Presented by: Group No. 9, Section S3 Ankit Goel (FT13305) Brinda Sethi (FT13318) Guneet Gyani (FT13330) Kriti Sharma (FT13342) Prateek Parashar (FT13355) Sankalp S Parihar (FT13367) Sudeshna Banerjee (FT13379) A Suresh Kumar (FT13392)


An activity of sending and receiving messages between two or more individuals through a common system of speech, visuals, signals, writing, or behavior that allows them to share knowledge, attitudes and skills.

managementstudyguide. facial expressions.Types of Communication • Oral or Verbal Communication: Information flows through verbal medium like words. Non-verbal communication: Communication made through gestures. • • • http://www. signs and images. hand movements. body posture and eye contact. Written Communication: Interaction that makes use of the written word or symbol.com/different-types-of-communication.htm . Visual communication: Communication of information through visual forms or aids like drawings. touch. discussions & presentations. speeches.

businessdictionary. http://www. etc. facial expressions. voice tone and loudness.html .Body language • A type of non-verbal communication in which silent messages are communicated through the sender's body movements.com/definition/body-language.

Shaking a hand. etc). Lips. Leg & feet placement.com/types-of-body-language. but "ticks" also fall into this category.Types of Body Language Body language is usually grouped along two lines: • Parts of the body • Intent Parts of the Body • • • • The Head: Movement and placement of head. Body Posture: Includes Body proximity. Tongue. http://www.simplybodylanguage. Shoulder movements. Eg. Sweating. These are the movements you intended to make.html . Facial Expressions: Eyebrows. Hand and finger gestures: Handling and placement of objects(eg. Jaw. These are the movements you have no control over. Nose. Arm placement. pens. Intent • Voluntary/Intentional movements: Also called "Gestures". Eg. papers. • Involuntary movements: Also called "tells".

Body Language Signals • • One can tell how someone is feeling by their body language signs.net/ .bodylanguage. It’s useful to be able to read people’s body language because what people say and what they feel are often not the same. Studies have shown that of the information that we receive from other people: 10% is from what they actually say. • http://www. 50% is from their body language. 40% is from the tone and speed of their voice.

html . facial expressions and more. as do people who are cold • Touching your face may signify thinking and a whole host of other things http://www. • People who are relaxed fold their arms. Eg. Some tips and traps are: • • • Multiple meanings A problem with reading people is that body language can have multiple meanings. eye movement. posture.com/2011/11/reading-body-language-clusters.Reading and Analyzing Body Language • Up to 93 % of communication is non-verbal Including tone of voice. Body language usually prevails over words. hand gestures. Hence it is important to be able to read and analyze body language.nonverbal-world.

of course. then this may be an indication that they do not want to tell the truth. To get the real picture one should also observe the facial expressions. posture and gaze http://changingminds. Eg. • When a person folds his arms. Most of us mistake to interpret each of them in isolation and that completely misleads.org/explanations/behaviors/body_language/reading_non-verbals. so you should be aware of your part in the dance and change your style accordingly Clusters • Interpreting body language by clusters is very crucial to understand overall mood or conditions of person in any given circumstance. • If you ask someone a searching question and they close their body. mean that they do not like your aggressive style.htm#clu . This could mean several things.Reading and Analyzing Body Language • Synchrony One secret of reading body language is to look for things that happen at the same time. It may also. Eg.

Touching or tugging an ear indicates indecision. People often pinch the bridge of their nose and close their eyes when making a negative evaluation. A lowered head is a negative signal that communicates acceptance of defeat. People place their hand on their cheek when they’re thinking or evaluating. Running fingers through hair can mean that someone is frustrated or that they're preening themselves because they feel attractive. A genuine smile engages the whole face (including the eyes) and is usually larger on the right side. A person stroking their chin is evaluating or making a decision. though it’s also sometimes done when a person is being untruthful. and will be fairly symmetrical or larger on the left side. it’s an indication that they are listening and are interested. The occasional nod from a listener to a speaker is a positive message. Fondling or patting down hair demonstrates insecurity and a lack of self-confidence.Head • • • • • • • • • • • • • • A tilted head symbolises interest in someone or something. A false smile will often only engage the lips.htm .com/body-language. is not really listening and is simply nodding to be polite. Someone may touch or slightly rub their nose if they are doubtful about what is being said or if they are rejecting an idea. Projecting the chin towards another person demonstrates defiance or aggression. Too much nodding implies that a listener has lost interest. http://www.businessballs.

