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4  1
Section 4
Design Loads
A. General, Definitions
1. General.
This Section provides data regarding design loads
for determining the scantlings of the hull structural
elements by means of the design formula given in
the following Section or by means of direct
calculations. The dynamic portions of the design
loads are design values which can only be applied
within the design concept of this Volume.
2. Definitions
2.1 Load centre
2.1.1 For plates:
B
Vertical stiffening system:
0,5 @ stiffener spacing above the lower
support of plate field, or lower edge of plate
when the thickness changes within the plate
field.
B
Horizontal stiffening system:
Midpoint of plate field.
2
.1.2 For stiffeners and girders:
Centre of span R.
2.2 Definition of symbols
v
0
= ship's speed according to Section 1, H.5.
D
c
= density of cargo as stowed in [t/m
3
]
D = density of liquids in [t/m
3
]
= 1,0 t/m
3
for fresh water and sea water
z = vertical distance of the structure's load
centre above base line in [m]
x
= distance from aft end of length L in [m]
p
0
= basic external dynamic load
= 2,1 @ (C
B
+ 0,7) @ c
0
@ c
L
@ f @ c
RW
[kN/m
2
]
C
B
= moulded block coefficient according to
Section 1, H.4., where C
B
is not to be
taken less than 0,60.
c
0
= wave coefficient
= 4,1
25
L
+ for L < 90 m
c
0
=
(
¸
(
¸
−
−
100
L 300
1,5
10,75 for 90 ≤ L ≤ 300 m
= 10,75 for L > 300 m
c
L
=
90
L
for L < 90 m
= 1,0 for L ≥ 90 m
c
RW
= service range coefficient
= 1,00 for unlimited service range
= 0,90 for service range P
= 0,75 for service range L
= 0,60 for service range T
f = probability factor
= 1,0 for plate panels of the outer hull
(shell plating, weather decks)
= 0,75 for secondary stiffening members
and of the outer hull (frames, deck
beams)
= 0,60 for girders and girder systems of the
outer hull (web frames, stringers, grillage
systems)
c
D
, c
F
= distribution factors according to Table
4.1.
B. External Sea Loads
1. Load on weather decks
1.1 The load on weather deck is to determined
ccording to the following formula: a
p
D
= p
0 cD
T)H z (10
T 20
− +
⋅
[kN/m
2
]
c
D
= factor according to Table 4.1
Section 4  Design Loads C, D
4  2
1.2 For strength decks which are to be
treated as weather decks as well as for forecastle
decks the load is not to be less than the greater of
the following two values:
p
Dmin
= 16 @ f [kN/m
2
]
o
r
p
Dmin
= 0,7 @ p
0
[kN/m
2
]
Table 4.1
Range Factor c
D
Factor c
F
1)
A
0≤ <0,2
1,2 
1,0 +
M 0,2 ≤ < 0,7 1,0 1,0
F
0,7 ≤ < 1,0
1,0 +
c = 0,15 L  10
where: L
min
= 100 m
L
max
= 250 m
1,0 +
1)
Within the range A the ratio x/L need not be taken less than 0,1, within the range F the ratio x/L need not be taken greater
than 0,93
Fig. 4.1
1.3 Where deck cargo is intended to be carried
on the weather deck resulting in load greater than
the value determined according to 1.1, the
scantlings are governed by the greater load (see also
). C
Where the stowage height of deck cargo is less than
1,0 m, the deck cargo load may be required to be
ncreased by the following value: i
p
z
= 10 (1 S h
c
) [kN/m
2
]
h
c
= stowage height of the cargo in [m]
2. Load on ship's sides and bow structures
2.1 Load on ship's sides
The external load p
s
on the ship's sides is to be
determined according to 2.1.1 and 2.1.2.
2.1.1 For elements the load centre of which is
ocated below load waterline: l
p
s
= 
.

