EXPLORING EFL TEACHERS’ STRATEGIES IN TEACHING READING COMPREHENSION By: Nurman Antoni

Indonesia University of Education ABSTRACT This study is aimed to explore EFL teachers’ strategies in teaching reading comprehension and the students’ responses toward their teachers’ strategies in teaching reading comprehension at one junior high school in Riau. This study employed a qualitative research design which is a case study using three data collection techniques; observation, interview and questionnaire. All of the data were analyzed by using three major phases of analyses: data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing and verification (Miles and Huberman: 1994). This study revealed that the teachers have used teaching reading comprehension strategies in three reading stages: pre-reading, while-reading and post-reading stage. It also revealed that in general, the students’ responses to their teachers’ strategies were good enough which were classified into low-level association responses and partly-formed knowledge structure responses. These findings recommend that the three teachers need to increase their knowledge and experiences in order to understand the concepts, implementations and the reasons in using the strategies in teaching reading comprehension. They are also suggested to give instructions of teaching strategies to students with lowlevel association responses before starting the reading activities, and give some guidance to students with partly-formed knowledge. Keywords: EFL, Reading, Teaching Reading Comprehension, Teachers’ Strategy ABSTRAK Penelitian ini ditujukan untuk mengeksplorasi strategi guru bahasa Inggris (bahasa inggris sebagai bahasa asing) dalam mengajar penguasaan membaca dan respon siswa terhadap strategi guru mereka dalam mengajarkan kemampuan membaca di salah satu SMP di Riau. Penelitian ini menggunakan model penelitian qualitative yang merupakan studi kasus menggunakan tiga teknik pengumpulan data; observasi, wawancara dan questionnaire. Data yang terkumpul dianalisa menggunakan tiga fase analisis; penyederhanaan data, pemetaan data dan penggambaran kesimpulan dan verifikasi (Miles dan Huberman, 1994). Penelitian ini mengungkap bahwa telah menggunakan strategi pembelajaran kemampuan membaca dalam tiga langkah; pre-reading (sebelum membaca), while-reading (ketika membaca) and postreading (setelah membaca). Ini juga mengungkap bahwa secara umum respon siswa terhadap strategi pembelajaran guru cukup baik yang berarti tergolongkan pada respon asosiasi tingkat rendah dan struktur respon pengetahuan partly-formed. Hasil dari penelitian ini merekomendasikan ketiga guru tersebut meningkatkan pengetahuan dan pengalaman mereka yang bertujuan agar mengerti konsep, penerapan dan alasan dalam penggunaan strategi pembelajaran kemampuan membaca. Mereka juga direkomendasikan untuk memberikan petunjuk telebihdahulu kepada siswa dengan respon asosiasi rendah sebelum memulai aktivitas membaca dan juga memberi pengarahan kepada siswa dengan pengetahuan partly-formed. Kata kunci: EFL (Bahasa Inggris Sebagai Bahasa Asing), mengajar kemampuan membaca, strategi guru

BACKGROUND AND RESEARCH PROBLEMS One of strategies which should be managed and applied by teachers in the classroom is teaching reading strategies. Wallace (1992: 57) states that a reading strategy is a unitary process
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which cannot be subdivided into part skills. This means as a process, a reading strategy involves ways of processing text which will vary with the nature of the text, the reader’s purpose, and the context of situation. The significance of reading strategy is indicated implicitly in the Indonesia

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2006). 11. Reading Comprehension Reading comprehension skills are important for English language learners. More theories about reading comprehension strategies are also proposed by Brown (2001) who delivers ten strategies of teaching reading comprehension which are related to bottom-up procedures and top-down processes. In line with the background of the study. Logsdon (2007) puts together PQ4R Strategies which stands for Preview. In a similar vein. No. This means about the process how the reader decodes the message from the text. while-reading and postreading activities. 1983: 125) that states the major goal for any reading activities is comprehension. Tierney (1990). In getting the meaning from the text. Oktober 2010 40 . In this case. Read. and (2) What are the students’ responses toward their teachers’ strategies in teaching reading comprehension? LITERATURE REVIEW 1. especially Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan Vol. It means that it has to do with strategy to understand a written text. the problem of this study is formulated as follows. as one of the four major skills. 