Open palms occasionally touching the chest imply honesty.Upper Body • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Pushing the chest forward draws attention to it. Upward facing palms signify that a person’s defences are down and that they’re speaking sincerely with an open heart. Fiddling with items (e. Outward. http://www. Finger pointing is interpreted as either a sign of assertiveness or a sign of aggression. A pulled back chest with forward curled shoulders is a defensive position taken by people who want others to know that they are no threat to them. finger tips touching or index fingers pressed together. keys or a pen) can be a sign of nerves or anxiety. A person may push their shoulders back to demonstrate their power and signify that they don’t fear attack. Open arms.com/pages/article/Body_Language. evaluating or deciding. upward hand movements express an open and positive message. Tapping or drumming fingers communicates impatience or frustration. Fingers held together and curled upwards (forming the shape of a cup) is a gesture used when someone is pleading for something.g.mindtools. Biting fingernails represents insecurity and nervousness. Positioning hands behind the back shows that someone is relaxed and comfortable. are positive gestures that show a person is thinking. Using hands with downward facing palms symbolises a calming action. Sides of the palms close together with extended fingers (forming the shape of a plate) is an action often used when offering thoughts or ideas to people. mean that someone is approachable and willing to communicate with others. particularly when combined with showing palms. Interlinked fingers. A person with folded / crossed arms is placing a barrier between themselves and their surroundings. for women this is seen as a provocative romantic display whereas for men it’s a show of strength and power. indicating that they’re not happy with what is being said or done. A palm facing outwards towards someone signals to that person to stop what they are doing or not come any closer. alternatively it may be done as a result of boredom or impatience.htm . though it can also be used on purpose to convey a message of power and confidence.

The wider a person’s feet are positioned from each other. Crossing ankles is a sign of being fairly relaxed. relaxed standing pose is with the feet positioned at shoulder width. it depends on how tense a persons leg muscles are. this signals confidence and power. with the top leg's knee pointing sideways. the more dominant and powerful they feel. especially when the legs are stretched forward and the person is leaning back. Standing with hands on hips expresses either readiness or aggression.Lower Body • • • • • • • • • • • • • Walking briskly with an upright posture shows confidence. A normal. comfortable one. with legs running in parallel from the hips. The ‘figure-of-four cross’ occurs when one ankle is placed on top of the other legs' knee. Sitting with legs open / apart means that a person is comfortable and is feeling secure in their surroundings. towards a door). Crossed legs can be either a negative. A slightly kicking / bouncing foot when sitting with crossed legs suggests boredom or impatience. Leaning back with the hips pushed forward is a provocative and suggestive gesture. it can also signify that a person feels powerful. Sitting legs may point (with knees or feet) at the most interesting person in a room or in a person’s desired direction of travel (i. . defensive position or a relaxed. Legs crossed towards someone suggest a greater level of interest in them than legs crossed away from them. In a relaxed sitting pose.e. the thighs are typically slightly open.