\

+ ⋅ + −
T
z
1 c p z)
F 0
10(T [kN/m
2
]
2.1.2 For elements the load centre of which is
located above the load water line:
p
s
=
T z 10
20
.c p
F 0
− +
[kN/m
2
]
2.2 Load on bow structures
The design load for bow structures from forward to
0,1 L behind F.P. and above the ballast waterline in
accordance with the draft T
b
in 4.1 is to be
determined according to the following formula :
p
e
=
  L 0,6
0
v 0,20
2
+ ⋅
c [kN'm
2
]
with L
max
= 300
m.
c = 0,8 in general
=
) sin 09 , 1 2 , 1 (
4 , 0
α ⋅ −
for extremely flared sides where the flare
angle " is larger than 40°
Section 4  Design Loads C, D
4  3
The flare angle " at the load centre is to be
measured in the plane of frame between a vertical
ine and the tangent to the side shell plating. l
For unusual bow shapes p
e
can be specially
onsidered. c
p
e
must not be smaller than p
s
according to 2.1.1 or
.1.2 respectively. 2
Aft of 0,1 L from F.P. up to 0,15 L from F.P. the
ressure between p
e
and p
s
is to be graded steadily. p
The design load for bow doors is given in Section
6, H.3.
2.3 Load on stern structures
The design load for stern structures from the aft end
to 0,1 L forward of the aft end of L and above the
smallest design ballast draught at the centre of the
rudder stock up to T + c
0
/2 is to be determined
ccording to the following formula: a
p
e
= c
A
@ L [kN/m
2
]
c
A
= 0,3 @ c $ 0,36
c = see 2.2
p
e
= must not be smaller than p
s
according to
2.1.1 or 2.1.2 respectively
3. Load on the ship's bottom
The external load p
B
of the ship's bottom is to be
determined according to the following formula:
p
B
= 10 @ T + p
0
@ c
F
[kN/m
2
].
4. Design bottom slamming pressure
4.1 The design bottom slamming pressure may
be determined by the following formula:
p
SL
=
c c c c
L
s A SL
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
1
162 [kN/m
2
]
for L ≤ 150 m
=1984 [kN/m
c c c c
L
s A SL
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ −
1
) 002 , 0 3 , 1 (
2
]
for L > 150 m
c
1
= 3,6  6,5
(
¸
(
¸
L
T
b
0,2
c
1max
= 1,0
T
b
= smallest design ballast draught at F.P for
normal ballast conditions in
[m],according to which the strengthening
of bottom forward, see Section.6, E. has
to be done.
This value has to be recorded in the
Class Certificate and in the loading
manual.
c
SL
= distribution factor, see also Fig. 4.2
Fig. 4.2
c
SL
= 0 for 0,5
L
x
≤
=
c
0,5
x
2
−
L
for 0,65
L
x
5 , 0 ≤ < + c
2
= 1,0 for 0,65
L
x
5 , ≤ < 0 + c
2
= 0,5
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
−
−
+
c
0,35
L
x
1
1
2
c
0,5
L
x
2
+ > for
c
2
= 0,33 @ C
B
+
2500
L
c
2max
= 0,35
c
A
= 10/A
A = loaded area between the supports of the
structure considered in [m
2
]
0,3 ≤ c
A
≤ 1,0
c
A
= 1,0 for plate panels and stiffeners.
c
s
=
2
c
RW
+ 1
5. Load on decks of superstructures and
deckhouses
5.1 The load on exposed decks and parts of
superstructure and deckhouse decks, which are not
Section 4  Design Loads C, D
4  4
to be treated as strength deck, is to be determined as
ollows: f
p
DA
= p
D
@ n [kN/m
2
]
p
D
= load according 1.1
n =
10
H −
−
z
1
= 1,0 for the forecastle deck
n
min
= 0,5
For deckhouses the value so determined may be
ultiplied by the factor m

.