2. Wallace (1992) and NCLRC (2007) consider that teaching strategies in reading comprehension can be done by using three techniques. It means that an English teacher should create these two components in teaching reading especially teaching reading comprehension. and Anderson (1999). Generally. Nunan (1999: 249) exposed that an enormous amount of time. These strategies indicate an important role of a teacher to reach the objectives of teaching reading comprehension.National Curriculum of 2006. in learning English as foreign language in junior high school is to develop the students’ ability to read and to get the message comprehensively from particular reading texts (BSNP. pre-reading. Nuttal (1996: 4) states that one of very important reading purposes is to get meaning from a text. Many strategies for teaching reading comprehension have developed by experts such as Hillerich (1983). money and effort is spent for teaching reading in elementary and secondary school around the world. the reader needs a comprehension strategy. Whereas. Reflect. (1) What strategies do the teachers use in teaching reading comprehension?. It is supported by (Hillerich. to provide a languagerich learning environment and to support students in their use of language (Lindfors. there are two fundamental responsibilities of a teacher in teaching a language in the classroom. Regarding the teacher’s role in reading comprehension. Question. Recite. and Review to help students improve reading comprehension. it is stated that the objective of teaching reading. In this curriculum. Relating to the essence of this curriculum. Furthermore. 1989). Wallace (1992: 58) argues that the teachers with good strategy will observe readers in the course of reading as to assess outcomes in the form of answers to the comprehension questions which generally follow a reading task. Barnet (1988). this study focused to examine the three English teachers and their students who were learning reading comprehension in appropriate texts at one junior high school. the researcher think that it is important to explore more about the teachers’ strategies used and the students’ responses toward their teachers’ strategy on teaching reading comprehension. Although many previous research reports have given a comprehensive portrait on teaching strategies of reading comprehension.

1992. For examples. while. (2) inferential comprehension. Moreover. 2001. Thus. the text (including printer text or electronic text) and The activity (considering the purposes. inferential. The Strategies of Teaching Reading Comprehension This study focuses on teaching reading comprehension strategies which are divided into three reading stages proposed by some scholars. It involves such as predicting. text and activity. However. 11) defines reading comprehension as the process of simultaneously extracting and constructing meaning through interaction and involvement with written language. 2. the level of reader comprehension of the text is determined well from the interactions between the reader variables and the text variables (Barnet. They are: the reader. These three components relate each others in various stages of reading comprehension. It has to do with evaluating or making judgments in four major areas: central issues. and Barnet 1988). reading comprehension abilities are quite complex and difference in numerous ways depending on tasks. Then. monitoring one’s own comprehension. There are three components that involve in this process. inferring main idea.for students who learn English as a foreign language. summarizing. Then. and critical) are determined well from the interaction among those components. making judgment. Hillerich (1983: 126) classifies reading comprehension into three levels: (1) literal comprehension. determining meaning of vocabulary in context. things. motivations. process. 2002. It refers to understanding what an author meant and what was said. knowledge and experiences that a person brings to the act of reading). and reflecting (Weaver. language style. the inferential comprehension level allows the reader to suggest relevant additional information based on the text confronted and personal experience. etc. Wallace. Grabe and Staller (2002) also deliver that reading for general comprehension refers to the ability to understand information in a text and interpret it appropriately and correctly. Literal comprehension level requires the reader to recall facts that are overtly stated in the text. it can be concluded that reading comprehension is the reader activity to understand and to get information from a text with the simultaneous process. it is to recall ISSN 1412-565X names. predicting outcomes. 1994: 44). At last. 41 . and (3) critical comprehension. and areas. Gibbon. this includes: pre-reading stage. abilities. support for those issue. They classify that comprehension entails three elements: They are the reader (considering with capacities. sequencing. questioning. 2005. Given the above discussion. the critical comprehension level leads to the making of balanced judgments about the author’s style and some other aspects of the text. Reading comprehension is a process that involves the orchestration of the readers’ prior knowledge about the world and about language. 1988). the levels of reader’s comprehension (literal. In this. Brown. while reading stage and post reading stage (Hood et al. The most detailed one. and logic used to arrive at conclusions. and consequences associated with the act of reading). and post reading activities. Snow et al (2002. They are: pre. goals and language ability. developing general conclusions.

