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Michael S. P. Miller email@example.com http://piagetmodeler.tumblr.com
Abstract— Embodied cognitive systems require bodies and worlds where they can interact, explore, and learn. An open framework which connects minds to worlds is therefore of paramount importance. This paper describes a proposed framework in which cognitive system minds can be spawned on demand to control devices. The challenges and considerations involved in implementing a mind server are discussed. Keywords- mind server, mind broker, mind provisioning, PAM-P2. Multiple individual minds is the term for the situation in which more than one mind each having its own private data controls its own single body. A hive mind is the term for the situation in which more than one mind each sharing data controls its own single body.
Like the fictional brain in a vat, artificial minds are useless if they are not connected to the real world. What would be nice is to have a test bed where many different artificial minds could be deployed and compared using homogenous bodies and worlds. This paper considers the assumptions and technical requirements for implementing a mind server.
The remaining situations, multiple unity minds and multiple hive minds, are simply variants of the above. Each of these choices has implications for the measurability of development (of the individual) or evolution (of the multiple or hive). For instance, if the emphasis of the mind server were on tracking the development of a mind since inception then the preference would be for an individual mind or multiple individual minds implementation. On the other hand, if the emphasis were on tracking the evolution of the minds as a group then a hive mind might be a preferable implementation.
It is important to consider what drives or motivations a mind may have. Beyond the need to operate and maintain its body, a mind may have other needs as well such as curiosity, security, safety, stimulation and so forth. These needs could be hard wired into the mind, or become configuration parameters. The more flexibly these are defined, the easier it is to experiment with such parameters. A mind type often has a set of permanent needs that are configurable.
There are several considerations which provide assumptions and constraints for the design of a mind server. Among them are the individuality and motivations of the minds, whether the minds use telepathy, what specific devices the minds will control, what are the needs and capabilities of those devices, and so forth.
Another important question is whether or not minds are allowed to communicate directly with one another. If allowed, then the entire collection of minds forms a multi-agent system. If prohibited, then each mind will be limited to using its body for communication.
The first question is one of individuality, preferring that term to the more anthropomorphic term “personality”. Is each mind going to have its own data (knowledge and memory) or will that data be shared across minds in a repository of some sort. The second question is whether the mind will control a single body or multiple bodies. These two questions tie to the notion of what makes a mind an individual. There are a few possible answers each of which determines how we view mind development and evolution. An individual mind is the term for the situation in which a single mind with its own private data controls one body. A unity mind is the term for the situation in which a single mind with its own private data controls many bodies. A dissociative identity mind is the term for the situation in which many minds each with their own private data control a single body. In humans we may refer to this situation as multiple personality disorder.
D. Device Types
For an embodied cognitive system the body is a device. Whether the body is a robot, computer, or mobile phone makes little difference to the mind. Sensory datasets flow from the device to the mind, and actions flow from the mind to the device. If the mind body protocols are well designed, the protocols will the convey requisite information in a timely yet decoupled manner between the mind and device regardless of the mind type or device type.
E. Device Capabilities
As far as possible, a mind should be agnostic to the potential device types it may control. Since a device’s operation is encapsulated the mind can treat the device as a service to which the mind sends arbitrary actions and receives
The end user website is a place where device owners can register their devices and download the client software (the psyche) for their devices. F. B. Device Needs A. (5) a mind interaction service for direct interaction with a mind. For example. These actions are performed on real or virtual actuators. or need to have their energy level above fifty percent. as well as cache frequently used results. It is desirable for devices to dynamically provide their permanent needs to the mind when they first connect to the mind Usually these needs are expressed as homestatic variables which the device maintains. (3) a device login service to provide a token for authentication and authorization (4) a mind provisioning service to spawn new instances of a mind. . The Mind Server Host System. THE HOST The mind server host server system (Figure 1) is comprised of five parts: (1) a user web site for device owner registration. Mind Broker Services For low bandwidth devices it is preferable to translate full web service calls to low bandwidth web service calls. robots may need to be in an ambient environment—not too hot or cold. if the power of the device is measured in units from 1 to 100 and the target value is at 75. The delta between the target value of the variable and the actual value is called the Urge. whenever the actual value dips to 50. For example. Mobile phones would like to maintain high signal strength. III. User Website & Services Each device has specific needs that ensure the continued operation of the device. account management. It is desirable for the device to know its own capabilities and be able to provide its complete set of possible actions dynamically to the mind upon first connection. It may be the case that client software for specific devices must be acquired from their respective online manufacturer marketplaces. Devices have a set of actions that they can perform.Figure 1. the urge for power (expressed as the delta) would be 25. The Mind Broker services provide this translation function. Action requests are sent to the device and the device returns the results—typically success or failure. or need to remain upright as opposed to horizontal. Boolean success or failure responses. (2) a mind broker service to which low bandwidth devices can connect. and device management. One assumption being that it is incumbent upon the mind to learn the circumstances under which its actions fail or succeed.
