1

(FITL)

2

WHY FIBRE OPTICS
. DIGITALISATION OF LOCAL NETWORK . MEETING FUTURE CUSTOMER NEEDS
(BOARD BANDWITH SERVICE)

. POTENIAL COST-EFFECTIVENESS . BETTER QUALITY, RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY . WIDER COVERAGE FOR EXCHANGES . INFORMATION SECURITY . REDUCE CONGESTION OF UNDERGROUND FACILITIES
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CRAFT SENSITIVE .TOOLS AND TEST EQUIPMENT . GENERALLY STILL EXPENSIVE .DISADVANTAGES .EQUIPMENT .EQUIPMENT . DELICATE TO HANDLE .SPLICING . REQUIREMENT FOR FIELD EQUIPMENTS POWERING 4 .

SKILLED MANPOWER 5 . POWER SUPPLY . TERMINAL EQUIPMENTS . EQUIPMENT SPACE AND RACKING . CABLE AND ACCESSORIES .SYSTEM AND FACILITIES REQUIREMENTS .

TYPES OF APPLICATION
i) FIBRE TO THE OFFICE (FTTO)
- FIBER IS TERMINATED DIRECT IN THE CUSTOMERS PREMISES, CATERING TO DEMANDS OF COPPORATE SECTOR.

ii)

FIBRE TO THE STREET (FTTS)
- FIBER IS TERMINATED AT A POINT WHERE THERE IS A CONCENTRATION OF DEMAND. THE DISTRIBUTION CABLE WILL BE ON COPPER.

iii)

FIBRE TO THE CURB (FTTC)
- SIMILAR TO THE FTTS BUT FIBRE IS BROUGHT NEARER TO CUSTOMERS AND THE LAST APPROXIMATE 100M IS UNDERTAKEN BY COPPER
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TYPES OF APPLICATION iv) FIBRE TO THE HOME (FTTH)
- FIBER IS LAID DIRECT INTO INDIVIDUAL HOMES.

v)

FIBRE TO THE ZONE (FTTZ)
- FIBER IS TERMINATED AT A POINT WHERE THERE IS A CENTRA .

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TYPICAL SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF ACCESS NETWORK LOCAL EXCHANGE ‘B’ MULTI-STOREY BLDG. RESIDENTIAL HSES. AERIAL CABLE

DROP WIRE LOCAL EXCHANGE ‘A’

SDF DISTRIBUTION POINT

PSTN CABINET
MDF DUCT

EXCHANGE TUNNEL

MAINHOLE U/G COPPER CABLE SHOP HSE OR LOW-RISE APARTMENT 8

JOINT BOX

RESIDENTIAL HSES.TYPICAL SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF LOCAL NETWORK LOCAL EXCHANGE ‘B’ MULTI-STOREY BLDG. AERIAL CABLE DROP WIRE LOCAL EXCHANGE ‘A’ (FTT0) SDF RT FIBRE CABINET (FTTS) COT DUCT RT DISTRIBUTION POINT PSTN MDF EXCHANGE TUNNEL MAINHOLE FIBRE CABLE SHOP HSE OR LOW-RISE APARTMENT 9 JOINT BOX .

10 .

The component are:(i) electro. (ii) The fibre optic transmission medium. (iii) Optic electric transducer as the light receiver at the end of the route.SYSTEM FOR OPTICAL TRANSMISSION Optical transmission system are used for transmission of electrical signal via an optical fibre.optic transducer as the light transmitter at the beginning of the route. 11 .

Electrical signal from the Exchange is converted to Optical (using light as carrier) by Optical equipment (DLC) at the COT. The light signal is guided by the fibre to its destination where it is detected and converted back into electrical signal again. 12 . the light signal is injected into the optical fibre. From the equipment.

34. 13 . 140. 565 Mbps signals of the PCM 30 multiplexing unit.TRANSMISSION SYSTEM FOR DIGITAL SIGNALS Bit Rate (rounded Mbps) Number of 64 kbps channel 30 120 480 1920 7680 2 8 34 140 565 PDH System with higher number of channels transmit bit rates of 8.

2M 63 252 63 X 2M X 16 MAX. CHANNEL.TRANSMISSION SYSTEM FOR DIGITAL SIGNALS SDH (SYNCHRONOUS DIGITAL HIERACHY) SDH SYSTEM STM1 STM4 STM16 MAX. 1890 (63X30C) 7560 (252X30C) 30240 (1008X2M) 14 .

15 .

STAR 16 .NETWORK TOPOLOGY 3 BASIC TYPES ARE:I) STAR II) BUS III) LOOP .STAR TOPOLOGY ADOPTED BY TELEKOM MALATSIA BHD. :I) STAR II) LOOP .

NON-REDUCTIONAL LOOP + SWITCHSTAR WITH SHARED RESOURCE EXCHANGE EXCHANGE Practical way to change the configuration 17 .

18 .

STAR NETWORK CONFIGURATION EXCHANGE EXCHANGE 19 .

LOOP NETWORK EXCHANGE CONFIGURATION (1+1) 20 .

21 .

Basic Structure of an optical fiber 22 .

23 . WHILE THE CLADDING IS TO MINIMIZE SURFACE LOSSES AND TO GUIDE THE LIGHT WAVES.Basic Structure of an optical fiber THE CORE PERFORMS THE FUNCTION OF TRANSMITTING THE LIGHT WAVES.

OPTICAL FIBRE CONSTRUCTION LOW REFRACTIVE INDEX HIGH REFRACTIVE INDEX 24 .

Basic Structure of an optical fiber Core 10 um Cladding 125 um Secondary coating Primary coating 250 um 25 .

100 LS GRADED INDEX MULTIMODE 125 50 LS SINGLE MODE 10 125 LS DIMENSION IN um LS = LIGHT SOURCE 26 .INDEX MULTIMODE 100-200 50 .TYPES OF OPTICAL FIBRE TYPE REFRACTIVE INDEX PROFILE LIGHT PROPAGATION STEP .

INDEX MULTIMODE LS GRADED INDEX MULTIMODE LS SINGLE MODE LS PULSE DISTRORATION DETERMINE THE BANDWIDTH OF OPTICAL FIBRES. 27 .OPTICAL FIBRE PULSE DISTRORATION TYPE INPUT PULSE LIGHT PROPAGATION OUTPUT PULSE STEP .

