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Mandarins and Iconoclasts Author(s): Peter Green Reviewed work(s): Source: Arion, Third Series, Vol. 6, No. 3 (Winter, 1999), pp. 122-149 Published by: Trustees of Boston University Stable URL: . Accessed: 04/02/2013 21:01
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and Iconoclasts


T classical




education, but never one quite attack the subject, and their readers, with the angry of born-again obsessionalism evangelists. Their rhetoric?by
contemptuous and sardonic, relentlessly in-your-face?

pro and con a like this. Hanson and

steams up at you from the dust-jacket, and never eases off till the very last page. Like so many academic sophists these days, they believe in shock-tactics. The scenario they present is a one of virtue imperilled and vice triumphant, of black-and-white
vast generalizations, assertive dogma, and unexamined axioms.


to evil Hydra has many heads, from stuffy philology trendy French theories, from Small World-style university jet-set
to non-teaching mandarins; as soon as they whack one head

off, another obligingly pops up to replace it. Waving a populist banner, snarling about egalitarianism
what they term, with occasional upper-case emphasis,




they take aim at just about every aspect of the classical except (very classical, this) the corner of it that professoriate an outpost in the Philistine (Latin is definitely second

they see themselves as representing: wilderness where devoted Hellenists class

in this world), teaching six, eight, ten, even thirteen courses (no mention of quality control), devote all their time and and educa energy to the classroom betterment of multiracial tionally deprived them. Research? enhance

Scrap undergraduates. Doctoral dissertations? Bottom priority, and let it further broadly replete with Big Ideas.1 (you guessed it) Greek Wisdom,
progressives have always suffered from a nagging urge

and to capture and occupy high moral ground, and Hanson Heath are no exception. Like Jimmy Porter in Look Back in (whose diatribes their own much resemble) they also Anger a nostalgia for the dear dead days when classics enjoyed betray

This content downloaded on Mon, 4 Feb 2013 21:01:10 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

that it gave a or manipula contradictions. they tell us. Like all committed ideologues. marathon new seemed very much alive: translations public readings. serve up sensible observa tions and parti pris nonsense so hopelessly entangled that (as in the political case) their audience is in danger of accepting both without argument. 4 Feb 2013 21:01:10 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . exercise in wishful thinking. rather in the manner of politicians tacking pork barrel riders onto an otherwise harm less bill on some quite different topic. Indeed?something in a short-list of they include a book of mine (title misquoted) ten "to read about the Greeks. the unrelenting mean whine of partisan outrage tends to put off even those who are prima facie more than ready to lend a sympathetic ear to arguments against the classical establishment." chosen. outrage to did?because right-wing so many common of critics they thought. and originality. They also. tive. with its significant sub-title. bizarre. that?loath though I am to bite the rare hand that strokes me? I have had to make a conscious effort of will to give proper credit to the sound elements in their thesis." My as elo main relevance." This is all very flattering. "on the basis alone of their scholarship. This extends even to its title. Worse. wrongly. extended commentaries. I have writ ten a good deal on this subject myself. Hanson and Heath are deter mined to blind us with science.Peter Green 123 in the Western world. The result is a prescriptive authority and often ugly. a nice case of petitio principa.3 parti obvious pris their sense. Thus to read this book and keep one's criti cal faculties alert is a physically exhausting business. if perhaps uncon and Hanson's I need to declare ab initio? scious. When I last looked. of modern claims or appear involve decadence. envy). quent epic's This content downloaded on Mon. and seminal works like Jonathan Shay's Achilles in Vietnam (1994). readability. "Combat testimony to trauma ancient and the undoing perennial of character.2 and no one familiar with my arguments is (I hope) likely to see me as one of the ultra-con of Heath servative "grandees" of the profession who form the main target scorn (and obvious. but I suspect they may have got excited to Actium for exactly the same reason as Newt by Alexander Gingrich handle Indeed. Homer every year.

above all by attacking. This. spiteful aside. they imply. it is. Whether Ajax intentionally or not. Shay's book in one brief. such enquiries reveal ladder climbing traitors to the Cause: "A very few may have successful as careers as Classicists. you're ground between their message or against them (their contemptuous either for them attitude to are no situations the "compliant and cowardly clerk. For Heath and Hanson. there discussion or compromise. Whatever about Greek Wisdom.4 No accident that they dismiss own Thersites. 4 Feb 2013 21:01:10 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . A good deal of it (but not all) is encapsulated in their prologue. ble professional attitude. they're certainly well versed in all the shy ster sophistries of Demosthenes. though I feel it could equally be caused by astonish ment at the inane inappropriateness of the questions to such an it's the candi they go on disapprovingly. Odysseus" in Sophocles' is absolutely characteristic). certainly the kind of approach I and my colleagues have always encouraged.124 MANDARINS AND ICONOCLASTS thought after reading Heath and Hanson's book was that if any it was their own over thing stood in danger of killing Homer." silence. new PhDs at job interviews questions such as they tell us. heated and factitious rhetoric. no middle inviting and what they oppose. For these linear descendants of Homer's This being so. but most will be failures as Hellenes. however. dates who interrogate: "What is the teaching load like?" "Are for junior faculty research grants?" A sensi there opportunities occasion. only fair to present their fundamen tal thesis in full before proceeding further. was due to ignorance on the candi dates' part. with highly colored and often sleazy rhetoric. since from Sparta?" or "Why did the Mycenaean the response tended to be a stunned This content downloaded on Mon. displaying all the prac tical applicability one associates with the later books of Plato's impression they convey is that Republic?the overwhelming they're far less interested in actually achieving results than in attitudinizing on principle. as we shall see. Nowadays. asking "How far is Athens world collapse?. and despite (inways because of) their chapter entitled "What We Could Do"?a blueprint. fourth-century forensic speechmakers. one might think. and the rest of the Aeschines. I feel. those colleagues with whom else they may or may not have learned they disagree. They have given up.

Neverthe California. from shuffling Catullan us the doctrine of the enclitic Browning's grammarian (who "gave ?? / dead from the waist down") to George Eliot's Mr." Excuse me? I don't recall any job description. but now forgotten. even from the authors' home state of that advertised for these latter categories. merely dramatises an age romantic) complaint. would very soon send Ken Starr scurrying after the offender with a clutch of subpoenas. they argue. legacy to the West. Meanwhile. including those who write so authoritatively about ancient sex). the distinction As they see it. plugging arcane research and avoiding the classroom. 4 Feb 2013 21:01:10 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . may. with his key to universal mythology. while politicking Behavior of the sort immortalised in the style of Peisistratus. resent the failure of senior In particular. as the audience slips away in droves to more instantly gratifying pastures. or (as here) angry resentment." This. conferencing. From Shakespeare's bald. has lost sight of its proper goals. of course. the authors hit the mark Itwould they tend to undercut be hard to argue (at least in a general sense. are so busy networking. largely as a result of their neglect. Cas^u the piquant contrast bon. Classical scholars. It is also absurd. Alcibiades.Peter Green 125 explicators and stewards of Greek wisdom. while slave-labor aspects of Greek Wisdom tend to attract the such as pederasty attention of the and nowadays police. privately thank our lucky stars that this kind of emulation hasn't been more widely practised. Even when themselves. between classical heroes and the professors who study them has always been good for a laugh. Heath and Hanson professors to "look like those who held the pass at Thermopy lae"5 or "talk like the condemned Socrates or see the world at all as Sophocles old saw it. indeed. say. intellectual tradition. lies at the very heart of their declared pro less. that legacy is rapidly being forgotten. (and essentially to Yeats's Holofernes scholars. or even of Cleisthenes. and uniquely demanding. This content downloaded on Mon. Those of us who have known classicists too near in their habits to. an overcrowded and self-seeking profession gram. that they have no time for their function: the preservation of a proper. on black-figure vases is liable to embarrass rather than enlighten respectable middle class sub urbanites (a category including most classicists. Greece's unique.