Mind Provisioning Service This service returns the URL for a Mind Interaction Service of the desired mind type.C. The range of possible actions can be provided by the device when the device initially connects to the mind. Response information such as action requests are sent from the mind to the device also on a continual basis. THE MIND A mind is program with interfaces for perception and execution (see Fig. Therefore. The device login service calls upon the Mind Provisioning component to retrieve the URL. A. Configuration information for needs and capabilities are exchanged upon the initial handshake between the device and the mind. For example. Spawning a mind instance is no doubt a challenging prospect. actions to be sent to a device which interprets the actions and returns the effects of attempting to perform the actions. and receive a URL to their designated Mind Interaction Service. A particular mind implementation should be compatible with these constraints. A termination request can be sent by either mind or device to close the session. they will rely heavily upon configuration and logging. receive a device token. etc. This is accomplished by either provisioning a new mind application in the cloud.e. Set point targets for measures such as available power. Mind Interaction Service The mind interaction service exchanges information between the device and the mind. urges) from internal receptors within the device. a sample mind. Thereafter. or recycling a mind application from a pool of available ones. The perception interface should allow the mind program to receive datasets of sensory information. 2). Selection of the appropriate infrastructure are subject to resource and cost constraints. and without user intervention. physical orientation. As of this writing there are several deployment options available. and action effects are continuously transferred from the device to the mind. To facilitate this ambitious undertaking it is necessary to standardize the perception and response services. Not unlike typical web service applications. in a cloud or at least on a server. can be provided by the device upon initial connection. Device Login Service The device login service allows devices to authenticate. the device can provide a desired target set point for available power to be 95%. Configuration As far as possible. D. B. perceptual information such as sensory data sets (containing visual or auditory frames or other sensor readings). or as applications for virtual machines and so forth. . Cloud Services. Open Stack Nova and Glance are current open source technologies that can be used in mind provisioning. OpenCloud. PAM-P2. Minds need to be designed to run. minds need to be designed to run without a user interface. Deployment E. as well as homeostatic measures (i. The execution interface should allow Figure 2. the effects of attempted actions.. including OpenStack. ideally. IV. urges.
VI. and would not allow the minds to develop quickly. THE SOUL Each device needs client software to interface with the host. A psyche application is downloaded from the user website or device marketplace. Scalability and throughput would be the overriding concerns for a unity mind. allowing them to communicate with others via human languages. When run on the device. For example. B. . Device profiles and user preferences may be available to any mind in a hive and personalization can be simulated. and potential actions to fully exercise an artificial mind and test the limits of network bandwidth. Each client application needs to be specially written for each device type while leveraging the standard services (Device Login Service. this may no longer be the case. then negotiation of products or services may be another function which the mind can perform with other minds on behalf of the device (and on behalf of the device owner). For a unity mind. what is the process by which we reconstitute the private data of the mind? In the case of very small multiple or individual mind servers. A response service forwards action requests when invoked by the client. and where. THE BODY A. This is not a problem for hive minds as there is no specific measure of individuality. If the mind engages in telepathy. personal computers. Interaction Minds can expose a perception service which receives sensory datasets. the minds and users may become accustomed to one another. A. receives a Mind Interaction Service URL. If there are a large number of minds being served. V. B. Mobile & Tablet Devices For mobile or tablet devices some consideration should be given to message length in those cases where users have to bear network traffic costs for roaming devices. or by being part of a hive mind or unity mind. the psyche application attempts a device login. and mind applications which consume significant resources today may be placed quite confidently on hardware within a droid in the future. do device owners get a choice of which specific individual mind they receive upon incarnation or reincarnation? This decision will impact the usability of a mind as well as impact mind data storage requirements. The Psyche Mobile and tablet devices. However. but measurement of an individual mind’s development cannot occur in a hive. The psyche application should always be ethical and run with the user’s full knowledge and consent. On the other hand. Thereafter. telepathy. Again computers will be engaged primarily in information retrieval and presentation tasks. etc. An initial prompt should be given to the user upon each psyche invocation to allow the device to be controlled by the mind because there is a huge opportunity for abuse of such systems. For these devices information retrieval and presentation or remote viewing and control of other devices