SOAP, originally defined as Simple Object Access Protocol, is a protocol specification for exchanging structured information in the implementation

of Web Services in computer networks. It relies on Extensible Markup Language (XML) for its message format, and usually relies on other Application Layer protocols, most notably Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) or Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), for message negotiation and transmission.

Characteristics
SOAP can form the foundation layer of a web services protocol stack, providing a basic messaging framework upon which web services can be built. This XML based protocol consists of three parts: an envelope, which defines what is in the message and how to process it, a set of encoding rules for expressing instances of application-defined datatypes, and a convention for representing procedure calls and responses. SOAP has three major characteristics: Extensibility (security and WS-routing are among the extensions under development), Neutrality (SOAP can be used over any transport protocol such as HTTP, SMTP, TCP, or JMS) and Independence (SOAP allows for any programming model). As an example of how SOAP procedures can be used, a SOAP message could be sent to a web site that has web services enabled, such as a realestate price database, with the parameters needed for a search. The site would then return an XML-formatted document with the resulting data, e.g., prices, location, features. With the data being returned in a standardized machine-parsable format, it can then be integrated directly into a third-party web site or application. The SOAP architecture consists of several layers of specifications for: message format, Message Exchange Patterns (MEP), underlying transport protocol bindings, message processing models, and protocol extensibility. SOAP is the successor of XML-RPC, though it borrows its transport and interaction neutrality and the envelope/header/body from elsewhere (probably from WDDX).

Specification
The SOAP specification defines the messaging framework which consists of:
   

The SOAP processing model defining the rules for processing a SOAP message The SOAP extensibility model defining the concepts of SOAP features and SOAP modules The SOAP underlying protocol binding framework describing the rules for defining a binding to an underlying protocol that can be used for exchanging SOAP messages between SOAP nodes The SOAP message construct defining the structure of a SOAP message

Processing model

The SOAP processing model describes a distributed processing model, its participants, the SOAP nodes, and how a SOAP receiver processes a SOAP message. The following SOAP nodes are defined:
SOAP sender

a SOAP message might not reach an ultimate SOAP receiver. SOAP message path The set of SOAP nodes through which a single SOAP message passes.A SOAP node that transmits a SOAP message. It processes the SOAP header blocks targeted at it and acts to forward a SOAP message towards an ultimate SOAP receiver.[3] There is also the SOAP-over-UDP OASIS standard. specifically. It is responsible for processing the contents of the SOAP body and any SOAP header blocks targeted at it. but HTTP has gained wider acceptance as it works well with today's Internet infrastructure. this is the advocated WS-I method to provide web service security as stated in the WS-I Basic Profile 1. but uses an encrypted transport protocol underneath) with either simple or mutual authentication. This is a major advantage over other distributed protocols like GIOP/IIOP or DCOM which are normally filtered by firewalls. SOAP intermediary A SOAP intermediary is both a SOAP receiver and a SOAP sender and is targetable from within a SOAP message. In some circumstances. Transport methods Both SMTP and HTTP are valid application layer protocols used as Transport for SOAP. SOAP may also be used over HTTPS (which is the same protocol as HTTP at the application level. Ultimate SOAP receiver The SOAP receiver that is a final destination of a SOAP message. for example because of a problem at a SOAP intermediary. . HTTP works well with network firewalls. SOAP receiver A SOAP node that accepts a SOAP message. SOAP over AMQP is yet another possibility that some implementations support. An ultimate SOAP receiver cannot also be a SOAP intermediary for the same SOAP message.1. Initial SOAP sender (Originator) The SOAP sender that originates a SOAP message at the starting point of a SOAP message path.