when compared with that found in the other theocratic and the most authoritarian regimes of the Near East. individual rights. learning is Secondly. in question have long formed the core of just about every Western Civ. uniquely free. why so few professors of Greek and Latin care to teach these evident truths. private property. and once again the thought occurs that they may not be so much seeking tions as pushing their own highly idiosyncratic agenda.126 MANDARINS AND ICONOCLASTS and even though assertion that they short-change present Western Rome) with notions of their reiterated constitutional "our government. with its to any civilization echoes of Herodotus of its and Isocrates. But they promote the claim only to ask. nation-wide. since the truths. and at in steeped strident and Hanson's come ideological anti This content downloaded on Mon. philosophy. or rather truisms. the military. but entirely antithetical or space. constitutes Heath if hardly original. According to them. particularly welcome at a time culture has become trashing of Western something of a trendy intellectual habit. rational. It's hard to figure where they can have been looking. is a misrepre both real and quantifiable. and critical quality of Greek thinking. indeed. ues to flourish vigorously?though in different ways. 4 Feb 2013 21:01:10 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . egalitarianism. to our present existence and derive from the ancient Greeks. and has formed the underlying of the ancient world?at least accounts prior to those that emphasis on the Europeanism. that They claim to be making "Hellenic culture?an idea not predicated on race?is not just different own time from. they state that "the demise of Classical as we shall see." This. sentation. feature of their thesis. civilian control over separation between religious and political authority. premiss is fundamentally to most modern true. middle-class free speech." This. in a fine rhetorical snit. inquiry"?to and a good deal more besides?"are both vital historiography. and free scientific which they might have added drama." This when forcible reminder the wholesale is. course. "Demise" can hardly be used of a subject that contin acceptable." Are they right? three general arguments. First. classics as a profession is self-destructing solu at precisely the same time as the "mutated form" of Greek "is metastasizing Wisdom throughout the globe.

irritated by the need to "entice" This content downloaded on Mon." classical odds. . virtually this-and-that non-teaching encountered professors. 4 Feb 2013 21:01:10 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . racist. briefly and pro forma. the claim is generation by made destroy of Classicists of sloth. and write for a tiny cadre. duly do so. selling the Greeks themselves short as hopelessly "sexist. significantly. and exploitative. turn out to be the exception rather and Heath power-hungry In the last resort. the cumulative impression made by Hanson in this manifesto is of two muddled.Peter Green 127 different levels?against sented is both misleading that "our present education. presumably. as deter mined propagandists with a pseudo-populist program to pro mote. case than we are concerned picture?is with the a fact?that of offenders complete some thing relatively easy to conceal from the unwary (including. I suspect. to date. that there may be good folk (themselves. Thirdly. raiding antiquity indiscrimi nately for moral ammunition.6 They concede. phone-calls from the jobless. to a mixture theo elitist arrogance. quite a few reviewers). towards Platonic authoritarianism. classes on therapeutics." and agree it "would have the be hubristic power to conclude Homer take such that mere for ever. by them redundant (unemployed articles. could of value." Classicists Not at many face . the peddling of suspect and obscurantist ries in jargon-ridden prose. helped careerism. . and the quantification here pre and manipulative. debt-ridden arouses students who never got theWord about Greek Wisdom) instant suspicion: one too many does not a generalization make. professions more than their plea that they "did not write this book to be cruel to our peers or to air our field's dirty linen. their any to destroy will even colleagues. worst of all. cash in. included) at what they describe as "no-name undergraduate colleges." who "save Greek and Latin by teaching hundreds of the ill-prepared": the authors' notions of democracy tend." Since evidence essential minority can be adduced in or every a less to support all these charges. but would-be Guardians. admitting that "not all elites selfishly skip class." Their rhetorical catalogue of the "one too many" PhDs." much less that they "are not alarmists. and Hanson and Heath. romantic. and. and most than the of their bogeymen rule. They insert a let-out clause.

as it joins the tedious formality of methodical commonplace observation. Two quotations were continually at the back of my mind while analyzing Heath and Hanson's manifesto. celebrated blue-blooded despotic middle come. The second. to under-privileged Californian students who might otherwise never have any inkling of the men. one of Richard Porson's acid remains perhaps even truer today than when coined: "Every dunce may. when he thinking in terms of the Laws rather than the Republic. that animated the Founding Fathers deserves (and is beginning to obtain) both rec ognition and reward. To Particularise is the Alone is that "to Generalise of Merit. endorse Porson with some appalling?and enthusiasm. and (despite all their egalitarian propaganda) they'd Homer. appallingly and indeed provide funny?modern (129-45) examples of This content downloaded on Mon. that their role in the teaching of ancient culture. and dominated by Greek professors indeed): it's as though their own teaching conditions had been loopily institutionalised by Plato in his severe old age. at this point. I don't doubt. against heavy odds. heroes. The first. grandees remind ourselves. which of all jargons is the worst."7 The reasoning authors to the trite frivolity of would. and principles.128 MANDARINS AND ICONOCLASTS more students. a close reading of their book pow Heath and Hanson erfully suggests. What while we have Plato here was is a as aristo scenario they which rather (to put than the it mildly) casual needs endorsement the most or careful rejection investigation. to be an Idiot. 4 Feb 2013 21:01:10 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . classes. against whom they level repeated charges of arrogant and destructive elitism. cratic was become we not and the most should the elitist agrarian as in the business. a marginal annotation Distinction insists by Blake to Sir Joshua Reynolds's Discourses. Imust emphasize." ulous obiter dicta. Yet the national educational reforms they propose are not only Utopian but authoritarian. be taught to repeat the jargon of criticism. to be imposed {Quis custodien by fiat. indeed. Put in charge. and jealous of their apparently successful colleagues. 2. that it seems largely to have attracted hitherto.