may be the primary function the mind provides. and then initiates a session between the device and the mind. In this scenario devices would join and leave the mind. Internet connectivity will always be desirable with droids. In such case it may be helpful to have a virtual avatar of the mind that the user can view and interact with and which the mind can manipulate. in the not too distant future. maintaining an individual mind for each user could become space prohibitive very quickly. reincarnation would occur only when all devices have terminated their sessions with the mind or when the application running the mind is restarted. The highest ethical standards need to be maintained by the developers and operators of mind servers. At this time a hosted mind is desirable because we envision the computing resources available in the cloud may surpass those in the hardware of the typical droid. and action effects. or remote viewing and control tasks. Insinuating a broker service between such devices and the mind may introduce latency while easing costs by facilitating shorter messages between the broker and the device. the psyche application provides its device identifier to the user so that she can register the device on her account on the website. Robots Robots (droids) provide a very rich set of senses. For reincarnation one problem is which parts of the private data should be persisted. the minds may just remain running from first incarnation. Personal Computers Personal computers typically have fewer constraints than mobile devices and are able to connect to artificial minds with fewer impediments. C. and. The psyche application will handle session termination by either the user or by the mind.). urges.C. A virtual avatar which the mind can control would be useful in this case. A unity mind would develop very quickly if it were designed to leverage its experience. Mind Interaction Service. and robots can all serve as bodies of a mind. urges. Metempsychosis The first incarnation of a mind or re-incarnation of a mind can pose interesting problems for the different mind individualities. The question turns upon whether or not to bind a mind instance to a specific device owner.
5th printing). A. Miller. Text Messages for Perception and Response The psyche application must also send perception messages such as urges or action effects to the mind. P.VII. Construction of Reality in the Child. THE LINK We assume that communication between devices and minds occurs over contemporary (wireless) networks. “The Neural Proposition: Structures for Cognitive Systems”. Journal of Artificial Intelligence. Thanks to John Rose for his recommendation of SIP for communications. 2011. “The Regulation of Neural Propositions”. Palermo Italy. unpublished. Gattegne. Springer 1996  M. Laird. Cook. Newell and P. 1956 (1969 . ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This author is indebted to numerous persons who have provided constructive feedback on the concepts for PAM-P2. 2012.  M. Piaget. “Soar: An Architecture for General Intelligence”.  J. The Origins of Intelligence in Children. Hodgson. Cook. Miller. P. The Development of Thought: The Equilibration of Cognitive Structures. Whether the minds will engage in telepathy. M. pp. S. A prototype of the mind server described herein is being built to initially host the PAM-P2 mind type. Volume 33. and receive action request response messages from the mind. Miller. The Design of Intelligent Agents: A Layered Approach. 2012. P. Miller. unpublished. unpublished. “Piagetian Autonomous Modeller” in the Proceedings of the AISB 2011 Symposium on Computational Models of Cognitive Development. B. Norton. Basic Books. 1987. Müller. Roslin. 1962. “The Coordination of Neural Propositions”.Piaget. Piaget and A. Drescher. A. CONCLUSIONS Many decisions are involved in constructing a Mind Server which both standardize and constrain the artificial minds being hosted. 1978  J. 1991  J. Made Up Minds: A Constructivist Approach to Artificial Intelligence. Devices should provide their needs and capabilities upon connection to the mind. International Universities Press. VIII. Thanks to Todd Kaufmann and Sheldon Linker for discussions of the mind server concept. video.  G. F. Sept. 2012. Issue 1. Special thanks to Stuart Allen for images and animations of the mind server architecture. Considerations must be taken into account at the outset in order to achieve measurable results or adequate performance after the host system is deployed.  J.M. Sensory Datasets The psyche application establishes and maintains a peer to peer session between the mind and device so that audio. I would like to thank the PAM-P2 Group for their feedback and support. Among these decisions are: The individuality of the minds being hosted. Miller. Which device types and device capabilities will be supported. P. the mind server should be device agnostic. .  M. 1957. 1-64. As much as possible. Rosenbloom.  M. S.Piaget. sensory datasets and text messages. S. Play. 32-39. Intelligent and Software Intensive Systems (CISIS-2012). Two kinds of messages need to be relayed in real time. Which permanent needs exist for a specific mind type. dreams.  M.  REFERENCES J. C. This decision impacts the developmental or evolutionary measurability of the minds. S. P.  J. and imitation in Childhood. and how those needs can be configured. Whether or not minds are assigned randomly to a device owner or whether the owner has a choice in which particular mind they receive? This choice impacts metempsychosis and storage. pp. “Patterns for Cognitive Systems” in the Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Complex. M. P. and other sensory data can be transferred in real time. S.
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