ICE.[8] To improve performance for the special case of XML with embedded binary objects. CORBA. as with web forums and BBSes. hardware appliances are available to accelerate processing of XML messages. and is the precursor to the various Internet forums that are widely used today. and can use the existing infrastructure. it can slow processing speed and can be cumbersome. Usenet can be superficially regarded as a hybrid between email and web forums. binary message formats. the Message Transmission Optimization Mechanism was introduced. The standard stacks use HTTP as a transport protocol.[1] Users read and post messages (called articles or posts. a wide variety of freely available tools significantly eases the transition to a SOAP-based implementation. It was developed from the general purpose UUCP architecture of the same name. Since the SOAP model tunnels fine in the HTTP post/response model. Duke University graduate students Tom Truscott and Jim Ellis conceived the idea in 1979 and it was established in 1980. and avoids interoperability problems such as byte-order (Endianness). but other protocols such as JMS[6] and SMTP[7] are also usable. For example. Discussions are threaded.[4][5] Binary XML is also being explored as a means for streamlining the throughput requirements of XML. Developers must use polling instead of notification in these common cases. . When relying on HTTP as a transport protocol and not using WS-Addressing or an ESB. Only one party (the client) can use the services of the other. and collectively termed news) to one or more categories. it can tunnel easily over existing firewalls and proxies. This may not be an issue when only small messages are sent. Disadvantages   Because of the verbose XML format. Usenet resembles a bulletin board system (BBS) in many respects. On the other hand.Message format XML was chosen as the standard message format because of its widespread use by major corporations and open source development efforts. known as newsgroups. Additionally. Usenet is a worldwide distributed Internet discussion system. The somewhat lengthy syntax of XML can be both a benefit and a drawback. Advantages   SOAP is versatile enough to allow for the use of different transport protocols. without modifications to the SOAP protocol. and DCOM use much shorter. though posts are stored on the server sequentially. facilitates error detection. with modern news reader software. GIOP. SOAP can be considerably slower than competing middleware technologies such as CORBA or ICE. While it promotes readability for humans. the roles of the interacting parties are fixed.

While gopher space is a web containing many loops. and KPMG Peat Marwick.[3] A is a website that brings information together from diverse sources in a uniform way.One notable difference between a BBS or web forum and Usenet is the absence of a central server and dedicated administrator. constantly changing conglomeration of servers that store and forward messages to one another in so-called news feeds. simple file servers generate the menus or hypertext directly from the file structure of a server. WAIS and Gopher Public WAIS is often used as a full text search engine for individual Internet Gopher servers. web portals offer other services such as e-mail.50 Information Retrieval Service Definition and Protocol Specifications for Library Applications" (Z39.50 protocol designed for networking library catalogs. In both cases. Individual users may read messages from and post messages to a local server operated by a commercial usenet provider. supplementing the popular Veronica system which only searches the menu titles of Gopher sites. WAIS and Gopher share the World Wide Web's client–server architecture and a certain amount of its functionality. Gopher provides a free text search mechanism.50:1988) to search index databases on remote computers. WAIS did not adhere to either the standard or its OSI framework (adopting instead TCP/IP) but created a unique protocol inspired by Z39. the menu system gives the user the impression of a tree. from which the user may pick one. databases and entertainment. or employer. Usenet is distributed among a large. but principally uses menus. The W3 hypertext model gives the program more power to communicate the options available to the reader. Wide Area Information Servers or WAIS is a client–server text searching system that uses the ANSI Standard Z39. A menu is a list of titles.[3] The W3 data model is similar to the gopher model. the user can configure which ones to display. Apart from the standard search engines feature. Usually. each information source gets its dedicated area on the page for displaying information (a portlet). web portal . It was developed in the late 1980s as a project of Thinking Machines. Apple Computer. their Internet service provider. stock prices. Portals provide a way for enterprises to provide a consistent look and feel with access control and procedures for multiple applications and databases. information. except that menus are generalized to hypertext documents. often. which otherwise would have been different entities altogether. The WAIS protocol is influenced largely by the z39. university.50:1988. and retrieval following a search. Dow Jones. as it can include headings and various forms of list structure. It allows a text-based search. news.