natural science. critical discourse. com Nor can they counter objections to this kind of broad-brush treatment by ascribing them variously to postmodern cynicism and nihilism. But their own weak for "trite frivolity" isn't beyond cavil. or to "upper-middle-class white guilt and the rise of the social sciences.Peter Green 129 ness critical jargon which amply prove his point. and the concept of freedom form the Hellenic world's prime legacy to the West. turning out true. first. secular politics. Who Killed Homer* reads as though its concept of "Greek was a self-evident general truth that only ni^ling Wisdom" ped ants or malignant theocrats would deny." Scholars who tend to be suspicious of these aren't mere "quibblers and clerks".. though still con temptuous of it. In fact it forms a highly element in what was a complex pluralistic A far more balanced view of it is offered by Geoffrey society. Yes. and sweeping. they were unique?as Christian Meier once said." They're nearer the mark. or Toynbees: a fact. not only to the essen tial falsity in detail and ideologically skewed arguments of such monadic No but also to their huge potential Heath and Hanson sneer. more Hegels. for damage. make "general." argues that this "provides our best charac terisation not of the whole of Greek thought but of what is in it" [emphasis mine]. to philosophy. of classicists danger. as a kind of unified its thought aggregate field. Hanson and Heath's talk of exceptional "the Greeks" as the generic fons et origo of every modern bless ing. rather they have a rooted objection. medicine. well justified by history." is just the kind of idiocy that provoked Blake's ment in the first place. which all. when they talk about the ingrained academic distaste for "grand theories. if any would strongly suggest that the profession is. Webers. Lloyd. that rational thinking. getting something right. "Greek Wisdom" and all-inclusive . after monsters. and and while conceding a "combination of the critical. and the case they for treating broad. 4 Feb 2013 21:01:10 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . the Greeks had no Greeks before them9?and therefore constitute ancestral roots This content downloaded on Mon.8 who restricts it.. tends to stultify their highly tenable basic thesis. from clean hospitals to a non-corrupt police force. limited and debatable argumentative approach and the radicalism of the questions to which it is applied.

This slip it was. are the Athenians: a small minority of special cases. Sophocles into was battle: picking the up never. fighter could write son front assert. but they were also contra revisiting by Westerners alien. Even to assimilate these to an idealised agrarian middle class (as Hanson did earlier in The Other Greeks. after the old aristocratic (and highly undemocratic) ideals enshrined in the Iliad and elsewhere. as it unrolls and almost inconsistencies abounds "the and plain its rhetoricised "Homer" as here errors too well. part the of an effort craftsmen. what conservatives in the later fifth century as the "ancestral referred to. the good constitution" old days before meddling blackguards like Solon or Cleisthenes This content downloaded on Mon.e. to promote the nurse. mostly from the Periclean era. and despite all their tut-tutting at elitism. the patent medicine which This they are here presented.. unpredictable. What Heath and Hanson exceptions. To begin with. as Heath he boys got on to and Han the Samian Chios. nostalgically [patrios politeia)^ but inaccurately. by extension. endemic class-conflicts. as a led men "general" are talking about. at the same time. 4 Feb 2013 21:01:10 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . repeating the thesis since it both skirts round Athens' here) is subtly misleading. while. but a play. by egalitarian implication. At times. presented are basic both Greeks" misno mers. diversity is illustrated. profoundly or cure-all for modern ills as their thinking.130 MANDARINS AND ICONOCLASTS (not that Hanson and Heath ever so describe them) well worth and others. small slip. But Hanson and Heath?like acquaintance. "the the farmer. nearest pretty nearby a habit that earned him sharp reproof from Pericles. and certainly not. bringing the artist and thinker back in medias res (in every sense) as part of the polis collective. they seem to be hankering. if yeoman citizen soldier" as the true heroes of Attic drama and. of Athenian ("Greek") life. with equal fervor. with very few and not all Athenians either. in dictory. by the manifold in which Who Killed Homer? thesis. and like a great more many than one classicist Athenians of my in antiquity? reveal themselves as oddly ambivalent regarding the much touted virtues of egalitarianism. i. indeed.10 the forms shepherd. and suggests. that because Aeschylus any Marathon fought at Marathon.

they sometimes is Thersites. the whole contempt Homeric radically different from those of have dismissed with well-born concept of collective action. ling.Peter Green 131 had ruined gentlemanly privileges and Hanson on Sophocles' Ajax: With for ever. and Hanson's claim that Plato to Homer's primacy. but laughed at by the entire army. it's worth recalling. and it may well explain their at first sight paradoxical choice of Homer as the symbolic repository of democratic Greek wisdom. sure. To his heroic mind. they admit rate a virtue) the fact that a large percentage of ancient liter (and ature "was composed as a critique of Greek society and the very treat "the Greeks" This content downloaded on Mon. an enemy an enemy. plus the insouciant amorality (as very soon see it) of Homeric gods no less heroes. No dem ocratic process po//s-dwellers than Homeric as the would there. This. not only beaten by Odysseus for his impertinence. was something of which thinkers as early Xenophanes were all too well aware. represented refutes "the first challenge it suits them. words deeds. pale before Line for line. The Iliad and the Odyssey celebrate an age anti-po//s of heroes whose morals were and who would polis-dwellers. and sixth-century found Heath potent an acute embarrassment?which. the populist rank. bear an uncomfortable resemblance) rabble-rouser who attacked wealth. yes. The one character who fits Heath and Hanson's thesis (and to of abuse. embarrassing. 4 Feb 2013 21:01:10 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and nothing is drawn in shades of gray. bly. letter for letter. Far from being "the first and best creative dividend of the " Homer is not only pre-polis in time but fundamentally polis in attitude. Ajax believed the world on his terms. this is the authors' own attitude throughout their book. but also noble and compel in something beyond his own fate. Though they When and "Greek Wisdom" as a plenum. these latter-day sophists utilise the plural ism which at other points they so cheerfully ignore." incidentally. and privilege in assem in their more rabid moments whom. Now listen to Heath Ajax's death we have lost something big: savage and simple. He was. a demanded friend is a friend.

If Athens offers trimmings. while the polis itself. also bred. What they for was the "ancestral constitution. The truth is less accommodating. and reader of limited social Aristophanes as class-rid remained." and restored for a socio-political elite." we are told." This is disingenuous nonsense. Right-wing ultras like Critias and internal opposition rule of the Thirty Tyrants after Ath Phrynichus. This content downloaded on Mon. by its very nature. Athenian As any society observant was. 4 Feb 2013 21:01:10 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ." By celebrating apart everything?every "this uniquely tradi institution. the unitary hero of this book." they attempt to reconcile with their Unitar ian thesis the fact that the dissension (in Athens above all. from Shelley to Edith Hamilton. she also supplies a splendid array of color ful traitors. models of patriotism. the totalitarian were as characteristic of the ens' defeat by Sparta in 404?these polis as free speech and free debate. and in response to near-revolu tion. to all the witnesses cite?belonged to that Hanson it. or to minimise and Heath the very find real convenient it faced." a limited franchise. "Even Right conviction?and ists. "in a reactionary vein yearned for their old lost republics of iso lationist and parochial hoplite soldiers. by the ingenuity of Cleisthenes. "could not escape the egalitarian founda tions of their culture. The egali tarianism (as we just saw and as every Greek historian knows) was introduced at a late stage. to experiment more precisely. aware. like Thucydides and Aristotle. and individual. who if pushed would certainly explain George Washington as a product of Greek Wisdom. It also. Heath and Hanson. Plato the aristocrat rated privilege democracy Athens' only one jump above in democracy tyranny.132 MANDARINS AND ICONOCLASTS values that allowed Western urge to pick it to flourish. their main social. den as that of Victorian "Traditionalists England. to pretend It does no credit that everyone?or. tion. The rose-tinted view of Hellas here promoted is the old romantic pic served up with modernist ture. produced while leaving the aristocratically-based political democracy structure must be untouched." Baloney." they proclaim. test case) was and intellectual caused by radical differences action. yearned rule (as Heraclitus put it) by the "best citizens. that en demic weakness for parish-pump politics and internecine conflict (stasis) which forms so large a part of Thucydides' History.11 of political.

