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ASME Section I & Section VIII Fundamentals

Instructor: Jurandir Primo, PE

2012

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5272 Meadow Estates Drive Fairfax, VA 22030-6658 Phone & Fax: 703-988-0088 www.PDHonline.org www.PDHcenter.com

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PDH Course M398

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1.0 - INTRODUCTION: The ASME Code design criteria consist of basic rules specifying the design method, design loads, allowable stress, acceptable materials, fabrication, testing, certification and inspection requirements. The design method known as "design by rule" uses design pressure, allowable stress and a design formula compatible with the geometry to calculate the minimum required thickness of pressurized tanks, vessels and pipes. The ASME - American Society of Mechanical Engineers - International Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code is made of 12 sections and contains over 15 divisions and subsections. 1.1 - Code Sections I. Power Boilers II. Materials III. Rules for Construction of Nuclear Facility Components IV. Heating Boilers V. Nondestructive Examination VI. Recommended Rules for the Care and Operation of Heating Boilers VII. Recommended Guidelines for the Care of Power Boilers VIII. Pressure Vessels IX. Welding and Brazing Qualifications X. Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Pressure Vessels XI. Rules for In-service Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components XII. Rules for Construction and Continued Service of Transport Tanks SECTION I. Power Boilers This Section provides requirements for all methods of construction of power, electric, and miniature boilers; high temperature water boilers used in stationary service; and power boilers used in locomotive, portable, and traction service. SECTION II. Materials

• • • •

Part A - Ferrous Material Specifications Part B - Nonferrous Material Specifications Part C - Specifications for Welding Rods, Electrodes, and Filler Metals Part D - Properties

**SECTION III. Rules for Construction of Nuclear Facility Components
**

•

Subsection NCA - General Requirements for Divisions 1 and 2

DIVISION 1

• • • • • • •

Subsection NB- Class 1 Components Subsection NC- Class 2 Components Subsection ND- Class 3 Components Subsection NE- Class MC Components Subsection NF - Supports Subsection NG - Core Support Structures Subsection NH - Class 1 Components in Elevated Temperature Service

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DIVISION 2

•

Code for Concrete Containments

DIVISION 3

•

Containments for Transportation and Storage

SECTION IV. Heating Boilers Requirements for design, fabrication, installation and inspection of steam generating boilers, and hot water boilers intended for low pressure service that are directly fired by oil, gas, electricity, or coal. It contains appendices which cover approval of new material, methods of checking safety valve, safety relief valve capacity, definitions relating to boiler design and welding and quality control systems. SECTION V. Nondestructive Examination Requirements and methods for nondestructive examination which are referenced and required by other code Sections. It also includes manufacturer's examination responsibilities, duties of authorized inspectors and requirements for qualification of personnel, inspection and examination. SECTION VI. Recommended Rules for the Care and Operation of Heating Boilers It defines general descriptions, terminology and guidelines applicable to steel and cast iron boilers limited to the operating ranges of Section IV Heating Boilers. It includes guidelines for associated controls and automatic fuel burning equipment. SECTION VII. Recommended Guidelines for the Care of Power Boilers Guidelines to promote safety in the use of stationary, portable, and traction type heating boilers. The section provides guidelines to assist operators of power boilers in maintaining their plants as safely as possible. Contains fuels for routine operation; Operating and maintaining boiler appliances; Inspection and prevention of boiler failure; Design of installation; Operation of boiler auxiliaries; Control of internal chemical conditions SECTION VIII. Pressure Vessels Division 1 - Provides requirements applicable to the design, fabrication, inspection, testing, and certification of pressure vessels operating at either internal or external pressures exceeding 15 psig. Division 2 - Alternative rules, provides requirements to the design, fabrication, inspection, testing, and certification of pressure vessels operating at either internal or external pressures exceeding 15 psig. Division 3 - Alternative rules for Construction of High Pressure Vessels, provides requirements applicable to the design, fabrication, inspection, testing, and certification of pressure vessels operating at either internal or external pressures generally above 10,000 psi. SECTION IX. Welding and Brazing Qualifications Rules relating to the qualification of welding and brazing procedures as required by other Code Sections for component manufacture. Covers rules are related to the qualification and re-qualification of welders and welding and brazing operators in order that they may perform welding or brazing as required by other Code Sections in the manufacture of components.

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SECTION X. Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Pressure Vessels Requirements for construction of FRP (Fiber-Reinforced Plastic) pressure vessels in conformance with a manufacturer's design report. It includes production, processing, fabrication, inspection and testing methods required. SECTION XI. Rules for In-service Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components Requirements for the examination, in-service testing and inspection, and repair and replacement of components and systems in light-water cooled and liquid-metal cooled nuclear power plants. SECTION XII. Rules for Construction and Continued Service of Transport Tanks Requirements for construction and continued service of pressure vessels for the transportation of dangerous goods via highway, rail, air or water at pressures from full vacuum to 3,000 psig and volumes greater than 120 gallons. 1.2 - The ASME B31 Code ASME B31 was earlier known as ANSI B31. The B31 Code for Pressure Piping, covers Power Piping, Fuel Gas Piping, Process Piping, Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons and Other Liquids, Refrigeration Piping and Heat Transfer Components and Building Services Piping. Piping consists of pipe, flanges, bolting, gaskets, valves, relief devices, fittings and the pressure containing parts of other piping components. It also includes hangers and supports, and other equipment items necessary to prevent overstressing the pressure containing parts. It does not include support structures such as frames of buildings, buildings stanchions or foundations. B31.1 - 2001 - Power Piping Required piping for industrial plants and marine applications. This code prescribes requirements for the design, materials, fabrication, erection, test, and inspection of power and auxiliary service piping systems for electric generation stations, industrial institutional plants, central and district heating plants. The code covers boiler external piping for power boilers and high temperature, high pressure water boilers in which steam or vapor is generated at a pressure of more than 15 PSIG; and high temperature water is generated at pressures exceeding 160 PSIG and/or temperatures exceeding 250 degrees F. B31.2 - 1968 - Fuel Gas Piping This has been withdrawn as a National Standard and replaced by ANSI/NFPA Z223.1, but B31.2 is still available from ASME and is a good reference for the design of gas piping systems (from the meter to the appliance). B31.3 - 2002 - Process Piping Code rules for design of chemical, petroleum plants, refineries, hydrocarbons, water and steam. This Code contains rules for piping typically found in petroleum refineries; chemical, pharmaceutical, textile, paper, semiconductor, and cryogenic plants; and related processing plants and terminals. It prescribes requirements for materials and components, design, fabrication, assembly, erection, examination, inspection, and testing of piping. Also included is piping which interconnects pieces or stages within a packaged equipment assembly.