CONSTRUCTION OF SLOTTED CORE OPTICAL FIBER CABLE 28 .

Hard UV CONSTRUCTION OF SLOTTED CORE OPTICAL FIBER CABLE Soft UV 125um 190um 250um Silica Fiber Ultra Violet Curable Acrylate Coated Fiber 29 .

CONSTRUCTION OF SLOTTED CORE OPTICAL FIBER CABLE Nylon Silicon Resin 125um 400um 900um Silica Fiber Nylon Coated Fiber 30 .

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 4 FIBER 6 FIBER 8 FIBER 12 FIBER BLUE BLUE BLUE BLUE YELLOW YELLOW YELLOW YELLOW GREEN GREEN GREEN GREEN RED RED RED RED VOILET VOILET VOILET WHITE BROWN BROWN WHITE WHITE WHITE WHITE WHITE WHITE WHITE WHITE 31 .FIBER NO.

OPTICAL FIBRE FILLING COMPOUND SLOT WRAPPING SHEATH CENTRAL STRENGTH MEMBER 32 .

33 .

34 .

4mm 1.Cross-section of four (4) – fiber Ribbon Primary coating Jacketing ( u v cured material) Optical fiber 0.1mm 35 .

CROSS-SECTION OF COMPLETED CABLE 24 FIBER RIBBON 4 .FIBRE RIBBON RIB IDENTIFICATION MARKING FILLING COMPOUND SLOT WRAPPING SHEATH CENTRAL STRENGTH MEMBER 36 .

CROSS-SECTION OF COMPLETED CABLE 48 FIBER RIBBON 37 .

CROSS-SECTION OF 4 FIBER RIBBON IN A GROOVE OF SLOT TAPE A TAPE B FOR CORE NO.48 FOR CORE NO.72 TAPE C TAPE D FOR CORE NO. 73 .96 38 . 1 . 49 . 25 .24 FOR CORE NO.

AMOURED FIBRE CABLE LOOSE TUBE FIBRE CABLE 39 .

CONSTRUCTION OF LOOSE BUFFERED TUBE OPTICAL FIBER CABLE Petroleum Jelly Two Ripcords Filler Core wrapping Strength member Buffered Tube Thixotropic Jelly Fiber Outer PE sheath 6 core 40 .

CONSTRUCTION OF LOOSE BUFFERED TUBE OPTICAL FIBER CABLE PE Coating Stranded wire PE web Buffered Tube 36 core 41 .

CONSTRUCTION OF LOOSE BUFFERED TUBE OPTICAL FIBER CABLE Outer PE sheath Two Ripcords Core wrapping Petroleum Jelly PE Coating Strength member Buffered Tube Thixotropic Jelly Fiber 96 core 42 .

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 FIBER COLOUR BLUE YELLOW GREEN RED VOILET BROWN BLUE YELLOW GREEN RED VOILET BROWN BLUE YELLOW GREEN RED VOILET BROWN TUBE NO. 4 TUBE COLOUR RED 5 VOILET 6 BROWN 43 .FIBER NO. 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 FIBER COLOUR BLUE YELLOW GREEN RED VOILET BROWN BLUE YELLOW GREEN RED VOILET BROWN BLUE YELLOW GREEN RED VOILET BROWN TUBE NO. 1 TUBE COLOUR BLUE 2 YELLOW 3 GREEN FIBER NO.

TUBE COLOUR 4 RED 5 VOILET 6 BROWN 44 . TUBE COLOUR 1 BLUE 2 YELLOW 3 GREEN FIBER NO. 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 FIBER COLOUR BLUE YELLOW GREEN RED VOILET BROWN PINK GREY BLUE YELLOW GREEN RED VOILET BROWN PINK GREY BLUE YELLOW GREEN RED VOILET BROWN PINK GREY TUBE NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 FIBER COLOUR BLUE YELLOW GREEN RED VOILET BROWN PINK GREY BLUE YELLOW GREEN RED VOILET BROWN PINK GREY BLUE YELLOW GREEN RED VOILET BROWN PINK GREY TUBE NO.FIBER NO.

49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 FIBER COLOUR BLUE YELLOW GREEN RED VOILET BROWN PINK GREY BLUE YELLOW GREEN RED VOILET BROWN PINK GREY BLUE YELLOW GREEN RED VOILET BROWN PINK GREY TUBE NO. TUBE COLOUR 10 LIGHT BLUE 11 WHITE 12 ORANGE 45 .FIBER NO. TUBE COLOUR 7 PINK 8 GREY 9 BLACK FIBER NO. 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 FIBER COLOUR BLUE YELLOW GREEN RED VOILET BROWN PINK GREY BLUE YELLOW GREEN RED VOILET BROWN PINK GREY BLUE YELLOW GREEN RED VOILET BROWN PINK GREY TUBE NO.

46 .

47 . one end side with spigot for jointing purpose. ii) Corrugated sub-duct 32mm X 600M length per coil complete with nylon string.INSTALLATION OF SUB-DUCT Two types of sub-duct :- i) PVC Sub-duct 32mm X 6M length.

48 .Existing copper duct route (Main duct) :M/H copper duct route M/H M/H 180 – 220M New duct route for 100% optical fibre cable can goes up to 300M to 500M per section C/W concrete encasement.

SPECIAL CONDITIONS BEFORE INSTALLING A CABLE INTO THE MAIN DUCT/SUB-DUCT i) Cable must always be installed in an empty duct ii) Under no circumstance may a second cable be drawn into the duct later iii) Max allowable only 60% of duct space use for cable 49 .

i) For pulling cable ii) Easy for maintenance ( cable breakdown) iii) For recovery of cable (easy drawing in/out cables without opening the ground) iv) Additional duct space allow future cabling to be drawn in without opening ground for new duct installation v) Manholes and joint boxes at interval of duct route enable easier maintenance 50 . one end side with spigot for jointing purpose.duct 100mm X 6M length.PURPOSED OF MAIN-DUCT 100mm PVC Main .

PURPOSED OF SUB .DUCT i) To increase the capacity of the duct route system inside the main-duct. to reduce the duct cost per cable 51 . ii) To provide the fibre cable with protection/safety iii) Also provide the fibre cable with additional protection from the environment iv) Ameans for fiture cable installation and removal v) To allow additional cables to be place in the same route vi) Economical.

only for short distance <50M iv) Occupy the duct closest to the wall then work towards the centre of the manhole at each level 52 . chose the lowest and the second lowest layer of the main duct route iii) Can be installed in duct already occupied by existing cables.SELECTION OF MAIN DUCT FOR CARRYING THE SUB-DUCTS:i) Should be at least at the second layer of the main duct (to avoid possible damage due to cave in and etc.) ii) For loop network configuration when using the same duct route.