4 Feb 2013 21:01:10 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ." they between the morally and the legally acceptable. also influenced Euripides "was ridiculed by Aristophanes"?but him so much that a rival coined the verb to euripidaristophanize. Yes. proceed to launch a full-scale attack on contemporary classicists for failing to exemplify. at best. that their uncertain grasp of logic riddles their arguments with incon sistencies is doubly regrettable. Socrates in debate on the Sicilian Expedition." and almost certainly due to the fortunes of war. As this and many other instances show. inMarxist states. like their interpretations Half-truths abound. of Yes. Attic tragedy. their control of Greek history. to the rape of a included. as "explicators the idiosyncratic ideals that the and stewards of Greek wisdom. Hanson and Heath seriously underrate the huge contributions of Rome to the European tradition. Yes. "the Greeks at least knew the difference us. generally.Peter Green 133 might pause to reflect that their universal nostrum well have inspired Benedict Arnold. objected island on moral grounds. Heath and Hanson then. The distancing process be tween Then and Now is reinforced by a series of question "Unlike begging and for the most part gaseous generalisations: inform us. corpses mount"?but so they did. is. they are pushing a perverse agenda is bad enough. as here) who wrote a dissertation on Epicurus. elementary. "when one truly rejects the West. and somehow That I doubt that this was quite what Heath and Hanson had inmind. with some relish." Oh? And where does that leave the Athenian which no one. but only in terms of Greek-occupied potential success or failure? The best such a formulation can do is lend unsuspected support to those historians who argue that Alexander had a perfect right to destroy Thebes since he ob tained the authorization of the League of Corinth to do so. Horace's father was a slave?but Horace More the servitude was never "claimed his father's kin were of slave origin. 3 could equally Having set up their carefully slanted model. and Marx began life as a pro fessional classicist (not an "armchair" one. and do. above all in the This content downloaded on Mon." authors themselves have imposed.

and artfully. where the respondents played into Heath's hands by muddling the issues just as thoroughly themselves. because especially when disguised as pseudo-logic. itmay well be asked. nada. 4 Feb 2013 21:01:10 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . in which their Greek Wisdom is enshrined. very few. the in the Classical World debate (above. because there is indeed quite a lot wrong pelling with classics. This a very considerable sacrifice of both accuracy and fair involves But heck. something that enables them and diversify the range of their attack. loud rhetoric and colorful emotionalism. Hanson and Heath have thoroughly. Why. these peddlers of an ideologically slanted Glory That Was be taken seriously by the profession at all? For two com first. paid-up rational humanists (the Greeks' freedom from theocratic interfer ence is repeatedly stressed). now to the charges they bring against Clas sicists (almost always thus capitalized). They make one brief reference to the Early Fathers (to highlight their moral objections to pagan authors). right?12 Besides. when you have an agenda to promote. tactic worked beautifully note i). As any reader of Who Killed Homer? will very soon dis cover. make converts faster and easier nowadays than any amount of reasoned exposition: witness the striking sales figures of this book. and (b) shortcomings which more properly belong to the humani ties at large. as with the humanities generally. to widen representation. etiam media sunt licita. and Who Killed Greece. and grudgingly concede that the Christian monastic tradition was responsible for most of the surviving manuscripts otherwise. reasons: Homer? and second. exceptional This content downloaded on Mon. as Lastly. These can be divided into two groups: (a) faults specific to the discipline of classics per se. or the general crisis facing liberal arts programs American universities.134 MANDARINS AND ICONOCLASTS fundamental areas of law and architecture. Those as a discipline of the authors' charges that apply specifically to classics rather than are. should these self-styled arbi ters. or even national trends in education as in a whole. Let me turn. cum finis est licitus. confused the two categories in their indictment. even as a strictly his torical phenomenon: a real beginners' error if ever there was one. they virtually ignore the all-pervasive impact of Christianity upon that tradition. publicises many of the shortcomings. then. then. in fact.

This content downloaded on Mon. eccentricities. From irrelevance to the practical onwards elitism. The study of Greek and Latin. this last as a sacred duty. the acquisition of ancient culture. the invocation of classical thinkers and artists as trend-setting models or ideal exemplars. Hence the refusal to make concessions of any sort in and Heath's the teaching translation. and student-unfriendly obstinately self-defeating conservatism. Its practical preeminence slipped as new discov eries?in astronomy. 4 Feb 2013 21:01:10 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and intellectual con cepts persisted without serious challenge13 until this century. the enshrinement of Hellenic dent?all repeated world. to form the standards of his profession. it's their particularist endeavors which fuzzy emotional and Heath as a but the fact remains that classroom teaching still underpin the kind of so prized by Hanson generalizations tool. in social no less than moral terms. obscurantism. of eradicating corruption from the inher ited Word. The loss of this prescriptive right is really what bothers Hanson and Heath most. and Who Killed Homer? prints some choice myself examples of their snobbishness. habits. They instantly explain one of Hanson establishment targets: the fiercely reactionary scholar who would rather go under than compromise what he believes. the rejection and the of courses obsession with in textual criticism.Peter Green 135 generic. with passionate intensity. but its supreme reputation as the direct source of our fundamental moral. of humanity's most vital and cherished legacy. aesthetic. say. of Greek the academic and Latin. or medicine?rendered much of ancient science obsolete. (or. It is very easy to mock such people (I've done it in my time). Its professional practitioners saw themselves as privileged upholders. Roman) mores as prescriptive prece these things have been under fire for centuries. inherited from Alex andria and Byzantium. no less often. with complaints or of immorality. the Renaissance the preservation and dissemination of classical learning has formed a core element in the European intellectual and educa tional tradition. and for the most part old chestnuts explicable in histori cal terms. The dangers of such an assumption of superiority are obvious: we did not need the advent of deconstruction or multicultur alism to point them out.