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B31.4 - 2002 - Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons and Other Liquids This Code prescribes requirements for the design, materials, construction, assembly, inspection, and testing of piping transporting liquids such as crude oil, condensate, natural gasoline, natural gas liquids, liquefied petroleum gas, carbon dioxide, liquid alcohol, liquid anhydrous ammonia and liquid petroleum products between producers' lease facilities, tank farms, natural gas processing plants, refineries, stations, ammonia plants, terminals (marine, rail and truck) and other delivery and receiving points. The requirements for offshore pipelines are found in Chapter IX. Also included within the scope of this Code are:

• Primary and associated auxiliary liquid petroleum and liquid anhydrous ammonia piping at pipeline terminals (marine, rail and truck), tank farms, pump stations, pressure reducing stations and metering stations, including scraper traps, strainers, and proper loops; • Storage and working tanks including pipe-type storage fabricated from pipe and fittings, and piping interconnecting these facilities; • Liquid petroleum and liquid anhydrous ammonia piping located on property which has been set aside for such piping within petroleum refinery, natural gasoline, gas processing, ammonia, and bulk plants; • Those aspects of operation and maintenance of liquid pipeline systems relating to the safety and protection of the general public, operating company personnel, environment, property and the piping systems.

B31.5 - 2001 - Refrigeration Piping and Heat Transfer Components This Code prescribes requirements for the materials, design, fabrication, assembly, erection, test, and inspection of refrigerant, heat transfer components, and secondary coolant piping for temperatures as low as -320 °F (-196 °C), whether erected on the premises or factory assembled, except as specifically excluded in the following paragraphs. Users are advised that other piping Code Sections may provide requirements for refrigeration piping in their respective jurisdictions. This Code shall not apply to: • Any self- contained or unit systems subject to the requirements of Underwriters Laboratories or other nationally recognized testing laboratory: • Water piping and piping designed for external or internal gage pressure not exceeding 15 psi (105 kPa) regardless of size; or • Pressure vessels, compressors, or pumps, but does include all connecting refrigerant and secondary coolant piping starting at the first joint adjacent to such apparatus. B31.8 - 2003 - Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems This Code covers the design, fabrication, installation, inspection, and testing of pipeline facilities used for the transportation of gas. This Code also covers safety aspects of the operation and maintenance of those facilities. B31.8S-2001 - 2002 - Managing System Integrity of Gas Pipelines This Standard applies to on-shore pipeline systems constructed with ferrous materials and that transport gas. Pipeline system means all parts of physical facilities through which gas is transported, including pipe, valves, appurtenances attached to pipe, compressor units, metering stations, regulator stations, delivery stations, holders and fabricated assemblies.

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Manual for Determining Remaining Strength of Corroded Pipelines The scope of this Manual includes all pipelines within the scope of the pipeline codes that are part of ASME B31 Code for Pressure Piping. It includes piping systems in the building or within the property limits. inspection and security requirements of slurry piping systems. installation. Slurry Transportation Piping Systems. 1. who is the judge of code acceptability. 1. This Code prescribes requirements for the design. institutional. Once any ASME Stamped Pressure Vessel is manufactured. and multi-unit residences. examination and testing of piping systems for building services.www. and temperatures covered in B31. fabrication. construction. inspection. pressures. ASME B31.Building Services Piping This Code Section has rules for the piping in industrial.11 .1. This Standard is specifically designed to provide the operator (as defined in section 13) with the information necessary to develop and implement an effective integrity management program utilizing proven industry practices and processes. which means that the Pressure Vessel fully complies with the ASME Code rules for construction of Pressure Vessels. The quality of weld is then checked for lack of weld penetration. and Alcohols. Many US customary unit values presented in the ASME codes do not convert directly into metric values in the ASME editions. which does not require the range of sizes.PDHonline.Slurry Transportation Piping Systems Rule for design. B31G . Liquid Petroleum Gas.ASME Certification and Inspection Procedures: The symbols "A". Liquid Transportation Systems for Hydrocarbons. "S". "PP" and "H" Stamps covers the fabrication and alteration of high pressure boilers. 3.com PDH Course M398 www.11.PDHcenter. © Jurandir Primo Page 6 of 53 .4. slag inclusion.2002 . it is checked. 1983 Edition.4 – Imperial and Metric Values: Professionals and students should be well versed in conversion practice.1991 . The National Board of Boiler & Pressure Vessel Inspectors uses the “NB” Symbol as well the “R” Symbol to repair or to alter any previous Stamped Pressure Vessel.9 . power piping and heating boilers. B31. materials. At the final inspection the units are hydrostatically tested at 1. The processes and approaches within this Standard are applicable to the entire pipeline system. Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems.3 . unfired pressure vessels.8. Parts 2. commercial and public buildings. and 4 are based on material included in ASME Guide for Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems. overlap and excessive reinforcement. who review all the procedures and all the documentation and sign the Data Report Form before to procedure to Stamp the name plate with the “U” or “UM” symbols. Manufacturers have an Authorized Inspector.1996 . This code covers piping systems that transport aqueous slurries of no hazardous materials. such as coal.org The principles and processes are applicable to all pipeline systems. B31. mineral ores and other solids between a slurry processing plant and the receiving plant. ASME B31.5 times working pressure and observed for leaks. tested and approved by the ASME Authorized Inspector. All welders must be certified. Anhydrous Ammonia. and ASME B31. "U". All material used in manufacture must be documented.

and thus incorporates a higher safety factor of 4.300 17. When the vessel design is required fully radiographed longitudinal butt-welded joint. which corresponds to a safety factor of 0. Nbr Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade 55 60 65 70 DIVISION 1 DIVISION 2 -20°F to -20°F to 650°F 650°F 13. if a 60.300 15.000 20.203 Grade A Grade B Grade C High Alloy Steel Plates SA .000 16.700 23.www. Maximum Allowable Stress Value for Common Steels Material Spec.300 21. These stress values are a function of temperature.000 16.300 16. 2.516 Carbon Steel Plates and Sheets SA . This factor corresponds to a safety factor (or material quality factor) of 3.5 in the parent metal.900 21.org 2. © Jurandir Primo Page 7 of 53 .300 20.7.PDHcenter. the cylindrical shell will have a joint efficiency factor (E) of 1.1 – Design: The ASME Boiler Code Section I. that these formulae may be also used for calculating wall thickness of tubes and pipes under internal pressure.500 23. When the vessel design is required non radiographed longitudinal butt-welded joints the vessel will have a joint efficiency factor (E) of 0.000 psi tensile strength material is used.800 12.com PDH Course M398 www.300 10.800 18.300 12.200 12.300 21.000 16.300 17.700 Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade A B D E 304 304L 316 316L 16.285 SA . 2.500 13.PDHonline.2 – Pressure Vessels Maximum Allowable Stress Values The maximum allowable stress values to be used in the calculation of the vessel’s wall thickness are given in the ASME Code for many different materials.500 16.700 18.5 in.700 17.200 15..000 16. For example. the maximum allowable stress value for a 60. resulting in an increase of 43% in the thickness of the plates.0 – SECTION I & SECTION VIII – Fundamentals: The formulae in ASME Section I and Section VIII are used to determine the minimum required thickness and design pressure of piping.700 20. drums and headers using the Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (MAWP).000 psi tensile strength material will become 20.700 SA .000 psi.36 SA .300 11. Division 2 governs the design by Analysis and incorporates a lower safety factor of 3.000 psi. as well as Section VIII. Paragraph UG-31 states.0.240 Division 1 governs the design by Rules.500 11. However. tubes.700 23. the Maximum Allowable Stress Value is 15. Thus. is less stringent from the standpoint of certain design details and inspection procedures. requires longitudinal and circumferential butt joints to be examined by full radiograph.

