fault of Carrier shall be presumed even if the loss
arose out of incidents other than ship wreck, collision, fire, grounding etc.
Who is liable
The liability of the Carrier and the Performing Carrier is joint and several.
Both the Carrier and the Performing Carrier are entitled to limit their liability
under the convention ( Note: very often the contract of carriage of passenger
i.e. the passenger ticket is issued by tour operators or similar business
organisations while the actual carriage may be performed by the
owner/charterer of a passenger vessel. In such a case, the person issuing
tickets in the carrier and the owner/charterer is the performing carrier)

Pre-Athens Convention Legislation:
In Pre-Athens or in a situation where the incident occurred that place or the
state to which plaintiff resides is not party to the Athens convention, then the
dispute/claim is brought under the common law of contracts. In this party to a
contract are free to agree to any legally permissible terms as to their rights
and liabilities and contracts of passage are no exception to this rule. However,
the ship-owners and carriers of passengers often insert exclusion clauses
(normally, printed in small case on passenger tickets). More often than not,
the passenger has little or no notice of such exclusion clause. The
passengers agreement therefore cannot be said to have been obtained with
his free consent. For this reason, it is considered desirable, in the larger public
interest, to provide some protection to passengers. The objective is to provide
uniformity in laws of different states in so far as they concern the liability of
carriers of passengers by sea. The international convention for unification of
rules relating to carriage of passengers by sea concluded in Brussels in april
1961 which gave compensation to Passengers:
250000 F in case of death/injury
10000 F for loss/damage to cabin luggage
30000 F for vehicle including luggage kept in/on it
The 1967 convention named carriage of passengers & their luggage.
The 1961 convention did not include compensation for loss/damage to

The Athens passenger Convention 1974:
The Athens convention of 1974 was designed to consolidate and harmonize
two earlier Brussels conventions dealing with passengers and their luggage
and adopted in 1961 and 1967, respectively.
This convention was adopted on 13 Dec 1974 and entered in to force in
28/4/1987. At present 28 states are party to it
9) Articles : This convention has 28 articles.
10) 1976 protocol in force since 30/4/1989
11) Not ratified by India
12) A protocol was adopted in 1990 to enhance the limits of the
carriers liability but never entered in to force.
13) A protocol adopted in 2002 Monday 21 October to Friday 01
November. This protocol seeks to:
a) Enhance the limits of carriers liability to reflect present
day conditions
b) Introduce a tacit acceptance procedure for raising the
limits of liability in future thus an easy mechanism to raise
limits of liability.
c) Provision of insurance or financial security for
compensation for claims for death or personal injury to
passengers. All carriers to take steps to maintain their
cover to meet full level of liability provided for, in the
71 states representatives participated in the conference. This
shall enter in to force 12 months after being accepted by 10
6) Limits of Liability: Article 7 & 8
Originally, the limits were expressed in gold francs. However,
by 1976 Protocol, the limits have been prescribed in SDRs. 1
franc=65.5mg of gold of millesimal fineness 900.
The limits of liability are as follows:

For death/personal injury 700,000 F 175,000 SDR 250,000 SDR($325,000) to
400,000 SDR($524,000)
For cabin luggage per
luggage in or on vehicle)
12,500 F 1800 SDR 2250 SDR ($2925)
For a vehicle and 50,000 F 10,000 SDR 12,700 SDR ($16,250)
luggage on/in (per
For other luggage (per
18,000 F 12000 SDR 3,375 SDR ($4,390)

7) The amount referred above shall be converted in National
Currency of the State of the Court concerned on the date of
judgement or on the date agreed upon by the parties.
8) Deductible: The carrier and the passenger may agree that
carriers liability is subject to deductible not exceeding
117SDR/13 SDR for damage to vehicle/luggage per passenger
respectively. Such sum will be deducted from the loss or
damage(these figures are as per present convention, 1974).
9) Right to limit liability is lost if damage occurs due to an act
done with intent to cause loss or damage recklessly
10) Any claim for death/injury becomes time barred after 2 years.
11) No liability arises under this convention for damage caused
by nuclear incident act of war etc.
12) Written notice of loss shall be given
(i) in case of apparent damage
(a) to cabin luggage at time of disembark
(b) to other luggage, at time of re-delivery.
(ii) in case of non-apparent damage within 15 days from
disembarkation or re-delivery
Athens Convention adoption Adoption E/F
1974 Convention (PAL) 13 DEC 1974
1976 Protocol 19 Nov 1976
1990 Protocol 29 Mar 1990 ------
2002 Protocol Nov 2002 12
months after
by 10 states
Pre Athens Convention Legislation
-1961 Convention Brussels ---- April 1961
- 1967 Convention relating to carriage
Of passengers and their luggage by sea, Brussels -- 27 May 1967

156. List the date of entry into force / Convention or Code of IMO in the
year 2002.On what basis as towards implementation of IMOs
Conventions 1
J anuary 2002 and 1
J uly 2002 is important?