14 Would classics have been better served by draft ing him into full-time run-of-the-mill student of the late Roman Republic. Civ. which back in the early fifties attracted few students. income (Eugene Vanderpool). but I have no doubt that they dations of classical to Greek his unique and extensive contributions religion.136 MANDARINS AND ICONOCLASTS If these unthinking sional tors. They sneer at A. if all our obses commenta lexicogra comparative linguists. They might also reflect on the case of D. Shackleton at Cambridge with his Bailey. palaeographers. Do Hanson to deprive us of all future works of scholarship as plan and indispensable. and The Classical Tradition (1949). anxious to get on undisturbed gladly utilise monumental edition and translation of Cicero's correspondence. never had a student or taught a class in his life. classrooms and set to and the rest are herded teaching innumerable into undergraduate Class. Nock hours in the Widener Library (from which undergraduates were excluded) from 12:00 till 12:05 PM. A superb linguist. or possessed of a substantial private or both (Heinrich Schliemann). iconoclasts all our get their way. James Frazer. by way of revenge. author of The Golden Bough. R. 4 Feb 2013 21:01:10 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . say. simply for the sake of getting rid of a few Ivy League idlers and reducing all classicists. phers. research textual scholars. The suspicion This content downloaded on Mon. It is interesting that the few researchers in classics whom Hanson and Heath single out for praise are almost all either outside the field altogether (Michael Ventris. for all its vast erudition. who would have strongly resented being labeled a "misfit"). critics. papyrologists. courses on Greek Wisdom a and the like. Heath Die classroom work? Ask any and Such a list could be extended ad infinitum. Not much classroom teaching represented there. to vulgar common denominator. a vacant lectureship in Tibetan. Cambridge. as well as Fellow of Trinity College. then Hanson and Heath themselves will have done more to destroy the very foun learning than all the targets they pinpoint put (unnamed) for holding office together. epigraphists. and was appointed to. The scholar like Gilbert Highet who manages to do both is a rare bird indeed. as Felix Jacoby's totally time-consuming Fragmente Sir der Griechischen Historiker} Presumably. would surely have been a better book if Highet had had greater leisure to ponder his judgments in it. D. he applied for.

and Heath on occasion I've found?since seem to subscribe) nine out of ten of these pols are lawyers?by applying the same argument to them: let them bill only for time spent in court. Hanson and Heath. 4 Feb 2013 21:01:10 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .A.S. For consumer interest. In other words. This content downloaded on Mon. at every level. unmarketable PhDs) and precipitously diminishing interest shown by potential con sumers of the product. their obsession with classroom to the complaint resemblance hours bears an uncomfortable so often voiced by vote-seeking politicians. with silent sleight While they switch to reports dealing with the U. Their production figures are culled from the pages of L'Ann?e Philologique. arcane specialist Hanson of scholars and teachers. should know better. What they seem resolutely to ignore is the simple fact that clas sics has always. This also applies to the statistical scare tactics they employ to drive home the notion of a discipline collapsing from a combina tion of over-production (books. covering classical activities throughout the entire world. alone. and aren't fussy about how they do it. been a multidisciplinary field of study. and it. the actual decline the stark contrast presented in the pages of Who Killed Homer? is the product of of-hand Like the Fat nothing more than blatant statistical manipulation. in Dickens. This hoary old fal lacy (to which Hanson can best be countered. the profession's exhaustive annual bibliography. by its very nature. Hanson and Heath want to make our flesh Boy creep. from the to the devoted and underpaid high school and Heath's notion of reducing the whole pro fession by fiat to a drove of overworked undergraduate tors mouthing off general clich?s would be ludicrous so many guileless academic populists willing weren't instruc if there to take them. however. seriously.15 is debatable. about lazy professors under the naive assumption that teaching extends no further than the hours actually spent in the lecture room. Indeed. teach ers themselves. articles. and depend on external inspira tion for those rousing podium performances which in their world seem to replace serious and responsible teaching methods.Peter Green 137 arises that what Hanson to abandon and Heath really want is for professors research altogether. there is ample room in it for all sorts and conditions most teacher.

or even of the sixties. forming rather part of a disseminated malaise affecting American educa tion in general and liberal arts and the humanities in particular. there is. who is giving queue up up and turning for new translations elsewhere? Not of Homer. growing tendency of college presidents and trustees to equate academe with industry. Their eloquence. precisely.138 MANDARINS AND ICONOCLASTS This bait-and-switch attitude extends to consumer identity. enrollments or Alexander. could This content downloaded on Mon. conferences. a deep impression. in business. have no specific connection whatsoever with classics. yes. Indeed. steady fall in standards of basic education and literacy. Not. almost none of them with a college education. parents. sweethearts. but the horror stories that form so prominent. pathos. then? But Hanson and Heath's wannabe professors struggling majors? In responsibly limited numbers they too keep on coming. What about classics in Latin?even that's falling enrollments a foreign language? (Greek has always challenged now?as being been a special option. courses. it is very much to the credit of classical studies that they have resisted this virus more successfully than any other disci pline similarly at risk.)16 Actually. Is there no more to all the rhetoric and scare tactics in this book than anxiety about complaint here is of too many to find jobs. the spread of pretentious jargon and the drop in literacy and ethical standards? bogus theorizing. They also served how much difference a hundred years of today. and distracting. tune the in enthusiasts to TV documentaries Classics swell the on Troy of Class. and keep Penguin by and large. and and emotional as a forcible to match can make. Joe them? The begin unpalatable truth is that since Reconstruction we have witnessed a slow. 4 Feb 2013 21:01:10 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . the undergraduates who Civ. 4 One of the most moving features in Ken Burns's landmark TV documentary on the Civil War was the series of letters written home from the front by ordinary anonymous soldiers. to wives. Who. Graduate students. I. a feature of Han son and Heath's the catalog networking of accusations?the at endless subvented cutthroat academic the careerism. What force made reminder of G.

19 but simply with they might existence.) Since science and business were prime unquestioned attractions. 4 Feb 2013 21:01:10 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . of American universities.Peter Green 139 Many educational theorists passionately deny this. in the years after fall in standards has been accompanied. now But?since the watchword?the and liberal opportunity rather overflow arts was the than had answer: academic to be ability was accommodated in effect. Into this depressing equation we must now figure several fur ther factors. inability has not had to read essays by undergraduates whose shaky grasp syntax." Cynics might well remark that even if that latter figure doesn't represent the indeed. there is the well-nigh universal. to me. and student by the taught. it became. Even if the dilution of standards was not primarily due to this exponential growth. an enormous expansion in the number. Listen Association of School Administrators18 literacy? Nor is this blight restricted to to the executive director of the American (In both cases I am not con intake. a low-level academic dumping ground. grammar. though their. opportunity a fallacy turned into a shibboleth by the introduction of the race factor. and simple logic (including the to construct a coherent sentence) puts them on the very borderline of functional defending the record of public school education: "By 1983 we had finally reached a point where school completion was so universally expected that we about dropouts. with which it has nothing to do.17 Yet a study of textbooks and examinations over the years makes abundantly clear what all honest teachers today know very well: which of us of spelling. there is the stubborn general belief that not only do all our young have an inalienable right to educational (which is true). actual truth it ought to. it cannot have been helped by it. they could afford to retain high admission require ments. though This content downloaded on Mon.) Second. but that they're all equally educable. appear related. cerned with the antecedent causes for these phenomena. Today that figure approaches nearly 90 percent [sic]. Quis custodien This WWII. in 1950 nearly began worrying half of our students did not have a high school diploma. somewhere. First. (You need only run a test on a randomly chosen bunch of upper-middle-class Cauca sians to see this. For example.