relevant language and an expectation meaning (Hood et al. The common one is reading aloud activity which is recommended to use by Gibbons. 1988. 2005. In line with this. 2. and following-up (Wallace. Pelinscar and Brown (1984) as cited in Doolitle. 2005: 75. While-Reading Stage In this reading stage. Nuttal. The next activity which can be applied is sequencing picture (Hood et al. It is an activity to give a picture that related to the text and provide relevant background knowledge which set up expectation meaning (Hood et al. Wallace. This strategy is suggested to use by (Anderson. 1992: 91. Anderson explained that silent reading is primarily in reading comprehension because it focuses on getting meaning from print. Crawford et al (2005: 29) define brainstorming as a method for creating many ideas about a topic. NCLRC (2007) also propose reread to check comprehension as one of while-activities in reading comprehension. one very popular kind of activities is brainstorming (Wallace. There are two kinds of reading aloud. Generating text type or text structure is also the activities that can be created in this stage (Barnet. 2002. Anderson (2003) in Nunan (2003: 69) said that the majority of reading that we do will be done silently. 2006). 2005: 76. The next activity that teacher can generate in this stage is silent reading. learner’s purpose. reading aloud to students is can used as an opportunity to bring students into a popular culture and an opportunity to challenging text and reading aloud by students is individual students to each other can develop class cohesion and encourage students about the text Handcock and Leaver (2006. 2005: 73 and Wallace. 1992: 91). 11. It is also important for teachers to discuss new vocabulary with students in this stage because discussing new vocabulary can help them to comprehend the text. Another activity is predicting. In this activity. knowledge and experience that relevant to the text. 1999. Discussing the text type in teaching reading comprehension is aimed to familiarize students with the major contextual features of a text or text structure and to show how these features can help them to work out the main function of the text and the possible content (Hood et al. Tierney et al. Gibbon. 1999: 255). Post-Reading Stage For this stage.Pre-Reading Stage In this stage. Gibbon. Tierney et al (1990) also Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan Vol. Gibbons (2002: 91). 1988. 40). see also by Barnet: 1988). Hancock and Leaver (2006). teacher can encourage them to use dictionary. Oktober 2010 42 . 1988). (1996: 2). 1992). a teacher can generate appropriate strategies to help students in comprehending the text. students are invited to call out words. Then. Barnet. the National Capital Language Resource Center (2007). summarizing. It is in line with Wallace’s (1992: 86) idea stated that teacher can encouraging students to use dictionary in pre-while stage. Wallace 1992). 2002). 1992. scanning questions. No. Furthermore. Teachers can conduct such activities. (2002). In this case. a teacher’s activity is primarily to evaluate the students’ comprehension in particular tasks as suggested by an online publication. Barnet. When students have problems of unknown words.

