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By the mid-1990s, the advances in international trade and investment looked like undisputable proof of the validity of neo-liberal model. It seemed no wonder that the concepts of “openness” and development through “globalization” and “regional integration” became new development paradigms. Along the way of globalization, a new term is developed – namely international public relations. International public relations, is undergoing major changes in its purview (Culbertson and Chen, 1996; Banks, 2000). Over two decades, international public relations was defined as the planned and organized effort of a company, institution, or government to establish mutually beneficial relations with the public of other nations. (Wilcox, et. Al., 1989). In 2000, Wilcox, et. Al adds that “these public, in turn, may be defined as the various groups of people who are affected by, or who can affect, the operations of a particular firm, institution or government. “International public relations may be… a necessary part of doing business for the public relations firm of the next century” (Grunig, 1992). Perceptions and standards related to international public relations differ as time passes by. Newsom (2000) explained, the globalization of news media, the unification of the world’s economy and the emergence of multinational companies have helped expand this area of public relations. International public relations is not limited to businesses, however, because non-profit organizations and associations are international in scope. According to Seitel (2001), the challenges will be worldwide, just as the field itself has become worldwide. The challenges facing public relations practitioners at the international level is apparent. To encounter these challenges, international public relations practitioners need to be trained. The growing need for skilled international public relations practitioners trained to conduct research in less than familiar settings; quite often employing differing methodologies to
According to the International Association of Business Communicators (Young. (Wright and Hinson. Findings continue to suggest that these changes are more prominent in external than internal communicators. nearly 75% of all internet users have read a blog. but its impact and the implications for public relations staff is the subject of much debate. Social media is characterized by interactivity – participants freely send. 2009) more than half of all internet users are engaged to social networks. and working with a rapidly growing number of practitioners from different countries and cultures are potentially three of the major challenges. social media and similar internet services are characterized by easy searching. Findings show that blogs and other social media are dramatically changing public relations. as platform for creating and sharing content. In terms of corporate communication strategy. 2012).obtain reliable data. Kirchner and Sudzina (2009) the social media platforms got very popular. In 2008. The score on that item in 2009 is 73%. 61% believed the emergence of blogs and social media had changed the way their organizations communicate. a . social media has had a staggering implication on the practice of international public relations. socialize and communicate. 93% of this year’s respondents spent part of their average workdays with some aspects of blogs and social media. open participation. but only a third allow all staff to manage its output (Spurrell. receive. Social media has changed the way we work. and process content for use by others. The communications world is dramatically moving in a digital direction and those understand this transformation will communicate much more effectively than those who do not (Weber. According a study from Razmerita. 2009). The popularity of social media makes it a forum that cannot be ignored. Recent research by Tancer (2008). A study of council communications finds that most use social media. 2007). 2004) Over the years. (Stone. suggests social media have overtaken pornography as the number one use of the internet. Moreover.
and developments in the . Many aspects of technology have challenged how public relations is practiced. foster dialogue. Social media is has a variety of platforms that are different from each other. there are conflicting viewpoints. networking. According to Ragan Report (2005). Wright and Hinson (2006)discovered most agreed it was ethical to discipline employees who write negative things about their organizations on blogs and most also believed it was ethical for organizations to monitor information their employees disclose. one of it is usergenerated content. almost unlimited potential to share knowledge. On the other hand. According to Steve Crescenzo. and open up to two-way channels of communication. The movement from a read-only internet to read-and-write internet. Robert (2005) explained. The 2005 PR Week/Burson-Marsteller CEO Survey reports that “59% of CEOs rate blogs as a good. although employee blogs currently are a big phenomenon. many who work in employee communications do not like the idea of their employees blogging because the company is not able to control their messages. or excellent corporate communication tool for internal audiences. Dan Gillmor (2004) believes companies inevitably will try to co-opt blogs.minimal publishing threshold. market goods and services. community. public relations in the digital age requires understanding how your key constituents are gathering and sharing information and then influencing them at key points. The 2007 results reported only 10% agreement and considerable disagreement. However. Doing so requires strategies that embrace the digital age. and the rapid spread of information and other content via a wide range of feedback and linking systems (Aula. The potential impact of blogs on public relations and corporate communications is phenomenal. 2009). employee blogs have massive. or content that is distributed by participants rather than editors (Boyd. dialogue. very good. 2010). A shift of opinion was found in response to the same question. has enabled audiences to test the power assumptions in this relationships.