expectations of near-instant. yes. hard sciences. in liberal arts where the ruthless cuts came.140 MANDARINS AND ICONOCLASTS sometimes belief chil unconscious. had to be made at all levels.21 Then. high salaries. but all of them were way engineering?did ahead on grants. expectations. but not a noticeably better one than their parents did. and This content downloaded on Mon. 4 Feb 2013 21:01:10 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . seriousness in course topics. (Han aca languages included. school began hacking away at the lush humanistic jungle let proliferate in the high and far-off time before oil administrators they had prices sky-rocketed. Encouraged by that section of the public? including numerous parents?who were all for making degrees more job-oriented (paying through the nose for Skip or Muffy to learn French or poetry had always gone against the grain). Those with a clear scare. these tend not only to atrophy natural functions. mechanical practical future?computer The particularly well. grades. Busi ness schools were not far behind. came a nation-wide economic is still working itself out in the the impact of which Inflation hit bloated college budgets. of all intellectual era of the sixties was a dangerous skills. older-generation that. The sheer hard work involved in learning French or German had already seen foreign language requirements gutted or abolished in many colleges: Latin. increasingly. crunch. balanced by a corresponding fall in entrance faculty. learning demands. university presidents tackled the problem in the spirit of those captains of industry whom they had always. almost miraculous. and belief in learning for its own sake rather than as insurance for a profitable career. and petroleum studies. of degree standards.20 Third. The result. mainly son and Heath's generation. research and lab facilities. and enrollments. Boards of Regents and. effortless achievement in the acquisition in the baby-boomer be it noted). inevitably. admired. given an extra boost after the Sputnik were virtually untouched by this crisis. but also to induce unreal. Cuts resurgent Nineties. demic inflation university requirements. we have the largely unre garded impact on learning abilities of various electronic aide to computer spell-checks: from pocket calculators m?moires. Itwas. secretly or not so secretly. bursting the bubble of the sixties and seventies. dren should have a good education.

two generations. against all the evidence. Worse: since few had seen this crunch coming. a good many more PhDs than the profession could afford. they seem wholly blind) in favor of Great Ideas. Han son and Heath's solution is to abandon study of coins. of slackening in the production. Teachers then decided. but taught just as well. not only the technical and metre (to the value of within the general post-war academic developments outlined above have had other even more far-reaching effects. not least as reinforcement for their own teaching. that these could not only be taught.Peter Green 141 Greek a fortiori. and paperback publishers began to make fortunes. Budget cuts?with the consequent elimination of faculty positions. there had been no humanities to significantly lower standards. 4 Feb 2013 21:01:10 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . shrank dramatically. and this shortage led to ruthless competition among the ambitious. due at least as much to a short age of teachers22 as to the alienation of students. Available academic posts in the at large. The conse lengthening of time required to complete a classics PhD is to liberal idleness. of being "dead" languages. not undergraduate study to graduate school. The drying up of Latin in high schools (exaggerated by Heath and Hanson) has been. The sometimes of whole But This content downloaded on Mon. in practi cal terms. but to a delay of up to four in beginning a highly demanding course of study. in the interests of economy? departments. in fact. papyri. and in consequence post pone much quent thus due. Civ. but one damag has been that would-be classicists are now ing consequence forced to do as undergraduates work that had traditionally been completed before university entrance. Class. classics included. inscriptions which. would annihilate classics as a serious discipline implemented. a chilling trickle-down effect in liberal arts departments started to operating at considerably that had grown too accustomed more than their natural size. but also the doctoral the one quantifiable test of a student's capacity for dissertation. in translation. sustained if high-level research and synthesis. These proposals. What Hanson and Heath think of as the new trahison des clercs was under way. suffered the additional disadvantage. courses took off. Calls to years shorten time in graduate school presuppose an inevitable further erosion of academic standards already under heavy assault.

within the past two or three decades. jargon. in just the kind of that Hanson and Heath spend their time showmanship If they had a real interest in the future of their pro excoriating.142 MANDARINS AND ICONOCLASTS result was a of mediocrity. for their particular areas. As readers of von Hayek are well aware. Thus the proliferation. Lacan & Cie. These borrowings. into one-year pool recycled replace ments and other temporary jobs. where facts disciplines. In recent decades tool-sheds knowledge erary their exponents have also raided the of the philosophers and psychologists.24 In humanistic in particular. they would devote less time to name-calling. or feminism. of rival factions. to try and borrow the technical trappings and jargon of "hard" scien in an effort to get tific disciplines such as physics or biochemistry more seriously.23 there has always been a tendency. without proper of either field. are in that of lit considerably criticism shorter supply than trends and theories. of the crisis I have described. is as much wars during a (perhaps even more) a symptom of turf as of intellectual progress. the importance of ap a extent on pearing to be "on the cutting edge" depends to great going with the right new trend. are at best metaphorical and at worst unadulterated non bogus sense. or homoerot ics. It is their all-too-obvious abuse with which I am here concerned. to clear English) culled for our arguments for its preferability and Heath are from classical studies by Hanson entertainment the products. in the "soft" sciences and the humanities. for the most themselves taken part. and more fession. This is not to say that job shortage some of these innovative approaches have not added an exciting and important new dimension to old studies: feminism in partic ular has done so to a striking degree. by It also resulted. and aligning yourself with the academic group currently in power. 4 Feb 2013 21:01:10 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . among those who survived. or postmodernism. What This content downloaded on Mon. to figuring out just where and how things went wrong. touting the virtues of Derrida. addled Just about all the examples of pretentious and impermeable prose (complete with disingenuous thinking. ultimately. and suffering gradual attrition losses to the rival attractions of cab-driving or hash-slinging. and how all of us in the discipline could best cooperate to right them. or whatever.

Once again Hanson and Heath skew facts to make a rhetorical point. jar gon-free and excitingly original. if anything. It is. and attacking the minority?nearly their charges are specific only to places like Harvard or Berke ley25?for not extending what they see as El Dorado privileges to them. lost amid the complexities of Greek grammar (some This be simultaneously tackling Russian or Korean. a parody of the very worst a bad high school can turn out (too many lectures on Greek Wisdom. of course. vapid. Who Killed Homer? prefers to ignore the enormous amount of really dazzling scholarship. virtually restricted to the field of literary criticism. 4 Feb 2013 21:01:10 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . especially when compared to the record of a discipline such as English. In the last resort. as "ATR" all (All The Rest). students Greek I've been is always a and those who take it are highly motivated. The suspicion arises that they are the real elitists. being turned out. if anywhere. for example. is not. hard-working and devoted helping to teach for the past quarter-century. is the positive side to their diatribe? What. the statement does is confirm (despite their angry huff-and is how small a per this kind of pseudo in the cause of Greek Wisdom) the degree to which these are wholly devoid of imagination. mindless. Tell that to Heinrich All puff von Staden or Am?lie Kuhrt or Susan Treggiari. for whose abilities and ideals they nurse an ill-concealed contempt. viewed by the intellectually challenged as a is nowhere more soft option for meeting the foreign language requirement. but never to be cosseted and pampered into staying the course. outside a few Ivy League redoubts. centage of the total output by classicists mandarinism represents. and an insult will to the ambitious. life. ignorant. It voluntary option. Hanson and Heath affect to believe that "the aspiring researcher in Classics cannot find much of anything spectacular to do any more" [emphasis theirs]. in history and papyrology. latter-day Jeremiahs Where. "Teaching The lazy. unlike Latin. apparent than in their chapter entitled Greek is not Easy" (did anyone ever suppose itwas?). in fact. do they actually like? Certainly not students.Peter Green 143 Hanson and Heath don't tell us. writing off the bulk of classics teachers. perhaps?). they'll This content downloaded on Mon. faceless creatures here con jured up. are mind). if they can't enjoy the good make sure no one else does either.