PDHcenter. The tube has an average wall temperature of 650°F.2. and miniature boilers. M. Table 1A: SA-192 = 11. use equation 1. The maximum allowable stress values at normal temperature range for the steel plates most commonly used in the fabrication of pressure vessels are given in Table above. and high temperature water boilers for operation at pressures exceeding 160 psig and/or temperatures exceeding 250 °F. Fabrication. Normally. S and E symbol stamps. and power boilers used in locomotive. 1. manufacturers will choose Division 1 for low-pressure vessels and Division 2 for highpressure vessels. A.com PDH Course M398 www.www. strength welded (e = 0) into place in a boiler.1 – SECTION I – Boiler Tubes up to and including 5 inches O. Material is carbon steel SA-192. PP. 0 = for strength welded tubes) S = Maximum Allowable Stress According to ASME Section II. use equation below: b) To calculate the Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (MAWP): Where: t = Minimum Design Wall Thickness (in) P = Design Pressure (psi) D = Tube Outside Diameter (in) e = Thickness Factor (0. Rules allow the use of the V. Others find that they can purchase less expensive vessels by allowing manufacturers the choice of either Division 1 or Division 2. 3.D..04 for expanded tubes.75 in O.PDHonline..D. Design. and traction service. Table 1A Example 1 .0 – ASME SECTION I Power Boilers – Types. Inspection & Repair Provides requirements for construction of power.1.1 above. economizers. © Jurandir Primo Page 8 of 53 . according to paragraph PG-27. To calculate the minimum required thickness. (125 mm): 4. 3. This code covers power boiler superheaters.org Many companies require that all their pressure vessels be constructed in accordance with Division 2 because of the more exacting standards. Note: Before starting calculations check the correct stress table in ASME Section II. The rules are applicable to boilers in which steam is generated at pressures exceeding 15 psig.800 psi – allowable stress – Div.D. portable. high temperature water boilers used in stationary service. The Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (MAWP) is 580 psi gauge. and other pressure parts connected directly to the boiler without intervening valves are considered as part of the scope of Section 1. electric. Solution: For tubing up to and including 5 in O.Boiler Tube: Calculate the minimum required wall thickness of a water tube boiler 2.

www. 0. 0. Note: Where the manufacturing process produces only standard plate thickness.125 in.4 for 900°F & lower.75 x 580 2 (11.org P = [580 psi] D = [2.. Allow a manufacturer’s tolerance allowance of 12.5%. 0. The information for piping. and Headers: The following formulae are found in ASME Section I. the material is SA-335 – P1.PDHonline.75) + 0 t = 0. Table 1A Example 2 – Steam Piping: Calculate the required minimum thickness of a seamless steam piping which carries steam at a pressure of 900 psi gauge and a temperature of 700°F. © Jurandir Primo Page 9 of 53 . drums.0625 in. alloy steel. paragraph PG-27.800) + 580 + 0.800 psi] at [650°F]) t= 2. or headers may be given with either the inside I or outside (D) measurement. Using the outside diameter: b) Using the inside radius: Where: t = Minimum Design Wall Thickness (in) P = Design Pressure (psi) D = Tube Outside Diameter (in) R = Tube Radius (in) E = Tube Welding Factor (1.2. 4.005 (2.2 mm) minimum. 3. The piping is 10.2 – SECTION I – Piping. maximum) S = Maximum Allowable Stress According to ASME Section II. (10 inches nominal) plain end.77 in O.D.com PDH Course M398 www. Drums.PDHcenter. commonly used.85 = for welded pipe) y = Wall Thickness Welding Factor (0.0 for seamless pipe. so should be used 1/8 in (3.7 for 950°F & up) C = Corrosion Allowance (0 for no corrosion.079 in.2. 0.75 in] e = 0 (strength welded) S = [11.

46 – 0) = 12.46 – 0) P = 26.800 psi – allowable stress – Div. + 0 = 2(13.800)(1.75 in.0) + 2(0.4) (0. © Jurandir Primo Page 10 of 53 .1. including a manufacturer’s allowance of 12.34 in.368 P = 973 psi Example 4 – Welded Tube Boiler Drum: A welded water tube boiler drum of SA-515-60 material is fabricated to an inside radius of 18..200 x 0.0 y = 0. The plate thickness of the tube sheet and drum are 2.77……….70 in. on the tube sheet and 19. The operating temperature is 850°F.125 = 0.800] – (SA-335 – P1 alloy steel at 700°F) E = 1.) with a wall thickness of 0. SA-209-T1 at 850°F) E = 1.0.4 (austenitic steel at 850°F) Use equation 2. .com PDH Course M398 www.100 psi (Section II. Div.5%.0) x (0.1) y = 0.77 in] C=0 S = [13.49 in.46 in. The pipe is plain ended.0 (seamless pipe as per PG-9. D = 12. Therefore.www.4 (Ferritic steel less than 900°F) t= 900 x 10. respectively.34 in.1. (nominal diam.100) (1.46 = 12. The outside pipe diameter is 12.75 – 0. Use equation 2.PDHcenter. and 1. Table 1A.46 in C = 0 (3 to 4 inches nominal and larger) S = 13.75 in (outside diameter) t = 0.org Note: Before starting calculations check the material stress table in ASME Section II.2: P= 2SE (t – C) = D – (2y) (t – C) P = 2 (13.68 in on the drum.38 in. 12 in. Table 1A: SA-335 – P1 = 13.75 – (2 x 0.PDHonline.1: P = [900 psi] D = [10.34 × 1. Example 3 – Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (MAWP): Calculate the Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (MAWP) for a seamless steel pipe of material SA209-T1.4)(900) t = 0.