and justify comprehension as the strategies that can be implemented in classroom activities in teaching reading comprehension. a clique. Furthermore. METHODOLOGY 1. monitor comprehension. or a community and attempts to shed light on a phenomenon by studying in depth a single case example of the phenomenon. data analysis. it is important in ISSN 1412-565X their strategy used. Additionally. extending. we have to infer comprehension from other behavior. direct reading activity. 1966). duplicating.recommend eight practical strategies for improvement of teaching reading comprehension in the classroom for appropriate levels. they are the students’ response of adjusting eyes and ears to their teachers’ teaching strategies (sensory orientation response). Brown (2001) also delivers another way to analyze the students’ response. question-answer relationship. Research Design This present study employed a qualitative case study design. the relevant supporting theories. transferring. and text structure strategy. A case study was chosen because this study was to observe and to explore the teachers’ strategies on teaching reading comprehension and the student’s responses toward 3. or illperformed knowledge structures in responding their teachers’ strategies or instructions. Anderson (1999) and USA National Reading Panel (2000). choosing. data collections. the whole design of this qualitative case study was conducted since the research designed which consist of the clear background of the study. There are three English teachers in this school with different experiences and the degree of background knowledge. The Role of Student’s Responses in Learning In this study. GIST. because of reading is totally unobservable. propose predicting. Langer (1982) in Tierney (1990) offers the guidelines of analyzing to determine if students have well-performed. answering. Brown and Palinscar (1984) in Doolittle (2006). This study concerned with overt responses (see May. Because of that. contextual redefinition. So. considering. clarifying. and conversing. a class. 2. modeling. Cohen and Manion (1994) and Gay (1992) state that a case study observes the characteristics of an individual unit-a child. partly-performed. and teaching aids or instructions in teaching reading comprehension (Targeting response). the researcher considered all of them as 43 . Some of the following overt responses that indicate comprehension: doing. Then. as one of the aspects that to be explored is the students’ response toward their teachers’ strategies in teaching reading comprehension. reading to be able to accurately assess students’ comprehension and development skill. It is an ideal design to understand and interpret observations of educational phenomena (Merriam. summarizing. Research Participants The participants of this study were taken from all of EFL teachers who teach in SMPN 1 Gunung Toar in Riau. According to him. In line with this. vocabulary self-collection strategy. and the conclusions. In a similar vein. response of putting the students’ mind to the teaching and learning process (paying attention response) and concentrating attention on the relevant or important signals. questioning. They are prep technique. a school. 1988: 2).

toward their teachers’ strategy. it is usually 1 until 5 for strongly agree and strongly disagree. Oktober 2010 44 . the researcher as a human instrument directly observed the teachers’ strategies in teaching reading comprehension and the students’ responses responses ranging from ‘strongly agree’ to ‘strongly disagree’. Then. Besides. each response option is assigned with a number for scoring purposes. 2007: 450) conducted the classroom observation for a month period or four cycles for each participant. the researcher also had recorded by using audio-visual recorder all the events of teaching reading practice in the classrooms. to explore the characteristics and phenomenon of the single case. the researcher was helped by a volunteer assistance to record all the interactions by using a sonny handy cam or an audio-visual recorder. The questionnaire was developed based on research questions. some students were chosen randomly for each class to get the information about their responses toward their teachers’ strategies in teaching reading comprehension. It is not to compare these three teachers but to get concrete information as much as possible about strategies in teaching reading comprehension. Dornyei (2003) also explained that Likert Scale consists of a series of statements all of which are related to a particular target with the respondents are asked to indicate the extent to which they agree or disagree with this items by marking one of the Classroom Observation The classroom observation was conducted in order to identify the strategies used by EFL teachers and also to identify the students’ responses toward their teachers’ strategies in teaching reading comprehension. Interview The interview was carried out before and after the classroom observation. Then after the scale has been administered. and Cohen and Manion (1994) define interview as an interaction between two-person with the interviewer for the specific purpose of obtaining Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan Vol. Kvale (1996: 35). In doing this activity. So that. Questionnaire In the present study. Data Collection Techniques As it is mentioned earlier.the participants of this study. The data gather from questionnaire were used to support the main data that get from observation. They were classroom observation. In expecting to get the valid data as a whole. the researcher as non-participant observer (Fraenkel and Wallen. 2. No. multiple data collection techniques was intended to use. 11. 3. The first step. The data taking from the student’s answers were considered to confirm and to find out the students’ responses toward their teachers’ strategy used in teaching reading comprehension. In this study. flexible and reliable (Dornyei. the researcher had used Likert Scale Questionnaire since this method is simple. The idea of using an observation as the main data collection is related to the Flander (1960) as cited in Allwright (1988) who proposed observation as the key procedure for a number of researchers who were interested not so much in comparing ‘methods’ as in investigating ‘teaching style’ in the hope of being able to find which one was the most effective. interviews and questionnaire. 2003: 36). precisely a qualitative case study. besides writing the field notes. this study employed qualitative research.