Avoid looking over the other person's shoulders as if you were seeking out someone more interesting to talk with. non-resistant to stress. emotional type of behavior. radiant eyes . sociable. outward simplicity. The other two sides descend from it and come to a point between your nose and your lips. quick behavioral reactions.sideroad. Continue it throughout the conversation. firm moral principles.90 percent of the time Less than that can be interpreted as discomfort. serious. You can spot somebody lying to you if he or she cannot hold an eye contact for a period of time. That's the suggested area to "look at" during business conversations. anxious. dishonesty.“ hot temper. interest. attraction. Closely placed eyes . http://www. Interpreting eye movement: Widely placed eyes .Eye Contact “When the eyes say one thing. a practiced man relies on the language of the first” . the point of the triangle drops to include the chin and neck areas.com/Business_Etiquette/business-body-language. It's okay to glance down occasionally as long as your gaze returns quickly to the other person. open.affable. Looking away may also signify attraction or simply an occurrence of a slight distraction.php.bafree. perhaps naive in relations with people. logical type of behavior. Large. http://body-language. it signifies lack of interest. Source:http://www.php?id=28. and honesty. Eyebrows are far from eyes .critical perception. When the eyes would look away.ru/eng/consultation.“ resistant to stress. keeping distance. trustful. How long to look 80 .enthusiastic. Socially. evasiveness. deeply placed cold eyes . Eyebrows are close to eyes . Maintain direct eye contact as you are saying "good-bye“ Where to look Imagine an inverted triangle in your face with the base of it just above your eyes. and boredom.Ralph Waldo Emerson • • • • Eye contact is a strong indication of focus of attention. sensitive.“fastidious about personal contacts.html When to look Begin as soon as you engage someone in a conversation. lack of confidence or boredom.enthusiastic.“ emotionally restraint.victoriya-security. skeptic. Small. . perhaps slow behavioral reactions.net/body-language-from-head-to-foot. sociable. and the tongue another. External corners of eyes are lowered . for as long as the person will look back to the person he is talking to. External corners eyes are raised .

non-threatening gesture Palm-down – projects authority Palm-closed i-finger-pointed – signifies insult. seeking to control non-threatening. Dominance 2.both Handshake hands Taking control • • Submissive Equality handshake . clammy handshake – no one likes.palm handshake up handshake .palm handshake down handshake . keep a handkerchief always. one of the 3 subconscious attitudes get transferred: 1. hands lose temperature and begin to sweat in case of nervousness.gives the receiver a little chance of establishing equal relationship.Handshake • • • A sign of trust and welcome 3 main palm command gestures Palm-up – submissive. relaxed enthusiasm While a handshake. • handshake with arm clasp handshake seeking control. Cold. Submissive 3. accommodating seeking to convey trustworthiness and honesty. trust and depth of feeling for the receiver • http://westsidetoastmasters. annoying signal part of body possible meaning(s) dominance submission.html .com/resources/book_of_body_language/chap2. Handshakes of control – any two-handed handshake is to try to show sincerity. Equality handshake .equal Handshake and vertical pumping handshake Handshake Palm-down thrust . paternalism When men and women shake hands – there still exist degrees of fumbling and embarrassment in male/female greetings: Hold your hand as early as possible to give clear notice of your intention to shake hands and this will avoid fumbling.

The Elbow Grasp The Upper Arm Grip The Shoulder Hold The Wrist Hold Unless you and the other person have a personal or emotional-bond. only use a single-handed handshake .

sitting general crossing legs. attentiveness (according to direction) openness properness caution. sexual Uncertain about each other Openness and acceptance legs / knees feet feet feet . standing (scissor stance) knee buckle. increase the unconscious leg movements when they lied. sitting(female) legs crossed. standing standing 'at attention' legs intertwined. where their lower body is hidden. standing shoe-play(female) legs legs legs / body legs legs defensiveness aggression. sexual male) posturing ankle lock.Leg & Feet Movement As per a research. mostly used by women He is coming on strong with onefoot forward and crotch display. standing feet or foot direction or pointing foot forward. managers. combative. stubborn The leg clamp – locking a competitive attitude in place The Ankle Lock – A women minimizes her space and a man taking up more space The leg twine – shy. sitting splayed legs. signal leg direction. sitting (mainly female) crossed legs. sitting specific change part of body legs/knees legs legs legs legs possible meaning(s) interest. disinterest interest or disinterest in direction of upper crossed knee independent. she’s either undecided or not keen American or figure-4 leg legs cross American or figure-4 leg legs / arm / hand resistant. sitting – general uncrossed legs. Psychologist Paul Ekman explains why many business executives feel comfortable only when sitting behind a desk with a solid front. ready for action respectful insecurity or sexual posing insecurity or submission or engagement under pressure foot direction indicates direction of interest directed towards dominant group member relaxation. flirting. stubborn cross with hand clamp open legs. sitting – general parallel legs together. sitting (mainly legs arrogance. timid. regardless of gender.