0) (1.4) (1. and the ligament efficiencies are 56% horizontal and 30% circumferential. = R + (1 – y (t – C) . The operating temperature is not to exceed 500°F.000) (1. Div. Use equation 2.000 psi E = 0.49 – 0) Drum – P = 15.49 – 0).34 in C = 0 (3 to 4 inches nominal and larger) R = 18. Thicker material is required where the boiler tubes enter the drum than is required for a plain drum.68 + (1 – 0. therefore = 0. = R + (1 – y (t – C) SE (t – C)…. b) The tube sheet – consider the drum to have penetrations for boiler tubes.4 (inside radius R): Tube Sheet – P = Where: S = 15.4 (inside radius R): Drum – P = Where: S = 15.70 in y = 0. SA-515-60 at 500°F) E = 1.68 in y = 0. Use equation 2.1.PDHcenter.49 in C=0 R = 19. (a) Drum.56 (circumferential stress = 30% and longitudinal stress = 56%.org The longitudinal joint efficiency is 100%.30) t = 2. Table 1A.56 < 2 x 0. Determine the Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (MAWP) based on: Welded Water Tube Boiler Drum: DRUM & TUBESHEET Note: This is a common example of a water tube drum fabricated from two plates of different thickness..68 + 0.4 (Ferritic steel less than 900°F) Drum – P = (15.000 psi (Section II.000 x 1.com PDH Course M398 www.49 19.0 t = 1. This example has two parts: a) The drum – consider the drum to be plain with no penetrations.894 Drum – P = 1.www.086 psi (b) Tube Sheet.4 (Ferritic steel less than 900°F) © Jurandir Primo Page 11 of 53 SE (t – C)…. = 19.PDHonline.

385SE: b) Longitudinal Stress (circumferential welds): • When. The formulae and allowable stresses presented in this sketch are only for Division 1. rules for fired or unfired pressure vessels. testing.404 Tube Sheet – P = 1.PDHonline. and certification. inspection.70 + (1 – 0.746 psi Note: Consider the Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (MAWP) = 1.4) (2.5. Division 1. paragraph UG-27. Rules pertaining to the use of the U.34 – 0)… = 18.PDHcenter. Division 3: The ASME Section VIII.000 x 2. Division 2. is divided into three divisions to provide requirements applicable to the design. As the ratio of t/R increases beyond 0.000 psi. fabrication. P < 0.000) (1.0) (2.2 – SECTION VIII – Thick Cylindrical Shells: For internal pressures higher than 3. special considerations must be given as specified in paragraph U-1 (d).25SE 4.34 – 0) Tube Sheet – P = 15.www.org Tube Sheet – P = (15. 4. UM and UV Code symbol stamps are also included. It contains mandatory and non-mandatory appendices detailing supplementary design criteria. are: a) Circumferential Stress (longitudinal welds): • When. © Jurandir Primo Page 12 of 53 .70 + 1. used for calculating the wall thickness and design pressure of pressure vessels.com PDH Course M398 www.0 – ASME SECTION VIII – Division 1. nondestructive examination and inspection acceptance standards.086 psi (lowest number).1 – SECTION VIII – Thin Cylindrical Shells: The formulae in ASME Section VIII. the main code. P < 1.34 18. 4. a more accurate equation is required to determine the thickness.

maximum).com PDH Course M398 www. © Jurandir Primo Page 13 of 53 . Where: R = Design Radius (in. Supplementary Design Formulas used for calculating thick wall and design pressure. 0. 0.2P L = Di/2 Where: t = Minimum Design Wall Thickness (in).85 = for welded pipe). 0.) Z = Dimensionless Factor 4.125 in. P > 0.385SE: And.www. The formula for calculation the wall thickness of a segmented plate of a sphere to be welded in a heat exchanger tube is: t= PL…… + C 2SE – 0. P = Design Pressure (psi).org The formulae in ASME Appendix 1. C = Corrosion Allowance (0 for no corrosion. Table 1A.0 for seamless pipe.0625 in. are: a) For longitudinal stress (longitudinal welds): When. L = Sphere Radius (in).PDHonline.25SE: And. S = Maximum Allowable Stress According to ASME Section II. P > 1. Di = Inside Diameter of Sphere (in).PDHcenter.3 – SECTION VIII – Tube Spherical Shells: The standard design method uses an increased wall thickness at the equator line of the vessel to support the additional stresses caused by the attachment of the legs. E = Tube Welding Factor (1. b) For longitudinal stress (circumferential welds): When. commonly used.

+ 0.000 psi.545 psi. + 0. ASME Section II.PDHonline.650 psi < 7.650) t = 8.700 psi) as 10.com PDH Course M398 www.385SE (7. SA-515-60 = 15.6P 7. use equation 1.0) – 0.8(1. Calculate the required thickness of the shell.org Example 5 – Thin Cylindrical Shells: A vertical boiler is constructed of SA-515-60 according to Section VIII-1.700 psi) as 7. The corrosion allowance is 0. R = 18 in. Assume a corrosion allowance of 0.000)(1.0.85.385SE: Calculate the required shell thickness of an accumulator with P = 7.650 x 18………… + 0 (20. and joint efficiency is E = 0.000)(0. Since P < 0.385SE (7. For P< 0.000)(1.1.000 = 3 (20.000 psi – allowable stress.85) – 0.000 psi.000 10.36 in. Example 6 – Thick Cylindrical Shells: a) When P > 0.650 psi. t= 1.0) – 10.125 in.. Div.125 in. © Jurandir Primo Page 14 of 53 .125 in.000 psi > 7.000 = 30.PDHcenter. and E = 1.385SE (6.3: t= PR… + C SE – 0.700 psi.25) (3 ½ – 1) = 13.125).000 psi at 450 F°.385SE: Calculate the required shell thickness of an accumulator with P = 10. S = 20.545 psi) as 1. S = 20. and an internal design pressure of 1.. Assume corrosion allowance = 0.www. Example 7 – Thick Cylindrical Shells: b) When P < 0. and E = 1. + 0.1) = Z = (20.07 in.0) + 10.125 = 2(15. use equation 1.000 t = (18 + 0.000)(1.9 in.000 psi < 6.25 in..6(7. use equation 1.3: t= t= PR… + C SE – 0.000 psi.000 x (48 in. For P > 0. It has an inside diameter of 96 in.000) t = 2. Corrosion allowance = 0. Table 1A.0.6P Considering the external radius = 48 in. R = 18 in.7: t = R (Z ½ .700 psi.