Ans. Convention/codes, the amendments of which came into force in year 2002 are
listed as follows:
The May 1998 amendments to SOLAS (Adoption 18 May 1998; Entry into
force: 1 July 2002)
Amendments were made to regulation 14 on construction and initial testing of
watertight bulkheads, etc. in passenger ships and cargo ships in Chapter II-1.
Paragraph 3 is replaced to allow visual examination of welded connections,
where filling with water or hose test are not practicable.
In Chapter IV, the amendments included:
d. A new regulation 5- 1 requiring contracting governments to ensure
suitable arrangements are in place for registering Global Maritime
Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) identities(including ships call
sign, Inmarsat identities) and making the information available 24 hrs a
day to Rescue Coordination Centres.
e. A new paragraph 9 to regulation 15 Maintenance requirements covering
testing intervals for satellite emergency position indicating radio beacons
f. A new regulation 18 on Position updating requiring automatic provision of
information regarding ships position where two-way communication
equipment is capable of providing automatically the ships position in the
distress alert.
Amendments to Chapter VI to paragraph 6 of regulation 5 stowage and
securing make it clear that, all cargoes, other than solid and liquid bulk
cargoes, should be loaded, stowed and secured in accordance with the
cargo securing manual. A similar amendment was adopted for regulation 6
of Chapter VII also covering stowage and securing.
The May 2000 amendments to SOLAS (Adoption: 26 May 2000, Entry in to
force:1 Jan 2002)
SOLAS Chapter III, Regulation 28.2 for helicopter landing areas is amended
to require a helicopter landing area only for RO-RO Passenger ships.
Regulation 28.1 of SOLAS Chapter III requires all ro-ro passenger ships to
be provided with a helicopter pick up area and existing ro-ro passenger
ships were required to comply with this regulation not later than the first
periodical survey after 1 July 1997.
The requirement for a helicopter landing area for all passenger ships of
130 mts in length and upwards was deferred 1 July 1999 but it was decided
to amend the regulation to make this requirement applicable to ro-ro
passenger ships only.
The December 2000 amendment to SOLAS (Adoption: 6 Dec 2000, Entry in
to force: 1 July 2002)
A number of amendments were adopted.
A revised Chapter V (Safety of Navigation) bring a new mandatory
requirement for voyage data recorder (VDRs) to assist in accident
The new Chapter also requires automatic identification systems (AIS),
capable of providing information about the ship to other ships and to coastal
authorities automatically, to be fitted on board all ships of 300 gross tonnage
and upwards engage on international voyages, cargo ships of 500 gross
tonnage & upwards not engaged on international voyages constructed
before 1 July 2002
Amendments to SOLAS Chapter X, (Safety measures for high speed
craft) make mandatory for new ships the high speed craft code 2000. the
2000 HSC Code updates the mandatory High Speed Craft code adopted in
1994. The 2000 HSC will apply to all HSC built after the date of entry into
force. The original 1994 HSC code will continue to apply to existing high
speed crafts. The changes incorporated in the new code are intended to
bring it into line with amendments to SOLAS & new recommendations that
have been adopted in the past 4 yrs e.g. requirements covering public
address system & helicopter pick up areas.
A revised SOLAS Chapter II -2 Construction Fire Protection, fire
detection and fire extinction) as well as a new International Code for Fire
Safety Systems (FSS Code) were adopted. The revised chapter is intended
to be clear, concise and user-friendly, incorporating the substantial changes
introduced in recent years following a number of serious fire casualties. The
revised chapter includes seven parts, each includes requirements applicable
to all or specified ship types, while the FSS Code, which is made mandatory
under the new chapter, includes detailed specification for Fire Safety
Systems in 15 chapters.
A new regulation in SOLAS Chapter II -1 (Construction structure,
subdivision & stability, machinery and electrical installations) prohibits the
new installation of materials which contains asbestos on all ships.
Amendments to the 1998 SOLAS Protocol include amendments to reflect
the changes to SOLAS chapter V, such as the details of navigational
systems & equipments referred to in the records of equipment attached to
Amendments to the international code for the application of fire test
procedures (FTP Code) add new parts to Annex I on test for fire resisting
divisions of high speed craft.
Amendments to the International Code for the Construction & equipment
of ships carrying dangerous chemical in bulk (BCH Code) relate to cargo
hose requirements, protection of personnel & carriage of carbon disulphide.
Entry into force 1 July 2002
Amendments to ISM Code includes the replacement of chapter 13,
certification, verification & control with chapter 13 certification, and adding of
chapter 14 Interim Certification, 15 forms of Certificate, and 16 Verification,
as well as a new appendix giving forms of documents & certificates.
Amendments to the code for the construction & equipment of ships
carrying dangerous chemicals in bulk (BCH Code) relate to ships cargo
hoses, tank vent systems, safety equipments, operational requirements, &
amendments to the code for the construction & equipment of ships carrying
liquefied gases in bulk (GC Code) relate to ships cargo hoses, personnel
protection & operating requirements.