A horizontal portal is used as a platform to several companies in the same economic sector or to the same type of manufacturers or distributors. video posting.gov for citizens with disabilities in the United States.gov for the United States (in English) & GobiernoUSA. In addition.nz for New Zealand.Classification Web portals are sometimes classified as horizontal or vertical. news.      Saudi.gov. News portals The traditional media rooms all around the world are fast adapting to the new age technologies. editorial content.au for Australia. many governments had already committed to creating portal sites for their citizens. Government web portals At the end of the dot-com boom in the 1990s. Personal portals can be related to any specific topic such as providing friend information on a social network or providing links to outside content that may help others beyond your reach of services. VIPs provide news. A further business-driven requirement of portals is that the content be able to work on multiple platforms such as personal computers.sa for Saudi Arabia australia.[2] Some vertical portals are known as "vertical information portals" (VIPs).gov (in Spanish). VIPs also provide dynamic multimedia applications including social networking. Information or content that is placed on the web may create a portal in the sense of a path to new knowledge and capabilities.gov. Types of web portals Personal portals A personal portal is a site on the World Wide Web that typically provides personalized capabilities to its visitors. digital publications. personal digital assistants (PDAs). and blogging. Disability. Examples of News web portals include. and e-commerce capabilities. subject area. This new media channels give them the opportunity to reach the viewers in a shorter span of time than their print media counterparts. Portals are not limited to simply providing links. providing a pathway to other content. This marks the beginning of news portals by media houses across the globe.[1] A vertical portal (also known as a "vortal") is a specialized entry point to a specific market or industry niche. It is designed to use distributed applications. Information. and cell phones/mobile phones. or interest. business portals are designed for sharing and collaboration in workplaces. newzealand. different numbers and types of middleware and hardware to provide services from a number of different sources. . These included primary portals to the governments as well as portals developed for specific audiences. Examples of government web portals include. USA.govt. In contrast to traditional vertical portals. and updates are examples of content that would be delivered through such a portal.

. Many companies began to offer tools to help webmasters manage their data. webmasters were faced with increasing content and user management challenges. film. diaries and letters. Europeana – A cultural portal for the European Union based in the National Library of the Netherlands and overseen by the Europeana Foundation.Digital Public Library of America Corporate web portals Main article: Intranet portal Corporate intranets became common during the 1990s. users wanted personalization and customization. music. sound recordings.     gov.in for India. These standards allow portal developers.gov.gov). if skilled enough. collaboration between work groups. maps. artworks. Veterans and their families (NRD. Health-EU portal gathers all relevant health topics from across Europe. A consolidated view of company information was judged insufficient. Webmasters. journals. but for the most part ended up driving users away from using the intranet. Most can allow internal and external access to specific corporate information using secure authentication or single sign-on. These portals are usually based around a specific national or regional groupings of institutions. Trove – A cultural portal led by the National Library of Australia focused on Australian content. In development .uk for citizens & businesslink. photography. and policy-managed content publication.gov. applications and information more easily. Digitised collections can include books. Java Specification Request (JSR) 168 standards allow the interoperability of portlets across different portal platforms. archives and museums. This type of portals provides a point of access to invisible web cultural content that may not be indexed by standard search engines. Examples of cultural portals include:     DigitalNZ – A cultural portal led by the National Library of New Zealand focused on New Zealand digital content. JSR168 Standards emerged around 2001. india. administrators and consumers to integrate standards-based portals and portlets across a variety of vendor solutions. National Resource Directory links to resources for United States Service Members. were able to offer some capabilities. newspapers. libraries (see: library portal).uk for businesses in the United Kingdom. Cultural portals Cultural portal aggregate digitised cultural collections of galleries. Europa (web portal) links to all EU agencies and institutions in addition to press releases and audiovisual content from press conferences. and archived websites as well as the descriptive metadata associated with each type of cultural work. As intranets grew in size and complexity. Portal solutions can also include workflow management. and through personalized views.

[citation needed] With the increase in user generated content. This will ultimately cause a ripple effect where users will also be generating ad hoc navigation and information flows. Search portals Search portals aggregate results from several search engines into one page. Using online tendering. Receive tender documents online. applications and access points through a single mechanism. disparate data silos. .The concept of content aggregation seems to still gain momentum and portal solution will likely continue to evolve significantly over the next few years. Submit bids online. bidders can do any of the following:      Receive notification of the tenders. Fill out the forms online. Tender's portals Tender's portals stands for a gateway to search/modify/submit/archive data on tenders and professional processing of continuous online tenders. using the Internet. Some stock portals use online gateways through a central depository system (CDS) for the visitors (ram) to buy or sell their shares or manage their portfolio. tools. administration—are done on the web. Submit proposals and documents. information architects and taxonomist will be required to allow users the ability to tag (classify) the data. The Gartner Group predicts generation 8 portals to expand on the Business Mashups concept of delivering a variety of information. With a tender portal the complete tendering process—submitting of proposals. Stock portals Also known as stock-share portals. stock market portals or stock exchange portals are Web-based applications that facilitates the process of informing the share-holders with substantial online data such as the latest price. the latest News. assessment. Corporate Portals also offer customers & employees self-service opportunities. and file formats. ask/bids. Electronic or online tendering is just carrying out the same traditional tendering process in an electronic form. reports and announcements.