2 states: “The radius to which the head is dished shall be not greater than the outside diameter of the flanged portion of the head. State if this thickness meets Code.1 – Blank. with a dish radius of 36. spinning & flanging. Dished heads can be manufactured using a combination of processes.650 12. The head has an inside diameter of 42.3 with another answer using equation 1. stainless steel.24 t = 8. 5.9 in.org Example 8 – Comparison between Equation 1.1) = Z = (20. This shows that the “simple use” of equation (1. comparing the equation 1. where the spherical radius is made via the spinning process and the knuckle is created under the flanging method.0 – SECTION I: Dished Heads Formulae: Flanged and dished heads can be formed from carbon steel.7.000)(1.000)(1.0) + 7. the longer shall be taken as the value of L in the formula. Where two radii are used. shall be calculated by the following formula: ½ . Pressure vessel heads and dished ends are essentially the same – the end caps of a pressure vessel tank or an industrial boiler. and other ferrous and nonferrous metals and alloys.” Example 9 – Segment of a Spherical Dished Head: Calculate the thickness of a seamless. © Jurandir Primo Page 15 of 53 .24 (20.0 in.7: Calculate the shell thickness. t = R (Z ½ .com PDH Course M398 www. The temperature does not exceed 480°F. They are supplied with a flanged edge to make it easier for the fabricator to weld the head to the main body of the tank.650 = 27. Unstayed Dished Heads: Paragraph PG-29.0) – 7.PDHcenter.350 t = (18 + 0) (2.PDHonline.7 in. The Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (MAWP) is 360 psi and the material is SA-285 A. Flanged and dished heads can be formed in a size range from 4 in to 300 in diameter and in thickness range of 14 Gauge to 1-1/2” thick. 5. blank unstayed dished head having pressure on the concave side.1) = Where: t = Minimum thickness of head (in) P = maximum allowable working pressure (psi) L = Concave side radius (in) S = Maximum Allowable Working Stress (psi) Paragraph PG-29.www. when it is a segment of a sphere. unstayed dished head with the pressure on the concave side.3) is accurate over a wide range of R/t ratios.650 = 2.3 and Equation 1.1 states that the thickness of a blank.

org Solution: Use equation 1.67.Segment of a Spherical Dished Head with a Flanged-in Manhole: Calculate the thickness of a seamless. the material is SA-285-C. having a flanged-in manhole 6.use the next higher temperature).The radius of the dish meets the criteria.5 in with a dish radius of 45 in. The MAWP is 225 psi. the minimum thickness of piping is: Where: P = 360 psi D = 42.5 0. since 1.6 states: “No head.7 in y = 0.300)(1.300) t = 1.0 in S = 11. except a full-hemispherical head. the calculated head thickness meets the code requirements. unstayed dished head with pressure on the concave side. Diameter head is 47.8 . PG-29. Then.0 (welded) t= 360 x 42. and temperature does not exceed 428°F.11: P = 225 psi L = 45 in S = 13. Therefore. Example 10 .11 P = 360 psi L = 36.PDHonline. shall be of a lesser thickness than that required for a seamless shell of the same diameter. © Jurandir Primo Page 16 of 53 .300 psi – SA-285 A at 480°F t = 5 (360 x 36) = 4.8 (11.com PDH Course M398 www.0) + 2 (0.www.800 psi (450°F . use equation 1.947 > 0.” Then.7 = 2(11.4 (Ferritic steel less than 900°F) E = 1. First thing to check: is the radius of the dish at least 80% of the diameter of the shell? Dish Radius = 45 Shell Diameter 47.19 > 0.4)(360) t = 0.19 in.67 in.PDHcenter.0 in x 16 in.

125 in.764 × 0. unstayed. It does not exceed 35.67 in.2 (900) t = 0.13. use the following formula: Example 11 .Seamless or Full-Hemispherical Head: Calculate the minimum required thickness for a blank.2 .(SA 285-C at 600°F). unstayed. The average temperature of the header is 570°F.3 requires this thickness to be increased by 15% or 0.800) – 0. Instead.24 in. The MAWP is 900 psi and the head material is SA 285-C. t= 900 x 7. Check if this thickness exceeds 35.6% of the inside radius = 7.114 in..Seamless or Full-Hemispherical Head: The thickness of a blank. P = 900 psi L = 7. PG-29. This thickness is for a blank head. then. 5. whichever is greater.800 psi .PDHonline.5 = 2 (13..125 = ~0.764 + 0.6%.org t = 5 (225 x 45) = 4.800) t = 0.www.764 in. full-hemispherical head.8 (13. © Jurandir Primo Page 17 of 53 ..5 in. that is less than 0. the required head thickness is.125 in.15 = 0.5 x 0.6% of the inside radius. Then. therefore the calculated thickness of the head meets the code requirements.125 in. Solution: Use equation 1.com PDH Course M398 www. the thickness must be increased by 0. S = 13. As 0. t = 0.5 in. The radius to which the head is dished is 7.PDHcenter.356 = 2. full-hemispherical head with the pressure on the concave side shall be calculated by the following formula: t = Minimum thickness of head (in) P = Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (psi) L = Radius to which the head was formed (in) S = Maximum Allowable Working Stress (psi) The above formula shall not be used when the required thickness of the head given by the formula exceeds 35.90 in.

The most common configurations are spherical. b) When t > 0.356R or P < 0. To cast a little light on these subjects see the resume below: Semi-Elliptical Heads (2:1) Spherical or Hemispherical Heads Elliptical or Ellipsoidal Heads (1.Spherical or Hemispherical Heads: a) When t < 0.9:1) Torispherical Heads Flanged and Dished Heads Flat Dished Heads Non Standard 80-10 Dished Heads Dished Discs Toriconical Heads 6. © Jurandir Primo Page 18 of 53 .356R or P > 0.665SE: Or.SECTION VIII-1: Dished Heads Formulae: The Section VIII-1 determines the rules for dished heads.com PDH Course M398 www.1 .PDHonline.0 . How the shapes are. elliptical (or ellipsoidal) and torispherical shapes.www. hemispherical.PDHcenter. make some confusion for beginners and even professionals users of ASME VIII.org 6.665SE: Or.