Jointing of sub duct b. Installation procedure 1. pvc rod c.use rod sweep cane.brushes and cleaning disc best mandrel is 457 mm long x 83 mm diameter and cylindrical brush 108 mm in diameter 2. Preparation of duct a. Bunches of sub duct c. Cutting of sub duct 3. Laying of sub duct Manually as sesame as cable pulling 53 . Cleaning – mandrel cutting.2. Preparation of sub duct prior laying a. Roding. Cleared of obstruction b.

Max pulling speed is 15 meter/minute 4. tightly together – 800 mm 4. Hold the end of sub duct. Use swivel to avoid twittering during hauling 5.Pulling force 80 KN(8160kg) 3.4. 3 sub duct (34 mm )to be installed simultaneously in 107 mm duct 54 . manually pulling 2.5 meter interval long 2. Preparation of sub duct – bunch together with 3 layer adhesive tape at every 1. Max. Installation of corrugated sub duct 1. Pass the cable grip over + swivel 5. Fit 1 meter pulling rod to every sub duct 3. Laying of sub duct 1.

6. Remove all burr 3. Marking of sub duct. Fit end cap 7. cut both sub duct perpendicularly 2. Install another “O” ring 5. Pull one of the sub duct 50 mm out of the jointing sleeve 6. 1 st sub duct – white 2 nd sub duct – yellow 3 rd sub duct – Green 8. After pulling in 1. Install “O” ring 3. Jointing sub duct 1. Jointing sleeve – 250 mm piece of sub duct 4. Wrap 10-12 turn 5. Install flange holder (B plate) 4. Wrap another 12-15 turn 55 . Make I “ slit to secure the nylon rope 6. cut 60 mm from the sub duct mouth 2.

PULLING ROD TO BE INSERTED INTO SUBDUCT 1000mm 1000 mm pulling rod 56 .

Wrap the sub-duct with four turns of colour tape 100mm from duct end. 1st Sub-duct colour white 2nd Sub-duct colour yellow 3rd Sub-duct colour green 57 .

5m Use of cable grip.Bunching of three sub-ducts with adhesive tape 1. “D” shackle and pulling rope for pulling sub-duct into the main duct. swivel. 58 .

Terminating corrugated sub-duct in manhole Rubber “O” ring End Cap Optic fibre cable Bolt Expansion (Iron Raw plug) 60mm Sub-duct inserted into the PVC Plate “B” 122mm X 122mm X 5mm 59 .

INSTALLATION OPTICAL FIBER CABLE SUB DUCTS 60 .

1. Flag 5. Flashing Light 4. TOOLS AND MATERIAL Tool name 1. Exhaust fan/blower 11. Water pump 9. Canvas Tent &frame GI 6. Cable jack Usage Safety/traffic warning Safety/traffic warning Safety/traffic warning Safety/traffic warning Provide shade for workman For opening the manhole cover To detect dangerous gases To remove water in manhole To supply electrical power To ventilate manhole For cable drum jacking 61 . Gas detector 8. Barrier & barricades 3. Manhole key 7. Safety cones 2. Portable generator 10.

22. 24. 20. 17. 15. 23.Tool name 12. 16. 21. 19. 18. 13. 14. roding tools (PVC Type) Cable cutter Cable grip Shackle D Swivel Pulling rope Cable roller Cable guide Dynamometer PVC Sheeting Cable winch Pulley Cable trailer Usage For rodding or sub duct To cut the cable Grip cable for pulling As a connector To prevent cable twisting For pulling the cable To guide the cable into duct To protect the cable against damage To measure the pulling tension Cable protection while forming F8 Pulling cable To pull pulling rope out of manhole To hold cable drum 62 .

MAXIMUM PULLING TENSION Contract No of core Max.7 KN(170kg) TOMEN UP TO 48 CORE MARCONI/HESFIBEL UP TO 96 CORE 1.1 KN(110kg) OPCOM UP TO 96 CORE 2KN(200kg) PERWIRA ERICSON UP TO 96 CORE 2.5KN(250kg) 63 .2.pulling force 1.

Diameter of figure 8 is min.2. Bi-directional pulling 3. LAYING MATHOD : 1. Intermediate pulling 5. BENDING RADIUS : 10 D WHILE SETTING 20 D WHILE PULLING 4. unidirectional pulling 2.1 meter 64 . LAYING SPEED : 15 METER / MINUTE 3.

UNIDIRECTIONAL PULLING METHOD

Cable drum Manhole

Pulled in a continuous operation in one direction only ( < 1 km) In this case, the cable drum is placed at one of the manhole, and cable is pulled in a continuous operation in one direction only.

65

BI - DIRECTIONAL PULLING METHOD

In this case, the cable drum is placed at one of the manhole, and cable is pulled in a continuous operation in one direction only.

66

Bi-directional Pulling Method
When it is difficult to lay the whole cable length in one continuous operation due to geographical configuration of cable route bidirectional pulling is used. This method is mainly adopted for complicated cable route having curves or level differences of ducts at pull-through manholes.

67

A PVC sheet placed on the ground to protect the cable while forming the Figure 8. Pull the cable end of the uncoiled cable in the other direction. This operation is shown in figure 8. 68 . a) Place the cable drum at the midpoint of the section. d) A suitable space measuring about 6m x 3m is necessary for uncoiling the cable. c) Uncoil the balance of the cable in the drum for the second pull.Bi-directional Pulling Method This method is recommended for complicated cable routes having curves or level differences of sub-duct at pull through manholes and or cable lengths greater than 1km. b) Pull the cable towards one directions until it reaches its destination.