Asked them to read quietly and asked white board and stated the title of the text. 5. 3. 3. The interview was used merely to support the data from observation. 3. It can be seen in the following framework: A General Framework of Teachers’ Strategy in Teaching Reading Comprehension T T1 1. and results can tabulated as well as explained. 2. 2. 5. Asked students to read aloud while Asked the meaning and the kind of the check their skill in reading expression. Thus. conclusion about the text. Asked students to identify new words Show a picture which related to the text. the main point of the text by asking Discussed and explained ‘recount text’ as questions. 4. 3. RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS 1. Sometime. 6. 5. 1. Asked students to find the generic structure of the text. The Strategies Used in Teaching Reading Comprehension Pre-Reading Stage While-Reading Stage Creating brainstorming to activate the 1. The Teachers’ Strategies in Teaching Reading Comprehension. 2. 2. 3. and to find the new words in two minutes. 2. T2 1. Gay (1992: 232) explains that most interviews use semi structured approach involving the asking of structured questions followed by clarifying unstructured or open-ended questions. 4. 4. and checked students’ Mentioned title of the text and reminded understanding about text by asking their retelling homework questions while reading it. In the present study. In the similar vein. 4. Used L1 to lead them understand her questions 1. Reviewed the lesson and explained to them shortly. 4. Then. Students were suggested to confirm their dictionary. 2. Asked them to retell the text by using their own words. 5. It was used because the researcher has general idea where the interview should go and what should come out of it (Nunan. 3. T3 1. Asked to read silently. 4. Generated reading aloud to and by student’s background knowledge. while-reading and post-reading. Discuss the text type. 4. wrote on the board. Asked students’ background knowledge about the ‘pet’. asked the meaning and suggest to use their dictionary 5. Mentioned the topic. Asked them to find the new words. 3. Asked questions for reviewing and explained for conclusion. the researcher had made individual interview with all the respondents in the two interviews because the researcher believed that there was enough time to make individual conversation or interview. Translated the questions to get more understanding. Asked to write the new words which found in the text on board. Discussed and explained the text types and the features. Asked students to find descriptive text from other sources for their homework. In this study. Asked their readiness to study. the interview’s questions should be related to the points that observed in the classroom observation. Asked them to translate the text in front of the class in fairs. the type of the text. 4. the second interview occurred two months after the classroom observation. ISSN 1412-565X 45 . The semi structured interview was used for this stage. because of that. a combination of objectivity and depth can be obtained. 5.research and with equally influencing each other. and wrote it on the 1. Asked to retell the passage by using L1 for their homework Ask students to do appropriate tasks Discussed the answer and clarify the answer to the class. Asked them to do individual task Discussed the students’ answer. students. researcher calls with the first and the second interview. meaning. 2. As shown in data below. 2. 3. 1. teachers’ strategies in teaching reading comprehension was presented into three teaching stages. Translated the questions when there wasn’t response Confirmed a student’s answer to others. 1992). He continues that the unstructured questions facilitate explanation and understanding of the responses to the structured questions. 1. Read aloud to and by students Asked them to find the new words Suggested to use dictionary to find the meaning of the words. 3. Discussed students’ answers and clarified students’ answer to others. Post-Reading Stage Asked students to do some appropriate tasks by reading the text to find the information. Tried to lead students to make Translated his questions to Indonesian. Discuss the text type. there were two interviews which named as interview before classroom observation and the interview after classroom observation. 4. pre-reading. 6. and write the words on the board and Discussing the new words related to the allowed them to use dictionary to find topic. The first interview was conducted before taking the classroom observation which applied to find out the teachers’ concept on the strategies in teaching reading comprehension. Asked them to know the meaning of the questions by using dictionary She reviewed the lesson by giving conclusion. 2.