Hosted web portals Hosted web portals gained popularity a number of companies began offering them as a hosted service. For the most part. and custom data exchange) to accommodate machine to machine interaction creating a more fluid user experience for connecting users spanning multiple domains during a given "session". The hosted portal market fundamentally changed the composition of portals. this architecture is transparent to the user. SOAP. For portals that present application functionality to the user. and solicitors that offer conveyancing. document management. In many ways they served simply as a tool for publishing information instead of the loftier goals of integrating legacy applications or presenting correlated data from distributed databases. industry-specific news and information portals have appeared. As hosted web portals have risen in popularity their feature set has grown to include hosted databases. Leading cloud portals like Nubifer Cloud Portal: [1] showcase what is possible using Enterprise Mashup and Web Service integration approaches to building cloud portals. removal firm. discussion forums and more. Domain-specific portals A number of portals have come about that are specific to the particular domain. In this regard they have remained true to the original goals of the earlier corporate web portals. and administrators need to ensure that only an authorized visitor or user can generate requests to the application server. This application server is in turn connected to database servers. The server hosting the portal may only be a "pass through" for the user. a prime example of this trend would be the growth in property portals that give access to services such as estate agents. may be used for servers to communicate within this architecture. email. High-capacity portal configurations may include load balancing equipment. The application server or architecture performs the actual functions of the application. application functionality can be presented in any number of portal pages. . By use of portlets.com or the now defunct InternetPortal. Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) is one example of how a portal can be used to deliver application server content and functionality. the portal server is in reality the front piece of a server configuration that includes some connectivity to the application server. The early hosted portal companies such as Hyperoffice. web services.In such a scheme. Hosted portals automatically personalize the content generated from their modules to provide a personalized experience to their users. Emerging new classes of internet portals called Cloud Portals are showcasing the power of API (Application Programming Interface) rich software systems leveraging SOA (service oriented architecture. Along the same lines. such as the clinical trials specific portal: IFPMA Clinical Trials Portal Engineering aspects The main concept is to present the user with a single web page that brings together or aggregates content from a number of other systems or servers.com focused on collaboration and scheduling in addition to the distribution of corporate data. then the portal may inadvertently present vulnerabilities to various types of attacks. offering access to related companies and services. If administration does not ensure this aspect. an XML-based protocol. security and capacity can be important features. and may be part of a clustered server environment.

and network address translation (NAT). It operates on a best effort delivery model. or approximately 3. in that it does not guarantee delivery.Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) is the fourth version in the development of the Internet Protocol (IP) and the first version of the protocol to be widely deployed. Together with IPv6. . Classless Inter-Domain Routing. 2011. the need arose for more addresses than IPv4 is able to accommodate. IPv4 allows for only approximately 4.9×1028 times as many as IPv4. and the number of unassigned addresses decreased. IPv6 uses a 128-bit address. such as the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). These aspects. are addressed by an upper layer transport protocol.g. It had been significantly delayed by address changes such as classful network design. Addressing IPv4 uses 32-bit (four-byte) addresses. replacing an earlier definition (RFC 760. including data integrity. Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is the latest revision of the Internet Protocol (IP). Every device on the Internet.[1] IPv6 was developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) to deal with the long-anticipated problem of IPv4 address exhaustion.. It is intended to replace IPv4. which limits the address space to 4294967296 (232) addresses. Addresses were assigned to users. or more than 7. IPv4 reserves special address blocks for private networks (~18 million addresses) and multicast addresses (~270 million addresses). nor does it assure proper sequencing or avoidance of duplicate delivery. With the ever-increasing number of new devices being connected to the Internet. The two protocols are not designed to be interoperable. complicating the transition to IPv6. the communications protocol that routes traffic across the Internet. IPv4 is still used to route most traffic across the Internet.[1] IPv4 is described in IETF publication RFC 791 (September 1981). such as a computer or mobile telephone. allowing for 2128. which has been in commercial deployment since 2006. must be assigned an IP address for identification and location addressing in order to communicate with other devices. IPv4 is a connectionless protocol for use on packet-switched Link Layer networks (e.3 billion addresses.4×1038 addresses. This limitation of IPv4 stimulated the development of IPv6 in the 1990s. which still carries the vast majority of Internet traffic as of 2013. it is at the core of standards-based internetworking methods of the Internet. IPv4 address exhaustion occurred on February 3. Ethernet). which uses 32-bit addresses. January 1980).