The remaining shorter cable on the same cable drum is uncoiled for the second pull.As illustrated in figure 6. Fig 7 show the uncoiling of the remaining cable in the drum. A cable is placed at the corner of the cable route and the cable is laid in two steps. The cable should be coiled on the ground in the form of ‘figure 8’. The diameter of figure 8 should be greater than 1 meter. 69 . This will be enable the remaining cable to pull in the other direction easily. In the first pull. a longer length is laid into duct in continuous operation.

b) First pull in the direction indicated as (1)-fig 8a c) Uncoil the balance of the cable in the drum in the form of a ‘ Figure 8’ at the position (2) d) The second pull is in the opposite direction that toward (3) (Fig 8b) and (4)-(Fig 8b) 70 .Pulling a long cable with sharp bends. Figure 8a and 8b shows how bi-directional pulling is used in route with sharp bends. a) Place the cable drum at the chosen corner manhole.

Methods OF CABLE LAYING INTO SUBDUCTS Manhole 1) Direction of first pull 3) Direction of second pull 2) Making of Figure ‘8’ BI .DIRECTIONAL PULLING METHOD 71 .

take the cable out of the manhole and coil it on the ground to form ‘ the figure 8’. Turn the coiled ‘ figure 8’ cable over to get the pulling end to continue with the cable pulling process. a. 72 . Place the cable drum at the end of the cable length. b. After pulling the cable through four or five manhole say 1 km.Intermediate Manual Pull This method is recommended for pulling cable in straight route and with distance greater than 1 km. Continue this process until the cable in the drum as completely uncoiled. Pull the cable towards one of the splice location. c.

This reduce the effective tail load at the manhole. 73 . A manholes manually assisting in the cable pulling process ( hand-over-hand) as it passes through. A man is stationed in each intermediate manholes. the maximum pulling tension is substantially reduced. As a result.Here we have a number of pull-through manholes assistance is needed in the intermediate manholes. Figure 9 shows the intermediate manual assisted cable pulling.

METHODs OF CABLE LAYING INTO SUBDUCTS 1) Direction of first pull 2) Making of Figure ‘8’ 3) Direction of second pull 4) The next drum of cable Greater than 1 km INTERMEDIATE PULLING METHOD 74 .

A PVC sheet (6M X 3M) placed on the ground to protect the cable while forming the 75 Figure 8.? To reduce pulling tension Manhole Uncoil the balance of the cable in the drum for the second pull.. .Colling Of Remaining Shorter Cable Why figure 8.

CABLE FEEDING END ARRANGEMENT OF MANPOWER FOR CABLE PULLING Cable roller Cable Jack Cable Protecting Bend 76 .

CABLE FEEDING END ARRANGEMENT OF MANPOWER FOR CABLE PULLING Cable Jack Cable feeder tube or corrugated duct 77 .

78 .CABLE PULLING END ARRANGEMENT OF MANPOWER FOR CABLE PULLING Cable roller Pulling rope Chains Pulley Block The laying speed shall be less than 15 m/min.

The laying speed shall be less than 15 m/min.CABLE PULLING END ARRANGEMENT OF MANPOWER FOR CABLE PULLING After pulling the cable through four or five manhole say 1 km. take the cable out of the manhole and coil it on the ground to form ‘ the figure 8’. 79 .

CABLE PULLING END ARRANGEMENT OF MANPOWER FOR CABLE PULLING 80 .

81 .ARRANGEMENT OF MANPOWER FOR CABLE PULLING AT INTERMIDIATE MANHOLE Cable Protecting Bend Corrugated sub-duct to replace the manpower.

ARRANGEMENT OF MANPOWER FOR CABLE PULLING AT INTERMIDIATE MANHOLE 82 .

ARRANGEMENT OF MANPOWER FOR CABLE PULLING AT INTERMIDIATE MANHOLE 83 .

STORING EXCESS CABLE No 1 2 Location Jointing manhole Pull through manhole Pull through manhole (potential growth area Formula 3L+ 2w + H 2H+ L 3 3L+ 2w + 2H 84 .

BENDING RADIUS 10 x DAI.MIN. OF CABLE SETTING CABLE IN JOINTING MANHOLE 85 .

OF CABLE SETTING CABLE IN PULL-THROUGH MANHOLE 86 . BENDING RADIUS 10 x DAI.MIN.

four additional cable bearer Must be installed at end wall to support cable . When bending the cable the following cable length should be kept straight : .minimum 6 cm from duct inlet . 9. All cable passing through manholes must be tied to the cable bracket by using cable tie no.6. The space between the end of cable joint and the duct inlet – 60 cm 87 . At jointing manhole.minimum 6 cm from a cable joint end 7.3 8.

88 .To prevent the cable bearer bracket from floating install anti floating device.6 11.The jointing closure is tight to to supporting plate using cable tie no.10. cable slack more than 100 cm – to absorb cable creep caused by expansion & contraction of cable laid. 13. 12. In manhole constructed at both end of bridge. Important cable must be protected –use helically coiled protector.

Type and cable size Route name Contract Number Installation date Cable section code 3. 2. Cable section number 89 . Network code b. d. Should be fitted 7 cm away from the cable joint. c. b. e. Labeling information a.LABELLING 1. Cable section comprises of : a.

2-8 K1322/04 20 DISEMBER 05 90 .Sample of marking tag (label) TELEKOM MALAYSIA BERHAD TYPE SIZE ROUTE NAME CABLE SECTION CODE CONTRACT NUMBER DATE OF INSTALLATION SINGLE MODE 24 CORES TAR – WISMA SEMARAK NO.

ERECTION OF AERIAL OPTICAL FIBER CABLE 91 .

More than 600 Volt 6.5 Meter 5. Less than 600 Volt b.7 Meter (not relevant) 600 mm 2000 mm 92 .5 Meter 1 2 3 4 Along road At road crossing At railway crossing From power cables a.Minimum clearance : LOCATION MINIMUM CLEARANCE 4.

The sag is 2% from span length (40 Meter-50 Meter = 1M) 93 .2.

3.1 KN(110kg) OPCOM UP TO 36 15KN(1500kg PERWIRA ERICSON UP TO 48 9KN(900kg) 94 .OF CORES MAX.PULLING FORCE 8 KN(800kg) TOMEN UP TO 36 MARCONI/HESF IBEL UP TO 36 1. MAXIMUM PULLING FORCE CONTRACT NO.

Distribution pole c. Each end of isolated long span greater than 200 Meter. Angle pole – deviation of the route is greater than 400 d. Poles where two cables are jointing. Termination of IB OFC a. f. Beginning and the end of route b. All river and railway crossing e. 95 .4.