it can be assumed that the teachers had done predicting from titles as one of the strategies to predict the content of the text that they would learn. From the discussion above. This Panel’s report confirmed that prediction is one of the strategies to ensure the students’ comprehension. it seems that the teachers had done a strategy of discussing text type or text structure strategy. Based on the data. This fact is supported by Gibbons (2002: 84) saying that writing the title is one way of to ask students to predict the kind of text and what the text is about. Furthermore. there were some techniques and instructions done by the three teachers as their strategies in teaching reading comprehension. Barnet (1988) explains that one of the activities in prereading stage is text type discussions. Brainstorming Brainstorming is one of the activities which can be done in the pre-reading stage. In general. This strategy is used when their students have problems in finding the meaning of the new or difficult words in the pre-reading stage. Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan Vol. and predicting. Wallace (1992) and Barnet (1988) declared that brainstorming. the three teachers of this study seem to ask their students to consult dictionary in teaching reading comprehension. which associates as a PreP strategy (Mikulecky. and Gist strategy. Oktober 2010 46 . It is in line with Cunningham’s (1989) suggestion to use a dictionary for verification and Wallace (1992: 90) who proposes to use dictionary as a pre-reading support. in general. Pre-Reading Stage During this stage. Then. directed reading strategy. 1. one of the most frequent strategies which chosen by the three teachers in the pre-reading stage is the discussion on text types. Furthermore.2. Crawford et al (2005: 29). as one of very popular tasks in prereading activities. reread strategy. there were some strategies used by the three EFL teachers in teaching reading comprehension in the while-reading stage. Predicting To involve the students’ prior knowledge with the text. While-Reading Stage Based on data gathered. encouraging the use of dictionaries. 1990: 41). This in line with the strategy put forward by USA National Reading Panel (2000). No. the teachers activated their students’ knowledge by asking questions of related words within text or to the title given which were called brainstorming activities. Encouraging the Use of Dictionaries The use of dictionaries in teaching reading comprehension as a foreign language is very dominant. 2. McGee (1982) found that readers who are knowledgeable about text structures have an advantage in comprehension and recall over readers who are not aware of the organization of texts. the three teachers have used brainstorming. the teachers used predicting strategy. vocabulary collection and redefinition strategy. In line with this. It is in line with Hood’s (2005:73) argumentation that brainstorming. Anderson (1990) reported from his research on knowledge of text structure indicates that the reader’s understanding of how the text are organized influences reading comprehension. In general the three teachers have used read aloud. Discussing Text Types Based on the data gathered. can help to elicit background knowledge and to activate necessary schemata. might occur around the topic title or picture.1. In this case.1. discussing text types. 11.

many teachers tend to use this strategy in various levels of students. the students are asked to read the text silently and the teacher should prepare one or two comprehension-level questions for their reading. In addition. This strategy was also noted from the observations in this present study. the teachers asked students to check or monitor their comprehension while rereading the text in teaching reading comprehension as suggested by Anderson (1999: 47) and The National Capital Language Resource Center (2007). students to memorize words paired with a short definition or a synonym (Gipe. asking for specific 47 . a teacher tried to create the interactions between students’ background knowledge and the text by retelling the text. Tierney (1990) recommended the purpose of DRA is to give teachers a basic format to improve students’ word recognition and comprehension skills. she asked some students to read and Direct Reading Activity In this strategy. Furthermore. Crawford (2005: 42) stated that DRA is a strategy for directing the students’ ISSN 1412-565X discuss it. After students write the retelling. whether reading aloud to students or reading aloud by students in teaching reading comprehension.3. 1979 as cited in Mikulecky. She asked students to write and read their retell. In this case. She asked them to retell the text by using their own words in their first language (L1). Nation (1990) in Anderson (1990) stated that the most common method of vocabulary instruction is to discuss the unfamiliar vocabulary as it naturally comes up and as part of another language activity. In doing this strategy. In the present study. 1990). Discussing of Unknown words Based on the observation data. the teachers used silent reading as a procedure of Direct Reading Activity (DRA).Reading Aloud Although term of read aloud is the classic strategy in teaching reading. an online publication. clarifying and justifying comprehension. It is in line with Gibbon’s (2002) ideas that reading aloud plays an important role in the development of reading competence and helps students in making meaning. It is in line with Hood’s (2005: 89) ideas that in doing retelling. the three teachers generated vocabulary activities in this stage by identifying unknown words from the text. the teachers tried to lead the students to identify the difficult words to understand the text. This method is used by Reread for Checking Comprehension Focus on the students’ ability and improving their control of language while reading the text are other competences of a teacher in teaching reading comprehension. the National Capital Language Resource Center (2007) stated that a person who reads aloud and comprehends the meaning of the text is coordinating word recognition with comprehension in highly complex ways. the teachers had done the activities which include: questioning. and then the class discussed the similarities and differences with the different versions. silent reading with comprehension-level questions by guiding them to key points in the text and providing opportunities to discuss its meaning with their classmates. In relation to this activity. Based on data. Post-Reading Stage In this stage. Retelling the Text. 1. each student listens to others retelling. All teachers had used this strategy. Related to this case.

Nutall (1996: 207) proposes that translation is undoubtedly an activity that forces students to get to grips with the text in the active way required for full comprehension. the EFL teachers have applied several strategies in the teaching reading practice. as the possible application for teaching reading comprehension. the teachers have conducted those strategies into three stages. Then other teacher concentrated on translating the questions of the text by or to students. as it is explored in the discussion above. are used to find specific information quickly without reading every word of a text. the three teachers had used questioning which is given under the reading text in various tasks. 11. teachers’ understandings on the theories and teaching experiences have influenced the teachers to apply the appropriate strategies of teaching reading comprehension. Clarifying and Justifying the Students’ Answer. one of the teachers created the activity which aimed to ask the students with comprehension questions and clarified their answer to the class to make sure that they understand the text. and then ask the class to justify their answer to the comprehension questions. It is supported by Hood (2005) and Mikulecky (1990) who formulate scanning activities. the teachers did the reviewing as their strategy in teaching reading especially in post-reading stage. whilereading and post reading stages. then ask comprehension questions. (1999:47) identified that Justifying comprehension. It is in line with The National Capital Language Resource Center’s (2007) report that suggested three kinds of activities to evaluate comprehension in the post-reading stage. evaluation of overall progress in reading and in particular types of reading tasks and deciding if the strategies used were appropriate for the purpose. 101) and Barnet (1988) stated that followup activity is the effective strategy that can be used by students with transferring reading skill to other texts and integrating reading skill to other language skills. T2 created clarifying when he thought the student’s answer wasn’t correct. They asked their students to translate the questions before answer it. and organize the information in your mind. evaluation of comprehension in a particular task. In relation to this. 2. In line with this. in some circumstances. No. text structure Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan Vol. Some factors such as teachers’ skill. as a very important useful skill for all readers. In pre-reading stage. reviewing and follow-up strategy. It is also supported by Nuttal (1996: 129) who defines review as to think about what you have learned. Regarding to the long discussion above. In fact. In this study. Brown (2001) proposes reviewing as one of techniques for series of approaching in a reading text which is used to assess the importance of what one has just read. Asking Questions for Specific Information/ Scanning Strategy It also found that the teachers used questions to seek the specific information from the text. the activities involve brainstorming. Evaluating Comprehension in Particular Tasks In the present study. Relevant to this case. is a technique that ask students to read a passage. In the one hand. It is in line with Brown’s (2001) idea that classifies scanning the text for specific information without reading through whole text as one of the strategies in reading comprehension.questions. pre-reading. Reviewing In general. Oktober 2010 48 . Anderson. encouraging of using dictionary.