\
+ 0,3
B'
b'
0,7

b
’ = breadth of deckhouse
B’ = largest breadth of ship at the position
considered.
Except for the forecastle deck the minimum load
s: i
p
DAmin
= 4 [kN/m
2
]
5.2 For exposed wheel house tops the load is not
o be taken less than t
p = 2,5 [kN/m
2
]
C. Cargo Loads, Load on
Accommodation Decks
1. Load on cargo decks
1.1 The load on cargo decks is to be determined
according to the following formula:
p
L
= p
c
(1 + a
v
) [kN/m
2
]
p
c
= static cargo load in [kN/m
2
]
if no cargo load is given: p
c
= 7 @ h for 'tween decks
but not less than 15 kN/m
2
.
h
= mean 'tween deck height in [m].
In way of hatch casings the increased height of
cargo is to be taken into account
a
v
= acceleration factor as follows:
= F @ m
F = 0,11
L
v0
m = m
o
 5 (m
o
 1) for 0 ≤ ≤ 0,2
= 1,0 for 0,2 < ≤ 0,7
= for 0,7 < ≤ 1,0
m
o
= (1,5 + F)
v
0
= see A.2.2. v
0
is not to be taken less than
L
v0
[kN]
1.2 For timber and coke deck cargo the load on
deck is to be determined by the following formula:
p
L
= 5 @ h
s
(1 + a
v
) [kN/m
2
]
h
s
= stowing height of cargo in [m].
1.3 The loads due to single forces P
E
(e.g. in
case of containers) are to be determined as follows:
P = P
E
(1 + a
v
) [kN].
1.4 The cargo pressure of bulk cargoes is to be
determined by the following formula:
p
bc
= p
c
(1 + a
v
) [kN/m
2
]
p
c
= static bulk cargo load
= 9,81 A D
c
A h A n [kN/m
2
]
h = distance between upper edge of cargo
and the load centre [m]
n =
(
¸
(
¸
+ 
.

\

− α α
γ
2 2 2
cos sin
2
45 tan
o
" = angle in degrees between the structural
element considered and a horizontal
plane
( = angle of repose of the cargo in degrees
2. Load on inner bottom
2.1 The inner bottom cargo load is to be
determined as follows:
p
i
= 9,81 @ @ h (1 + a
v
) [kN/m
2
]
G
= mass of cargo in the hold in [t]
V = volume of the hold in [m
3
] (hatchways
excluded)
h = height of the highest point of the cargo
above the inner bottom in [m], assuming
Section 4  Design Loads C, D
4  5
hold to be completely filled.
a
v
see 1.1
For calculating a
v
the distance between
the centre of gravity of the hold and the aft end of
the length L is to be taken.
2.2 For inner bottom load in case of ore stowed
in conical shape, see Section 23, B.3.
3. Loads on accommodation and machinery
decks
3.1 The deck load in accommodation and
service spaces is:
p = 3,5 ( 1 + a
v
) [kN/m
2
]
3
.2 The deck load of machinery decks is:
p = 8 ( 1 + a
v
) [kN/m
2
]
3.3 Significant single forces are also to be
considered, if necessary.
D. Load on Tank Structures
1. Design pressure for filled tanks
1.1 The design pressure for service conditions is
he greater of the following values: t
p
1
= 9,81@ h
1
@ D (1 + a
v
) + 100 @ p
v
[kN/m
2
]
or
p
1
=   p 100
sin
y) b (0,35
cos h
9,81.ρ
v
1
⋅ + + ⋅ ⋅
ϕ ϕ
[kN/m
2
]
h
1
= distance of load centre from tank top in
[m]
a
v
see C.1.1
n = design angle of heel in degrees,
normally n = 20E
b
= upper breadth of tank in [m]
y = distance of load centre from the vertical
longitudinal central plane of tank in [m]
p
v
= set pressure of pressure relief valve in
[bar], if a pressure relief valve is fitted
= working pressure during ballast water
exchange [bar]
=
∆
+
− ∆
pv
z
10
5 , 2
)z = distance from top of overflow to tank top
[m]
)p
v
= pressure losses in the overflow line [bar]
)p
vmin
= 0,1 [bar]
p
vmin
= 0,1 [bar] during ballast water exchange
= 0,2 bar (2,0 mWS) for cargo tanks of
tankers (see also Rules for Machinery
Installations, Volume III, Section 15).
Smaller set pressures than 0,2 bar may be accepted
in special cases. The actual set pressure will be
entered into the class certificate.
1.2 The maximum static design pressure is:
p
2
= 9,81 @ h
2
[kN/m
2
]
h
2
= distance of load centre from top of
overflow or from a point 2,5 m above
tank top, whichever is the greater. Tank
venting pipes of cargo tanks of tankers
are not to be regarded as overflow pipes.
For tanks equipped with pressure relief valves
and/or for tanks intended to carry liquids of a
density greater than 1 t/m
3
, the head h
2
is at least to
be measured to a level at the following distance hp
bove tank top: a
h
p
= 2,5 @ D [mWS], head of water in [m],
or
= 10 @ p
v
[mWS], where p
v
> 0,25 @ D.
Regarding the design pressure of fuel tanks and
ballast tanks which are connected to an overflow
system, the dynamic pressure increase due to the
overflowing is to be taken into account in addition
to the static pressure height up to the highest point
of the overflow system, see also Regulation for
Construction, Equipment and Testing of Closed
Fuel Overflow Systems.
2. Design pressure for partially filled tanks
2.1 For tanks which may be partially filled
between 20% and 90% of their height, the design
pressure is not to be taken less than given by the
following formulae:
2.1.1 For structures located within 0,25 R
t
from the
bulkheads limiting the free liquid surface in the
ship's longitudinal direction:
p
d
= p 100 n ρ
150
L
4
v x t
+ ⋅ ⋅ 
.