HD 12 A 3. The max. c. Dead end or terminal poles. b.04 mm 96 . Earth wire size is 7/1. HD 10 b.6. At every interval of approximately 250 M 2. The required grounding location : a. Type of openable jointing connector : a. Poles holding supporting wire for jointing closures.earth system is 1 ohm . Integral Bearer wire earthling system 1. 4.

1 Through Double Termination 97 .Bracket tubular pole Preformed grip Thimble PVC tape Cable Fig.

L1 = Just sufficient to terminate bearer wire with correct size of preformed grip + 200 mm L2 = Just sufficient to terminate bearer wire with correct size of preformed grip + 50 mm 98 .

99 .

Keep the site where splicing is to be done clean and dry. This stress may cause the fibre to break later. •The optical fibre. stress due to torsion and bending. for safe disposal do not leave them around the work site. which is very fine and fragile to avoid injury all fibre clippings must be gathered and place into plastic bag/box/tin. will remain in the fibres. •The presence of dust in splices will increase their losses. •To avoid contamination of the fibers while splicing keep your hands.Precautions •When optical fibres are not handled properly. 100 . tools and equipment clean.

always use a cable cutter / bolt cutter. 101 .i. never look into the end of fibers. •All optical fibre cable equipment must be handled carefully. •Minimum bend radius for fibre is 4 cm and minimum bend radius for optical fibre cable while setting is 10 D.e within the recommended values of 0. •When cutting optical fibre cable.05 db.01 – 0. •Estimated splicing loss should be kept low.Precautions •The incident rays in the fibre are strong enough to damage your eyes. do not use a metallic saw.

NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Scissors TOOL NAME Bolt cutter Optical Fibre Sheath Cutter Screw Driver Set Tape Measuring Allen Key Pliers Combination 8" Knife Trimming Torque Wrench Adapter Spanner Fibre Cleaver Fibre Stripper Buffer Tube Stripper SPLICING MACHINE USE For cutting cable For cutting wrapping For removal of cable sheath For tightening screws For measurement For tightening nuts For cutting tension member. etc Removing slot For tightening nuts For tightening nuts For cutting glass fibre To remove secondary coating To remove PVC sheath of fibre cord/buffer tube For splicing fibre 102 .

NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 MATERIALS LIST Alcohol (Purity 95%) Cotton Gauze/Lint free cloth Cloth Abrasive Cotton Bud Methylated spirit Cotton Waste PVC Tape 20mm & 10mm Fibre Protection sleeve 103 .

CUTTING OF CABLE AND REMOVING OF THE CABLE SHEATH CABLE SHEATH CUTTER 104 .

Clean the cable and fibres with methylated spirit after removing of cable sheath Gauze soaked with Methylated spirit 105 .

Wrap the end of the slot with pvc tape. 106 .Cut slot at the position of 55mm from end of cable sheath and strip (shave by knife) the end of slot 30mm.

4. Removing secondary coating – 35 mm 2. Fiber cleaving –16 mm 107 . Removing primary coating – piece of gauge soaked with alcohol. 3. PREPARING FIBER FOR SPICING 1.

the end face angles are checked and an error occurs if either is more than 3 to 5 degrees.END FACE VIEW OF OPTICAL FIBRE CRACK LIP INCLINE If the CLEAVE ANGLE function is ON. 108 .

ii) Junction Cable is 0.05 dB loss/splice.03 dB loss/splice 109 . ESTIMATED SPLICING LOSS Estimated splicing loss should be kept low within the recommended values of:i) Fibre In The Loop (Local Cable) is 0.05dB loss/splice. iii)Trunk Cable is 0.MAX.

OBSERVATION OF SPLICE POINT CRACK SEPARATION BUBBLE TOO THICK TOO THIN 110 .

• Abnormal discharge.TREATMENT OF DEFECTIVE SPLICE RESULTS •Improper cleaving of optical fibre. (ARC POWER.) •Change the arc power parameter 111 SEPARATION •Improper high racking power . BUBBLE TOO THICK (Barrel) •Mulfunction of fusion splice main body. etc. TOO THIN (Necking) •Adjust the splice programmed parameter. Dust on fibre end face. •Adjust the splice programmed parameter. •Cleave the fiber again or change the cleaver. • Mulfunction of fusion splice main body.

112 .Tighten the bolts of Bands further by a torque of 70Kgf-cm. After 10 minutes. tighten bolts again by same torque.

SPLICE CLOSURE KIT FOR OPTICAL FIBRE CABLE FUJIKURA TYPE 113 .

9. Fibre protection tube 14. 2.SPLICE CLOSURE KIT FOR OPTICAL FIBRE CABLE FUJIKURA TYPE 1. Sleeve gasket 13. Tension member protector 114 . 4. 3. 6. 5. Sleeve halves Centre band Side clamp Cable clamp Tension member clamp Slack tray End seal block Cable adapter End cap 11. Closure scal 10. 7. 8. Sealing tape 12.

SPLICE CLOSURE FOR OPTICAL FIBRE CABLE FUJIKURA TYPE ‘ST’ joint ‘Y or Tap’ joint ‘X’ joint 115 .

RAYCHEM FOSC 400 A4 Fiber Optic Splice Closure 116 .

RAYCHEM FOSC 400 TYPE Fiber Optic Splice Closure 117 .

118 .

OF CABLE SETTING CABLE IN JOINTING MANHOLE 119 .MIN. BENDING RADIUS 10 x DAI.

TESTING OPTICAL FIBER CABLE 120 .

121 .

INTERCONNECTION LOSS Light Loss Light Loss Core diameter mismatch loss ( Core diameter of the TX Fibre is larger than the core diameter of the RX Fibre) 122 .

INTERCONNECTION LOSS Numerical Aperture Mismatch Loss 123 .

INTERCONNECTION LOSS Cladding Core 2 Core 1 Concentricity and Ellipticity ( Alignment of the two cores connector loss) 124 .

ATTENUATION LOSS Ray of light to partially scatter Light Loss Rayleigh Scattering Caused by microscopic non uniformities in the optical fibre. 125 .

ATTENUATION LOSS

Obsorption
Caused by the molecular structure of the material, impurities in the fibre, metal ions, OH ions (water) and atomic defects (unwanted oxidized elements in glass composition). 126

ATTENUATION LOSS MICROBENDING LOSS

CHANGES OF THE CORE DIAMETER, ROUGH BOUNDARIES BETWEEN THE CORE AND CLADDING, MECHANICAL STRESS, PRESSURE, TENSION OR TWISTING.
127

CHECK FOR MICROBENDING LOSS

128

FIBRE TRAY CHECK FOR MICROBENDING LOSS 129 .