Based on the results and analysis from classroom observation. they conducted brainstorming. Students’ Responses toward Their Teacher Strategies in Teaching Reading Comprehension.2. 1990). Regarding two terms above. it can be concluded that the strategies used by teachers were mostly noted in their prior knowledge and in their experience. and post-reading stages. and the reasons in doing the strategies. the activity involves evaluating comprehension. direct reading activity. they also had been interviewed to confirm the reasons behind of generating those strategies (the second interview). 1982 as cited in Tierney. On the basis of the data and the discussion above. and assignment and following-up. From their responses. Although they have their own reasons for each strategies used. it was focused in exploring the teachers’ strategies in the classroom. 1. This means that reading comprehension strategies can be learned from theories and teaching practice to enlarge teachers’ knowledge and experience. it can be said that there two levels of students’ responses. a low level association response which need direct instruction in concepts and some prior information level which may need some teachers’ guidance. Then in while-reading stage. At last. while-. In the prereading stage. CONCLUSIONS For the first research problem. They also divided those strategies in to three stages. it can concluded that all of the teachers have used teaching reading strategies to encourage the students in comprehend the text that formulated in the pre-. pre-. First. On the other words. discussing unknown words. while and post-reading stage. Then. and predicting. 49 . Langer suggests that ISSN 1412-565X students with little knowledge will need direct instruction in concepts. So. and retelling the text. the students have understood enough to the teachers’ questions. from this interaction. clarifying and justifying. the activity involves read aloud. This section discusses the data gathered from the classroom observation that is focused on the findings about students’ responses toward their teacher ’s strategies in teaching reading comprehension. Then. To support the observation data above. it seems that although the students’ responses have shown a low level association response which need direct instruction in concepts. it can be said that they propose the theories of strategy based on their knowledge and experience in teaching reading. reviewing. In this case. the teachers’ applying and reasoning of conducting the strategies are supported by the theories given from some researchers who work at the same field with this present study. it has to do with the teachers’ strategies in teaching reading comprehension which focused on the implementation. These strategies were considered effectively supporting students’ comprehension as indicate in their responses. in post-reading. it is compatible with the theories proposed in this present study. the first interview showed that the teachers of this present study have known conceptually the strategies of teaching reading comprehension. reread strategy. Their responses can be categorized into low-level association and partly formed knowledge structure as they are proposed by (Langer. Langer also suggests that students with some or much knowledge may need some teacher guidance but probably quite capable of the reading selection. concepts. scanning strategy.strategy. This calls for any EFL teachers to apply these strategies in teaching reading comprehension. In general the students responded positively to their teachers’ strategies.

the teachers of the present study should tell the students about the instructions to some students before they read the text. It can be assumed that they did the strategies as theory suggested but they did not how to do it. Oktober 2010 50 . as found in the results and analysis from the questionnaire data. it can be concluded that. reviewing. direct reading activity. knowledge and experience. it was focused on the teachers’ reasons in conducting the strategies. it is found that they proposed the theories of strategy based on their own knowledge and their experiences in teaching reading. it can be analyzed by using overt response which proposed by Langer (1982). For the second research problem. The teachers should also give some guidance to some other students while they read the text selection. they did not do the strategies in the well-formed of procedures or steps. those three teachers need to learn more theories in enlarging their knowledge. asking questions for specific information. From the analysis above. they created evaluating in practice since they had experience in doing the activity in the classroom. and also as some prior information about a concept or partly formed knowledge structure which need some teacher guidance but quite capable of the reading selection. the three teachers of the present study need to increase their ability in these two aspects. basically almost of the students believed that all of the teachers had created some extent strategies Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan Vol. In the postreading stage. It means that they did not know the theory but they have done it comprehension. Therefore. it can be inferred that in order to get more respective responses from their students and they can understand the reading selection. it has to do with the students’ responses toward their teacher strategies in teaching reading comprehension in particular tasks. and predicting. it was focused in exploring the teachers’ concept about their strategies in teaching reading comprehension. their understanding was not comprehensive yet. The students’ responses can be classified as the low-level association responses or ill-formed knowledge which need direct instruction concept from their teachers. They also did partly the strategies mentioned in their concepts. No. they had done what they did not mention as their strategies in teaching reading comprehension in the first interview. and assignment and following-up activity. 11. On the one hand. reread to check comprehension and to improve their control of language. Generally. discussing on text types. Although they have proposed some relevant and unique theories. as found in the results and analysis of the observation data. and retelling the text. this conditions have implicated to their teaching strategies in the classroom. Although they have intuitively their own reasons for each strategies used. Then. to become the skillful teachers especially in teaching reading comprehension. Then. It was caused the lacks of knowledge and experience. they conducted reading aloud.encouraging of using dictionary. clarifying and justifying the students’ answers. From the interview before observation. in the while-reading stage. Thus. it is compatible with the theories proposed in this present study. discussing of unknown words. 2. On the other words. The next one. Second. their reasons are to help their students in comprehend the text selection in reading activity. So. Firstly. the teachers’ strategies and their reasons are supported by the theories given from some researchers who work at the same field with this present study.

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