However. including the option of IPsec. 6in4. IPv6 also implements features not present in IPv4. but essentially creates a parallel. In IPv4. it wasn't the intent of the designers of the IPv6 address space to assure geographical saturation with usable addresses. complex Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) methods were developed to make the best use of the small address space. IPv6 is a conservative extension of IPv4. The IPv6 subnet size has been standardized by fixing the size of the host identifier portion of an address to 64 bits to facilitate an automatic mechanism for forming the host identifier from link-layer media addressing information (MAC address). It simplifies aspects of address assignment (stateless address autoconfiguration). designed to minimize packet header processing by routers. network renumbering and router announcements when changing network connectivity providers. in most respects. Rather. the square of the size of the entire IPv4 address space. compared to 32 bits in IPv4. Comparison to IPv4 On the Internet. exceptions are application protocols that embed internet-layer addresses.[23] While these numbers are large. Exchanging traffic between the two networks requires special translator gateways or other transition technologies. published in December 1998.4×1038 addresses. like the more commonly used IPv4 (as of 2013). Most transport and application-layer protocols need little or no change to operate over IPv6. is an Internet Layer protocol for packetswitched internetworking and provides end-to-end datagram transmission across multiple IP networks. the IPv4 address space is poorly allocated. By comparison. this amounts to approximately 4. It simplifies processing of packets by routers by placing the need for packet fragmentation into the end points. and allow implementation of special addressing features.8×1028 addresses for each of the seven billion people alive in 2011. It is described in Internet standard document RFC 2460. actual address space utilization rates . the longer addresses simplify allocation of addresses. with approximately 14% of all available addresses utilized. the two protocols are not interoperable. such as tunneling protocol like 6to4. enable efficient route aggregation. Larger address space The main advantage of IPv6 over IPv4 is its larger address space.[5] In addition to offering more addresses.Technical definition Decomposition of the IPv6 address representation into its binary form IPv6. such as FTP and NTPv3. data is transmitted in the form of network packets. where the new address format may cause conflicts with existing protocol syntax. IPv6 does not implement interoperability features with IPv4.[5][21] Because the headers of IPv4 packets and IPv6 packets are significantly different. The length of an IPv6 address is 128 bits.[5] The address space therefore has 2128 or approximately 3. Network security is also integrated into the design of the IPv6 architecture. independent network. or Teredo.[22] In addition. IPv6 specifies a new packet format. Thus. The standard size of a subnet in IPv6 is 264 addresses.