CHECK FOR MICROBENDING LOSS 130 .

BENDING RADIUS OF CABLE 10 X DIA. BENDING RADIUS OF FIBRE 40MM 131 . OF CABLE (ii) Min.ATTENUATION LOSS MACROBENDING LOSS (i) Min.

50cm CHECK FOR MACROBENDING LOSS 132 .

CHECK FOR MACROBENDING LOSS 133 .

OF CABLE SETTING CABLE IN JOINTING MANHOLE 134 . BENDING RADIUS 10 x DAI.CHECK FOR MACROBENDING LOSS MIN.

BENDING RADIUS 10 x DAI.CHECK FOR MACROBENDING LOSS MIN. OF CABLE SETTING CABLE IN PULL-THROUGH MANHOLE 135 .

Connnected to the power meter. Use for terminating connectors at the FDF. locate cable fault. 2 3 4 Sensor Module 5 Connector Adaptor 136 . For measuring the optical output power. Use for transmitting light. serves to convert light signal to electrical signal.MEASURING EQUIPMENT REQURIED FOR FIBRE OPTIC CABLE TEST NO 1 MEASURING EQUIPMENT OTDR (Optical Time Domain Reflectometer) Stabilized Light Source Optical Power Meter USE For measuring the splice loss. cable loss.

For cleaning the connectors and optical detector.MATERIALS FOR FIBRE OPTIC CABLE TEST NO 1 MATERIAL NAME COTTON BUD USE For cleaning the connectors and optical detector. REMARKS 2 ALCOHOL Minimum 95% pure. For pacthing at the test eguipment and Fibre Distribution Frame. FC type connector 137 3 PACTH CORD .

Testing Optical Fibre Cable The test to be conducted shall be as follows: a. Cable End to End Loss Maximum allowable loss between sending and receiving stations = aL +bN +C 138 .TESTING AND COMMISSIONING OPTICAL FIBRE SCHEME 1.

which is 0. C = Constant of 1 for Connector Loss (i. which is 0.5 dB per connector).e 0. 139 .where.20 dB for RT and 0.40 or 1300 nm region and 0. N = Number of splice. a = Cable Loss dB/km.1dB for Fokus and trunk lines.25 for 1550 nm region b = Average Loss per slice. L = Cable Length (km).

140 . the loss measured shall be less than that stipulated formula.Cable End to End Loss When measured using the light source/power meter method.

141 .Splice loss The maximum loss allowed shall be less than or equal to 0.1dB for Fokus and Trunk lines.20 dB for RT and 0. This value shall be average value (measured from both sides of the link using an OTDR).

15 db. Any splices failing to meet the above criteria shall be respliced.1. 142 . The rationale of this requirement is to ensure that the macro-bending and microbending loses at 1550 nm is not excessive as a result of poor installation practices at a jointing closures.The measured value at 1550 nm region shall not exceed that measured at 1300 nm region by 0. The acceptance test format used is as shown in App.

Core Reversal Test This test is to ensure that the correct fibre cores are spliced together. 143 . It is to be tested at both sides of the optical fibre link specifically at the FDF by using Fibre Identifier.

Testing Method i) Light source is sent from upper station and lower station. iii) If fibre core reversal is not detected. This is to ensure fibre core numbers are matched and spliced together at both ends of the link. Repeat the above process at all the joints until the error at the joint is rectified 144 . this shows that there could be a core reversal at any joint along the link. iv) If signal is detected at the different core numbers from DFD in the above procedure. repeat the same process ( I & ii) at first joint (FTB joint of upper station ) and last joint (FTB joint of lower station ) until signal is detected at both FDFs. ii) Detect light signal in fibre cores starting from the center fibres using Fibre Identifier.

vi) Collets are tagged onto fibre cables with complete identification of link. iii) Fibre cords are neatly arranged from FTB to FDF. is on cable tray up to FDF. in MDF room.O) shall ensure that the cables installed below are carefully inspected and checked for acceptance and commissioning of optical fiber links: i) On poles. 145 . in cable chamber. ii) In manholes.Checking cable routing and connection The Superintendence Officer (S.

O. 146 . test results shall be certified by both contractor and TM’s S.COMMISIONING After testing have been successfully completed in the presence of Superintendent Officer (S.O) or his appointed representative.

THE LOSS DATA OF THE SINGLE MODE OPTICAL FIBRE CABLE FROM FDF TO FDF CONTRACT NO: ROUTE: ACTUAL DISTANCE: WAVELENGHT: 1300nm / 1550nm INDENT NO: REGION: OTDR DISTANCE: STATE: CORE: NO. OF SPLICING: +(TB X 2) CABLE LOSS MEASUREMENT BY OTDR CORE NO 1-2 LOSS (dB) REMARKS 1 2 3 4 5 6 PREPARED BY NAME SIGNATURE CONFIRMED BY TELEKOM MALAYSIA 147 DATE .

R. SERIAL NO: 148 .D. SPLICEP OINT TESTING 5 6 DATE BY 1 2 3 4 EQUIPMENT USED PREPARED BY CONFIRMED BY TELEKOM MALAYSIA O. OF SPLICING: +(TB X 2) CORE NO.THE LOSS DATA OF THE SINGLE MODE OPTICAL FIBRE CABLE (EVERY SPLICING POINT) CONTRACT NO: ROUTE: ACTUAL DISTANCE: WAVELENGHT: 1300nm / 1550nm INDENT NO: REGION: OTDR DISTANCE: STATE: CORE: NO.T.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1-2 LOSS (dB) REMARKS PREPARED BY NAME SIGNATURE DATE CONFIRMED BY TELEKOM MALAYSIA 149 .THE LOSS DATA OF THE SINGLE MODE OPTICAL FIBRE CABLE FROM FDF TO FDF CONTRACT NO: ROUTE: ACTUAL DISTANCE: WAVELENGTH: INDENT NO: REGION: OTDR DISTANCE: STATE: CORE: NO OF SPLICING: CABLE LOSS MEASUREMENT BY OTDR CORE NO.