\
l

− [kN/m
2
]
Section 4  Design Loads C, D
4  6
R
t
= distance in [m] between transverse
bulkheads or effective transverse wash
bulkheads at the height where the
structure is located.
2.1.2 For structures located within 0,25 b
t
from
the bulkheads limiting the free liquid surface in the
ship's transverse section:
p
d
= p
n b
B
v
y t
⋅ + ⋅ ⋅
(
¸
(
¸
− 100
20
5 , 5 ρ
[kN/m
2
]
b
t
= distance in [m] between tank sides or
effective longitudinal wash bulkhead at
the height where the structure is located.
n
x
=
x
4
1
t l
− 1
n
y
= y
4
1
t b
− 1
x
1
= distance of structural element from the
tank’s end in the ship’s longitudinal
direction in [m]
y
1
= distance of structural element from the
tank’s sides in the ship’s transverse
direction in [m]
2.2 For tanks with ratios R
t
/L > 0,1 or b
t
/B > 0,6
a direct calculation of the pressure p
d
may be
required.
E. Design Values of Acceleration
Components
1. Acceleration components
The following formulae may be taken for guidance
when calculating the acceleration components
wing to ship's motions. o
V
ertical acceleration:
a
z
=
5 , 1
2 2
0
6 , 0
45 , 0
45
3 , 5 1
(
¸
(
¸
(
¸
(
¸
−
(
¸
(
¸
− + ±
C
L
x
L
a
B
Transverse acceleration:
a
y
=
5 , 1 2
0
6 , 0 1 45 , 0 5 , 2 6 , 0
(
¸
(
¸
−
⋅ + +
(
¸
(
¸
− +
B
T z
k k
L
x
a
L
ongitudinal acceleration:
a
x
= 0,25A A 0,06
2
0
− + a ±
w
here
A =
C
0,6
L
T z
5
1200
L
0,7
B
(
¸
(
¸
−
+ −
The acceleration components take account of the
following components of motion:
Vertical acceleration (vertical to the base line) due
o heave, and pitch. t
Transverse acceleration (vertical to the ship's
side) due to roll, yaw and sway including gravity
component of roll.
Longitudinal acceleration (in longitudinal
direction) due to surge and pitch including gravity
component of pitch.
a
x
, a
y
and a
z
are maximum dimensionless
accelerations (i.e., relative to the acceleration
gravity g) in the related direction x, y and z. For
calculation purposes they are considered to act
separately.
a
0
=
f
L
c c c
3
L
v
0,2
q
0
RW L 0
0
0
(
(
¸
(
¸
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
+
L
0
= length of ship L [m], but for
determination of a
0
the length L
0
shall
not be taken less than 100m
k =
= metacentric height in [m]
k
min
= 1,0
f
Q
= probability factor depending on
probability level Q as outline in Table
4.2.
Table 4.2
Q f
Q
10
8
10
7
10
6
10
5
10
4
1,000
0,875
0,750
0,625
0,500
2. Combined acceleration
The combined acceleration a
$
may be determined
by means of the "acceleration ellipse" according to
Fig. 4.3 (e.g. yzplane).
Section 4  Design Loads C, D
4  7
Fig. 4.3
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