t= t= PR = 2SE – 0. and joint efficiency is E = 0. Example: Spherical Shell: A spherical pressure vessel with an internal diameter of 120 in has a head thickness of 1 in. © Jurandir Primo Page 19 of 53 . and E = 1. Solution: Since t < 0. Y = 2(15.125 in. R = 48 + 0.000) (0.665SE (9213 psi). Assume joint efficiency E = 0.Spherical or Hemispherical Head: A pressure vessel is built of SA-516-70 material and has an inside diameter of 96 in.25 (31/3 – 1) = 8. What is the required thickness of the hemispherical head if “S” is 20000 psi? Solution: Since 0. No corrosion allowance is stated to the design pressure.125 = 2(20.356R use equation 2.85)(1) = 60 + 0. S = 15.2P 100 x 48. use equation 2.0.Thick Hemispherical Head: Calculate the required hemispherical head thickness of an accumulator with P = 10000 psi.665SE > P = 11305 psi > 100 psi.PDHonline.2(100) t = 0. use equation 2.000)(1.0) + 15.000 Y = 45.2t P = 2(16. P= 2SEt = R + 0.0) – 15.3.000 psi.2. equation 2.85.85.665SE < P = 9975 psi < 10000 psi.14 in.85) – 0. The internal design pressure is 100 psi at 450°F.org Example 12 .000 = 2(15.0 in.com PDH Course M398 www.www. Determine the design pressure if the allowable stress is 16300 psi.000 = 3 15.2 is acceptable.125 in.0 + 0.125 = 48. Corrosion allowance is 0.125 in.0 in. Corrosion allowance is 0.2(1) P = 460 psi The calculated pressure 460 psi is < 0.1.000 t = R (Y1/3 – 1) = 18. The inside radius in a corroded condition is equal to. therefore.000)(1. Example 13 . R = 18.PDHcenter.300)(0. Solution: As 0.

org This is the minimum thickness for fully corroded state.0 x 0.www.125 in (corrosion allowance).500 in Radius L .0 in Inside Crown Radius (L): (18.17D.17Di) = 3.125. The required thickness of 2:1 heads with pressure on the concave side is given below: Semi-Elliptical or Semi-Ellipsoidal Heads – 2:1: Example 14 .PDHonline.com PDH Course M398 www. t = 8. Total head thickness is 8.06 in © Jurandir Primo Page 20 of 53 . 6.17Di) in Straight Skirt Length (h): 1.0 x 0.9Di) = 16.0 + 0.20 in Radius ri .9Di) in Inside Knuckle Radius (ri): (18.PDHcenter. 2a).9D and a knuckle radius of 0.0 x 0. The actual shape can be approximated by a spherical radius of 0.0 x 0.(18.Elliptical or Ellipsoidal Heads: Calculate the head thickness considering the dimensions given below: Inside Diameter of Head (Di): 18.2 – Elliptical or Ellipsoidal Heads: The commonly used semi-ellipsoidal head has a ratio of base radius to depth of 2:1 (shown in Fig.(18.

b) Maximum Pressure: P = 2SEt = D + 0.06 = 5.org Material and Conditions: Material: SA-202 Gr.85) – 0.000 psi Head Longitudinal Joint Efficiency: 0.85 Corrosion Allowance: 0.06D.0D and a knuckle radius r of 0.PDHonline.010 in Variable: L/r = L/ri = 16.2t P = 2(20.20/3. commonly referred to as flanged and dished heads (F&D heads).29 in a) Required Thickness: t= t= PD + corrosion allowance 2SE – 0.0 + 0. is: or © Jurandir Primo Page 21 of 53 . are according to paragraph UG-32 (e).2 (0. Note: Ellipsoidal heads and all torispherical heads made of materials having a specified minimum tensile strength > 80 000 psi shall be designed using a value of S = 20.116 in.2(200) t = 0.000 psi at room temperature (see UG-23).3 . with a spherical radius L of 1.000)(0.com PDH Course M398 www.0 D and the knuckle radius is 0. 6.06% D.010 2(20.000)(0.www.06 and L = Di.2P 200 x 18.PDHcenter.116) P = 219 psi. • a) Flanged & Dished Head (F&D heads): The dish radius of a Flanged and Dished Head is 1.Torispherical Heads: Shallow heads.116) = 18 + 0. B (Room Temperature) Internal Pressure: 200 psi Allowable Stress: 20.85)(0. The required thickness of a Torispherical F&D Head with r/L = 0.

9 L = Di / (2 cos α) Di = Internal Diameter (conical portion) = D . Solution: Dished Torispherical Heads with L = Di and r/L = 0.org P = Pressure on the concave side of the head S = Allowable stress t = Thickness of the head L = Inside spherical radius E = Joint efficiency factor Example 15 . 6.com PDH Course M398 www. t = 0.8 Di and the knuckle radius (ri) is 10% of the head diameter.Torispherical Heads: A drum is to operate at 500°F and 350 psi and to hold 5000 gallons of water. For the required thickness of a Non Standard 80-10 Head.PDHonline.885 (350) (78) = (11200)(0.8.7. Dished Torispherical Heads inside radius is 78 in.1P t= 0.7 and 2. The 80-10 is typically only 66% the thickness of the standard Torispherical Heads. Assume “S” = 11200 psi and “E” = 0.6P) cos α 2.cos α) r = Inside Knuckle Radius © Jurandir Primo Page 22 of 53 .PDHcenter. • b) Non Standard 80-10 Flanged & Dished Head: On an 80-10 the inside radius (L) is 0.2 r (1 .54 in. t= PD 2 (SE . use equations 2. The material is SA 285 Grade A.1(350) t = 2.www.85) – 0.85. Designing 80-10 Torispherical Heads rather than standard shapes can be achieved by lowering the material costs. α ≤ 30º.0. use equation 2.06.885 PL = SE – 0.4 – Conical or Toriconical Heads: The required thickness of the Conical or Toriconical Head (knuckle radius > 6% OD) shall be determined by formula using internal diameter of shell.

3D² SEt 0.: α ≤ 30° D = Shell / Head Inside Diameter.SEt R + 0.2t 2.1t 2.0. S = Allowable Stress.1t) t P(LM + 0.885PL SE .06. 2 ≤ D/h ≤ 6 h/D = 4 M = 3 + (L/r)1/2 / 4 r/L = 0. P ≤ 0.0.6P PR 2SE .685 SE t ≤ 0.2P PD 2(SE .SEt LM + 0.0).2t 2.2t 2. E = Weld Joint Efficiency (0.2P D√0.885L + 0.885L + 0. r = Knuckle Radius. R = Shell/Head Inside Radius.t (in) PR SE .SEt cos α D + 1.2P PDK 2SE .3P/S 0.com PDH Course M398 www.6 .www.2t) 2t P(DK + 0.PDHonline.0.25 D.PDHcenter.2t) 2t 0.7 -1.P (in) SEt R + 0.3D² P/t² P(0. t = Shell / Head Thickness.2t) 2t P(D + 0.2t) 2Et P(D + 1.2t cos α Stress . L ≤ D + 2t t ≤ 0.SEt DK + 0. h = Inside Depth of Head.2t cos α) 2t cos α K = [2 + (D/2h)²] / 6.SEt D + 0.0.org Toriconical Heads Definitions: 6.5 – Resume of Pressure Vessels Formulae – ASME Section I & ASME Section VIII: Item Thickness . Notes P ≤ 0.385 SE Cylindrical Shell Hemispherical Shell (or Head) Flat Flanged Head Torispherical Head (a) Torispherical Head (b) 2:1 Semi-Elliptical Head (a) Ellipsoidal Head (b) Toriconical Head OBS.6P) cos α Pressure .0.2t t²S/0.2P PD 2SE .6t 2.6t) t P(R + 0.0. P = Internal Pressure.Scope of ASME Section VIII: © Jurandir Primo Page 23 of 53 .0. L = Crown Radius.178D. 6.S (in) P(R + 0.1P PLM 2SE .