THE LOSS DATA OF THE SINGLE MODE OPTICAL FIBRE CABLE (EVERY SPLICING POINT) CONTRACT NO: ROUTE: ACTUAL DISTANCE: WAVELENGTH: 1300nm/1550nm SPLICE POINT INDENT NO: REGION: OTDR DISTANCE: STATE: CORE: NO OF SPLICING: +(TBX2) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 TESTING DATE BY EQUIPMENT USED OTDR: SERIAL NO: PREPARED BY CONFIRMED BY TELEKOM 150 .

OTDR 151 .BASIC TERMS .

The tests that an OTDR may perform on a fibre cable are as follows: • Distance measurement to an event • Distance measurement of a cable length • Loss measurement at an event • Loss measurement of a cable length • Recognitions of various trace events • Return loss measurement of events • Return loss measurement of cables 152 .

153 .

NEAR-END FRESNAL REFLECTION CONNECTOR LOSS SPLICE LOSS FAR-END FRESNAL REFLECTION OTDR 154 .

The backscatter slopes down to the right due to the pulse of light being attenuated as it travels away from the OTDR.OTDR TRACES The 'fibre' itself is produced by light that is backscattered as the pulse from the OTDR travels along the fibre. This backscatter is produced by (mainly) impurities in the fibres material. 155 .

156 .

Fibre Crack Mechanical Splice or Connector AIR GAP 157 .

158 . As the locations of connectors and mechanical splices is normally known the identification of the type of event should be easy. but could also be a crack in the fibre.A reflection combined with a loss (as shown at the point of the bold vertical bar labeled C) is usually either a mechanical splice or a connector.

159 . 'Ghost busting' techniques are used by experienced technicians to get rid of ghosts. normally where light reflected back towards the OTDR is reflected back into the fibre from the OTDR's front connector.This is a reflective feature that has no loss. This is due to a double reflection. only to be re-reflected back to the OTDR by a reflective event.

Fibre Bend Fusion Splice A B 160 .

161 . Again splice locations should be known so differentiating between splices and bends is normally easy.A point loss which has no reflection is usually either a fusion splice or a bend. Note that if a good splice is testing really bad it can mean that their is a bend nearby and the OTDR is not able to split the two close together events.

The real splice loss is very small Backscatter coefficient Fibre B > A B 162 A .

This is not due to the splice having an actual gain but is instead a result of the second fibre have a higher backscatter. usually called a 'gainer splice' or simply a 'gain'.Here the level of backscatter before and after a fusion splice shows a upwards trend. If the OTDR was placed at the far end of the fibre (so that we view from the higher backscatter fibre to the lower one) then we would see a large loss through the same splice. The actual splice loss is the average of the splice loss measured in both directions. 163 .

164 .Cleaver end or open connector Perpendicular cut 90 dig.

The end of this fibre shows a strong reflection as it is terminated in a polished connector. If the end was shattered or immersed in water (as can happen in a broken cable situation) then there may be a smaller reflection or no reflection at all. 165 .

Broken fibre end

166

Mismatch of Fibre Types

Single Mode Fibre

Multi Mode Fibre

You can use the OTDR to locate features or breaks for a larger fibre core diameter, but not to measure loss accurately.
167

Mismatch of Fibre Types

Position of features is OK

Attenuation and loss is wrong!

168

but not to measure loss accurately.Mismatch of Fibre Types Single Mode Fibre Multi Mode Fibre You can use the OTDR to locate features or breaks for a larger fibre core diameter. 169 .

SETTING LIGHT SOURCE & POWER METER 1. WARM UP THE METER SET AT LEAST 30 MIN. 174 . 2. SETTING LIGHT SOURCE:SET THE WAVE LENGTH ACCORDING TO THE TYPE OF FIBER LINK.

Press Mode Param then Modify to select the to set Attenuation to 0.SETTING LIGHT SOURCE & POWER METER .Press Mode Param right wave length.00. . .Press wave. Mode Param set to ‘CW’ for complete 175 .

3. SETTING POWER METER: .Press Param until you get ‘ T ’ to set Average Time .Press Auto to set into Auto. .Set the wave length according to Light Source setting.Press dBm to set Unit into dBm to place decimal point XX. press Modify to set 200ms.Press N Dig 176 .XX . . .

CALIBRATION OF TWO POWER METERS : To make the two power meters same reading.Press Mode Param until you get ‘CAL’ . . 177 . then press Modify soft key to do calibration.

VALUE "E": (3) OPTICAL LOSS: (2)-(1)+(3) (3) ALLOWANCE VALUE ALLOWANCE VALUE (dB) AVERAGE VALUE (dB) MAXIMUM VALUE (dB) OPTICAL POWER METER AT UPPER EXCH: OPTICAL POWER METER AT LOWER EXCH: STABILIZED LIGHT SOURCE: PREPARED BY NAME SIGNATURE DATE 2 3 4 Core No.2N+1. CALIBRATION VALUE E+ (P1-P2)/3 dBm dBm PP2 E=P1-P2 REMARKS INDENT NO: REGION: OTDR DISTANCE: STATE: CORE: NO OF SPLICING: (2) OPTICAL LOSS OF END TO END DESCRITION 1 INPUT LEVEL P IN: (1) OUTPUT LEVEL P OUT: (2) REP. (unit:dB) 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 FORMULA(4) ALLOWANCE VALUE IS CALCULATED BY THE FOLLOWING FORMULA : ALLOWANCE VALUE dB 0.4L+0.THE LOSS DATA OF THE SINGLE MODE OPTICAL FIBRE CABLE FROM FDF CONTRACT NO: ROUTE: ACTUAL DISTANCE: WAVE LENGTH: (1) REPRESENTATIVE CALIBRATION VALUE OF THE POWER METER P1 DESCRIPTION dBm 1ST 2ND 3RD DEVIATION V (E=MAX .0(const) CONFIRMED BY TELEKOM 178 .MIN) REP. CALIB.

THE LOSS DATA OF THE SINGLE MODE OPTICAL FIBRE CABLE FROM FDF CONTRACT NO: ROUTE: ACTUAL DISTANCE: WAVE LENGTH: (1) REPRESENTATIVE CALIBRATION VALUE OF THE POWER METER P1 DESCRIPTION dBm 1ST 2ND 3RD DEVIATION V (E=MAX .MIN) REP. CALIBRATION VALUE E+ (P1-P2)/3 dBm dBm P2 E=P1-P2 REMARKS INDENT NO: REGION: OTDR DISTANCE: STATE: CORE: NO OF SPLICING: 179 .

THE LOSS DATA OF THE SINGLE MODE OPTICAL FIBRE CABLE FROM FDF CONTRACT NO: ROUTE: ACTUAL DISTANCE: WAVE LENGTH: * 1300nm / 1550nm (1) REPRESENTATIVE CALIBRATION VALUE OF THE POWER METER P1 DESCRIPTION dBm 1ST 2ND 3RD DEVIATION V (E=MAX .MIN) REP. CALIBRATION VALUE E+ (P1-P2)/3 dBm dBm P2 E=P1-P2 REMARKS INDENT NO: REGION: OTDR DISTANCE: STATE: CORE: NO OF SPLICING: 180 .

26 181 .34 dBm 0.THE LOSS DATA OF THE SINGLE MODE OPTICAL FIBRE CABLE FROM FDF CONTRACT NO: ROUTE: ACTUAL DISTANCE: WAVE LENGTH: * 1300nm / 1550nm (1) REPRESENTATIVE CALIBRATION VALUE OF THE POWER METER P1 DESCRIPTION dBm 1ST 2ND 3RD DEVIATION V (E=MAX .55 0.3 60.32 20.45 61.1 0.42 20.4 20.51 0.MIN) REP.48 dBm 19. CALIBRATION VALUE E= (P1-P2)/3 20.14 P2 E=P1-P2 REMARKS INDENT NO: REGION: OTDR DISTANCE: STATE: CORE: NO OF SPLICING: 0.85 20.

CALIBRATION VALUE E= (P1-P2)/3 20.32 20. .35 20.624km STATE: CORE:6 NO OF SPLICING: 3+(TBx2) 182 .IPK ACTUAL DISTANCE: 4.27 dBm P2 E=P1-P2 REMARKS INDENT NO: REGION: OTDR DISTANCE:4.29 20.623km WAVE LENGTH: * 1300nm / 1550nm (1) REPRESENTATIVE CALIBRATION VALUE OF THE POWER METER P1 DESCRIPTION dBm 1ST 2ND 3RD DEVIATION V (E=MAX .THE LOSS DATA OF THE SINGLE MODE OPTICAL FIBRE CABLE FROM FDF CONTRACT NO: ROUTE:WERE RD.MIN) REP.3 dBm 20.32 20.

03 0. CALIBRATION VALUE E= (P1-P2)/3 20.03 P2 E=P1-P2 REMARKS INDENT NO: REGION: OTDR DISTANCE:4.32 20.03 0.35 20.IPK ACTUAL DISTANCE: 4.THE LOSS DATA OF THE SINGLE MODE OPTICAL FIBRE CABLE FROM FDF CONTRACT NO: ROUTE:WERE RD.03 183 .32 20.29 20. .3 dBm 20.97 60.MIN) REP.27 dBm 0.624km STATE: CORE: 6 NO OF SPLICING:3+(TBX2) 0 60.623km WAVE LENGTH: * 1300nm / 1550nm (1) REPRESENTATIVE CALIBRATION VALUE OF THE POWER METER P1 DESCRIPTION dBm 1ST 2ND 3RD DEVIATION V (E=MAX .88 0.

4L+0. (unit:dB) 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 20.30 23.54 184 .2N+1.35 20. VALUE "E": (3) OPTICAL LOSS: (2)-(1)+(3) (3) ALLOWANCE VALUE ALLOWANCE VALUE (dB) AVERAGE VALUE (dB) MAXIMUM VALUE (dB) OPTICAL POWER METER AT UPPER EXCH: OPTICAL POWER METER AT LOWER EXCH: STABILIZED LIGHT SOURCE: PREPARED BY NAME SIGNATURE DATE FORMULA(4) ALLOWANCE VALUE IS CALCULATED BY THE FOLLOWING FORMULA : aL+bN+C ALLOWANCE VALUE dB 0.30 20.58 23.55 23.(2) OPTICAL LOSS OF END TO END DESCRITION 1 INPUT LEVEL P IN: (1) OUTPUT LEVEL P OUT: (2) REP.30 20.32 20. CALIB.71 23.70 23.35 20.0(const) Wlength 1300nm CONFIRMED BY TELEKOM 2 3 4 Core No.65 23.

30 20.32 20.4L+0.03 0.65 23.54 3.03 0. CALIB.70 23.27 FORMULA(4) ALLOWANCE VALUE IS CALCULATED BY THE FOLLOWING FORMULA : aL+bN+C ALLOWANCE VALUE dB 0.03 0.35 20.33dB MAXIMUM VALUE (dB) 3. (unit:dB) 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 20.(2) OPTICAL LOSS OF END TO END DESCRITION 1 INPUT LEVEL P IN: (1) OUTPUT LEVEL P OUT: (2) OPTICAL LOSS: (2)-(1)+(3) 2 3 4 Core No.38 3.3 OPTICAL POWER METER AT UPPER EXCH: OPTICAL POWER METER AT LOWER EXCH: STABILIZED LIGHT SOURCE: PREPARED BY NAME SIGNATURE DATE 185 .2N+1.35 20.41 3.30 23.30 20.03 0.03 (3) ALLOWANCE VALUE ALLOWANCE VALUE (dB) 3.55 23.58 23.39 3.31 3.71 23.44dB AVERAGE VALUE (dB) 3.23 3.0(const) Wlength 1300nm CONFIRMED BY TELEKOM REP. VALUE "E": (3) 0.03 0.41 coreno.

CALIB.25L+0.1N+1.(2) OPTICAL LOSS OF END TO END DESCRITION 1 INPUT LEVEL P IN: (1) OUTPUT LEVEL P OUT: (2) REP. (unit:dB) 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 186 .0(const) Wlength 1550nm CONFIRMED BY TELEKOM 2 3 4 Core No. VALUE "E": (3) OPTICAL LOSS: (2)-(1)+(3) (3) ALLOWANCE VALUE ALLOWANCE VALUE (dB) AVERAGE VALUE (dB) MAXIMUM VALUE (dB) OPTICAL POWER METER AT UPPER EXCH: OPTICAL POWER METER AT LOWER EXCH: STABILIZED LIGHT SOURCE: PREPARED BY NAME SIGNATURE DATE FORMULA(4) ALLOWANCE VALUE IS CALCULATED BY THE FOLLOWING FORMULA : aL+bN+C ALLOWANCE VALUE dB 0.

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