Both of these campaigns allowed contestant to create content themselves. 2010). and put forth ideas about organizations that can differ greatly from what organizations share with the public (Aula. In social media services. There are huge opportunities there. for example. and blog. Social media lets us reach people more directly. It cuts across channels and is all about engaging with individuals. 2009). he wrote a song about his lengthy but failed negotiations with the company. but the 24/7 scrutiny brings new threats too (The Impact of Social Media on Public Relations. 2007). It can be argued that social media expands the spectrum of reputation risks and boosts risk dynamics (Aula. In 2008.technology of personal communication and social networking software has caused media commentators to observe a shift in the balance of power towards the citizen (Flew. when one of the world’s biggest air carriers. He turned to Youtube and uploaded a series of videos called “United Break Guitars” that told his story in a humorous manner. conventional media such as TV or newspapers (Aula. users mostly generate unverified information. The videos went viral. Example of user-generated campaign includes “Go Green Vespa Video Challenge” and “The Best Job In The World Campaign” – destination marketing for Queensland. 2009). what is important is that social media content cannot be controlled in advance and that content cannot be managed in the same way as. two North Carolina Domino’s franchise employees filmed and uploaded a video of themselves doing some really disgusting things to food that was most . In terms of strategic reputation management. Although buzz for the contest was successfully generated. 2012). but there are also risk on whether these user-generated-content are suitable for all. and ultimately received social media backlash to their Facebook page. In 2009. twitter account. The airline quickly reacted by apologizing and donating $3000 to the Thelonious Monk Jazz Institute. refused to compensate a passenger who was a professional musician for breaking his $3500 guitar in 2008. United Airlines.
but suffer more as a result. even when using the internet to run campaign. led to a backlash on mommy blogs. Social media is not a one-size-fits-all solution for international public relations practitioners. The video went viral. The competition was going smoothly. 2003).likely later served to customers. The organization was accused for manipulating the system and voters for their own benefit. Over 1 million viewers saw the video. Asus decided to hold a competition to help generate some buss for their products. Motrin launched a video ad campaign which suggested that mothers who carry babies in slings to be fashionable. and news travelled quickly. Evolution of new media does not mean public relations practitioners can abuse and take advantage of the advancement. . Both of these public relations disastrous cases stressed out that. Being “trustworthy”. legal. Social media is a prickly and difficult situation for any employer and public relations practitioners. it fails to take into account the pregnant ladies reaction. 2006). Twitter and Facebook. Asus did not approve the winner (voted by public) and announced a decision to change the rules at the end of contest. it is essential to be honest and transparent. It is the scholars and practitioners to conduct and study global public relations. media. but the damage was done. The website might be doing good deed by sharing information. The concept of trust is a fundamental principle of both civil society and public relations. other important variables (Sriramesh & Vercic. The generic approach has great potential for focusing international research and clarifying infrastructure. creating and maintaining trust. and keeping clients’ trusts are concepts that are found throughout public relations society code of ethical conduct (Kent and Taylor. It is important to identify and nurture social media influencers within your target audience. however. geopolitical. In 2008. In 2009. Dominos managed to get the video yanked off Youtube two days later. which further became a mainstream attention. cultural. The campaign’s website was eventually shut down. For unknown reason.
Social media present challenges. 2011). in the new world of global economy and new media world of instant communications. and for international public relations professionals. further education of the PR profession. influence. emerged as the top priorities by delegates at the Third European Summit on Measurement in Lisbon (Lisbon Summit sets top four measurement priorities. 2009). because they break down traditional categories of audiences. proven practices and openly available methodologies. Success in setting a global standard could contribute to a healthy and sustainable industry by minimizing social media abuse and better skills when handling social media public relations issues. 2011) Effectiveness. requires some uniformity and standardization. including content sourcing. “too many of the social media measurement options available today are based on proprietary tools and method that cannot be easily replicated across brands. on a Facebook page or in a Tweet. campaigns and organizations. As a coalition. Social media are so fragmented that an individual may or may not see information in a blog. The global standard must lay down principle of conduct and standard of measurement. engagement and Return-On-Investment (ROI) among others (Coalition Aims to Establish Global Standards for Social Measurement. and they deserve guidance that’s based on sound social science. Looking at the series of failure in online public relations cases. it became justifiable that there should be a global standard for social media communication by. Matrices of targets and themes have become a blob with undefined connections and gaps.” said Time Marklein. “Clients and agencies are hungry for expert guidance to navigate the changing media landscape. . He added. sentiment. we intend to break down those barriers and map out a path to standards that address key social media measurement challenges.”Developing global standards for social media measurement. challenged with reaching the majority of an audience through media that theoretically can access but in reality might not view (Horton. hence.
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