Sean Li Math 7370 Notes − Spring 2013 Algebraic Number Theory Lecture 21 − 3/8/13 Ring inclusions.

All commutative rings ⊃ Noetherian rings ⊃ Dedekind domains ⊃ Discrete valuation rings. Commutative rings: Many examples. We get a weak uniqueness theorem for primary decomposition. Noetherian rings: Polynomial rings over ﬁelds, and their quotients. Existence as well as weak uniqueness. Dedekind domains: Rings of integers of number ﬁelds. Existence and uniqueness of primary decomposition. Also, primary = prime power. Discrete valuation rings: Zp , the ring of p-adic integers. Nil Radicals (cont’d). If R(I) = M a maximal ideal, then I is primary. Proof. M is the only prime ideal containing I. Let M be the image of M in the quotient A/I, then M is the only prime ideal. All the nilpotent elements are in M and all other elements are units. Let xy = 0, then x = 0 implies y ∈ M , so y n = 0. This implies (0) is primary in A/I, so I is primary. Non-uniqueness example. Let A = F [X, Y ], then M = (X, Y ), so A/M ≈ F . Let I = (X 2 , XY ) = (X)∩(X 2 , Y ) = (X)∩M 2 . Both were primary decompositions. R(X 2 , Y ) = R(M 2 ) = M . By the proposition above, (X 2 , Y ) and M 2 are primary.