. In the year 2003, there were amendments on the following conventions of IMO that
were enforced.
1) FAL 1965
Adoption 10 January 2002
Enforced 1 May 2003
Facilitation of international maritime traffic. The main objective of the FAL
Convention are to avoid unnecessary delays in the maritime traffic and to
increase the cooperation between the states
2002 amendment: The amendment adds new standards and recommended
practices for dealing with stowaways. Another amendment related to the
dangerous goods manifest (FAL Form7) which becomes the basic document
providing public authorities with the information regarding dangerous goods on
board the ship.
2) COLREG 1972
Adoption 29 November 2001
Enforced 29 November 2003
Convention of international regulations for prevention of collision at sea.
The 1972 convention was designed to update and replace the collision
regulations of 1960. Most important innovation of 1972 COLREG was the
recognition given to the traffic separation scheme which gives guidance in
determining safe speed the risk of collision and the conduct of vessels
operating in or near traffic separation schemes. The 2001 amendment includes
new rules relating to wing in ground craft (WIG)
3) SOLAS Chapter VII & IX
Adoption June 2001
Enforced 1
January 2003
Amendments to Chapter VII Carriage of dangerous goods and to the
international code for the safe carriage of Packaged Irradiated Nuclear fuel,
plutonium and high level radioactive wastes on board ship (INF code) to align
them with Amendment 30 to the international maritime dangerous goods (IMDG
Also amendments to the international code of safety for high speed craft
(1994 HSC code). In particular the amendments to carriage of voyage data
recorder and carriage of automatic identification systems (AIS).
4) CLC 69
Convention for liability for the oil pollution damage.
Amended 18 October 2000
Enforced 1 November 2003
This amendment was accepted under the tacit acceptance. The
amendment raised the compensation limit by 50% compared to the limits set in
1992 Protocol.
5) FUND 1971
International convention on the establishment of an international fund for
oil pollution.
Adoption 18 October 2000
Enforced 1 November 2003
The amendments raise the maximum amount of compensation payable
from IOPC Fund for a single incident including the limit established under 2000
CLC amendments to 203 million SDR up from 135 million SDR.
6) STCW 1978
1998 Amendments
Adoption : 9 December 1998
Enforced : 1 January 2003
Amendments are aimed at improving minimum standards of competence
of crew in particular relating to cargo securing, loading and unloading on bulk
carriers since these have the potential to put undue stresses on the ships
structure. The amendments concern section A-II/1 and A-II/2 under cargo
handling and stowage at the operational and management levels.

158. Expanding the following abbreviations/word, write a short note on
the following mentioning their initiation and the Amendments made
thereof till date:

Ans. STCW :- Standards of Training Certification and Watch keeping. The STCW
Convention was the first to establish basic minimum requirements for training,
certification and watch keeping of seafarers , at an international level.
Adoption -- 7
July 1978
Entry in to force -- 28
April 1984
The 1978 STCW Convention ha six chapters.
Chapter I -- General Provision
Chapter II - Master Deck department
Chapter III -- Engine department
Chapter IV -- Radio department
Chapter V -- Special Requirement for Tankers
Chapter VI -- Proficiency in Survival Craft
The 1991 Amendment GMDSS
The 1994 Amendment Tanker Crews
The 1995 Amendment Major Revision
The 1995 Amendments, which completely revised the convention, entered in
to force on 1
Feb 1997. However all parties could continue to issue earlier
certificates and endorse them till 1
Feb 2002.
The 1995 amendments revised Chapters II, III, IV
1995 amendments Chapter V, special training requirement for personnel on
certain types of ships
-- Chapter VI, emergency, occupational safety, medical
care & survival function
-- Chapter VII, alternative certification
-- Chapter VIII, watch keeping
a) STCW Code
1997 amendments : training for crew on passenger ships
1997 amendments : training for crew on bulk carriers.
IMDG :- International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code. In Chapter VII,
carriage of dangerous cargoes from SOLAS were adopted by IMO in 1965.
since then IMO is responsible for periodic updating the IMDG Code. Amplifies
the requirement of Part A of Chapter VII of SOLAS 74 relating to dangerous
goods and of Annexe III of MARPOL 73/78 relating to pollutants. Standard
guide on IMDG Code to all aspects of handling dangerous goods and
maritime pollution in sea transport lays down book. Principal, detailed
recommendations for individual substances, materials and articles and a
number of recommendations for good operational practise including advice on
terminology, packing, labelling, stowage, segregation and handling and
emergency response action.
Supplement contains several related texts including revised medical first
aid guide. IMDG Code is maintained and updated by IMOs dangerous goods,
solid cargoes, and containers sub-committee.
Today, at least 150 countries whose combined merchant fleets account
for more than 98% of world gross tonnage, use the IMDG Code as a basis for
regulating sea transport of hazardous material. The IMDG code is currently
updated every 2 years. The latest revision 31, became effective on 1
2003. the IMOs Marine Safety Committee had recommended a 12 months
transitional period (till 31
Dec 2003) to allow users to become familiar with
the new format,
2000 Amendments in force from 1
Jan 2001.
2003 Amendments in force from 1
Jan 2004.
INMARSAT : International Maritime Satellite Organisation .
The Convention on the international maritime satellite organisation :
Adopted : 3
September 1976
Entry into force : 16
July 1977
Objectives :-
a) Improve maritime communication
b) Assistance in distress and safety of life at sea by proper
c) Efficient safety management of ships
d) Radio determination capabilities
1988 Inmarsat was to be privatised from April 1999
New structure has two entities
1) Inmarsat Ltd. A public limited company and commercial arm of
2) IMSO (International Mobile Satellite Organisation)
Earlier known as International Maritime Satellite Organisation. The
name was changed, because it started providing services to aircraft and land
based vehicles, besides shipping.
IMSO is an intergovernmental body established to ensure that
Inmarsat continues to meet its public service obligations, including obligations
Amendments :-
1985 :- Enabled Inmarsat to provide service to aircraft
1989 :- Enabled Inmarsat to provide service to land based vehicles.
1994 :- Name changed to IMSO, change in composition of Inmarsat Council
1998 :- Privatisation of Inmarsat w.e.f. April 1999
TONNAGE : International Convention on Tonnage Measurement of ships
1969. Entry into force : 18
July 1982. The Convention provides for gross
and net tonnages to be calculated independently. The rules apply to all ships,
built on or after 18
July 1982 the date of entry into force while the ships
built before that will be allowed to retain their existing tonnage , for 12 years
after entry into force, or until 18
July 1994.
The Convention meant a transition from the traditionally used terms
Gross Registered Tons (GRT) AND Net Registered Tons (NRT) to Gross
Tons (GT) and Net Tons (NT). Gross Tonnage forms the basis for manning
regulations, safety rules and registration fees. Both Gross and Net tonnage
are used to calculate port dues. The Gross Tonnage is a function of the
moulded volume of all enclosed space of the ship.
The Net Tonnage is a function of the moulded volume of all cargo spaces
of the ship. The Net Tonnage shall not be taken as less than 30% of the
Gross Tonnage. The new regulations deal with the tonnage computation of
segregated ballast tankers & with the use of gross tonnage under 1982
LOAD LINE ; Load Line Convention
Adopted -- 5
April 1966
Entry into force -- 21
July 1968
Freeboard is based on degree of subdivision (for tankers) and damage
stability calculations.
Also takes into account :-
g. Additional Safety measures concerning doors, hatchways, freeing ports
etc., to ensure water tightness of ships below the freeboard deck.
h. Potential hazards present in different zones and in different seasons
Load Line Convention 1966 comprises of 3 Annexes :-
Annexe I ( 4 Chapters)
Chapter 1 - General
Chapter 2 - Condition of Assignment of Freeboard
Chapter 3 - Freeboards
Chapter 4 - Special requirements for ships assigned timber freeboard.
Annexe II -- Zones, areas, seasonal periods.
Annexe III - Certificate including international load line certificate.
Protocol (1988) -- Harmonization of Survey and Certification introduced,
tacit acceptance amendment procedure.
Amendments 1971,1975, 1979, 1983.
1971 to 1983 amendments never received enough acceptance to enter
into force
1971 to make certain improvement to text and to chart of zones and
seasonal areas
1975 to introduce the principle of tacit acceptance procedure into the
2003 Amendments : Revision of Technical Annexe