When this space is intruded by another person is creates a discomfort or an expectation of interaction. Intimate 15-45cm 6-18in 3. but commonly does with a lover. People establish this zonal space when they seek to avoid interaction with others nearby. Social1. Usually reserved for intimate relationships and close friendships. concerts. the portable bubble we can carry around with us. situational factors. Close intimate distance 0-15cm 0-6in for lovers. Touching is not possible unless both people reach to do it. and crowded places such as parties.htm#handshakes-body-language 5.6m+ 12ft+ .businessballs. or very threatening and upsetting at worst. Public 3. Non-consenting intrusion into this space is normally felt to be uncomfortable at best. and physical touching relationships physical touching relationships detail Sometimes included with the 2nd zone below. but intimacy is off-limits. for example face-to-face contact with close friends rarely encroaches within 6 inches. The amount of distance we need and the amount of space we perceive as belonging to us is influenced by a number of factors including social norms. business no interaction.2-3. Within the intimate zone a person's senses of smell and touch (being touched) become especially exercised. Touching is possible in this zone. Significantly hand-shaking is only possible within this zone only if both people reach out to do it. personality characteristics and level of familiarity zone 1. this is a markedly different zone in certain situations.Proxemics Personal space. queues and entertainment and sports spectating events. 2. social. public transport. ignoring 4. Personal 45-120cm family and 18in-4ft close friends non-touch interaction.6m consultative 4-12ft Others will invite or reject you. Hence touching other than handshaking is potentially uncomfortable. bars.com/body-language. but also applies during consenting close activities such as contact sports. depending on the respect that you have for their personal space http://www.

The Lowered Steeple • The position is normally used when the steepler is listening rather than speaking. . • It an be seen in meeting when a person is stranger to the group. The Raised Steeple • The position is normally taken when the steepler is giving his opinions or ideas and is doing the talking.Arms Facial Expression Hands to Face I Hands to Face II Head Standard Close Arm Gesture • This kind of gesture is seen when a person is generally between a group of strangers or feels insecure. Partial Arm Cross Gesture • It tells that the person is fearful.

Arms Facial Expression Hands to Face I Hands to Face II Head .

The Neck Scratch • This gesture is a signal of doubt or uncertainty and is characteristic of the person who says. "I'm not sure I agree. The Ear Rub • This is attempt by the listener to convey that he will hear no evil ." . Nose Touching and Eye Rub • These can be used both by the speaker to disguise his own deceit and by the listener who doubts the speaker’s words.Arms Facial Expression Hands to Face I Hands to Face II Head The Mouth Guard • If a person speaking uses this gesture indicates that he is telling a lie and if you are speaking and other person covers his mouth then it indicates that he thinks that you are lying.

It shows lack of interest. Fingers in Mouth • Shows that the person is under pressure.Arms Facial Expression Hands to Face I Hands to Face II Head The Collar Pull • When a person is feeling angry or frustrated he uses this collar pull method. Forgetfulness Gesture • Slapping of head suggest forgetfulness. Boredom Gesture • When a person tries to support his head with his hand . Interested Gesture • Interested Gesture is shown when hands are on cheeks but not for support Pain in Neck Gesture • When a person is lying he usually stops gazing and looks down. .

. Interested Position • When head tilts to one side it shows that interest has been developed. Disapproved Position • When the head is down. unless you can get the person’s head up or tilted. it signals that the attitude is negative and even judgmental. The head usually remains still and may occasionally give small nods.Arms Facial Expression Hands to Face I Hands to Face II Head Neutral Head Position • The position taken by the person who has a neutral attitude about what he is hearing. you may have a communication problem. Critical evaluation clusters are normally made with the head down and.

breathing. sound. eye movements. and other aspects of communication. Types : Crossover mirroring: Occurs where one person's movement is matched with another type of action. Postural mirror-image: Mirroring occurs where one person's left side "matches" the other person's right side shows strong rapport and typically affinity (sociology) or empathy and increasing your own synchronicity with someone can also smooth conversation. movements. tempo. Example of Mirroring: If someone says "Great" but looks or sounds downtrodden. muscle tensions. . body language. people with high familiarity or interest in one another such as opponents in a contest. expressions. Direct mirroring: Occurs where a person is facing right on at another. or different movement. attitude. a mirroring reply would be to incongruently say "Good" with a similar down attitude like them. It is used by lovers. tones. accent.Mirroring Body Language Mirroring: Mirroring is the behavior in which one person copies another person usually while in social interaction with them. It may include miming gestures. choice of words or metaphors.

and he/she likes me too. you can then speak their language. vocal and tone pace etc. Just listen and start observing. To gain empathy or connect at an emotional level Thinking alike • • • • How to Mirror Someone’s Body Language Synchronize body. I like this person because we are similar. • Superior authority Mirroring the other person’s body language to gain acceptance . If you can determine people's sensory preferences. The resultant feeling of being “connected” is such a powerful part of building a collaborative team. Bosses / Clients Unconsciously make the person feel.Business Implications • • • • To create rapport with someone." To make them feel comfortable with Mirroring team members’ facial expressions and body positions instantly communicates empathy and signals that you understand the feelings of the people around you and will take those feelings into account as you decide how to respond. "This person is like me and agrees with the way I am. A boss who perceives a Do-not merely copy subordinate mirroring behavior as arrogance Who generally Mirrors in a Business Context • A group mirroring a leader • A customer mirroring a sales personal indicating agreement. Ep.

Independent Position • This position is used when people don’t want to interact with one another. Competitive/Defensive Position • In this position. competitors face each other. casual conversation. It allows good eye contact and the opportunity to observe gestures of the other person. .Basic Seating Positions Corner Position • This position is used by people when they are engaged in friendly. It occurs between strangers in places like libraries or park benches. Co-operative Position • This position is used when people are working together on tasks. It is used when we need to take a firm stand on our point of view.

Provides an equal amount of authority and status. Sitting at a diagonal angle of about 45 degrees to another person is a comfortable and cooperative arrangement. • • • • . Creates an atmosphere of relaxed informality for people of equal status.King Arthur’s Concept • Round tables are better than square or oblong tables for group and team meetings. Helps to grab most attention.

• Pointing with one figure is considered rude in some Asian countries. whereas Japanese residents point with their whole hand. Ref: Body Language by Allan Pease . who tend to seek a greater amount of personal space than other cultures. ‘zero’ to a French & insulting to Turks and Brazilians. Gestures • In Arab cultures the Thumbs-up rule is considered offensive.Cultural differences in body language Cultural differences often convey a myriad of meaning via body language. it shows rank in Japan. The prime being: Posture • While Bowing refers to being criticized in US. as is the common American "come here" gesture. ‘money’ to a Japanese. • The ring gesture by hand means ‘OK’ to a westerner. • South Americans tend to stand much closer than their North American counterparts. Germans point with their little finger.

Latin American. Arabic cultures generally don’t approve of the land hand usage in greetings etc. To do so is an insult. Caribbean — avoid eye contact to show respect. indicates confidence and authority to the Germans. Japan. indicates impoliteness to the Thais. . Paralanguage • • Loudness indicates strength in Arabic cultures and softness indicates weakness.Cultural differences in body language(contd. while Islamic cultures generally don’t approve of any touching between genders.) Eye contact and Gaze • • Western cultures — see direct eye to eye contact as positive.. indicates loss of control to the Japanese Vocal Characteristics indicate different messages in different cultures. In Japan giggling indicates embarrassment. Africa. In Western Cultures handshake is common. Touch • • • Touch is culturally determined! But each culture has a clear concept of what parts of the body one may not touch.

The Golden Rule If you're not sure how to be polite in someone else's culture. concentrate on reducing the broadness of your body language until you have the opportunity to observe the locals.Cultural differences in body language(concluded) Things to keep in mind: • • • People do business with people who make them feel comfortable and it comes down to sincerity and good manners. . Try to work out what is happening then watch again and read the subtitles to check your accuracy. but don't read the subtitles. A simple way to learn and understand cultural body language differences is to record several foreign films and replay them with the sound off. When entering a foreign country. ask.

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