logical many here for special praise (when he unceremoniously barged in and a woman took over.. Nor do Hanson and inculcate improve their case by occasional touches of anarchic six ties romanticism. dazzled them as students at the American School in Athens was the late Colin This Heath an enthusiastic polymath and hands-on Helleno Edmondson. deluded itwith pride. One character who. Implication: and nomic chemistry results. with the single exception of mathematics. What Heath and Hanson propose education everywhere is a single model for all undergraduate in the U. it. But what Alexander's death in 323. in the classroom and out of done." be were Critics they given the authority to enforce their own blueprint. deeming There are barnstorming. This model not only banishes the "soft" sciences from the university. but also. unasked. by teachers and scholars who love their subject passionately.g. that Hanson and Heath's kind. sociology and psychology) more surprisingly (till we think of Plato). and in general treat as a backdrop to the professional pursuit entitled really chills the blood is their manifesto a sketch of classics teaching as it would "What We Could Do. We can't say we haven't been warned. by implication. from lecturer) shows him at his absolute worst. by and large have ignored it: a great mistake. (e. It also reminds us. would-be Platonic Guardians who all think and act quite This content downloaded on Mon. research in biology. most often in combination. relegates the "hard" to vocational sciences.26 and (to borrow an aphorism of Robert Graves) in due course the rats will probably return to it. with a remarkable capacity for ouzo and nonstop archaeo phile. and do not appreciate being described as souls bailing out a sinking ship. The ship is very much unsunk. stories that could be told about Colin: the one selected view of Greece nothing worthy and the Greeks of is the old-fashioned no Greek attention?certainly Wisdom?after ing the country merely of antiquity. 4 Feb 2013 21:01:10 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . physics technology campuses.144 MANDARINS AND ICONOCLASTS unattractive attitude ignores the selfless work being nation-wide and at all levels.S. predictably. has no intrinsic merit except as it produces eco the undergraduate college is ruled by idealised Greek professors (Latin and Roman studies somehow get forgot Meanwhile ten).

share a philosopher-king. as though by magic. recommendations make foreign language teaching. the only they value is. again. counseling. This content downloaded on Mon. which means that these Greek pro fessors teach everyone and everything (I swear I'm not making this up). that they were a model only in the ideal sense. and perhaps by way of settling old scores. high schools and community colleges. from grade school up. and would thus be all the happier to impose on the rest of us. (If they had wanted could have tackled the current suggestions. yes: but. every body has to do what Heath and Hanson are probably as tired of doing as anyone else. not working more with individual students. In the last resort what the loss to classics of its old potent (a very Roman sort of innate authority is they are really mourning cultural and social auctoritas court of Dionysius practical lack of effective American to of Plato's Republic. how many papers graded. trators who how all too closely. Outreach reading. level of teaching is relentlessly low-grade. into a moral pia is even virtue. I suspect. had no exact parallel).Peter Green 145 remarkably like Hanson and Heath. for the sake of argument. In this quantifiable utopia. I agree. from the podium. come to think of it. as we might expect. similar dream. I hope I have applied this admirable precept with all due rigor to their own. than that their uto the more outr? less workable. The approach a class. We are also of a different sort?with deans and adminis presented?fantasy suddenly acquire. as useless. That embarrassing fiasco at the crippling in Sicily suggests otherwise: Sir Karl Popper that Plato dreamed of becoming his own argued. persuasively.) Plato's supporters have long argued that he never meant his proposals to be implemented. current administrative number-crunching: many students lectured to. they for which the Greeks. Hanson and Heath. in other words. lecturing in front of teaching are all dismissed (tutorials). Everything is taught as an extension of Greek thinking. 4 Feb 2013 21:01:10 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Who Killed Homer? applauds the Greeks for bringing a proper degree of radical scepticism to any and every intellectual proposal. I find it symptomatic in practical terms. The difference is that here it's elevated. the wisdom to distinguish between good and bad teaching. how many classes taught. classes to One-on-one committee-work. Yet the criteria Hanson and Heath want to impose resemble.

criticisms. G. as his lay-out irresistibly or uncon suggests: 2. or for travel to deliver seem a little embarrassed that one accepted?an Association. Magic. to taking cash grants the obvious papers at national conferences. Scholarship: III (New York ed. received?and actually in Teaching Award from the American Philological know who was. and refers to earlier such as those by Konstan. Calder Encyclopedia. as an well aware of it: when discussing vor sich": C. Amusingly. W. I don't 6.146 MANDARINS AND ICONOCLASTS NOTES has been waging this war now for some while. carrying out issue an anticipatory ing high-tech books for research. that Heath's "big ideas" for moral platitudes" hit the mark with represents "nothing but pop phraseology It is symptomatic uncomfortable that the thesis Hanson and Heath precision. (Heath Excellence a body received regarded by them both as the last bastion of sclerotic elit the same award two years earlier." activities the professional they condemn mea culpa covering about everything. 4 Feb 2013 21:01:10 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . I owe this reference This content downloaded on Mon. and Classical Be<irmgs( 1989)." 7. des Entstehung 1980). as the answer to their own the notion of Heath and Hanson 4. now present includes Heath's old arguments virtually intact. Cited by R.) in Classical A Bio "Richard Porson. Well themselves they aware of danger of being charged by their critics with as "crimes. 3-60. 8. See Essays i. M. other among the guerillas of German-held ing operations in the true Hellenic scholars I could mention?weren't operating spirit. only to pooh-pooh Parthenon in Antiquity (i960). 14-16. Lloyd. ism. carrying out legendary bridge-blow If they?and Greece. They even of them. them. Dawe. Development of Greek Science (Cambridge 9. the title essay in The Shadow of the (1972). from Bernard produced into occupied France and Italy. Hanson. Meier. 51. D. See "Greek to Him. This more PT boats to Nick Hammond in the Aegean. Briggs and W. or Geoffrey Kirk commanding Knox parachuting 5. 384. and Heath show and in fact Hanson story is told by Ion of Chios. An earlier round was in the pages of Classical World 89 (1995). WHO KILLED HOMER VICTOR DAVISHANSON JOHN HEATH is an especially unfortunate has gibe. 11-46. in 1989. "Die Griechen Politischen 10. The themselves to the kindness hatten keine Griechen bei den Griechen of Professor am Main (Frankfurt David Lupher. in which he shrugged off fought to his agenda without the various (mostly very sensible) responses giving them comment serious consideration. also seems to have crossed the mind." The New Republic 9 Oct. W. David Konstan's (33). R. since the classics professoriate than its share of (often colorful) wartime heroes. graphical in the Origin and 1990). 1-25. Heath rhetorical sciously. E. 1995. 3. 15-30. consciously question of their jacket-designer Tom Stvan. Studies Reason and Experience: 1979)? 234. the siege of Samos they add. from writ just and articles impenetrable by the many.