changing the prefix announced by a few routers can in principle renumber an entire network. including embedding rendezvous point addresses in an IPv6 multicast group address. yielding the smallest subnet size available in IPv6 (also 64 bits).will be small in IPv6.[27] IPv6 multicast addressing shares common features and protocols with IPv4 multicast. With such an assignment it is possible to embed the unicast address prefix into the IPv6 multicast address format. while still providing a 32-bit block. a host sends a linklocal router solicitation multicast request for its configuration parameters. When first connected to a network. but also provides changes and improvements by eliminating the need for certain protocols. the same result can be achieved by sending a packet to the linklocal all nodes multicast group at address ff02::1. but network management and routing efficiency is improved by the large subnet space and hierarchical route aggregation. the transmission of a packet to all hosts on the attached link using a special broadcast address.[28] In IPv4 it is very difficult for an organization to get even one globally routable multicast group assignment. since the host identifiers (the leastsignificant 64 bits of an address) can be independently self-configured by a host. In IPv6. or approximately 4. the least significant bits of the address.[24][25] With IPv6. Thus each user of an IPv6 subnet automatically has available a set of globally routable source-specific multicast groups for multicast applications. and the implementation of inter-domain solutions is very arcane.[29] Unicast address assignments by a local Internet registry for IPv6 have at least a 64-bit routing prefix. which is analogous to IPv4 multicast to address 224. IPv6 does not implement traditional IP broadcast.e. however.[26] Multicasting Multicasting.[30] Stateless address autoconfiguration (SLAAC) See also: IPv6 address IPv6 hosts can configure themselves automatically when connected to a routed IPv6 network using the Neighbor Discovery Protocol via Internet Control Message Protocol version 6 (ICMPv6) router discovery messages.[26] If IPv6 stateless address autoconfiguration is unsuitable for an application. and therefore does not define broadcast addresses. is part of the base specification in IPv6.0. Renumbering an existing network for a new connectivity provider with different routing prefixes is a major effort with IPv4. In IPv4 this is an optional although commonly implemented feature. IPv6 also provides for new multicast implementations. the transmission of a packet to multiple destinations in a single send operation. i. which simplifies the deployment of inter-domain solutions. routers respond to such a request with a router advertisement packet that contains network-layer configuration parameters.2 billion multicast group identifiers. . if configured suitably. a network may use stateful configuration with the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol version 6 (DHCPv6) or hosts may be configured statically.1.0.

Options are implemented as additional extension headers after the IPv6 header.) error detection. IPv6 requires UDP to have its own checksum. mobile IPv6 avoids triangular routing and is therefore as efficient as native IPv6. etc. Stateless configuration for routers can be achieved with a special router renumbering protocol. and others to be added without redesign of the basic protocol. UDP/IPv4 may actually have a checksum of 0. integrity protection is assumed to be assured by both link-layer and higher-layer (TCP. but it is still relevant for software-based routers.[5][21] thereby extending the end-to-end principle of Internet design. Mobility Unlike mobile IPv4. UDP. Specifically:     The packet header in IPv6 is simpler than that used in IPv4.[5] . reflecting the fact that routers are no longer expected to compute the time a packet has spent in a queue.Routers present a special case of requirements for address configuration. with many rarely used fields moved to separate optional header extensions.[34] Options extensibility The IPv6 packet header has a fixed size (40 octets). Although IPv6 packet headers are at least twice the size of IPv4 packet headers. mobility.[33] Simplified processing by routers In IPv6. such as router and prefix advertisements. IPv6 routers do not perform fragmentation.[5][32] but has since been made optional. or to send packets no larger than the IPv6 default minimum MTU size of 1280 octets. packet processing by routers is generally more efficient. which limits their size only by the size of an entire packet. This improvement may have been made less necessary by the development of routers that perform checksum computation at link speed using dedicated hardware. perform end-to-end fragmentation. IPv6 hosts are required to either perform path MTU discovery. The TTL field of IPv4 has been renamed to Hop Limit. as they often are sources for autoconfiguration information. indicating no checksum. Therefore. The IPv6 header is not protected by a checksum. the packet header and the process of packet forwarding have been simplified. IPv6 routers do not need to recompute a checksum when header fields (such as the time to live (TTL) or hop count) change. The extension header mechanism makes the protocol extensible in that it allows future services for quality of service. IPv6 routers may also allow entire subnets to move to a new router connection point without renumbering. but found widespread deployment first in IPv4.[31] Network-layer security Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) was originally developed for IPv6. security. IPsec was a mandatory specification of the base IPv6 protocol suite. for which it was re-engineered.