159. When International Convention of Maritime Search and Rescue
was adopted, and when it was amended? Describe the salient features
of revised annex as entered into force since 1
J an 2000. How many
chapters is contained in the revised annex.

Ans) The 1979 convention adopted at a conference in Hamburg was aimed at
developing an international search and rescue plan, so that no matter where an
accident occurs the rescue at persons in distress at sea will be coordinated by a SAR
organization and when necessary by cooperation between neighbouring SAR
organization. Although the obligation of ships to go to the assistance of vessels in
distress was enshrined both in tradition and in international treaties such as SOLAS
1974. There was until the adoption of the SAR convention 1979 no international
system covering search and rescue operation.
The 1979 SAR convention was amended in 1998 and it has entered into force on 1

Jan 2000 the salient features of the revised annex are:
The revised technical annex at the SAR convention clarities the responsibility of
Governments and puts greater emphasis on the original approach and coordination
between maritime and aeronautical SAR operations.
The revised Annex includes five chapters
Chapter 1 Terms and definitions
This chapter updates the original chapter 1 of the same name

Chapter 2 organisation and coordination
This replaces the 1979 chapter 2 on organization. The chapter has been redrafted to
make the responsibilities of . clear it requires parties either individually or in
cooperation with other state to establish basic elements o a search and rescue service.
Chapter 3 Cooperation between states
Replaces the original chapter 3 on cooperation requires parties to cooperate and
coordinate search and rescue organizations and where necessary search and rescue
operations with those of neighbouring state.
Chapter 4 Operating procedures
Incorporates the previous chapter 4 (preparatory measures and 5 (operating
procedures) the chapter says that each RCC (Rescue Coordination Centre) and RSC
(Rescue Sub Centre) should have up to date information on search and rescue
facilities and communications in the area and should have detailed plans for conduct
of search and rescue operations.
Chapter 5 Ship reporting system
Includes recommendation on establishing ship reporting system for search and
rescue purposes noting that existing ship reporting system could provide adequate
information for search and rescue in a given area.

160. Underlining the date of adoption and entry into force, give a brief
description of the objectives towards convention on the International
Maritime Satellite Organisation. What is meant by IMSO? What are its
entities? Also give a brief description on subsequent amendments
made to the said convention in (i) 1985 (ii) 1989 (iii) 1994 (iv) 1998

Ans. IMO recognised the potential for satellite communications to assist in distress
situations at sea soon after the launch of the worlds first telecommunications
satellite Telstar in 1962. In 1976 3
Sept the convention on the International
Maritime Satellite Organisation was adopted together with an operating
Agreement and entered into force on 16
July 1979.
o The Convention defines the purpose of Inmarsat as being to improve
maritime communications thereby assisting in improving in distress and
safety of life at sea, communications, the efficiency and management of
ships, maritime public correspondence services and radio determination
o An annexe to the convention outlines procedures for the settlement of
o The operating agreement set an initial capital ceiling for the
organisation of USD 200 million. Investment shares were determined on
the basis of utilization of the Inmarsat space segment
o Inmarsats obligation to provide maritime distress and safety services
via satellite were enshrined within the 1988 amendments to SOLAS,
which introduced the Global Maritime Distress and Safety
o Ships sailing in specified segment areas are required to carry Inmarsat
communications equipment for distress and safety calls and to receive
navigational warnings.
IMSO:- International Mobile Satellite Organisation(IMSO) is an inter-
governmental body established to ensure that Inmarsat continues to
meet its public service obligations relating to the GMDSS. IMSO replaces
Inmarsat as observer at IMO meetings.
The 1985 Amendments:- The amendments enabled Inmarsat to provide
services to aircraft as well as ships
The 1989 Amendments:- The amendments enabled Inmarsat services to land-
based vehicles as well as ships and aircraft
The 1994 Amendments:- One of the amendments changed the name of the
organisation to the International Mobile Satellite Organisation,
abbreviated to Inmarsat. The change reflected changes since the
organisation was formed and the extension of its services from the
maritime sector to other modes of transport. There were also changes to
Article 13 on the composition of the Inmarsat council.
The April 1998 Amendments:- Amendments to the Inmarsat convention and
operating agreement to permit the restructuring of Inamrsat.

161. Give the reasons and importance leading to International
Convention for Safe Containers, 1972 (CSC)? What are its goals?
Stating its date of adoption and entry into force explain the different
technical annexes included thereof and subsequent amendments made
in (i) 1981 (ii) 1983 (iii) 1991 (iv) 1993

Containerization consist of the simple application of temporary portable storage facilities
loaded with cargo made mobile as a unit for intermodal unified transport.
There was rapid increase since 1950s in the case of freight containers for the
consignment of goods by sea. By 1970s the major trades between developed
countries were fully containerized. With this new developed trend also has problem in
relationship between three base elements man, machine mobility & the box i.e.
container united in global motion.
Amongst advanced countries, there was tough competition. So there was hardly
informingly in container size & design. Developing countries were most affected by this fact
because to they needed to develop suitable system to handle these containers and also they
were lacking financial support for this. Problem with containerization is that country must
have suitably developed subsystem i.e. road, truck, strollers, rail facility to handle container
to / from effectively. Thus the problem of standardization of container size was main hurdle.
Then there was problem of speedy handling of containers as it were handled by men. There
were regular problem of labor which finally led to delay in cargo & hence burdening the
related peoples often leading to financial dispute between cargo owner, ship owner, agents.
Also working labor was against the change to accept modernization i.e. automation of
handling containers as it was treat to their jobs. Beside this problem, there was one major
factor calling for attention is factor of safety. As container size was developing accidents
were increasing, human casualties were rising. IMCO (i.e. IMO), i.e. International. Maritime
Consultative Org. thus had concern for container ship. Along with associated problems,
container carriage by ship also posed threats to safety. For instance, there were spectacular
cargo losses when dozens of containers were lost over the side of containerships while at
sea in 1969 - 1970. These events raised many questions in the minds of experts as to the
possible consequences to the ship & its crew, if the stability of the ship became impaired by
such losses.
In 1972, a conference, jointly convened by the United Nations & IMO, was held to
consider a draft convention prepared by IMO in co-operation with the ECE (i.e. Economic
Commission for Europe).
The 1972 convention for safe containers (CSC 1972) was adopted by that
conference held at Geneva on 2
December, 1972. It has two main Goals:
1) One is to maintain a high level of safety of human life in the transport and
handling of containers by providing generally acceptable test procedures &
related strength requirements which have proven adequate over the years.
2) To facilitate the international transport of containers by providing uniform
international safety regulations, equally applicable to all model of surface
transport. In this way proliferation of divergent national safety regulations can be
CSC, 1972, entered into force on 6
Sept. 77. CSC has two technical annexes i.e.
Annex I & annex II.
Annex I concerns with Regulation for the testing, inspection approval & maintenance
of containers and
Annex II concerns with structural safety requirement & tests for containers.
Annex I: consist of total V chapter. Except chapter I, rest chapters deal with
regulations for approval of containers which are new and modified type; whereas
chapter I deals with regulations common to all system of approval & which plays
major safety point in international trade.
CH 1 consists of two regulations 1
) safety approval plate:- This regulation states
that every approved container must be fitted with plate in clear visible part without
causing damage to it. Plate must consist of following information in English or French
a) CSC safety Approval b) Country of approval & approval reference c) Date,
month & year of manufacture d) Manufacturers identification number of the container
or number allotted by administration for existing containers. e) Maximum operating
gross weight (kg & 1b). f) Allowable stacking weight. for 1.8g (kg/lb.). g) Transverse
racking test load value (kg. & lb.) h) Blank space should be reserved for end wall / or
side wall strength value (factor) as per Annex II. i)Blank space should be reserved
on plates for first & subsequent maintenance examination date (i.e. month & year.)
when used. j)Other labels or information required by other regulation which may be
in force.
)Gives details of maintenance & examination:-
1) Owner of container shall be responsible for maintaining safely of containers.
2a) Owner is responsible for carrying out through appropriate authorities and
within / at interval appropriate to operating conditions.
b) The date (month & year) before new container undergoes its 1
on the safety approval plate.
c) The date (month & year) before which container shall be re-examined clearly
marked on the container on or as close as safety approval plate.
d) 1
examination should not exceed five years from date of manufacture.
Subsequent examination of new containers & reexamination of existing
container shall be at intervals of not more than 30 months. All examinations to
determine whether container has any defects which could place any person in
3a) Contracting party may approve a continuous examination programme which
must be at par with paragraph 2 mentioned above.
b) If container operated under this programme, then letter ACEP must be
marked & identification of concerned authority must be on or as close as the
safety approval plate.
c) All examination must to determine safety of person & in any case not to
exceed 30 months.
Annex II:- deals with structural safety requirements & tests. Purpose of these
requirements to ensure in all phases of operation of containers the forces as a result
of motion, location, stacking & weight of the loaded container & external forces will
not exceed the design strength of the container. As per this, container material,
dimensions, positioning, lifting & securing system must satisfy appropriate test load
& procedures mentioned here.
Test load & test procedures for
1) Lifting: (a) lifting with corner fittings. (b) Lifting by any other additional method.
Along with type of load i.e. internal / external loading; size of container; angle of
application of force & test time is mentioned in it.
2) Stacking: After this test, safety approval plate marked with Allowable stacking
weight for 1.8g (kg or lb.)
3) Concentrated loads: Only applied to roof & floor. When applied to roof, it is
having external force & when applied to floor, it is internal loading.
4) Transverse Racking : Only externally applied force is used.
5) Longitudinal restraint (static test): Force applied internally & externally also
6) End - walls: End walls must be capable to withstand a load not less than 0.4
times max. permissible payload. Only internal loading applied.
(* R = max operating gross weight i.e. container + cargo)
- Tare weight = empty container
- P = max permissible payloads = R - Tw.
7) Side walls : Capable of withstanding not less than 0.6 times max. P. only internal
loading applied.
GCE Convention:- Movement of goods in sealed re-useable van across several
national borders without customs check, except in the country of origin & country
of destination
Subsequent Amendments.
i) The convention was amended in 1981 to provide transitional arrangement for
plating of existing containers (which had to be completed by 1
Jan 1985) and for
the marking of the date of the containers next examination by 1
Jan 1987.
ii) It was again amended in 1983 to extend the interval between re-examination to
30 months & to permit a choice of a container re-examination procedures
between the original periodic examination scheme or a new approved continuous
examination programme (ACEP). This amendment adopted on 13 June, 1983
and entry into force on 1
Jan, 1984 by tacit acceptance.
iii) The 1991 Amendment adopted on 17 May 91 and it is entry into force on 1
1993 by tacit acceptance.
The amendments concerned Annex I / II of the convention they include addition
of new chapter V to annex I concerning regulation for approval of modified
containers. This is to prevent containers being marked with misleading maximum
gross wt. information, to ensure removal of the safety approval plate when void
for any cause or to provide for the approval of modified containers. Amendments
to annex - II, aim to clarify certain text provisions.
iv) 1993 Amendment : It is adopted on 4
Nov. 1993 by IMO assembly. But it is not
in force yet.
Amendments concerns the information contained on CSC approved plate & also
some of the test loads & test procedures required by convention.

162. State the objective of 1972 Convention designed to replace
Collision Regulations of 1960. What is the most important innovation in
1972 COLREG ? State the technical provisions highlighting its different
section and Annexes.

Ans) The objective of 1972 convention designed to replace collision regulations of 1960 is to
achieve high levels of safety at sea by 1) Having internationally standardized rules of navigation,
meanings of symbols, light and shapes and sound signals which overcome defects in the 1960
2) Bringing a complete change in presentation to make the new regulations easier to
assimilate and understand by the user.
3) By taking into account such development as the widespread use and
acceptance of radar, the introduction of traffic separation
schemes and increase in size and shape of many ships
The most important innovation in 1972 COLREG is Rule 10 of section II which
deals with traffic separation schemes. The technical provisions highlighting
the different sections and Annexes are:-
Part A: general : This includes Rule 1 Application;
Rule 2: Responsibility; Rule 3: General Definitions
Part B: Steering and sailing Rules: This has section I,II and III
Section I: Conduct of vessels in any condition of visibility. This includes:-
Rule 4: Rules in this section apply in any condition of visibility
Rule 5: Look out by sight and hearing as well as by all available means appropriate in the
prevailing circumstances and conditions so as to make a full appraisal of the situation and of
risk of collision. Duties of look out shall also include the detection of ships or aircraft in distress, ship
wrecked persons, wrecks and debris.
Rule 6: Safe speed: Every vessel shall at all times proceed at a safe speed so that she can
take proper and effective action to avoid collision and be stopped within a distance appropriate
to the prevailing circumstances and conditions. Also, factors affecting determination of safe
speed by all vessels and additionally, by vessels with operational radar are given.
Rule 7: Risk of collisions; Rule 8: action to avoid collision
Rule 9: Narrow channels; Rule 10 Traffic separation schemes
Section II: Conduct of vessels in sight of one another. This includes:-
Rule11: Application. Rules in this section apply to vessels in sight of one another
Rule 12 : sailing vessels; Rule 13 overtaking; Rule 14: head on situation
Rule 15: Grossing situation; Rule 16: Action by give-way vessel
Rule 17: Action by stand on vessel Rule 18 : Responsibilities between vessels
Section III: This includes Rule 19: conduct of vessels in restricted visibility
Part C: Lights and shapes. This includes Rule 20: Application
Rule 21: Definitions; Rule 22: Visibility of lights
Rule 23: Power driven vessels underway; Rule 24 towering and punishing
Rule 25: Sailing vessels underway and vessels under oars
Rule 26: Fishing vessels
Rule 27: Vessels not under command or restricted in their ability to
Rule 28: vessels constrained by their drought; rule 29: pilot vessel
Rule 30: Anchored vessels and vessels aground; Rule 31 Sea planes
Part D: Sound and Light signals: This includes:
Rule 32: Definitions; Rule 33: Equipment for sound signals
Rule 34: maneuvering and warning signals
Rule 35: Sound signals in restricted visibility
Rule 36: Signals to attract attention; rule 37: Distress signals

Part E: Exemptions: This includes Rule 38: exemptions
Annex I: Positoning and technical details of lights and shapes. This includes
1) Definition (2) vertical positioning and spacing of light (3) Horizontal positioning
and spacing of lights
(4) Details of location of direction indicating lights for fishing vessels, dredges
and vessels engaged in underwater operations (5) Screens for side lights
(6) shapes (7) colour specification of lights (8) intensity of lights (9)
Horizontal sectors (10) vertical sectors (11) Intensity of non-electric lights
(12) Manoeuvring light (13) High speed craft (14) Approval

Annex II: Additional signals for fishing vessels fishing in close proximity.
This includes (1) general (2) Signals for trawlers (3) signals for purse
Annex III: Technical details of sound signal appliances. This includes:
(1) Whistles (a) frequencies and range of audibility (b) limits of fundamental
frequencies (c) sound signal intensity and range of audibility (d) Directional
properties (e) positioning of whistles (f) fitting of more than one whistle (g)
combined whistle systems
(2) bell or gong (a) intensity of signal (b) construction
(3) Approval

basis of scanty information especially scanty radar information.

Rule 9: A vessel proceeding doing a course of a narrow channel or fairway is obliged
to keep as near to the outer limit of channel or fairway which lies on her .. side
as is safe and practicable. The same rule obliges a vessel of less than 20 meters in
length or a sailing vessel not to impede the passage of a vessel which can safely
navigate only within a narrow channel or fairway.
The rule also forbids ships to cross a narrow channel or fairway if such
crossing impedes the passage of a vessel which can safely

163. Under technical provisions of 1972 convention on COLREG, state
the objective of all its sections. Underlining the total number of rules in
the said convention discuss (i) Rule 5 (ii) Rule 6 (iii) Rule 9

The intervention convention on regulation for preventing collision at sea 1972 aims at
achieving high levels of safety at sea by having internationally standardized rule of navigation
meaning of symbols light 4 shapes and sound signals. It gives specific rules on action to be taken by
ships in various navigational conditions the flags, symbols and lights to be displayed in various
condition of sailing. It also gives specific meanings to signals to enable communication by using
flashing lights horns etc. There are three sections under the conventions which deals with rules
relating to navigation in various conditions.

These are
Section I :- Conduct of vessels any condition of visibility (Rule 4 Rule 10)
Section II :- Conduct of vessels insight of ore another (Rule II Rule -18)
Section III :- Conduct of vessels in Restricted visibility (Rule-19)

Col reg Adoption - 20 October 1972
Entry into force - 15 July 1977

Technical provisions the colreg includes 38 rules divided into five
Part A - General
Part B - Steering & Sailing
Part C - Lights and Shapes
Part D - Sound and Light Signals
Part E - Exemptions

There are also four annexes containing technical requirements concerning lights and
shapes and their positioning sound signaling appliances; additional signals for fishing vessels when
operating in close proximity and international distress signals.

Rule 5: Rule 5 comes under section 1 conduct of vessels in any condition of stability
Rule 5 requires that every vessel shall at all times maintain a proper look out by
sight and hearing as well as by all available means appropriate in the prevailing
circumstances and conditions so as to make a fall appraisal of the situation and of
the risk of collision

Rule 6: Rule 6 deals with safe speed. It requires that Every vessel shall at all times
proceed at a safe speed. The rule describes the factors which should be taken into
account in determining safe speed several of these refer specifically to vessels
equipped with radar. The importance of using all available means is
further stressed in rule 7 covering risk of collision, which warns that
assumptions shall not be made on the basis of scanty information especially scanty
radar information.

Rule 9: A vessel proceeding doing a course of a narrow channel or fairway is obliged
to keep as near to the outer limit of channel or fairway which lies on her .. side
as is safe and practicable. The same rule obliges a vessel of less than 20 meters in
length or a sailing vessel not to impede the passage of a vessel which can safely
navigate only within a narrow channel or fairway.
The rule also forbids ships to cross a narrow channel or fairway if such crossing impedes
the passage of a vessel which can safely navigate only within such channel or fairway. The
meaning not to impede was classified by an amendment to rule 8 in 1987. a new paragraph was
added, stressing that a vessel which was required not to impede the passage of another vessel
should take early action to allow sufficient sea room for the safe passage of the other vessel.
Such vessel was obliged to fulfil this obligation also when taking avoiding action in accordance with
the steering and sailing rules when risk of collision exists

164. What are the technical provisions made under general rules of
1972 conventions on COLREG? Discuss Rule 10 in detail. Explain the
term not to impede. Also detail any amendment made thereof.

Ans. International convention on regulations for preventing collisions at sea, 1972,
aims at achieving high levels of safety at sea, by having internationally standard
rules of navigation, meaning of symbols, lights and shapes and sound signals. It
gives specific rules on actions to be taken by ships in various navigational
conditions, the flags, symbols and lights to be displayed in various conditions of
sailing. It also gives specific meanings to signals to enable communication by
using flashing lights, horns etc.
Technical provisions, part A (General Rule 1-3)
Part 13 - Steering and sailing (Rules 4-19)
Section I - Conduct of vessels in any condition of visibility (Rule 4-10)
Rule 6 - Safe speed
Rule 10 - Vessels in or near traffic separation schemes
Section 2 - conduct o vessels in sight of one another (Rules 11-18)
Rule 13 - overtaking
Rule 14 - Head on situations.
Section III - Conduct of vessels in restricted visibility (Rule 19)
Part C - lights and shapes (Rule 20-31)
Part D - Sound and light sinals (Rule 32-31)
Part E - Exemptions (Rule 38)
Annexes :
1981 amendments - Rule 10 amended
1987 amendments - Crossing traffic lanes
1989 amendments - Inshore traffic zone
1993 amendments - positioning of lights
2001 amendments - WIG craft.

Rule 10 :
It deals with behaviour of vessels in traffic separation schemes adopted by the
organisation. By regulation 8 of chapter V. (safey of Novigation), IMO is
recognised as being the only organisation competent to deal with the
international measures concerning the routing of the ships.
The effectiveness of the traffic seperatin scams can be judged
from a sudy made by the international Association o Institutes of
Navigation (IAIN) in 1981, This showed that between 1956 & 1960 there
were 60 collisions in the strait of dover, twenty years later ollowing the
rules of traffic separation schemes, this total was cut to only 16.
In another area where such schemes did not exist number of
collisions rose sharply. New traffic separation schemes arc introduced
regularly and existing ones are amended, when necessary to respond to
change of traffic conditions. To enable this to be done as quickly as
possible MSC has been authorised to adopt and amend traffic separation
schemes on behalf of the organisation.
Rule 10 states that ships crossing traffic lanes are required to do
so as nearly as practicable at sight angles to the general direction of
traffic flow. This reduces the confusion to other ships as to the crossing
vessels intentions and course and at the same time enables that vessels
to cross the lane as quickly as possible.
Fishing vessels shall not impede the passenger of any vessel following a
traffic lane but are not banned from fishing. This is in line with Rule 9 which states
that a vessel engaged in fishing shall not impede the passage of any other vessel
navigating within a narrow channel or fairway. In 1981 the regulations were
amended. Two new paragraphs were added to Rule 10 to exempt vessels which are
restricted in their ability to manoeuvre when engaged in an operation for the safety of
navigation in a traffic separation scheme or when engaged in cable lying in 1987 the
regulations were amended again. It stressed that Rule 10 applies to traffic separation
schemes adopted by the organisation (IMO) and does not relieve any vessel. It was
also to clarify that i vessel is obliged to cross traffic lanes it should do as nearly as
practicable at right angles to the general directions of traffic flow. In 1989 Regulation
10 was further amended to clarify that vessels which may use the Inshore traffic

165. Specify the number of rules included under Section II and Section
III of COLREG 1972. Giving a brief description of the rules, highlighting
objectives of Section II and Section III of the said convention.

Ans. The conversion on the international regulations for preventing collisions at sea 1972 COLREG
was adopted on 20
October 1972 and entered into force on 15
July 1977. it was amendment in
1981, 1987, 1989, 1993 & 2001. the recent amendments was made by resolution A.910(22), which
was adopted on 29
Nov 2001 and it entered into force from 29
Nov 2003.

The COLREG 72 convention has five parts and four annexes these are
PART A : General (Rule 1 to rule 3)
PART B : steering and sailing rules (Rule 4 to 19)
PART C : Light and shapes (Rule 20 Rule 31)
PART D : Sound and Light signals (Rule 32 to Rule 37)
PART E : exemptions (Rule 38)

Annex I : positioned and technical details of light and shapes
Annex II : Additional signals for fishing vessels fishing close to proximity.
Annex III : Technical details of sound signals and appliances .
Annex IV Distress Signals.

PART B is having three sections section I, Section II & Section III section I deals with conduct of
vessels in any condition of visibility section II is on conduct of vessels in ---- of one another, where as
section III is on conduct of vessels in restricted visibility as section II consisting of rules 11 to 18,
where as section III consisted of rules 19. section II of PART B of COLREG 1972 (steering and sailing
rules) deals with rules applicable when vessels in sight of one another.

Rules 11 :
Application rules in this section (Section II) apply to vessels in sight of one another

Rules 12 :
Sailing vessels

When two sailing vessels are approaching one another so as to involve risk of collision one on them
shall keep out of the way of the other

Any vessels overtaking any other vessel shall keep out the way of the vessel being overtaken.

When two power driven vessels are meeting on reciprocal or nearly reciprocal courses so as to
involve risk of collision each shall alter her course to starboard so that each shall pass on to the port
wide of the other.

When two power driven vessels are crossing so as to involve risk of collision. The vessel which has
the other on the starboard side shall keep out case admit, avoid crossing ahead of the other vessel.

Every vessel which is directed to keep out of the way of another vessel shall so far as possible, take
early and substantial action to keep well clear.

(a) (i) where one of two vessels is to keep out of the way the other shall keep her course and
(ii) the latter vessel may however take action to avoid collision by her manicure alone as
soon as it becomes apparent to her that the vessel reqd. to keep out of the way is not taking
appropriate action in compli