The New York Times.000 to 4. (Lanham. MD fession in Crisis?. Thus we find "the Greeks" presented and the first critique of Philistinism. Hermann a model of Catholic in a work entitled Medulla Theo Busenbaum." This chilling aphorism was coined not. logiae Moralis 13.g. in middle between 1990 and 1994 high school enrollments schools (yes. I do hope H&H desipience. Incidentally. pretations bizarre to a degree. CAMWS Newsletter in American Schools and Colleges. Just how strong this inherited belief was can be judged by the extraordi nary (and too often circle-squaring) attempts carried out during the period of to reconcile the clas in universities in particular.. and the Attack America's Public Schools (New York 1995). they have tripled since the early 1980s. ed. The Manufactured Crisis: Myths.Peter Green 147 near." Greek Wisdom. from 2.'" example note of Flaherty's article in general. For an excellent survey of what is still an on-going debate see D. "Sophocles was somewhere but carefully also concede his wealth. according is the excitement of being able to name-call in style. "Latina Resurgens: 15. has its spinmeisters. Who is clearly. Later. orthodoxy." generally cited as "The end justifies the means. badly out of Killed Homer? date. Biddle. and articles in Classics: A Discipline 1989). 14. schools This content downloaded on Mon.2 (1996). is exploited with gusto through 11. They out that the wealth was derived from armaments. E. R." The Classi Classical Language Enrollments "Can Classics Die?. the review of this by L. Lafleur. Phyllis Culham and Lowell Edwards 16. Stedman. as part of the elected high command of aside. Franca (Sept. (1650). 7. David Damrosch. A. but by a seventeenth-century Jesuit. Turner./Oct. 'You are a prime of puerile hebetudinous take Well. chide someone for childish. which ran into over two hundred editions. Children. 61-66. See Julie Flaherty. as so many believe. 1998." 20 Nov. 125-30. for an excellent sical heritage with Christianity: in Victorian Britain (New Haven The Greek Heritage least on inter 1981)?not some of which. in particular. Latin enjoys a Renaissance. the means are licit too. when Lhasa and Khatmandu Tibetan became meccas for the became rather discouraging neophytes the persistent Cambridge harder. Aristophanes arms manufacturers for their loss of income after the Peace of Nicias mocking that "he's got so old and mean. were those by Gladstone of Homer. in addition to its other assorted faults. the Athenians" [my emphasis]. yes. has one character observe of Sophocles he'd put to sea on a sieve for profit. would-be 6. to for elementary One of the great attractions schoolchildren. making 12. This factitious reconciliation of opposites as both originating materialism out. 4 Feb 2013 21:01:10 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . dull stupidity. much refrain from pointing is the only one of the three great Athenian less that Sophocles tragedians who in the Peace (695-99). A34. but a leg end notwithstanding. Flower of course. "In America's Schools. That is. by Marx or Engels. (421). The resurgent figures are startling: have gone up 15%. they need only say." Lingua cal Outlook 74 (1997).300. Fraud. too. legend that Shackleton Bailey was contacted as an expert to evaluate his own application is ben trovato. account see Frank M. and that last sentence in particular. 17. Berliner on and B. and Pro 1995). never has a bad word to say about warfare. Victorian religious controversy. "If they want to Flaherty. "When the end is licit. and in elementary that's right!) since 1990 they have more than doubled.

Davis 3." in The Teaching of Latin in American xv. 25 May. 1995 [Education Review section] 16-17. our Past (New York 1997). And see R. 4 Feb 2013 21:01:10 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and even then for the delivery of an invited paper. These they can be satirized without things have got to the point where in a New Yorker cartoon: see the issue of 25 May 1998. only five years ago with started to learn here in ninth and tenth grades. 24. Wilhelm. and LaFleur's comments. 1998.). instances see. Schools: A Profession ers. Raymond John R. Dr. The class valedictorian of a to the school. Searle.A. note Abuse 16 above. 17-30.. Indianapolis 1979). 3 (Berliner and Biddle). of Texas the bulk of my professional career. Houston of a much (note 18) also remarks that "the fabled SAT decline was a to college and broader pool of college applicants aspiring the average" [my emphasis]. that There can be no more than two or three universities operate only other for one such trip per of us are lucky to get reimbursed this way. IL 1952. Cedar Rapids. 33. are particularly incensed by the lavish reimbursement of travel 25. {The Gazette. at most in the U. or "Bachelor of Lotto" (B. My quota nia. in Crisis. tests are now (B. and vol. Califor formerly superintendent and school principal. Houston. a German who emigrated "What in fifth" I told a reporter: rudimentary English.). (New York Critics and with some Free Press. International what many of us have long suspected. e. 5A. and the conse in Education conducted quent lengthy discussion Policy Analysis Archives. Most a top limit that regularly falls short of total outlay. appearing result 19. of schools in Riverside. 7b). We also are obliged to stand in for each with on a reciprocal basis.. in the University in the classroom rising student enrollments year after year. 4 no. F. worked at outreach to the annum. Paul D. I note. administrator. 4 no. 18. I read in my morning paper.g.). 91. The at Austin.S. They to innumerable and symposia during the academic year.800 spent had steadily This content downloaded on Mon. GA 1987). 7 (Stedman). and an experienced teacher. by the which also publishes Who Killed Homer? Tallis. Classical includes (note 22). A. Vol.S.G. von Hayek. See Sally Davis. 26. and Keith Windschuttle. notes that the American League I where large department college and high school classics teachers." 21.W. as "Bachelor of Grocery Arts" of "Bachelor (B.L. where explanation "Useful Degrees" we find listed (with suitable illustrations) under the heading such offerings Waitressing" confirming local high U. For systematic analysis of some particularly egregious (New York 1995). 21. I learned in Germany 1998. Latin in American Schools: Teaching the Ancient World Latin Teach "The Shortage of High-School (Atlanta 1991). Few things caused more the claim by the former substantially. LaFleur (Decatur. of Reason. 5 Nov. A. tion is taken from a Knight Ridder/Tribune Services Information piece in the Cedar Rapids Gazette of Sunday 24 May. 2nd ed. fuss in the Berliner & Biddle/Stedman students are out-achieving debate than that "today's their parents thereby lowering 20.148 MANDARINS AND ICONOCLASTS Washington Post. Pessimism Enemies of Contemporary of Hope: A Critique The Killing of History: How Literary 1997). in the The Counter-Revolution Studies of Science: (Glencoe. also R. are Murdering Social Theorists are published that both Searle and Windschuttle amusement. conferences expenses and the time off granted from classroom teaching to spend on such activities. The Construction of Social Reality 23. ed. 22.

I don't smell imminent major Utah demise here. This content downloaded on Mon. enrollments. Fran's work has been recently honored by the award of the state prize for teaching at college level. tications. with versity ex nihilo in Utah State Uni striking success. The much smaller department I am now attached has a similar success story: rising of Iowa to which University three new tenure-track positions. Despite Hanson and Heath's gloomy prognos two former students of mine. created a classics department at Logan. at the years has added six tenure-track positions.Peter Green 149 Texas and in the last eight high schools long before that became fashionable. it's not in my neck of the woods. Wherever classics may be dying. Mark Damen and Fran Titchener. 4 Feb 2013 21:01:10 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . have.

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