Jumbograms IPv4 limits packets to 65535 (216−1) octets of payload. SMTP uses TCP port 25. While electronic mail servers and other mail transfer agents use SMTP to send and receive mail messages. SMTP was first defined by RFC 821 (1982. The privacy enhancements in IPv6 have been mostly developed in response to a misunderstanding. Network prefix tracking is less of a concern if the user's ISP assigns a dynamic network prefix via DHCP. and the activity tracker is privy to this information. the network prefix is the unique identifier for tracking.[1] and last updated by RFC 5321 (2008)[2] which includes the Extended SMTP (ESMTP) additions.[41][42] Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is an Internet standard for electronic mail (e-mail) transmission across Internet Protocol (IP) networks. This causes privacy concerns in the same way that cookies can also track a user's navigation through sites. Even when an address is not based on the MAC address though. which can be used to track a single device's Internet activity. These ephemeral addresses.3).[35] Privacy Like IPv4. IPv6 supports globally unique static IP addresses.[37] When privacy extensions are enabled. An IPv6 node can optionally handle packets over this limit. referred to as jumbograms. SMTP connections secured by SSL are known by the shorthand SMTPS.[36] Interfaces can have addresses based on the MAC address of the machine (the EUI-64 format).[38] Privacy extensions are enabled by default in Windows. such as tracking cookies. Most devices are used by a single user.[39] Some Linux distributions have enabled privacy extensions as well. The use of jumbograms may improve performance over high-MTU links. The use of jumbograms is indicated by the Jumbo Payload Option header. though SMTPS is not a protocol in its own right. Privacy extensions do little to protect the user from tracking if only one or two hosts are using a given network prefix. Privacy extensions for IPv6 have been defined to address these privacy concerns. which can be as large as 4294967295 (232−1) octets. and is the protocol in widespread use today. eventually declared STD 10). the operating system generates ephemeral IP addresses by concatenating a randomly generated host identifier with the assigned network prefix. Mac OS X (since 10. are used to communicate with remote hosts. and iOS (since version 4. the interface's address is (contrary to IPv4) usually global instead of local.[40] Privacy extensions do not protect the user from other forms of activity tracking.7). user-level client mail applications typically use SMTP only for sending messages to a . so a device's activity is often assumed to be equivalent to a user's activity. but it uses port 587 instead. The use of ephemeral addresses makes it difficult to accurately track a user's Internet activity by scanning activity streams for a single IPv6 address. The protocol for new submissions (MSA) is effectively the same as SMTP. which makes it much easier to identify a single user through the IP address. instead of trackable static IP addresses. In this scenario. but this is not a requirement.

With UDP. to establish a recipient of this message. or transmitter) and corresponding responses from the SMTP server (the listening agent. Reed in 1980 and formally defined in RFC 768. RCPT command. This command can be issued multiple times.From[citation needed] .mail server for relaying. An SMTP transaction consists of three command/reply sequences (see example below. avoiding the overhead of such processing at the network interface level. DATA to send the message text. to acknowledge that it is ready to receive the text.a. UDP is suitable for purposes where error checking and correction is either not necessary or performed in the application. one for each recipient.[1] It has no handshaking dialogues. For receiving messages. a. an application may use the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) . or receiver) so that the session is opened. These addresses are also part of the envelope.k. This is the address for bounce messages. which may not be an option in a real-time system. A session may include zero or more SMTP transactions. sender. Time-sensitive applications often use UDP because dropping packets is preferable to waiting for delayed packets. typically a Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) connection. the set of network protocols used for the Internet. to either accept or reject the entire message. to establish the return address. 3. MAIL command. It consists of a message header and a message body separated by an empty line. DATA is actually a group of commands. and port numbers for addressing different functions at the source and destination of the datagram. Return-Path. as opposed to its envelope. and the second time after the end-of-data sequence. ordering or duplicate protection.[2] If error correction facilities are needed at the network interface level. text-based protocol in which a mail sender communicates with a mail receiver by issuing command strings and supplying necessary data over a reliable ordered data stream channel. or envelope sender. As this is normally IP over unreliable media. and thus exposes any unreliability of the underlying network protocol to the user's program. An SMTP session consists of commands originated by an SMTP client (the initiating agent. there is no guarantee of delivery. 5321. UDP provides checksums for data integrity. The is one of the core members of the Internet protocol suite. computer applications can send messages. to other hosts on an Internet Protocol (IP) network without prior communications to set up special transmission channels or data paths. 2. and session parameters are exchanged. in this case referred to as datagrams. This is the content of the message.) They are: 1. The protocol was designed by David P. Protocol overview SMTP is a connection-oriented. UDP uses a simple transmission model with a minimum of protocol mechanism. client applications usually use either the Post Office Protocol (POP) or the Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) or a proprietary system (such as Microsoft Exchange or Lotus Notes/Domino) to access their mail box accounts on a mail server. and the server replies twice: once to the DATA command proper. mfrom.