UB. Parts UW. UHT.Pressure buildup can cause steel to crack.Above 600°F. • Resistance to Hydrogen Attack: -Temperature at 300 . • Division 3. Creep Strength. UCL. Parts UCS.org • Objective: Minimum requirements for safe construction and operation. Subsection C: Requirements based on material class. process reaction.PDHonline. UNF. Pressure from external source. • Brittle Fracture and Fracture Toughness: The conditions that could cause brittle fracture are: © Jurandir Primo Page 24 of 53 .High Pressure Vessels: Applications over 10. and 3. but the different requirements are: – Allowable stress – Stress calculations – Design – Quality control – Fabrication and inspection The choice between Divisions 1 and 2 is based mainly on economics of materials. Subsection B: Requirements based on fabrication method.www. . monatomic hydrogen forms molecular hydrogen in voids. Alternative Rules . UCI. Mandatory and Nonmandatory Appendices • Determination of Material Thickness: • Yield Strength. Ultimate Tensile Strength. 2.400°F. • Section VIII Division 1: 15 psig < P ≤ 3000 psig • Other exclusions: – Internals (except for attachment weld to vessel) – Fired process heaters – Pressure containers integral with machinery – Piping systems • Section VIII. . Division 2. Rupture Strength and Corrosion Resistance.000 psi.PDHcenter. ULT. Division 1. UCD. combination of these. • Structure of Section VIII. application of heat. Does not establish maximum pressure limits of Division 1 or 2 or minimum limits for Division 3. ULW. UHA.identical to Division 1. hydrogen attack causes irreparable damage through component thickness. Alternative Rules: 15 psig < P ≤ 3000 psig .com PDH Course M398 www. Division 1: Subsection A: Part UG applies to all vessels. UF.

especially if over repaired area . F21 & F22. C & D SA-336 Gr. A Common Materials .com PDH Course M398 www. normalized and tempered S A-3 8 7 G r.Type and chemistry of steel . 1. 21& 22.Temperature Limits: © Jurandir Primo Page 25 of 53 .org – Typically at “low” temperature – Can occur below design pressure – No yielding before complete failure – High enough stress for crack initiation and growth – Low enough material fracture toughness at temperature – Critical size defect to act as stress concentration • Factors That Influence Fracture Toughness: . A & B. 65 & 70. normalized and tempered. not normalized SA-533 Gr. WC6. A Curve D: SA-203 SA-537 Cl.Temperature . SA-516 Gr. SA-414 Gr.Manufacturing and fabrication processes . WCB & WCC for maximum thickness of 2 in. normalized and tempered S A-5 1 6 G r.PDHonline. 60. not normalized. SA-515 Gr. 1 SA-612. SA-217 Gr. WCB & WCC. normalized and tempered or water-quenched and tempered. normalized SA-516. 2 & 3 SA-508 Cl. Curve C: SA-182 Gr. A. normalized and tempered.Arc strikes. 21 & 22. Curve B: SA-216 Gr. normalized and tempered SA-302 Gr. SA-285 Gr.PDHcenter. normalized SA-524 Cl.www. WCA. 1 & 2 SA-738 Gr. normalized SA 662. 55 & 60. SA-216 Gr. B & C SA-662 Gr.Stress raisers or scratches in cold formed thick plate • Material Groups – The Most Common Used Materials: Curve A: SA-216 Gr. (water-quenched and tempered).

• Weld Joint Efficiencies.0 . for impact and nuts test for specified material specifications. Div.PDHcenter. thick. E 7. if MDMT < 120°F • Not required for flanges if temperature -20°F • Required if SMYS > 65 ksi unless specifically exempt.Shell Nozzles – Fundamentals: © Jurandir Primo Page 26 of 53 . or non welded construction over 6 in. 1.PDHonline.com PDH Course M398 www. thick. • Additional ASME Code Impact Test Requirements: • For welded construction over 4 in.www.org • Bolting: • See the ASME Code Section VIII.

.PDHcenter.com PDH Course M398 www.. Ar: © Jurandir Primo Page 27 of 53 .. compensation or reinforcement is required.PDHonline.. Figure bellow shows the steps necessary to reinforce an opening in a pressure vessel.org Vessel components are weakened when material is removed to provide openings for nozzles or access openings. To avoid failure in the opening area..6P • Area of Required Reinforcement. The Code procedure is to relocate the removed material to an area within an effective boundary around the opening.www. SE – 0. • Definitions: • Diameter of Circular Opening. d: d = Diameter of Opening – 2 (Tn + Corrosion Allowance) • Required wall thickness of the nozzle (min): tn = PR.

Ar: © Jurandir Primo Page 28 of 53 .org Ar = d. SE – 0.32 in.0625” = 0. or finished dimension of opening in plane under consideration.www.0) – 0.0625" Vessel is 100% Radiographed Nozzle does not pass through Vessel Weld Seam Wall thickness of the nozzle (min): tn = tn = PR.86 in Area of Required Reinforcement.ts.625 – 2(0.PDHcenter.. 60 Nozzle Diameter 8 in.17 in (min) – Pipe Sch.625 – 2 (0. + 0.PDHonline. ts = Minimum required thickness of shell when E = 1. Sch. d: d = Diameter of Opening – 2 (Tn + Corrosion Allowance) d = 8.11” + 0.6(300) tn = 0. 40 is t = 0. B..32 + 0.3825) = 7..0.. 40 Nozzle Material is SA-53 Gr.0625 (Corrosion Allowance) 12. F = Correction factor. in. normally 1.312”…….com PDH Course M398 www.F (in²) Where: d =Diameter of circular opening. Seamless Corrosion Allowance = 0.0625) = d = 8. Circular Opening. in.6P = 300 x 4.000(1..0 Example 16 – Basic Pipe Nozzle: Design Pressure = 300 psig Design Temperature = 200° F Shell Material is SA-516 Gr..

42) = 0.5 – 1.312”……. Required Head Thickness: th = th = PR…… 2SE – 0.70 • Head – SA 516 Gr.0”) 2(16. = 0.5) (1.6(700) Opening Reinforcement: Ar (Reqd.www..50 in² • An = Smaller of: 2 [2...ts = 8.) Therefore...PDHonline.21 (Use Tn = 1...5625 – 0.42 in² • Ar < (As + An) = Ar < (0. 70 • Nozzle – SA 106 Gr. = 0.25 in² < 11.925 in² Ar < (As + An) = Ar < (1.625 OD) Material: • Shell – SA 516 Gr.) = d.0) – 0..5 (0.325 + 5... Ar.625 (1.2 (Reqd.2 in² As = Larger of: d (Ts – ts) .5625 (0.: Necessary to increase Ts and / or Tn to attend the premise (As + An) > Ar.2P 700 x 30…….0) (1.487 x 1.5 (1..325 in² An = Smaller of: 2[2...5625 – 0.487) = 0. Example 17 – Basic Shell & Nozzle: Design Pressure = 700 psi Design temperature = 700 °F Nozzle Diameter = 8 in. B • E = 1...0) – 0. = 1.F (in²) Ar = 7.32 – 0.17)] = 0.0) – 0.5 – 1. as larger of As or An: • As = Larger of: d (Ts – ts) .86 x 0.600(1.5 (Ts) (Tn – tn)] An = 2 [2.com PDH Course M398 www.400(1.82 in² • Available reinforcement area in shell.3 = 11.0”) 14.5 (Ts) (Tn – tn)] An = 2[2.2 Tn (Ts – ts) = As = 7.PDHcenter.82 in² (Reqd. (8.92 in² < 3.3) – 2 (1.org Ar = d.6(700) Example 18 – Nozzle Design: © Jurandir Primo Page 29 of 53 .0 = 3.ts.5625) (0.0 – 0.50”) 16.625 x 1..0 (weld efficiency) Required Shell Thickness: ts = ts = PR… SE – 0.3) = 1.30 (Use Ts = 1.50 + 0.6P 700 x 4. it´s necessary to increase Ts and / or Tn to attend the premise Ar < (As + An).86 (0.600)(1.2(700) Required Nozzle Thickness: tn = tn = PR… SE – 0.21)] = 5.64 (Use Th = 1.487) – 2x 0.) OBS..6P 700 x 30…….925) = 7.2 Tn (Ts – ts) = As = 8.

www.org © Jurandir Primo Page 30 of 53 .PDHcenter.PDHonline.com PDH Course M398 www.

org © Jurandir Primo Page 31 of 53 .com PDH Course M398 www.PDHonline.www.PDHcenter.

0 – ASME Materials: The following Tables indicates the most common ferrous materials used in Pressure Vessels design and fabrication.Carbon Steels: © Jurandir Primo Page 32 of 53 . pipes. bolts and nuts.org 8.www. Beyond the knowledge of the most common ferrous materials. castings.PDHcenter. fittings.com PDH Course M398 www. forgings. the Tables also help the student how to search the materials MAWP (Maximum Allowable Stress Values) in ASME Section II. 8. Table 1A. flanges.PDHonline.1 . tubes. including structural plates.

org 8.com PDH Course M398 www.PDHonline.2 .PDHcenter.www.Low Alloy Steels: © Jurandir Primo Page 33 of 53 .

pressure-vessel.www.com PDH Course M398 www.1 – MAWP – Maximum Allowable Stress Values: The Section II. Part D contains properties of ferrous and nonferrous materials adopted by the Code for the design of boiler. © Jurandir Primo Page 34 of 53 . and nuclear-power-plant components including tables of the maximum allowable stresses and design-stress intensities for the materials adopted by various Codebook sections.PDHonline.org 8.PDHcenter. The student must always consult the original tables. The tables below are an extract from ASME for the most common ferrous materials for a basic design purpose.

www.org © Jurandir Primo Page 35 of 53 .PDHcenter.com PDH Course M398 www.PDHonline.

PDHonline.www.com PDH Course M398 www.PDHcenter.org © Jurandir Primo Page 36 of 53 .

www.PDHcenter.com PDH Course M398 www.org © Jurandir Primo Page 37 of 53 .PDHonline.

PDHonline.org © Jurandir Primo Page 38 of 53 .com PDH Course M398 www.PDHcenter.www.

org © Jurandir Primo Page 39 of 53 .www.PDHcenter.com PDH Course M398 www.PDHonline.

PDHonline.org © Jurandir Primo Page 40 of 53 .www.PDHcenter.com PDH Course M398 www.

www.org 9.PDHonline.com PDH Course M398 www.0 – Suplementary ASME Allowable Stress for General Design at Atmospheric Pressure: © Jurandir Primo Page 41 of 53 .PDHcenter.

Stress values for fusion-welded pipes include a welded-joint efficiecy factor of 0. the use of spiral-seam pipe is prohibited.PDHcenter. Only straight-seam pipe shall be used.org 1.www. Stress values for castings include a factor of 0.PDHonline.com PDH Course M398 www.80. 2. Allowable stress based on Section VIII of the ASME multiplied by the ratio of the design stress factors in this standard.80. 3. © Jurandir Primo Page 42 of 53 .

Suplementary Design Formulas: © Jurandir Primo Page 43 of 53 .0 – Extract ASME Section VIII – Division 1 .PDHcenter.PDHonline.com PDH Course M398 www.org 9.www.

org © Jurandir Primo Page 44 of 53 .PDHcenter.www.com PDH Course M398 www.PDHonline.

PDHcenter.org © Jurandir Primo Page 45 of 53 .com PDH Course M398 www.PDHonline.www.

PDHonline.www.org © Jurandir Primo Page 46 of 53 .com PDH Course M398 www.PDHcenter.

www.com PDH Course M398 www.PDHonline.org © Jurandir Primo Page 47 of 53 .PDHcenter.

org Example 19 – MAWP (Maximum Allowable Working Pressure: Example 20 – Thickness of a Cylindrical Shell Considering Internal Pressure: © Jurandir Primo Page 48 of 53 .PDHcenter.com PDH Course M398 www.www.PDHonline.

PDHonline.PDHcenter.org © Jurandir Primo Page 49 of 53 .www.com PDH Course M398 www.

PDHonline.com PDH Course M398 www.org © Jurandir Primo Page 50 of 53 .PDHcenter.www.

PDHonline.org Example 21 – Design of a Standard Torispherical Head: © Jurandir Primo Page 51 of 53 .www.com PDH Course M398 www.PDHcenter.

www.org Example 22 – Design of a Non-Standard Torispherical Head © Jurandir Primo Page 52 of 53 .com PDH Course M398 www.PDHonline.PDHcenter.

com PDH Course M398 www.PDHcenter.www.org © Jurandir Primo Page 53 of 53 .PDHonline.

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