As this requires only a small data transfer this works well even over a . Works well in unidirectional communication. suitable for very large numbers of clients.       It is transaction-oriented. online games. IMAP is a client/server protocol in which e-mail is received and held for you by your Internet server. such as the DHCP and Trivial File Transfer Protocol. Email Protocols: IMAP. The mail client and mail server can exchange information with each other using a variety of protocols.[5] If transmission reliability is desired. It is stateless. such as in streaming media applications for example IPTV The lack of retransmission delays makes it suitable for real-time applications such as Voice over IP. In order to deal with your email you must use a mail client to access a mail server. It provides datagrams. SMTP and HTTP Basicaly. in order to properly transmit information. it must be implemented in the user's application. a protocol is about a standard method used at each end of a communication channel. It is simple.Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) or Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) which are designed for this purpose. suitable for simple query-response protocols such as the Domain Name System or the Network Time Protocol. suitable for broadcast information such as in many kinds of service discovery and shared information such as broadcast time or Routing Information Protocol UDP is a minimal message-oriented Transport Layer protocol that is documented in IETF RFC 768. For this reason. suitable for modeling other protocols such as in IP tunneling or Remote Procedure Call and the Network File System. IMAP Protocol: IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol) – Is a standard protocol for accessing e-mail from your local server. UDP provides no guarantees to the upper layer protocol for message delivery and the UDP protocol layer retains no state of UDP messages once sent. A number of UDP's attributes make it especially suited for certain applications. and many protocols built on top of the Real Time Streaming Protocol. suitable for bootstrapping or other purposes without a full protocol stack. UDP is sometimes referred to as Unreliable Datagram Protocol. POP3.[4] UDP provides application multiplexing (via port numbers) and integrity verification (via checksum) of the header and payload.

Hotmail is a good example of using HTTP as an email protocol. not to receive them.  see also POP3 Description (RFC) SMTP Protocol: The SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) protocol is used by the Mail Transfer Agent (MTA) to deliver your eMail to the recipient's mail server. The SMTP protocol can only be used to send emails. delete messages etc. On the other hand you might have transferred a lot of message (including spam or viruses) in which you are not at all interested at this point. Depending on your network / ISP settings. Also called web based email. The advantage is that once your messages are downloaded you can cut the internet connection and read your eMail at your leisure without incuring further communication costs. standardized way for users to access mailboxes and download messages to their computers. semantics and timing.slow connection such as a modem. You can choose to leave copies of your eMails on the server as well.org POP3 Protocol: The POP (Post Office Protocol 3) protocol provides a simple. You can also create and manipulate folders or mailboxes on the server. Let us discuss how mail transfer takes place: . Only if you request to read a specific email message will it be downloaded from the server.  see also IMAP. you may only be able to use the SMTP protocol under certain conditions (see incoming and outgoing mail servers  see also SMTP RFC HTTP Protocol: The HTTP protocol is not a protocol dedicated for email communications. this protocol can be used to compose or retrieve emails from an your account. but it can be used for accessing your mailbox. Protocol: Protocol is a set of rules that define communication of data between two or more devices using its key elements like syntax. When using the POP protocol all your eMail messages will be downloaded from the mail server to your local computer.

2.SMTP-Simple Mail Transfer Protocol SMTP is a TCP/IP protocol that is used to exchange electronic mail on the internet. This is how actual mail transfer takes place. It is not possible for a single MTA to transfer the data effectively to the destination so SMTP uses multiple Message transfer Agents to perform the task.e with only ASCII characters which doesn't supports video or audio data. User Agent(UA).This is the address of the local user. example: ZZZZ @ XXXXX. MIME . This mail exchange can be between two users or within a single computer which may contain text. For advanced non-ASCII mail transfer we need additional protocols like 1. Function of the MTA is to deliver the envelope across multiple routers on the internet.so when a user wants to send an Email actually uses SMTP protocol to deliver. 2. then envelopes the actual message. video and graphics etc.Local part. voice. Email address is divided into two parts: 1. Additional/supplementary protocols NOTE: The process described above explain how a mail transfer takes place in a simple way i. SMTP has two components 1.Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension(from the name itself it suggests it is an extension to SMTP and it is not a mail protocol) . User agent actually creates the message.com only with the above given address the destination can be reached. Domain name-domain name at which the data has to be sent. Mail Transfer Agent(MTA). adds the additional detail.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful