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www.controleng.com than hardware HMI engineering is more See page 19 for details Award winning Your
www.controleng.com
than hardware
HMI engineering
is more
See page 19 for details
Award winning
Your
solution software
and hardware

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C-more operator touch panels offer: • Clear TFT 65K color displays (6-inch STN models also
C-more operator touch panels offer:
• Clear TFT 65K color displays
(6-inch STN models also available)
• Analog touch screen for maximum flexibility
• Easy-to-use software
Our C-more remote HMI application,
for iPad®, iPhone® or iPod touch®, is
available on the App Store for $4.99.
It provides remote access and control
to a C-more panel for mobile users
who have a wi-fi or cellular connection.
CONNECT TO CONTROLLERS WITH DRIVERS FOR:
C-more touch panels in 6" to 15" sizes are a practical way
to give plant personnel easy access to controls and data.
Check out the powerful yet easy-to-use configuration
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• All AutomationDirect PLCs/PACs
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• Allen-Bradley
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LS INCLUDE:
• Analog resistive touch screen with unlimited touch areas
• Modbus RTU and TCP/IP Ethernet
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• Serial communications interface
• Omron Host Link Adapter (C200/C500), FINS Serial
and Ethernet
FULL-FEATURED MODE
LS ADD:
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(ISO over TCP/IP)
REMOTE ACCESS AND CONTROL BUILT-IN
www.automationdirect.com
No Additional Hardware required. The C-more Remote
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and requires no option modules. Access real-time data
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Go online or call to get complete information,
request your free catalog, or place an order.
any time. (Requires software and firmware version 2.4 or later*, and an
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1-800-633-0405
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6-inch STN
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$1,727
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* Software and firmware are downloadable for authorized
customers from: www.automationdirect.com
input #1 at www.controleng.com/information
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Process Measurement and Control Equipment HMi Operator Interface • True Analog Touchscreen • Retentive Internal
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© COPYRIGHT 2013 OMEGA ENGINEERING, INC ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
input #2 at www.controleng.com/information
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JANUARY 2013 Vol. 60 Number 1 ® C OVERING CONTROL, INSTRUMENTATION, AND AUTOMATION SYSTEMS WORLDWIDE
JANUARY 2013
Vol. 60
Number 1
®
C OVERING CONTROL, INSTRUMENTATION, AND AUTOMATION SYSTEMS WORLDWIDE
38
34
42

Features

34

Make your I/O smarter

Improvements in I/O systems for eld devices can make your process control system installations and upgrades quicker and more cost effective.

38

42

44

Sensor networks

Multiple stories consider the suitability of Ethernet for sensor networks, and how the right sensor level approach can avoid incompatibilities in Ethernet protocols.

Creating an HMI that doesn’t get used

When that new equipment skid or machine comes in, it probably has its own HMI, but that equipment will be controlled from a larger system. What should you want that redundant HMI to do?

Five ways to enable the next-generation workforce

Technology advances challenge and enable industries worldwide, and ve key factors in uence the success of future and current engineers in this dynamically changing labor market.

CONTROL ENGINEERING (ISSN 0010-8049, Vol. 60, No. 1, GST #123397457) is published 12x per year, Monthly by CFE Media, LLC, 1111 W. 22nd Street, Suite #250, Oak Brook, IL 60523. Jim Langhenry, Group Publisher /Co-Founder; Steve Rourke CEO/COO/Co-Founder. CONTROL ENGINEERING copyright 2013 by CFE Media, LLC. All rights reserved. CONTROL ENGINEERING is a registered trademark of CFE Media, LLC used under license. Peri- odicals postage paid at Oak Brook, IL 60523 and additional mailing offices. Circulation records are maintained at CFE Media, LLC, 1111 W. 22nd Street, Suite #250, Oak Brook, IL 60523. Telephone: 630/571-4070 x2220. E-mail:

customerservice@cfemedia.com. Postmaster: send address changes to CONTROL ENGINEERING, 1111 W. 22nd Street, Suite #250, Oak Brook, IL 60523. Publications Mail Agreement No. 40685520. Return undeliverable Canadian addresses to: 1111 W. 22nd Street, Suite #250, Oak Brook, IL 60523. Email: customerservice@cfemedia.com. Rates for nonqualified subscriptions, including all issues: USA, $ 145/yr; Canada, $ 180/yr (includes 7% GST, GST#123397457); Mexico, $ 172/yr; International air delivery $318/yr. Except for special issues where price changes are indicated, single copies are available for $20.00 US and $25.00 foreign. Please address all subscription mail to CONTROL ENGINEERING, 1111 W. 22nd Street, Suite #250, Oak Brook, IL 60523. Printed in the USA. CFE Media, LLC does not assume and hereby disclaims any liability

to any person for any loss or damage caused by errors or omissions in the material contained herein, regardless of whether such errors result from negligence, accident or any other cause whatsoever.

2 JANUARY 2013 CONTROL ENGINEERING www.controleng.com

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Get It Faster Don’t wait for these brands to be shipped from outside the U.S.
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input #3 at www.controleng.com/information
© Allied Electronics, Inc 2013. ‘Allied Electronics’ and the Allied Electronics logo are trademarks of Allied Electronics, Inc.
An Electrocomponents Company.
T
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Fluid Performance

Motor-driven pump systems represent 30% of all motors used in North America. Baldor Electric Company
Motor-driven pump systems
represent 30% of all motors used in
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Baldor Electric
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Submersible and immersible designs …plus, an unlimited number of custom designs.

With medium voltage motor horsepower ratings to 15,000 and stock motor voltages in 115/230 and 230 for single phase and 200, 230/460, 460, 575 and 2300/4000 volt for three phase designs, there’s a BaldorReliance ® pump motor for your next pump system design or retrofit replacement need. For special applications and strict industry specification requirements, IEEE 841-2009, API 610, API 541

and API 547 compliant designs are available. ABB brand IEC metric motors are offered in standard or ATEX configurations for export or replacement on imported equipment through 100,000 Hp.

OEM pump manufacturers and pump assemblers will find a wide range of BaldorReliance stock and custom motor configurations to meet your specific application requirements. For OEMs that manufacture their own submersible pumps, Baldor can supply stator-rotor sets in many different frame sizes and ratings for low and medium voltage use.

All BaldorReliance motors are made in America and distributed through 32 stocking warehouses in North America, giving you the fastest stock motor delivery in the industry.

giving you the fastest stock motor delivery in the industry. www.baldor.com 479-646-4711 ©2012 Baldor Electric Company
giving you the fastest stock motor delivery in the industry. www.baldor.com 479-646-4711 ©2012 Baldor Electric Company

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479-646-4711

©2012 Baldor Electric Company

input #4 at www.controleng.com/information

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Drive Down Your Energy Use

In a motor-pump system, the life cycle cost of the motor is about 2% of the total expense with electricity consumption comprising over 97% of the motors total cost. By upgrading to a Super-E ® NEMA Premium ® efficiency motor, substantial energy can be saved… immediately. Since most pump systems are oversized for worst case conditions and are operated well below that point, adding an adjustable speed drive to operate the motor at a lower speed (instead of using a valve) can, in most cases, save over 60% of the energy used.

Lifetime Cost of an Electric Motor

Energy 97.3% Initial Purchase 2%
Energy 97.3%
Initial Purchase 2%

One Rewind 0.7%

These applications can pay for the cost and installation of the drive in less than a year with rebates available from most utilities, while reducing energy consumption for many years afterwards. Both the U.S. Department of Energy and Natural Resources Canada accept Baldor’s Super-E motors as an energy-saving upgrade.

1/11/2013
1/11/2013

12:25:02 PM

JANUARY 2013 ® C OVERING CONTROL, INSTRUMENTATION, AND AUTOMATION SYSTEMS WORLDWIDE
JANUARY 2013
®
C OVERING CONTROL, INSTRUMENTATION, AND AUTOMATION SYSTEMS WORLDWIDE
CONTROL, INSTRUMENTATION, AND AUTOMATION SYSTEMS WORLDWIDE Inside Process Starts after p. 48. If not, see
CONTROL, INSTRUMENTATION, AND AUTOMATION SYSTEMS WORLDWIDE Inside Process Starts after p. 48. If not, see

Inside Process

Starts after p. 48. If not, see www.controleng.com/archive for January.

P1 Dynamic simulation predicts steam consumption in unpredictable paper mill application

Langerbrugge used simulation analysis to make sure the boiler and steam system could remain stable even during the biggest disruption: a turbine trip.

P8 Hydroelectric generating utility has to control with the ow

Located in an environmentally sensitive area, Box Canyon Dam has to deliver power while remaining invisible to the surrounding community. This means trying to control output around changes in water ow.

PRODUCT EXCLUSIVE
PRODUCT EXCLUSIVE
PRODUCTS
PRODUCTS

departments

8

Think Again

Top articles for 2012

10

Product Exclusive

Data acquisition, test, and measurement software

14

IT & Engineering Insight

The next big thing is at hand

16

Tech Update

Converging automation standards

18

Integrator Update

Remote access programming

22

International

High-speed memory sharing improves application reliability

25

Machine Safety

Risk level assessment priority:

Possibility, severity, or frequency?

64

Back to Basics

news

26

Yaskawa adds U.S. production; Mars Rover director to present at ARC Summit

28

Industrial computer company acquires system integrator

products

60 Safety controller; ac drive; machine vision; circuit breakers; owmeters; HMI for CNC

Talking to process instrumentation

www.controleng.com CONTROL ENGINEERING JANUARY 2013 5

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11:39 AM

JANUARY
JANUARY
JANUARY www. controleng .com Channels New Products Media Library Connect Industry News Events, Awards Newsletters

www.controleng.com

Channels
Channels
New Products Media Library Connect Industry News Events, Awards Newsletters Blogs
New Products
Media Library
Connect
Industry News
Events, Awards
Newsletters
Blogs
Magazine
Magazine
www.controleng.com/news
www.controleng.com/news

More Learning, Less Sur ng

Exclusive blogs at www.controleng.com/blogs Real World Engineering: Initial PID values for new controllers Machine Safety: Top 10 OSHA violations for 2012 Pillar to Post: Getting rid of unused software IHS Research Analysis: Energy ef ciency in the elevator industry

Join the discussions at www.linkedin.com/groups?gid=1967039 An eternal question: What is the best process eld device communication protocol? How do I choose between an embedded microcontroller and a PLC? Looking for Websites where I can learn PLC programming—what’s good?

Topic-Speci c E-Newsletters

Start your subscriptions at www.controleng.com/newsletters Machine Control: Organize your programming, remote access, more small robots Process & Advanced Control: Decentralizing control, control on the sea oor, new installations System Integration: Integrator case studies and tutorials, Ethernet tips, supplier selection Weekly News: Medium-voltage drives now made in USA, top 10 OSHA violations Process Instrumentation & Sensors: Selecting owmeters, how HART works

Point, Click, Watch www.controleng.com/videos VIDEO: The winning system integra- tors in a roundtable discussion Vance
Point, Click, Watch
www.controleng.com/videos
VIDEO: The winning system integra-
tors in a roundtable discussion
Vance VanDoren talks to the 2013 winners, Sam Hoff,
Jerry Smith, and Todd Williams, in an informal round-
table discussion. Find out more about vendor/integra-
tor relationships and certi cations.
Our new fomat re ects the look of our Website. There’s more content online than
Our new fomat re ects
the look of our Website.
There’s more content
online than we can t
into our print edition.
Connect with us!
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on dozens of topics
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tions, tutorials, research, and more gath-
ered for engineering professionals.
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and news with electronic newsletters.
System Integrator Guide
Consult our listing of more than 2,300 au-
tomation system integrators.You can nd
a speci c company or run a seven-way
multi-parameter search.

6 JANUARY 2013 CONTROL ENGINEERING www.controleng.com

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11:39 AM

800 453 6202 input #5 at www.controleng.com/information
800 453 6202
input #5 at www.controleng.com/information
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12:25:32 PM

editorial THINK AGAIN 1111 W. 22nd St. Suite 250, Oak Brook, IL 60523 630-571-4070, Fax
editorial
THINK AGAIN
1111 W. 22nd St. Suite 250, Oak Brook, IL 60523
630-571-4070, Fax 630-214-4504
Content Specialists/Editorial
Top Control Engineering
articles for 2012
Mark T. Hoske, Content Manager
630-571-4070, x2214, MHoske@CFEMedia.com
Peter Welander, Content Manager
630-571-4070, x2213, PWelander@CFEMedia.com
Bob Vavra, Content Manager
630-571-4070, x2212, BVavra@CFEMedia.com
Amara Rozgus, Content Manager
630-571-4070, x2211, ARozgus@CFEMedia.com
Control strategies, optimization, safety and
security, and system integration were among top
Control Engineering stories for 2012, based on
online traffic. Ensure you’ve read these.
Amanda McLeman, Project Manager
630-571-4070, x2209, AMcleman@CFEMedia.com
Chris Vavra, Content Specialist
630-571-4070, x2219, CVavra@CFEMedia.com
Brittany Merchut, Content Specialist
630-571-4070, x2220, BMerchut@CFEMedia.com
Ben Taylor, Project Manager
630-571-4070 x2219, BTaylor@CFEMedia.com
L eading Control Engineering articles in
2012 covered control strategies, pro-
gramming, controllers, and human-
machine interfaces; best products
system integration services, each year Con-
trol Engineering judges evaluate applications
and name the leading automation integrators.
See advice since 2007, including videos.
Contributing Content Specialists
Frank J. Bartos, P.E.,
braunbart@sbcglobal.net
and product selection; career advancement
and recognition; safety and security; motors,
drives, and motion control; industrial net-
works and communications; and system
integration. Articles emphasize technologies
and techniques to make those responsible for
control engineering more useful and valuable
within their organizations and to others.
The 2013 Control Engineering salary
survey and career advice research results
emphasized the importance of continuing
education, and the high-traffic articles here
served that purpose. Starred items also were
among 2011 top articles.
1. Control Engineering Engineers’
Choice Awards* – Review the winners and
honorable mentions from 2012; see the 2013
finalists. Winners are announced in February.
Beyond seeing which products were voted as
“Engineers’ Choice” winners, the collection
of finalists provide some of the most-useful
products to advance automation, control, and
instrumentation productivity.
6.
Control Engineering salary survey,
Jeanine Katzel jkatzel@sbcglobal.net
Vance VanDoren Ph.D., P.E.,
controleng@msn.com
career advice – Salary and career survey
provides benchmarking and identifies lead-
ing trends among survey respondents. A
write-in advice section addresses continu-
Suzanne Gill, European Editor
suzanne.gill@imlgroup.co.uk
Siergiej Guszczin, Control Engineering Russia
siergiej.greczuszkin@controlengineering.ru
ing education, workplace strategies, attitude,
communication, and degree or specialties.
Marek Kelman, Poland Editor-in-Chief
marek.kelman@utrzymanieruchu.pl
Milan Katrusak, Czech Editor-in-Chief
mk@controlengcesko.com
7.
Optimizing strategy for boiler drum
level control – Optimize level sensing. Avoid
Andy Zhu, Control Engineering China
andyzhu@cechina.cn
trips and maximize steam output by review-
Publication Services
ing control equipment, strategy, and tuning.
8.
Direct-drive wind turbines flex mus-
Jim Langhenry, Co-Founder/Publisher, CFE Media
630-571-4070, x2203; JLanghenry@CFEMedia.com
cles* – New designs aim to increase power
output, increase offshore reliability, and
lower costs over the system’s lifetime.
Steve Rourke, Co-Founder, CFE Media
630-571-4070, x2204, SRourke@CFEMedia.com
Trudy Kelly, Executive Assistant,
630-571-4070, x2205, TKelly@CFEMedia.com
9.
UML use cases, sequence diagrams:
Elena Moeller-Younger, Marketing Manager
630-571-4070, x2215; EMYounger@CFEMedia.com
Unified modeling language (UML) can help
define a system that can be easily understood
by nonprogrammers.
10. Inside Machines: PC versus PLC:
Michael Smith, Creative Director
630-779-8910, MSmith@CFEMedia.com
Paul Brouch, Web Production Manager
630-571-4070, x2208, PBrouch@CFEMedia.com
Michael Rotz, Print Production Manager
717-766-0211 x4207, Fax: 717-506-7238
mike.rotz@frycomm.com
Karie Burt, Account Director, U.S. Sales
212-584-9374; kburt@mardevdm2.com
2.
CFE Media Apps for Engineers –
Comparing control options* – To choose ,
compare operation, robustness, serviceabil-
ity, hardware integration, security, safety,
programming, and cost.
This app of apps preselects more than 60
engineering-related applications. By cat-
Rick Ellis, Audience Management Director
Phone: 303-246-1250; REllis@CFEMedia.com
Go Online
egory, there’s a summary of each application
with the ability to submit comments. Busy
engineers appreciate help finding tools.
See more most-read articles for 2012, numbers
11-25, and one more on choosing the best program-
ming language.
Letters to the editor
Please e-mail us your opinions to
MHoske@CFEMedia.com or fax us at 630-214-4504.
Letters should include name, company, and address,
and may be edited for space and clarity.
3.
System Integrator Giants of 2012 –
Control Engineering Automation Integrator
Guide firms responded to a survey, providing
the 100 largest automation integrators based
Do you know anyone else who could value from
a link to this article? Search “Top articles 2012” at
www.controleng.com get the URL and e-mail that
expanded online version with links to each article.
Information
For a Media Kit or Editorial Calendar,
email Trudy Kelly at TKelly@CFEMedia.com.
Reprints
For custom reprints or electronic usage, contact:
on revenue. The article covers issues critical
to system integrators and their clients.
Write a tutorial or application story in 2013:
Wright’s Media – Nick Iademarco
Phone: 877-652-5295 ext. 102
Email: niademarco@wrightsmedia.com
www.controleng.com/contribute.
4.
Video game or HMI? This article with
Publication Sales
video shows how technologies used in video
games are being used to enhance human-
machine interface software used for automa-
tion and control applications.
Patrick Lynch, AL, FL
630-571-4070 x2210
Bailey Rice, Midwest
630-571-4070 x2206
PLynch@CFEMedia.com
BRice@CFEMedia.com
5.
System Integrator Hall of Fame – To
Mark T. Hoske, Content Manager
identify and recognize the best providers of
MHoske@CFEMedia.com
Iris Seibert, West Coast
858-270-3753 ISeibert@CFEMedia.com
Julie Timbol, East Coast
978-929-9495 JTimbol@CFEMedia.com
Stuart Smith, International
8
● JANUARY 2013 CONTROL ENGINEERING ● www.controleng.com
Tel. +44 208 464 5577
stuart.smith@ssm.co.uk

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1/15/13

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11:49 AM

input #6 at www.controleng.com/information AD11304
input #6 at www.controleng.com/information
AD11304
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12:31:00 PM

product EXCLUSIVES
product
EXCLUSIVES
product EXCLUSIVES User-friendly data acquisition, test, and measurement software High-performance Dataforth IPEmotion

User-friendly data acquisition, test, and measurement software

High-performance Dataforth IPEmotion software is available with the Dataforth MAQ20 data acquisition and control system.

input #7 at www.controleng.com/information
input #7 at www.controleng.com/information

D ataforth Corp. now offers IPEmo- tion software with its Dataforth MAQ20 data acquisition and con-

trol system. IPEmotion is an advanced, intuitive, user-friendly data acquisition, test, and measurement software designed for industrial and R&D applications. Rugged and reliable, this powerful new generation software provides syn- chronized data acquisition and is eas- ily adaptable to all customer specific requirements, including device configu- ration, data acquisition measurement, visualization, and analysis. To meet these requirements, IPEmotion provides auto- matic recognition of connected devices, automatic configuration of all channels, automatic start of measuring, and instant visualization of all measurement values. “With the addition of IPEmotion, the MAQ20 is now classed with the best data acquisition and control systems on the market,” said Robert Smith, vice presi- dent of sales and marketing. Measurements include temperature, current and voltage, strain, pressure, fre- quencies, rotational speeds, logging, and diagnostic data. Features include live data display, recording, online and offline math and logic functions; one-click acqui- sition with direct hardware detection, data display, and recording; live adjustment to analyze and verify measurements during active data acquisition and graphic user interface (GUI) adaptation during active measurement and storage; data analysis; post-processing and report generation; easy drag-and-drop; high-speed record- ing; plug-in synchronization; import and export recorded data to standard file formats; scripting option; configurable gauges for wide-ranging applications; and extensive multilingual capabilities. ce

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multilingual capabilities. ce Dataforth www.dataforth.com Go Online www.controleng.com/products has more product

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10 JANUARY 2013 CONTROL ENGINEERING

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1/16/2013
1/16/2013

11:31:19 AM

The more you know… the more efficiently you can connect to your control components.
The more you know…
the more efficiently you can connect
to your control components.
• • • • •

Knowledge Is Power.

SmartWire-DT™ from Eaton reduces wiring time and allows efficient connection to motor control components within minutes:

Motor Starters & Contactors

Pushbuttons & Pilot Devices

Selector Switches

Control Relays

Digital & Analog I/O Modules

Now, integrate the Eaton XV Series HMI-PLC with an embedded SmartWire-DT master as your controller.

Discover more possibilities at www.eaton.com/smartwiredt

input #8 at www.controleng.com/information

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The dawn of a new standard in level control. Prepare for a total ECLIPSE ®
The dawn of a new standard
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1/11/2013
1/11/2013

12:50:45 PM

IT & engineering INSIGHT
IT & engineering
INSIGHT

The next big thing is at hand

IT & engineering INSIGHT The next big thing is at hand Dennis Brandl ‘ Smartphone apps

Dennis Brandl

Smartphone

apps will be the eyes and ears of operators, helping to see patterns and resolve problems, giving staff time to do value-added work.

problems, giving staff time to do value-added work. ’ Go Online At www.controleng.com , search on

Go Online

At www.controleng.com, search on

Apps for Engineers

Smartphone

Brandl book

For manufacturing, the next big thing has arrived. Have you noticed? The operator assistant, based on the second generation of smart- phones and the software capability to provide situational awareness, will be the “always-on” eyes and ears of operators, listening and look- ing for problems and patterns not normally visible to operators.

T his is the time of the year when IT departments are looking for The Next Big Thing (TNBT) so they can plan for purchases, system changes, and organi-

zational restructuring. Manufacturing IT depart- ments are also looking for TNBT because it often takes a long time to set up support for TNBT and companies do not want to make investments that will have to be ripped out within the next few years. It may come as a surprise, but you may have TNBT for manufacturing IT already in your hand. TNBT answers the problem of getting any information, at any place, and at any time. We have this today, provided the “any place” is in front of a computer screen. But, operational staff is always on the move, looking and listening to the process. The next big thing for manu- facturing IT may be second gen- eration smartphones. Today’s smartphone replaces phones, cameras, GPS devices, and other dedicated devices too numerous to list. When combined with additional sensors, the smartphone becomes a tool for medical analysis, electronic signal analysis, and infrared sensing analysis, to name just a few applications. The current gen- eration contains first generation chip sets and applications. Future smartphones will have more processing power. Intel recently announced a prototype 48-core chipset for smartphones. Advances in semiconductor technology will result in more storage capability with terabytes of local data. Imagine this computing power combined with voice recognition and context analysis of Apple’s Siri (www.apple.com/ios/siri) and the knowledge network of IBM’s Watson (www.ibm.com/Watson), in a handheld device. Software and hardware will create TNBT devices that provide “situational awareness.” Today many systems require an operator in the loop to detect and act on problems because

it is impossible to program the responses for all possible situations in classical control systems. TNBT devices will be able to recognize what is going on inside your area or site and determine when something is out of normal but not yet in alarm. The information for this awareness may come from traditional fixed sensors or even by listening for out-of-normal sounds in frequencies outside of human range. TNBT devices will have video capability, so they can look for abnormal conditions in visible, infrared, and ultra- violet. TNBT devices will become true operator assistants, always watching and always listening for out-of-normal conditions. There are steps to take to be ready for TNBT devices on your plant floor. These devices will be un-personalized like maintenance instruments or handheld radios. They will be assigned to people and run approved applications. You will need to ensure the facility has full Wi-Fi or 4G coverage. You will probably need to add additional process sensors and have larger historian databases with finer data resolution (less filtering). Plant blueprints may have to be augmented with location data, or alternately every location should be 2-D barcoded so that a TNBT device can bring up relevant information based on a person’s location. The next big thing for manufacturing IT may well be the rise of the operator assistant, based on the upcoming second generation of smart- phones. These will be always on, listening and looking for problems and patterns that are not normally visible to operators. They will help resolve problems, document the problems and resolutions, and leave operational staff free to perform value-added work. ce - Dennis Brandl is president of BR&L Con- sulting in Cary, N.C., www.brlconsulting.com. His firm focuses on manufacturing IT. Contact him at dbrandl@brlconsulting.com.

manufacturing IT. Contact him at dbrandl@brlconsulting.com. 14 ● JANUARY 2013 CONTROL ENGINEERING ●

14 JANUARY 2013 CONTROL ENGINEERING www.controleng.com

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1/11/2013

12:52:10 PM

technology UPDATE
technology
UPDATE

Converging automation standards

Competing standards and protocols often cover the same ground but are not compatible, to the dismay of end users. Sometimes they can be brought together to benefit vendors and users.

Peter Welander

The ultimate goal of such an effort is to structure the solution so that it has backward compatibility with equipment from either camp.This can often be a major technical undertaking.

Go Online Read this story at www.controleng.com for links to:
Go Online
Read this story at
www.controleng.com
for links to:

The case for wireless standards convergence

EDDL team reorganizes for FDI

FDI Cooperation, LLC: A new company to support FDI technology is founded

E ven a casual observer of our industries will soon realize that there are many standards and protocols covering various aspects of hardware, software, and work practices.

They cover safety, communication, form factors, and all sorts of related elements. It’s hard to imag- ine life without them as such standards ensure interoperability in ways we take for granted. The dark side of this discussion emerges when two competing standards cover the same area but are incompatible. The textbook example was VHS and Beta tape formats for video recorders. These were developed in the 1970s by JVC and Sony, respectively, and did, essentially, exactly the same thing. If you wanted to buy a VCR back then, you had to choose one or the other. Sellers had to have both available. Tape rental stores stocked the same titles in both. Ultimately, natural selection pushed Beta out of the market. This story has been repeated many times in industrial circles. A number of products and proto- cols have been relegated to the dustbin of history along with Beta tapes. At the same time, a handful of efforts have emerged in various areas to smooth over differences between competing standards and create something new that accommodates both. These are often driven by groups of users and even vendors interested in reducing pointless redundancy. The ultimate goal of such an effort is to structure the solution so that it has backward compatibility with equipment from either camp. This can often be a major technical undertaking. The most recent positive example is the devel- opment of FDI in an effort to bridge the gap between FDT/DTM and EDDL as device integra- tion platforms. In spite of the technical differences between these two approaches, the group was able to create a new approach that is able to work with both. As vendors implement the new standard, users will not have to choose one or the other, or worse, duplicate efforts and support both. Another area where some consensus would go a long way is wireless field device communica- tion. In a 2010 Control Engineering article, Her- man Storey, a process industry consultant and

16 JANUARY 2013 CONTROL ENGINEERING www.controleng.com

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co-chair of the ISA100 committee, argued on behalf of users: “Proprietary technologies limit users’ abilities to select the best system, the best field equipment for an application, and the best integration of system and field equipment with reasonable engineering cost. Proprietary technolo- gies may offer attractive features when working in a single vendor environment, but the downside of these features is their lack of general applica- bility and permanence. Users want interoperable standards-based products and systems. Interoper- ability needs a significant amount of support, but the payoff is improved risk management for ven- dors and users. Users are now demanding interop- erable solutions (the ability to freely mix vendors) for industrial wireless technologies.” Sadly, sometimes these bridging efforts are not effective. In December, the ISA100 committee disbanded its ISA100.12 subcommittee to create a convergence of ISA100.11a and WirelessHART standards aimed at wireless process instruments. While the two platforms are similar, no ideal technical solution that could work with both had emerged. The group also suffered from conten- tious differences between vendor representatives. Disbanding this group does not mean such efforts have ceased. Another organization called the Heathrow Wireless Convergence Team contin- ues as an open interest group dedicated to creat- ing a single communication standard for wireless field device networks in process industries. Tech- nical developments go on under this banner and now include WIA-PA from China in addition to the original two. A critical mass of users, vendors, and academic institutions is now behind the effort, providing the best hope for wide support. Writing standards is inherently a slow process which has to move on to the vendors for adoption. A 10-year time span is typical to move from formation to having products available for users. With some unified effort and a little technical luck, maybe this one will gain some lost ground. ce

Peter Welander is a content manager for Con- trol Engineering. pwelander@cfemedia.com

lost ground. ce Peter Welander is a content manager for Con- trol Engineering . pwelander@cfemedia.com 1/15/13

1/15/13

lost ground. ce Peter Welander is a content manager for Con- trol Engineering . pwelander@cfemedia.com 1/15/13

11:55 AM

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1/11/2013
1/11/2013

12:54:51 PM

integrator UPDATE
integrator
UPDATE

Remote access programming

Internet promises of better remote access, monitoring, and tweaking of automation systems have been slowed by malware and other security issues; options are available for secure remote access programming.

Frank Hurtte

Proprietary processes, formulas for new products, and e-mail correspondence can be targets for hackers, creating a barrier for those who had hoped to use the Internet to monitor machinery.

Key concepts Remote access to machinery decreases downtime External access needs to be secure Tools
Key
concepts
Remote access to
machinery decreases
downtime
External access needs to
be secure
Tools can reduce remote
access risk

T he concept of remotely accessing,

monitoring, and tweaking automation

systems has been around since the late

1980s, and the Internet seemed to be

the “Promised Land,” just around the corner. Just about the time we were ready to perform a happy dance atop the Internet bandwagon, malware and security issues reared their ugly heads and ruined the party. The year 1988 was about the time the major PLC manufacturers first made noise about remote access. It was a good idea, but then the only option was a dial-up modem. This required a lot of tinkering and faced three obstacles. First, the connections were really slow, and even after 20 years, they didn’t get much better. According to Leslie Adams of Chicago’s MAAC Machinery (in 2012), “I remember the frustra- tion associated with trying to monitor machines when it took a long time for information to make its way back via the modem connection. In one instance, we were working with a machine in Australia and the delay ran up to 15 seconds.” With speeds like that, any thoughts of actively making changes on the fly are pretty much shot. The coups de grace was when the search began for a telephone line on the plant floor. There are issues with getting an analog line down to a machine. When dozens of machines were scat- tered throughout a manufacturing facility, it was nearly impossible. Even today, phone lines can be iffy. James Alongi, MAAC’s president, noted, “Those of us in the U.S. and Canada take solid phone infrastructure for granted. This is not true in other parts of the globe.” Developing countries in Asia, Latin America, and even some first-world nations regularly suffer from spotty phone service. So modems were applied on some mission- critical systems, ones that could shut down a whole plant. Things like the main ammonia chiller inside a food processing plant might jus- tify having a line, but the rest of the applications went begging, and engineers continued to go on expensive unplanned trips.

Let there be Internet

The late 1990s brought an Internet explosion followed by a logarithmic proliferation of Eth-

18 JANUARY 2013 CONTROL ENGINEERING www.controleng.com

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ernet devices. In a couple of years, it was Eth- ernet everything. And in 2001 when companies like Rockwell Automation began introducing Ethernet-enabled programmable controllers (and then drives, operator interface devices, and other components), it looked like remote connectivity problems were over. Using plant wide networks hooked to the Internet, it became possible to sit in a comfortable office and fine-tune processors wherever they may be. Expensive and physically exhausting last-minute trips to customer sites would be a thing of the past.

Paradise lost, devils in malware

In the early days of the Internet, most of us had no way to imagine the evils of spyware, malware, and code capable of bringing whole companies to their knees. As businesses became networked, one bit of this nasty stuff could shut down million-dol- lar operations. A hell-bent hacker worming into a plant-wide network could conceivably access sen- sitive information, such as private human-resource information, trade secrets, and more. Proprietary processes, formulas for new products, and sensi- tive e-mail correspondence are choice targets. U.S. IT departments switched from utility providers to private detectives. We’re still basking in the red light warning of a new heightened state of securi- ty. Security can create a barrier for those who had hoped to use the Internet to monitor machinery. Currently, the virtual private network (VPN) is the most common method for allowing employees remote access to a company or plant network. If you can access company e-mail or other files (that aren’t cloud-based) from home or a motel room, it

is likely via a VPN. When you joined your orga-

nization, someone from the IT department cre- ated an encrypted certificate for you that provides

secure network access. VPN is defined as a network that uses public

infrastructure (like the Internet) to provide remote offices or individual users with secure access to

a private company network. It aims to avoid an

expensive array of private or leased lines that can only be used by one company at a time. VPNs encapsulate data transfers between two or more networked devices that are not on the same private network. This keeps the transferred date secure

more networked devices that are not on the same private network. This keeps the transferred date

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An eWON industrial VPN router is connected to an automation system. The device combines a modem, an IP router, drivers for serial and Ethernet PLC protocols, and a processor for autonomous management of communication tasks. It offers additional services for PLC parameters. Courtesy: River Heights Consulting

from devices on one or more interven- ing local or wide area networks. VPN also is used for remote access to factory machines to allow the machine builder to work remotely. There are four main problems:

A PC must be installed near the machine with the necessary software to connect to a remote desktop. The machine builder must be given a username and password to reach the PC. Depending on architecture, this “out- sider” also may have the ability to access the rest of the factory network, which makes most companies very nervous. There is a lack of traceability. With- out appropriate software, it is impossible

to verify who has been on the system and

when and where they made changes. Simply stated, access through the net- work and VPN is (or should be) highly guarded. Once a user is on the VPN, he may have access to the whole network. And that’s the problem. Corporate IT groups spend enormous resources set-

ting up new users and regulating access to the VPN. Nearly every company has

a procedure that automatically informs

the IT group if someone quits or is termi- nated, and they close off network access immediately. In most company environments the VPN will be open to automation provid- ers for only a couple of days before or after they work. While this minimizes risk to the customer’s network, it elimi-

nates chances of taking a proactive look

at the customer’s system. Worse for the

engineer involved, once on the customer’s network, the engineer must remember a long string of IP address numbers to find the right PLC. The 30-plus-year war of

wills between control engineers and cor- porate IT departments can add difficulties.

See the future from here

Promising technologies are pushing into the remote access arena. Many come on the verge of Stuxnet and an inherent escalation of the computer-securities war. One such new technology comes from Belgium-based eWon (a systems inte- gration company turned manufacturer). It uses hardware, cloud computing, and VPN router technologies (LAN, PSTN, GPRS, 2G, 3G) in an industrial case. The product establishes a secure Inter- net connection between the user and the machine with minimal effort using the factory LAN. The eWon Talk2M (talk to machine) is a smart Web-based remote access method integrating IT security standards by enabling Internet tunneling between the user and the remote machine without requiring changes to IT network security settings at either end. This allows easy deployment and hides the complex- ity of the IT network infrastructure. Since cloud connections are outbound, fire- walls remain intact to protect the network against malware and viruses, like Stuxnet. A California-based systems integra- tor specializing in water treatment sys- tems is among early adopters of the eWon technology. Darian Slywka of American Water Technology said, “VPN network connections used to be a major hassle. As you might imagine, there are signifi- cant issues with security relating to utility infrastructure. Opening ports in a firewall creates concerns for both the customer and our own systems.” American Water Technology uses eWon Talk2M and related services to

20 JANUARY 2013 CONTROL ENGINEERING www.controleng.com

1/16/2013
1/16/2013

11:33:32 AM

Talk2M and related services to 20 ● JANUARY 2013 CONTROL ENGINEERING ● www.controleng.com 1/16/2013 11:33:32 AM
assign engineers and programmers based on workload, project dynamics, and busi- ness requirements. They monitor

assign engineers and programmers based on workload, project dynamics, and busi- ness requirements. They monitor equip- ment access and log the time they spend working remotely. They can monitor, debug, and later troubleshoot literally any device with an Ethernet connection; things like PLCs, drives, instrumentation, and other devices can be connected as easily as if they were within arm’s reach. The eWon device automatically grabs an IP address, saving the time and effort of assigning one. Talk2M Pro service manages control access between users and the machine. The software only allows communication with eWon devic- es, resolving security issues.

Economic impact, remote connections

Remote connectivity is a good eco- nomic decision. With last-minute airfare and a hotel room pushing the thousand- dollar mark, travel costs justify a remote access strategy. When the lost productiv- ity from being out of the office is factored in, costs skyrocket. MAAC Machinery’s Leslie Adams said eWon use eliminates “50%-70% of our support costs, in addition to signifi- cantly reducing hours of machine down- time normally associated with waiting for a service technician. Travel time wasted on field trips equates to a lot of money. Sitting in airports and driving out to cus- tomer installations means a whole lot of unproductive time—time we prefer our programmers spend working on new machines or fine-tuning existing systems. When these guys are gone, they simply aren’t working on the important stuff.” Other companies share similar justi- fication. Joe Reilly, VP of technology at Comtec Industries, a manufacturer work- ing with commercial bakeries, said, “In the baking business, downtime is expen- sive. With the Model 2900 operating at 3,600 crusts per hour, downtime could easily reach upwards of $7,000 per hour in lost revenue. With numbers like this, it’s safe to say we will save hundreds of thousands of dollars in lost production over the life of these machines. And, the

Consider this One downtime incident or security breach could justify enabling remote access connec- tions
Consider this
One downtime incident or security breach
could justify enabling remote access connec-
tions to critical plant assets.

CONTROL ENGINEERING JANUARY 2013 21

money we save our customers when we eliminate a field trip is just icing on the cake (no pun intended). When we drop everything and rush out to a field emer- gency, our costs skyrocket.” Engineering elegance meets economic impact at the gates of Nirvana. ce - Frank Hurtte is founding partner of River Heights Consulting.

Hurtte is founding partner of River Heights Consulting. Go Online www.controleng.com/safety for the Safety and

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www.controleng.com/safety for the Safety and Security channel www.americanwatertech.com www.comtecindustriesltd.com www.ewon.us www.riverheightsconsulting.com

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11:32:38 AM

®
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INTERNATIONALI

High-speed memory sharing improves application reliability

Data transmission based on the Reflective Memory from GE Intelligent Platforms provides a unique industrial real-time network technology that can boost reliability for many industrial control applications, according to a CE China article.

Jin Yan

Key concepts Real-time backup and fail-over of control for manufacturing information can augment reliability.
Key
concepts
Real-time backup and
fail-over of control for
manufacturing information
can augment reliability.
Applications include
flight simulators, telecom-
munication, rolling mills,
aluminum factories, and
high-speed test and mea-
surement systems.
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Go Online www.cechina.cn
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At www.controleng.com search Control Engineering China for other articles.

I n the industrial automation application area

of cold rolling and hot rolling, the require-

ment for pressure and rotating speed is strict

and demanding. Data must be transmitted to

the next node within a very short time to achieve real-time parameter coordination. A very short delay could cause errors and huge waste. Cur- rently, fieldbus and Ethernet cannot satisfy the requirements of high determinacy and timing. Reflective Memory from GE Intelligent Plat- forms targets demanding simulation, process control, and data collection to make up for this insufficiency and fulfills strict real-time require- ments with determinacy, low latency, and high- speed memory sharing.

Low latency, high speed

Reflective memory is a high-speed network with a 2.12 G transmission rate; its transmis- sion speed can be as high as 174 Mbytes/s. Shao Jianfeng, an embedded system application engi- neer for GE Intelligent Platforms, said that in the reflective memory optical fiber ring, high-speed synchronization would transmit data to the next node in the network and get ready to insert data at any node any time data was written to a local reflective memory device. Each node receives data from its previous node, decodes the data packet, checks the errors, writes this new data to local backup, and sends it to its next node. When data returns to the starting node, it is deleted from the network. Every computer holds the lat- est local backup of the share memory collection with no software latency and negligible hardware latency. All computers can receive the data writ- ten to reflective memory within 2.1μs (diagram). Low latency is vital for building real-time sys- tems (such as simulators, PLC controllers, testing platforms, and high-availability systems). All CPUs writing to shared memory in the system will be duplicated to all nodes, up to 256 computers within the network. All subsystems have sufficient and unlimited access authorities. Beside a ring structure, star topology of reflective memory network is another option,

22 JANUARY 2013 CONTROL ENGINEERING www.controleng.com

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22
www.controleng.com CTL1301_CEInternational_V5msFINAL.indd 22 Diagram shows how Reflective Memory from GE Intelligent

Diagram shows how Reflective Memory from GE Intelligent Platforms reduces the latency of nodes. Courtesy: GE Intelligent Platforms

which enables higher synchronization. Optical fiber hub can bypass any nodes that terminate the operation even if the node interruption is turned off. Every computer holds the latest backup of share memory collection within the network. Backup node can seamlessly take up the opera- tion using the failed node, reducing the negative impact on the productivity, profitability, and per- formance caused by unexpected shutdown. GE Reflective Memory provides a ring- structured network for data insertion using opti- cal fiber with 2.12 G transmission rate. The range between nodes can be up to 10 km (single mode)/300 meters (multiple mode). “Compared with Gigabit Ethernet, reflective memory has a higher real-time performance. The latency between two nodes is no more than 750 nanoseconds, while Ethernet and fieldbus can- not achieve this, as the speed of Gigabit Ether- net (including UDP) is only 100 MB/s,” Jianfeng said. (See table.) It is difficult to achieve simi- lar latency using Ethernet as well as other net- work technologies, due to constraints, such as IP protocol cost, addressing, and time to write to memory. Then, can 10 Gigabit Ethernet replace a Reflective Memory network? Jianfeng said that most industrial fieldbuses are still using 10/100 Mbit/s, and currently Gigabit network and 10

said that most industrial fieldbuses are still using 10/100 Mbit/s, and currently Gigabit network and 10

1/15/13

said that most industrial fieldbuses are still using 10/100 Mbit/s, and currently Gigabit network and 10

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input #14 at www.controleng.com/information

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®
®

INTERNATIONALI

Gigabit application are mainly used at server levels. It is pos- sible that a 10 Gigabit network will be used widely in indus- trial field applications, but that will take a long time. GE also is developing 10 G optical fiber to fulfill environmental needs for more demanding real-time performance. Reflective Memory doesn’t rely on network protocol, avoiding additional load limit or terminal rules. “Hardware can be used in VME (versa module eurocard), PCI/PCI-X, PMC (PCI mezzanine card), PCI Express, and oth- ers, which allow the separate reflective memory network to connect to a different bus. [PCI is peripheral component inter- face.] Design and implementation need not care much about the system compatibility and can build adaptive systems to ease the field system’s building and expanding,” Jianfeng said. “Protocol means CPU overhead, and thus data could be lost during the transmission. A Reflective Memory network transmits raw data with extreme latency, which means higher determinacy of data transmission and lower CPU overhead.” It monitors and duplicates data transparently and shares data without software overhead (more cost effective, eliminating additional development effort, testing, maintenance, documen- tation, and CPU requirements of traditional communication).

Application scope: VME versus PLC

Could this be applied to all industrial environments? The answer is no. Reflective Memory, a unique GE real-time net- work technology, can be integrated with other GE embedded systems to build real-time systems to achieve remote data transmission. It can be used in all environments where com- puters or programmable logic controllers are connected using Ethernet, optical fiber channels, or other serial networks, such as flight simulators, telecommunication, high-speed progress control (rolling mills and aluminum factories), and high-speed testing and measurement systems. It is not for all environments. “Reflective Memory is more suitable to systems where real-time communication is top priority. Although the price of Reflective Memory is higher than that of hardware whose per- formance is low, it is rewarding considering its high functional- ity and usability,” Jianfeng said. Of course, he further pointed out that for those industrial environments where the require-

ment of real time is not demanding, it is fine to use a traditional network, considering cost. That is to say, “Reflective Memory

is especially suitable to the environment where high-speed data

transmission, real time, and determinacy are top priority. Up to

256 nodes can be connected to the ring, and that is enough for industrial environment and simulation applications.”

Real-time, accurately controlled production

Thanks to low latency and high determinacy, Reflective Memory is best applied to applications in metallurgy, steel, and communications environments, where real-time requirements are strict. For example, it can be used to improve the PLC per- formance to control the aluminum or steel rolling process. For an aluminum mill with 3500 ft/min speed, 2-3 feet of alumi- num can pass through within the response time of the executor when using the usual PLC controller. The executer can apply or release pressure to roll out aluminum with various thick-

ness. With Reflective Memory, data related to the mill can be input into the PLC, which writes the data to Reflective Memo- ry. Thus data is sent to independent VME computers to trans- mit the complicated control logic algorithm. The system uses Reflective Memory commands to transmit the output control data back to the PLC. Data transmission and computer speed are so high, there is no delay in the PLC operation control loop. “If there is any delay,” Jianfeng said, “the thickness of steel cannot follow the specifications, and some of the material will be wasted. Reflective Memory based on a VME advanced con- trol system ensures real-time and accurate control to reduce the response time to as short as 4 in. [in this application] and thus improve product quality. Compared with a PLC, Reflec- tive Memory has better real-time performance, achieving high- speed system response with higher cost. Reflective memory is

a good supplement to the traditional PLC control, and you can

decide which solution to take. If there is some system redun- dancy, you can use Reflective Memory to back up the data in the time-out machine within a few microseconds, which is common in PLC control.” ce - Sunny Jin (Jin Yan) is senior editor with Control Engi- neering China. This article appeared in an earlier edition of CEC and was edited by Mark T. Hoske, content manager, CFE Media, for use in Control Engineering, mhoske@cfemedia.com.

Table: Reflective Memory network versus Ethernet

 

Reflective Memory network

   

Feature

(5565/5565PIORC/5565RC)

10/100 Ethernet

Gigabit Ethernet

Transmission speed

2.12 Gbit/s

10/100 Mbit/s

1000 Mbit/s

Data transmission speed

174 MB/s

1.25/12.5/125 MB/s

1.25/12.5/125 MB/s

Byte order data transformation

Yes

No

No

Software transparency

Yes

No

No

Network data transmission/ Confirmation to receive?

Yes

No

No

Network transmission scheme

Data insertion

Carrier sense multiple access/ Collision detection

Token passing

Memory mapping access shared data?

Yes

No, must create message application

No, must create message application

Table compares various attributes of Reflective Memory from GE Intelligent Platforms, 10/100 Ethernet, and Gigabit Ethernet. Courtesy: GE Intelligent Platforms

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SAFETY machine
SAFETY
machine

Risk level assessment priority:

Possibility, severity, or frequency?

Which factor has the highest priority for assessing hazard risk levels: possibility, severity, or frequency? The ANSI B11.0 – 2010 standard may help.

J.B. Titus, CFSE

A re the three factors of possibil-

ity, severity, and frequency of equal

importance in determining the risk

levels for machine safety hazards?

Industry safety standards seem to treat them as equal because they don’t address any relative importance. However, what’s your experience? Doesn’t it seem that international and domes- tic standards present these three required fac- tors for assessing risk as independent variables? Although they’re independent, they are also related because when they’re combined they help to determine risk levels of hazards and their related remediation performance requirements. This is shown in the risk reduction graph from ANSI B11.0 – 2010. In this case the qualitative process is determining the Performance Level (PL) for the given hazard. Using this assessment approach, if you decid- ed that severity (of injury) required a higher priority, would the derived outcome in the risk level be any different? Similarly, would giving the possibility or frequency factors greater prior- ity or lesser priority change the answer? In my opinion, I don’t see it! Yet when I talk with users about this issue, they frequently present this example. If sever- ity of harm for a given hazard is “death,” they always give that factor a higher priority (S2) and a higher risk level, which drives the high- est circuit performance for machine guarding. The highest circuit performance is PLe, which requires the average probability of dangerous failures per hour of 10 8 to 10 7 . PLe means control reliable circuits with redundant components and 24/7 monitoring. So, here’s the dilemma as I see it: If severity is S2 and frequency and possibility are F1 and P1, respectively, your derived risk level is PLc by ISO 13849-1: 2006 standard requirements. After deciding on S2 and depending on your answers for F1 or F2 and P1 or P2, you could arrive at either PLc, Pld, or PLe, per the graph

CTL1301_Safety_V5msFINAL.indd

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Performance levels from ISO 13849-1: 2006 PL r P1 a F1 P2 S1 b P1
Performance levels from ISO 13849-1: 2006
PL r
P1
a
F1
P2
S1
b
P1
F2
Amount
P2
1
of risk
P1
c reduction
F1
P2
required
S2
d
P1
F2
P2
e
Key
Risk parameters
1
Starting point for evaluation of safety function’s
contribution to risk reduction
S
S1
Severity of injury
Slight (normally reversible injury)
L
Low contribution to risk reduction
S2
Serious (normally irreversible injury or death)
H
High contribution to risk reduction
Required performance level
F
PL r
F1
F2
Frequency and/or exposure to hazard
Seldom-to-less-often and/or exposure time is short
Frequent-to-continuous and/or exposure time is long
P
P1
P2
Possibly of avoiding hazard or limiting harm
Possible under specific conditions
Scarcely possible

Figure D-2: Performance Levels from ISO 13849-1:2006. Reprinted with Per- mission: ANSI B11.0 – 2010, B11 Standards Inc.

above. Specifically arriving at PLe by priori- tizing severity (S2) is not straightforward. If using the category system, you could likewise arrive at either Cat 1, 2, 3, or 4 by deciding on S2. Perhaps you can prioritize severity by eliminating frequency and possibility and sim- ply defaulting to PLe or Cat 4. But, by elimi- nating frequency and possibility in your risk analysis, are you in compliance with the stan- dards? Therefore, aren’t all three factors equal in priority? Does anyone have an answer for this dilem- ma? Your comments or suggestions are always welcome, so please let us know your thoughts. Submit your ideas, experiences, and chal- lenges on this subject in the comments section (online). ce - J.B. Titus, Certified Functional Safety Expert (CFSE), writes the Control Engineering Machine Safety Blog. Reach him at jb@jbtitus.com.

Go Online www.b11standards.com
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www.b11standards.com

www.jbtitus.com

Browse www.controleng. com/blogs

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com for

Quantitative circuit design versus qualitative risk assessment

Updating ISO 13849-1 compliance for robots

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New videos

Online at

www.controleng.com/videos

Integration 28

Services for

Industrial computing

Innovation 29

New test lab

with engineering

industry NEWS
industry
NEWS

Yaskawa commemorates first U.S.-manufactured MV1000 medium-voltage drives

Yaskawa Electric Corp. and Yas- kawa America Inc. celebrated the start of U.S. manufacturing for the Yaska- wa MV1000 in a ceremony at the Yas- kawa America Oak Creek, Wis., plant on Nov. 30. Yaskawa offered the medi- um-voltage drive (for motors up to

5000 hp) earlier this year, but ordering and shipping from Japan takes about 6 months. That’s expected to be reduced to 8 weeks or less after more than $3 million is invested by 2014 for new manufacturing and testing areas in the 30,000-sq-ft plant. By late 2013, mod- els serving up to 5,000 hp

Yaskawa MV1000 is said to be the smallest 1000 hp drive available, with 30%-60% smaller volume compared to the last generation of Yaskawa prod- uct. It also has the longest mean time between failures (MTBF) at 200,000 hours, a number expected to increase, said those involved. Yaskawa Smart Harmonics Technology reduces input harmonics, meeting IEEE519-1992 and eliminating the need for other filters. Total harmonic distortion (THD) is less than 2.8%. Energy savings for custom- ers derive from 97% or better power

Controls for this Yas- kawa MV1000 medium voltage drive are in a slide-out drawer on the right, separate from higher-power areas, reducing requirements for personal protective equipment (PPE) for controls-only access. Configuration options are many.

conversion efficiency at rated load and by motor speed control, particularly on variable torque loads such as fans, blowers, and pumps. Employees, customers, and guests were invited to the plant for a Kagami- Biraki sake ceremony commemorat- ing the new beginning. They celebrat- ed next to the first MV1000 units made there, two of which were ready to ship to a pipe manufacturing customer in Ohio. Another will remain at the Oak Creek plant for demonstration, display, and continued testing. Yaskawa Oak Creek now employs

are expected to be avail- able, including UL and CSA listings.
are expected to be avail-
able, including UL and
CSA listings.

John Merrison, Yaskawa senior product marketing manager, said the Yaskawa MV1000 medium-voltage drive protects the connected motor and main from harmonics, which extends motor life and avoids electric utility penalty charges, and it saves energy, he said.

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● www.controleng.com CTL1301_News_V6msFINAL.indd 26 Executives from Yaskawa America, Inc. and Yaskawa Electric

Executives from Yaskawa America, Inc. and Yaskawa Electric Corp. (Japan) open casks at the Kagami Biraki sake cere- mony to commemorate the first Yaskawa medium-voltage drive produced and shipped in the U.S. CFE Media photos by Mark T. Hoske

115 and will augment engineering, application support, manufacturing, and testing as needed, the company said. The MV1000 drive uses open-loop vector control, meaning it is highly resistant to load fluctuations, enabling stable continuous operation without using an encoder. High-performance vector control can be used with syn- chronous motors as well as induc- tion motors. The available user inter- face is the same used with Yaskawa 1000-Series low-voltage drives, for easy setting and operation. The Yaska- wa DriveWizard Plus MV helps with setup, maintenance, and troubleshoot- ing. A USB copy device aids with the transfer of parameters from drive to drive. ce www.yaskawa.com

of parameters from drive to drive. ce www.yaskawa.com Go Online CFE Media video demonstrates energy savings

Go Online

CFE Media video demonstrates energy savings with variable frequency drives Yaskawa tops 1 million inverters manufactured

demonstrates energy savings with variable frequency drives Yaskawa tops 1 million inverters manufactured 1/15/13 12:02 PM

1/15/13

demonstrates energy savings with variable frequency drives Yaskawa tops 1 million inverters manufactured 1/15/13 12:02 PM

12:02 PM

CALENDAR 2013 Manufacturing IT 29 Newsletters Book expands New design on monthly columns
CALENDAR 2013
Manufacturing IT 29
Newsletters
Book expands
New design
on monthly columns
www.controleng.com/newsletters
Automation, control, and instrumentation
events, conferences, and training in 2013
include:
ProMat, Jan. 20-24, Chicago
www.promatshow.com
Automate 2013, Jan. 21-24, Chicago
www.automate2013.com
ARC World Forum, Feb. 11-14, Orlando
www.arcweb.com
Engineering document control, numbering,
transmittals: Build a flexible solution
Robotics Industry Forum, AIA Business
Conference, Feb. 20-22, Orlando
www.robotics.org/events
Microsoft SharePoint is commonly
used for document storage, intranets,
and extranets but falls short for sophisti-
cated document control, numbering, and
transmittals capabilities. A number of
engineering companies have overcome
these challenges without custom code.
SharePoint can be a great platform for
engineering project management. Use-
ful functionality includes document
classification, version control, search,
calendars, tasks lists, alerts, creation of
project sites from templates, and oth-
ers. Many engineering companies find
SharePoint lacking for:
ABB Automation & Power World,
March 25-28, Orlando
www.abb.com/apworld
Hannover Messe, April 8-12,
Hannover, Germany
www.hannovermesse.com
ESC Design West, April 22-25,
San Jose, Calif.
www.ubmdesign.com
Interphex, April 23-25, New York
www.interphex.com
CSIA Executive Conference,
May 1-4, St. Petersburg, Fla.
www.controlsys.org
Also see www.controleng.com/webcast.

Document control, including multi-stage approvals and permission management Document numbering, for example composite numbering formats including document type, revision, incremental number, etc. Transmittals—making available sets of documents to partners or clients and tracking which documents have been transmitted. Engineering organizations can:

Develop custom software Purchase one or more specialist off-the-shelf products Enhance Microsoft SharePoint with

a third-party tool that enables rapid delivery of the required functionality through configuration rather than code. Custom development can be slow, risky, and expensive, and can compli- cate future SharePoint upgrades, since customizations need to be upgraded. When business processes and require- ments change, it can be a lengthy pro- cess to re-engage software developers to update the software. Specialist off-the-shelf products can be good if they meet precise project requirements, but “locking in” to one vendor can add risk, as future needs may not be met. Off-the-shelf products can be expensive to purchase, main- tain, and support. Enhancing Microsoft SharePoint with a third-party tool has worked for several engineering com- panies. Such software can enhance SharePoint by allowing visual construc- tion and configuration of sophisticated workflows for:

Automatic generation of document numbers according to existing docu- ment numbering policy Complex multi-stage, serial, and parallel document approval Transmittals management, includ- ing approval, document tracking, pub-

lishing of documents to an extranet, and automated generation of e-mails con- taining links to transmitted documents. Engineers can quickly learn and maintain many workflows at a low cost. Because it is delivered through configu- ration, not code, changes may be imple- mented by a nonspecialist in-house staff person in hours. ce - Ian Woodgate is managing director of SharePoint business applications specialist PointBeyond Ltd. www.pointbeyond.com

NASA Mars rover director to keynote ARC Forum in February Director of the Mars Rover
NASA Mars rover director to keynote ARC Forum in February
Director of the Mars Rover project for NASA will keynote
the annual ARC World Industry Forum, [http://www.arcweb.
com/events/arc-orlando-forum/pages/default.aspx] Feb.
11-14, 2013, in Orlando. The four-day conference and event
features manufacturing and engineering-related speakers
highlighting new processes and technologies, including
Doug McCuiston, director of the Mars Exploration Program
at NASA. McCuiston will discuss the engineering and logis-
tics needed to bring the Curiosity rover to the surface of
Mars. In his presentation, McCuiston will discuss this eight-
year journey with a behind-the-scenes story of building
Curiosity, getting it to the surface of Mars, its early discover-
ies, and what lies ahead for the Mars exploration program.
ARC analysts and a roster of some of the world’s top
manufacturers also will share knowledge at the annual
event. Included in the event are four days of educational
sessions, displays from some of the top manufacturers, and
a series of networking events to bring top manufacturing
executives from around the world to exchange ideas.
The theme of the 2013 ARC Advisory Group event is,
“Achieving Breakthrough Performance With New Pro-
cesses and Technologies.” ARC officials will discuss how
to meet the goal of improved performance by identifying
key improvement targets, implementing the correct process
improvement tools, and generating fresh and unique offer-
ings to meet evolving customer needs.
For information on the 2013 ARC World Industry Forum
conference program, go to www.arcweb.com. ce
- Edited by Bob Vavra, content manager CFE Media, Control
Engineering and Plant Engineering, bvavra@cfemedia.com.

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industry NEWS
industry
NEWS

Industrial computer company acquires system integrator

Axiomtek USA expands North Amer- ican operations with acquisition of the Suntron Embedded Computing Solu- tions (ECS) business unit. Axiomtek, a global provider of indus- trial computers, announced that its North American subsidiary, Axiomtek USA, has signed a definitive agreement to acquire the Methuen, Mass.-based Embedded Computing Solutions (ECS) business unit of Suntron Corp. ECS pro- vides modified commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) based end-to-end outsourcing services, such as embedded designs, sys- tems integration, and extended lifecycle management. Terms of the agreement were not disclosed. Axiomtek, with more than 700 employees worldwide and operations in five countries, has expanded service to the embedded systems marketplace with the acquisition of ECS, according to a Dec. 21 statement from Axiomtek USA, based in City of Industry, Calif. ECS operations will be renamed Axiomtek Systems and will remain in its current ISO9001-certified Methuen facility. Cur- rent Axiomtek product offerings include single-board computers, industrial com-

puting systems and platforms, digital signage, panel computers, industrial con- nectivity (switches and protocol convert- ers), and related support. “Attempting to be a standard product company in a world that is demanding

Outsourcing services allow embedded computing and industrial computing customers to focus on core competencies.

nonstandard solutions can present a tre- mendous challenge to any manufactur- er,” stated YT Yang, Axiomtek CEO and president. “With the added experience and skill set of ECS,” Yang said, “we are now poised to provide our customers with a portfolio of robust industrial com- puting products along with outsourcing services anchored by operational excel- lence. It is a perfect match.” ECS, established in the early 1990s, provided some of the industry’s first

integration services targeting the original equipment manufacturer (OEM), design- ing complex products based around COTS building blocks, the Axiomtek statement said. “Over the recent years, the indus- trial computer industry has done a nice job producing standards-based systems for the embedded developer,” said Dave Starrett, VP of sales for Axiomtek USA. “However, the final piece to the ultimate solution is being able to offer the intan- gible services that truly enable the cus- tomer to focus on their core competency. Now we have it.” Kevin Tiner, ECS director of opera- tions, said, “Axiomtek has been a sup- plier to ECS for over 10 years. We know their products, their capabilities, and their people. We look forward to taking advantage of the synergy that this part- nership has created.” Lincoln International represented Suntron Corp. in the sale of the ECS business unit. ce www.axiomtek.com

www.suntroncorp.com/embedded-

computing-solutions.html

www.lincolninternational.com

Feedback: RTUs have been used since at least the 1960s Dr. Fang Yuanbai’s RTU article
Feedback: RTUs have been used since at least the 1960s
Dr. Fang Yuanbai’s RTU article (Control Engineering,
December 2012, p. 12: Control Engineering International:
RTU use expands, must make full use of advantages) said
RTUs [remote terminal units] started to be used by the U.S.
oil and gas industries in the 1980s.
Due to my direct personal experience I am aware of
RTU/SCADA [supervisory control and data acquisition]
applications on the Alaska crude oil pipeline. Each of the
12 pump stations had RTUs installed communicating over
microwave radio and backed-up satellite communications.
Each pump station RTU acted like a sub-master station to
control remote gate valves located between pump stations.
Each of the remote gate valves was equipped with much
smaller RTUs, which were scanned on an hourly basis but
reported alarms immediately, report by exception. The pipe-
line SCADA system was supplied by Harris Control Corp.,
Melbourne, Fla., and was installed in 1977 and
Sea gas platforms. The BP gas platforms were equipped
with solid-state RTUs; microprocessors were just being
developed at that time. This BP North Sea SCADA system
was commissioned in 1967. A similar SCADA system for
Shell North Sea was commissioned in 1968.
Thirty years later I had occasion to meet the maintenance
personnel for these platforms and inquired why these RTUs
had not been upgraded. Their response was that the RTUs
worked so well that they did not need replacing.
Serck Controls had at that time installed many SCADA
systems on a global basis including the Zakum oil fields in
Abu Dhabi. In conclusion, there is significant historical data
to verify that the term “remote terminal units” had been in
common use since the early 1960s and maybe earlier, since
I have had occasion to replace relay-based SCADA systems.
I am the author of the “Handbook of SCADA Systems for the
Oil/Gas Industry.” ce
commissioned in 1978.
Much prior to that I was directly involved
with the Serck Controls UK SCADA system
that monitored and controlled the first North
Go Online
At www.controleng.com,
search RTU use expands.
- Robert I Williams, PE, Department Manager
Instrumentation & Control Systems, Brinder-
son, Costa Mesa, Calif., www.brinderson.com.
rwilliams@brinderson.com

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12:02 PM

Eaton dedicates new innovation, engineering center near Milwaukee Electrical reliability, efficiency, and safety were key

Eaton dedicates new innovation, engineering center near Milwaukee

Electrical reliability, efficiency, and safety were key points of emphasis at a ribbon cutting, tour, time capsule open- ing, and lunch for Eaton employees, media, and other selected guests at the new Eaton Menomonee Falls, Wis., facil- ity on Jan. 9. The 104,000-sq-ft sales, marketing, engineering, research and development, and training facility is a showcase for thousands of Eaton prod- ucts. The two-story structure has 184 employees and room for more. An appli-

diverse and capable global company that’s not going to forget its history and is excited about the future. We expect big things from this site,” Cutler noted. Change is a matter of course for Eaton lately. It had a facility flood in 2010, 100th anniversary in 2011, and on Nov. 30, 2012, its $13 billion Cooper Industries acquisition was final. While Eaton’s Cooper engineers also have toured the new facility, joint product development isn’t yet underway for the $21.5 billion com- bined company (2011 revenue), now with 100,000 employees. Integration is expected to take 24-36 months. To accommodate research and test labs, the new building has 16 mil- lion volt-ampere (16 MVA) service, suf- ficient for approximately 4 million sq ft

Manufacturing IT book expands on Control Engineering advice from Dennis Brandl

Information technology is an important element of plant floor operations, and Den- nis Brandl’s monthly column on Manufac- turing IT in Control Engineering magazine covers IT aspects that are critical to modern manufacturing. A new book, “Plant IT: Inte- grating Information Technology into Auto- mated Manufacturing” by Momentum Press,

“Plant IT: Integrating Infor- mation Technology into Automated Manufactur- ing,” a 152-page book by Momentum Press by Dennis L. Brandl and Donald E. Brandl. Courtesy: Momen-

tum Press

expands on the information presented in the “Engineering and IT Insight” column. The book describes the wide range of informa- tion technologies that manufacturing pro- fessionals need to understand to effectively operate in the corporate IT environment. Each section of the book discusses an IT issue important for manufacturers, including practical programming, real-world design considerations, databases and mas- ter data management, knowledge manage- ment, tools and programming languages, cyber security, managing resource informa- tion, and regulations, Brandl said. These topics will allow manufacturing profes- sionals to intelligently discuss IT elements with their IT partners, so that IT can be effectively applied in plant floor operations without impacting production productivity or product quality, he said. “Software engineering is a foundation for all IT elements, yet many manufacturing engineers are tasked with software develop- ment, when software development is not their area of training. Therefore, this book also covers important aspects of software engineering and software project manage- ment for non-software engineers that must manage or participate in IT projects,” Brandl said. It also provides a strong background for using IT to advance and improve plant floor operations. ce www.brlconsulting.com

plant floor operations. c e www.brlconsulting.com Go Online At www.controleng.com, search for Momentum

Go Online

At www.controleng.com, search for Momentum Press to get the link to order. Best system integration advice for engineer- ing, controls, and IT

integration advice for engineer- ing, controls, and IT At the new Menomonee Falls facil- ity, Eaton
At the new Menomonee Falls facil- ity, Eaton employees and other guest enjoy lunch at
At the new
Menomonee Falls facil-
ity, Eaton employees
and other guest enjoy
lunch at the Jan. 9
dedication.
Sun faces a rooftop solar
array (not show) over the
new Eaton Menomonee
Falls, Wis., facility.

cation for U.S. Green Building Council LEED (Leadership in Energy and Envi- ronmental Design) Silver certification is pending. The new facility replaces an older, less-efficient, seven-story build- ing on 27th St. in Milwaukee. “This facility is a recruiting tool for us to help attract and retain talent. We have a lot of excited people who love this kind of work,” explained Brian Carlson, engineering director, Eaton Industrial Control Division. Alexander (Sandy) M. Cutler, chair- man and CEO, as part of the ribbon- cutting comments before lunch, said the design reflects Eaton’s efforts to emphasize electrical reliability, energy efficiency, and safety, as it provides innovative products and services to its markets. “We provide safe, productive, energy-efficient innovation. We’re large,

productive, energy-efficient innovation. We’re large, Go Online www.eaton.com Search “Eaton dedicates” at

Go Online

www.eaton.com Search “Eaton dedicates” at www.controleng. com to see a video clip from Carlson, more pho- tos, history, other details.

Sampling of Eaton products include a pushbutton near each group, to show what industries they serve. CFE Media photos by Mark T. Hoske

of typical office space. Energy-saving features include regeneration capabil- ity to capture energy from large motors under test, a solar array, and advanced lighting and building controls, all relying on advanced Eaton technologies. It has an EMC facility, an industrialization lab, product integrity center, model shop, 3D printer, tool room, and labs for reliabil- ity, shock and vibration, dyne, highly accelerated lifecycle testing, and solar, with more than 120 miles of wire. ce - Mark T. Hoske, Control Engineering, mhoske@cfemedia.com.

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Introduction to PID Control Lee Payne | CEO, Dataforth Download this paper now at: http://www.dataforth.com/catalog/

Introduction to PID Control

Lee Payne | CEO, Dataforth

Introduction to PID Control Lee Payne | CEO, Dataforth Download this paper now at: http://www.dataforth.com/catalog/

Download this paper now at:

http://www.dataforth.com/catalog/

pdf/an122.pdf

Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controllers are used in most automatic process control applications in indus- try today. They can regulate flow, temperature, pressure, level, and many other industrial process variables. This Application Note reviews the design of PID controllers and explains the P, I, and D control modes used in them.

In essence, the PID controller is the workhorse of modern process control systems as it automates regulation tasks that otherwise would be done manually.

regulation tasks that otherwise would be done manually. The Parallel PID Controller Algorithm Using temperature as

The Parallel PID Controller Algorithm

Using temperature as an example, the Application Note describes the tedious process of manual control and then explains how a PID controller works. First, the operator sets the PID controller’s set point to the desired tempera- ture; next, the controller’s output sets the position of the control valve; then, the temperature measurement (the process variable) is transmitted to the PID controller, which compares it to the set point and calculates the difference (or error) between the two signals; finally, the controller calculates the appropriate controller output to set the control valve at the correct position to keep the temperature at the set point.

While the proportional control mode is the main driving force in a controller, each of the three control modes

reacts differently to

error and each fulfills

a unique function.

Proportional and

integral control

modes are essential for most control loops; the derivative mode is excellent for motion control. Temperature control

is a typical application

that uses all three control modes.

PID control algorithms come in different designs, and the MAQ®20 system supports both the most common noninteractive algorithm and the parallel algorithm. This versatility makes the MAQ®20 extremely powerful and adaptable for wide ranging process control applications, including test and measurement, factory and process automation, machine automation, military and aerospace, power and energy, oil and gas, and environmental monitoring.

Dataforth was established in 1984 and is the world leader in data acquisition and control, signal conditioning, and data communication products for industrial applications. Worldwide, our products provide rugged signal and data integrity and wide spectrum accuracy. All Dataforth products are manufactured in the USA and have been RoHS Compliant since 2006. The Dataforth Quality Management System is ISO9001:2008 registered.

Quality Management System is ISO9001:2008 registered. Email: sales@dataforth.com www.dataforth.com input #15 at

Email: sales@dataforth.com www.dataforth.com

input #15 at www.controleng.com/information

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Download this paper at: www.eaton.com/hmiplc The Integrated HMI-PLC Rich Harwell | Advanced Solutions Manager at
Download this paper at: www.eaton.com/hmiplc The Integrated HMI-PLC Rich Harwell | Advanced Solutions Manager at

Download this paper at:

www.eaton.com/hmiplc

The Integrated HMI-PLC

Rich Harwell | Advanced Solutions Manager at Eaton Corporation plc

The heart of a “lean automation” solution Lean manufacturing is a proven, powerful tool that boosts efficiencies in production processes. Similar concepts and practices that eliminate “waste”—unnecessary equipment and process steps—can be applied to the design, construction, and support of automation systems. Lean automation solutions enable increased productivity and reliability, and propel best-in-class solutions— yielding a real competitive advantage.

A combination HMI-PLC plays a pivotal role in

the design of a truly lean automation solution, providing a host of benefits throughout the life cycle of machine automation. Combining visualization and control means:

Faster machine design by providing an integrated development environment

Reduced machine construction costs by eliminating components and wiring

Reduced machine support cost and improved operation by centralizing remote access and administration

More than at any other time, there is a range of trends in both control system architecture and manufacturing that are coming together to support an integrated HMI-PLC. For OEMs and control engineers alike, this means that

it is easier to build smaller, smarter machines

faster—freeing both OEMs and engineers from using controllers and equipment just because of a familiarity and in spite of a prohibitive cost to change.

Control system basics To better understand the trends driving HMI and PLC technology, it is useful to first examine the basic architecture of a control system and how the control system itself is evolving. Fundamental

changes in control system architecture are making HMI-PLC technology a compelling altenative—streamlining functionality, reducing equipment (and costs), and propelling the next generation of machine control.

To read more, visit www.eaton.com/hmiplc.

machine control. To read more, visit www.eaton.com/hmiplc. The Eaton XV and XP Series HMI-PLCs offer a

The Eaton XV and XP Series HMI-PLCs offer a complete solution to any HMI application and communicate with virtually any network, web client, and database.

with virtually any network, web client, and database. www.eaton.com/oi input #16 at www.controleng.com/information

www.eaton.com/oi

input #16 at www.controleng.com/information

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Calculating and Comparing Differential Pressure Transmitter Accuracy Ted Dimm | Marketing Mgr., Field Instrumentation,

Calculating and Comparing Differential Pressure Transmitter Accuracy

Ted Dimm | Marketing Mgr., Field Instrumentation, Honeywell Process Solutions

Mgr., Field Instrumentation, Honeywell Process Solutions Go to www.honeywellprocess.com/ smartline and click on the

Go to www.honeywellprocess.com/ smartline and click on the “Resources” tab to download this white paper.

Differential pressure transmitters are extremely versatile devices, suitable for a wide variety of applications, such as flow, level, density and filter-quality measurement, and leak-detection. These applications have different parameters for pressure-measuring spans, static pressures, and temperatures that will impact device performance. Understanding these process parameters and how they can affect differential pressure transmitter performance should influence your transmitter selection, as well as expectations regarding overall product performance in your particular application.

overall product performance in your particular application. Honeywell SmartLine pressure transmitters offer leading

Honeywell SmartLine pressure transmitters offer leading accuracy along with features that lower the total cost of ownership.

Basic accuracy statements are published by manufactur- ers and are often used as a basis for comparing devices. These statements typically quote Reference Accuracy. When considering an actual application, Reference Accuracy (RA) is an important factor regarding performance, but it does not provide the entire picture.

For comparison purposes, always look at total probable error to ensure optimum performance.

At the root of all pressure-measuring product designs is the basic pressure- measuring sensor. Considering only reference conditions, many sensors will appear to provide similar performance.

For industrial applications, where temperatures can be extreme and, in the case of differential pressure measurement, where static pressures can be elevated or even fluctuating, it is necessary to compensate the basic sensor to maintain accuracy.

As one example, high-performance piezoresistive sensors offer some unique compensation capabilities. These sensors can integrate static pressure and temperature measurements on the same sensor chip, thus allowing the designer to incorporate circuits that automatically correct the sensor’s performance for varying static pressure and temperature conditions.

When implemented as an integrated solution, the result is better accuracy over a wider range of customer- application conditions. Devices using sensors without such compensation usually do not perform as well over varying conditions.

www.honeywellprocess.com/smartline

input #17 at www.controleng.com/information

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The Future of Machines: Self-Aware Control Systems Christian Fritz | Product Manager, National Instruments Machine

The Future of Machines:

Self-Aware Control Systems

Christian Fritz | Product Manager, National Instruments

Christian Fritz | Product Manager, National Instruments Machine builders have made advances in developing technology

Machine builders have made advances in developing technology that can complete repetitive tasks with great speed. See how you can integrate the next generation of machines into your control systems.

When examining machine-industry trends, you often encounter new controller technologies that increase the performance and throughput of high-end machines, motor technologies, or energy-efficient algorithms, or you learn about tools that help lower the cost of machine design. Over the last few decades, machine builders have made considerable advances in developing machines that can complete repetitive tasks with ever-increasing speed. There are other trends and technologies; however, that might have an even more significant influence on the next generation of machines and the way those machines are integrated in your work process.

After spending decades optimizing machinery equipment speed, the industry is running into new limiting boundaries. High speeds and operating machines running at maximum load are increasing the wear and tear of mechanical components and tools. This increases the importance of maintenance and systems that ensure uptime. Additionally, many tasks in the industry are not purely repetitive. Solutions to application problems such as picking randomly shaped parts out of a bin are far from realization. Last, but not least, several manufacturing processes still involve a significant amount of work by humans. The machine industry needs to address safety concerns that arise when humans work alongside machines and robotic systems.

The availability of data and information about the environment, processes, and machine parameters is crucial to addressing these new machine industry challenges. herefore. sensors and measurement technology that can

acquire this informa- tion are playing a significant role for the next generation of machines. The sensor market was very static for decades, but the

last few years have brought substantial innovation. Sensor technology advancements have been adopted into many electronic devices, from smart phones to home automation systems, and prices have dropped to all-time lows.

You can use sensors to create systems that are aware of their environment, perform real-time process monitoring, and know every detail about their mechanical component health. However, sensors alone are worth no more than the control systems of the past. The key to solving new challenges is creating control systems that can integrate sensor data, gather information in real time, and use infor- mation from multiple sensors within high-speed control loops. High-performance embedded systems with industrial- grade ruggedness, such as NI CompactRIO programmable automation controllers (PACs), provide direct sensor connectivity through modular I/O devices. You can use the reconfigurable field-programmable gate array (FPGA) to preprocess sensor data even before the information is transferred to the real-time processor, which executes custom control or monitoring tasks programmed in the NI LabVIEW graphical development environment.

Register to download this paper at:

http://www.controleng.com/index.php?id=6779

www.NI.com

input #18 at www.controleng.com/information

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cover story Make your I/O smarter Improvements in I/O systems for field devices can make
cover story
Make your I/O smarter
Improvements in I/O systems for field devices can make your process control system

installations and upgrades quicker and more cost effective.

Peter Welander

Key concepts Smart and flexible I/O for field devices overcomes hardware limitations. New systems only
Key
concepts
Smart and flexible I/O for
field devices overcomes
hardware limitations.
New systems only work
with their corresponding
control system, but extend
field connectivity.
Various manufacturers
have tailored their own
strategy for operational
details.
Arguments for adoption
may not drive a larger
migration project, but they
could influence vendor
selection.

F or years, and even decades, connecting field devices to process control systems has used essentially the same technol- ogy. Sure, there have been advances in fieldbus and even wireless networks,

but for plain old wired devices, you connect a cable to a matching slot on an I/O (input/out- put) board at your controller. This works as long as the device matches the slot: a 4-20 mA with HART flowmeter requires a corresponding input. You don’t connect it to a terminal designed for a thermocouple. Most of the time this sort of thing is toler- ated, but it can cause problems. Let’s say you have a level switch mounted on a tank to trigger when the liquid goes past a specific point. That comes into the system via a digital input. What if your boss wants that changed to a magnetostric- tive level sensor providing a continuous reading? You can’t put that in on the same input channel because it has a different signal type. That means changing the board or adding a new one. But maybe there isn’t room on your I/O rack. A small project can get complicated. Control system providers hear customers ask things like, “Why can’t I assign the I/O at will to accommodate any kind of field device?” Well, given some product developments over the last few years, often the answer now is, you can. A growing number of manufacturers are now offer-

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ing more flexible, or smarter, I/O systems that allow for greater flexibility. How do these work, and what can they do for you? Depending on which control platform you use, smart I/O uses a combination of hardware and software to talk to field devices. All systems currently available require replacement of at least some components and possibly some wiring.

Two different concepts

There isn’t a one-size-fits-all approach for I/O, at least not yet. While it’s true that Foun- dation fieldbus, Profibus PA, or other similar approaches are platform agnostic, they require field devices that work with those specific pro- tocols. These new smart I/O systems work with any field devices (within reason), but you need to buy a system that works with your controller. If you are using DeltaV, you need to get a system from Emerson. There are two conceptual approaches current- ly at work to fill this space: Emerson’s hardware approach vs. a more software-centered idea from others like Honeywell and Invensys’ Foxboro division. The latter is more modest in its scope. Both Honeywell’s Universal Process I/O (available early 2013) and Foxboro’s FBM247 (available now) use the same I/O device form factor and go into the same cabinets as their current offerings

now) use the same I/O device form factor and go into the same cabinets as their

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for Experion series C and I/A series 200, respec- tively. Both are designed such that any channel on any module can be configured through the control system to interact with multiple types of devices:

Analog in/out plus HART Digital in/out, or Pulse.

Foxboro sees it as a small but strategic prod- uct improvement. Thad Frost, director of prod- uct management for control and I/O for Foxboro, explains, “It’s not an entirely new product line; it’s a subset of an existing family. We did that because it’s a proven technology. Our 200 series I/O has been out a long time, so it’s another mod- ule in the family, but it’s a really special mod-

ule in that it can support a wide variety of signal types. We can take an existing controller and add this module, and there’s no real difference in the functionality.” The appeal is apparent where a new sys- tem is being constructed or there is an exten- sive upgrade that may require new or more field devices. The installer does not have to match the signal type to a given input device. “You can use any channel on the module to serve as any I/O type, and it is all software configurable using the existing control builder tools,” says Joe Bastone, solution manager for Experion control and I/O at Honeywell Process Solutions. “No configuration has to be done in the field to make that happen. You could land all the field wiring on your Universal Process I/O module, close the box, walk away, and never have to open that box again. Everything else is done from the engineering station.” This concept replaces conventional I/O where the card or module is fixed to communicate with only a single type of device. One obvious advan- tage of this approach is that any module can work in any situation so that only one item is necessary for a backup. Moreover, the configu- ration information is resident in the host system, such that if a module needs to be replaced, one can be taken from the box and plugged in place with no preconfiguration. The host system does that automatically. Both companies want to carry that concept one major step farther, offering complete cab- inets that can be dropped in place on the plant floor ready to go. The only variable that matters

is the number of channels. “The universal cabinet

that is under development allows a user to have

a set deliverable,” Bastone says. “It’s a remote-

ly mounted cabinet that can hold some number of Universal Process I/O modules, perhaps 64, 96, or 128 I/O. It will be equipped with the mod- ules, mounting hardware, power supply, and fiber optic converters to take the I/O link back to the control room.”

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the control room.” CTL1301_F1_Smart IO_V3msFINAL.indd 35 Solvay’s PVC polymerization plant at Tavaux, France,

Solvay’s PVC polymerization plant at Tavaux, France, (photo left) has deployed Emerson’s Charms with DeltaV version 11. Courtesy: Emerson

Emerson’s Charms with DeltaV version 11. Courtesy: Emerson Emerson’s approach requires a specific module to match

Emerson’s approach requires a specific module to match the I/O type, but these can be changed as needed. Courtesy: Emerson

type, but these can be changed as needed. Courtesy: Emerson Go Online Visit the companies men-

Go Online

Visit the companies men- tioned in this article:

www.emersonprocess.com

www.honeywellprocess.com

http://iom.invensys.com

A different direction

Emerson, on the other hand, has created a differ- ent approach for its Del- taV architecture. Here every field device commu- nicates via a single small characterization module or Charm. Each field device needs its own Charm that matches its signal type. A cabinet is, for all practical purposes, a 96-channel I/O card. Keith Bellville, Del- taV SIS product mar- keting manager for Emerson Process Man- agement, explains, “You don’t have the limits of conventional I/O where you had to bring all your field wiring in, land your multi-core cable on a mar- shalling strip, and then pick out the 4-20 mA ana- log inputs to take eight of

them over to an individual card. We’ve replaced that marshalling with the actual multi-core coming in, and we character- ize the signal there with the Charms I/O card. Each one of those is an individual channel. It is DeltaV I/O, so it’s designed to work with DeltaV controllers.” The output from each module is Ethernet, so

a single fiber optic cable can carry all the data

from the cabinet back to the controller. The prac-

tical result is a small cloud within the control network that allows a user to send the informa- tion from a given field device to as many as four controllers. Functionally, this is the largest differ- ence with the other systems already mentioned. “Typically when you lay out your I/O in the field, it’s grouped by location, not functional- ity,” Bellville adds. “So in a given junction box, you might have cables from some transmitters that are part of your reactor area, but inside that same junction box, you might have transmitters that are really dedicated to the utilities area. With conventional marshalling and conventional I/O, when you bring those in, you have to say, ‘I have to bring these eight channels over to my reac- tor area control cards, and these other 12, I have

to bring over to my utilities controller I/O card.’

With electronic marshalling, you bring them all in on one charms I/O card and send them to the reactor controller or the utilities electronically in how you target the device to which control- ler. You don’t have to physically wire it up to the actual I/O card on that controller.”

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I/O card on that controller.” www.controleng.com ● CONTROL ENGINEERING JANUARY 2013 ● 35 1/15/13 12:03 PM

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cover story
cover story
cover story Foxboro’s solution is designed to work with its I/A series 200 platform. Courtesy: Invensys

Foxboro’s solution is designed to work with its I/A series 200 platform. Courtesy: Invensys

to work with its I/A series 200 platform. Courtesy: Invensys Honeywell’s Universal I/O will work with

Honeywell’s Universal I/O will work with Experion series C. Courtesy: Honeywell Process Solutions

Putting the concept to work

These new approaches offer some functional benefits:

First, users don’t have to be concerned with the communication method for a given device.

If circumstances change and you need to use a different type of field device, you can adjust that either via a software change or, at worst, a single Charm change. Second, these platforms can facilitate upgrades and migrations, whether that means upgrades of field devices, wiring infrastructure, or the control system itself. However, there is

the basic limitation that each platform is tied spe- cifically to its respective control system, so this element could be a sig- nificant point in the ven- dor evaluation process. Third, these platforms can apply to safety devic- es as well as convention- al I/O. Unlike the others, Honeywell’s first prod-

uct in this area relat- ed to safety devices and the company is now readying the standard con- trol system I/O version as a follow-up. Given the more complicated nature of safety-related equip- ment with its associated testing and certification, it decided to approach this first. Emerson has con- ventional, intrinsically safe, and SIS Charms. Fox- boro has safety modules in its product pipeline. Fourth, hardware flexibility makes for small- er stocks of replacement parts. The ability to use

one device for multiple applications has obvious advantages.

link keeps anything that could happen at that sin- gle fabric layer from getting between the control- ler doing its job and the I/O performing for that controller. Bad things can happen that disconnect the I/O from its integral partner in the control operation. That’s why we picked this particular architecture.” Foxboro’s Frost echoes that sentiment: “We call it unbounded I/O when an I/O point is not bound to a particular controller. Our I/O is typi- cally bound. To move a specific point to a dif- ferent controller would take some effort. It’s something we’re look- ing at for the future, but

right now we don’t have that ability.”

Adding these capabilities is probably not compelling enough to make you undertake a migration, but it might influence the vendor choice if a migration is already planned.

Could this make you change?

While these new I/O

systems offer addition-

al functionality and can

save both hardware and

engineering costs, they are each connected to

a specific control sys-

tem platform and only that platform. If you are already using Foxboro I/A series 200 or one of the

others, the change is very simple. If not, they’re of no help, but it is reasonable to expect that other manufacturers will follow suit one way or another. The other choice is to change your control system provider. Adding these capabilities alone

is probably not compelling enough to make you

undertake a migration, but it might influence a choice of manufacturer if a migration is already planned. In some respects the most interesting attrac- tion may be what doesn’t exist yet. The modular- ity of these systems makes them easy to modify as circumstances demand. By contrast, one of the things that has impeded adoption of protocols like HART in support of larger asset manage- ment programs has been the difficulty of upgrad- ing older hardwired device-level networks. Operators of those old platforms find it effec- tively impossible to add such capability because

the hardware won’t allow it. That type of limita- tion doesn’t have to exist going forward. Adding

a new communication method or protocol may

require nothing more than switching the appro- priate modules. It may even be changeable via software. ce

What talks to what?

As mentioned earlier, one aspect that Emer- son discusses extensively is its ability to send data from any given field device to any one of up to four controllers. Foxboro and Honeywell have kept the same level of communication function- ality as comes with their standard I/O, so add- ing these new modules doesn’t affect that ability. There are methods to send information from con- troller to controller on a peer-to-peer basis, but these methods are relatively complicated. “The intimate connection between the I/O module and controller is something that our more sophisticated customers see as beneficial, mainly due to the ever-increasing security concerns that exist today,” says Bob Bristow, product manag- er for series C I/O at Honeywell Process Solu- tions. “This intimate relationship through the I/O

Peter Welander is a content manager for Con- trol Engineering. Reach him at pwelander@cfe- media.com.

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input #19 at www.controleng.com/information
input #19 at www.controleng.com/information
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Sensor networks
Sensor networks

Ethernet for sensor networks? Why it makes sense today

Active (smart) enclosure-less I/O blocks for industrial Ethernet can be installed close to the sensors to elim- inate wiring complexities and enable 2-way communi- cations with I/O blocks and PLCs or RTUs.

Mike Miclot

S ensors are like the “scouts” of the man- ufacturing world; they collect vital information that keeps a manufactur- ing plant running effectively, efficient-

ly, and with minimum waste, and they report it to the control system, preferably in time to take corrective action when things are trending awry. Today, thanks to Ethernet, sensors can provide their input on the “superhighway” of the plant floor, providing an effective two-way commu- nication stream that can improve efficiency and profitability. Sensors traditionally fed their information

through wires back to a central location where the signals were decoded and acted upon. A plethora of fieldbus networks evolved that expanded the amounts and kinds of data sensors could communicate, such as complex measure- ments including pressure, level of a substance

in a container or closed area, motion detection, and identification of

specific patterns. The downside to this, of course, was the job of managing, main- taining, and training for multiple commu- nication protocols. Now industrial Ethernet is becom- ing the de facto com- munications protocol for plant applica-

Key concepts Active (or smart) enclosure-less I/O blocks support industrial Eth- ernet Eliminate running wire
Key
concepts
Active (or smart)
enclosure-less I/O blocks
support industrial Eth-
ernet
Eliminate running wire
back to a central control
panel for each sensor
Communicate from I/O
block to PLCs and RTUs.

Consider a sensor network to ease connections

Do industrial networks meet expectations? Bypass increasing Ethernet and other network incompatibilities at the I/O, sensor, and safety level by using a widely accepted sensor network.

Helge Hornis, PhD

Key concepts A sensor network can ease connection complexi- ties Avoid Ethernet and other network
Key
concepts
A sensor network can
ease connection complexi-
ties
Avoid Ethernet and other
network incompatibilities
at the I/O, sensor, and
safety level
AS-interface is supported
by about 300 manufactur-
ers

U sing a sensor network can save time,

money, and steer clear of increasing Ether-

net protocol and other network incompat-

ibilities at the I/O, sensor, and safety device level. During the late 1990s nearly every PLC manu- facturer decided to develop a networking technol- ogy suitable for industrial applications. Modbus, Profibus, CC-Link, DeviceNet, and many oth- ers were born in short order, each promising to address the fundamental requirements controls professionals had at the time: reliability, simplicity, and deterministic real-time behavior at a price that was competitive with conventional hardwiring. This led to confusion mainly because all approaches were not interoperable. Customers preferring a particular brand of PLC were essentially forced to use the networking

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technology developed by that manufacturer. If this situation was not bad enough, the whole story was repeated a few years later when each of those PLC manufacturers decided it was time to promote new networks. This time the underlying wire was Ethernet. I will not claim that one such solution is superior to another, but instead ask readers if hav- ing all these options (or should I say edicts) was such a good idea. From the point of view of device manufacturers (RFID systems, drives, HMIs, etc.), it was not.

Wasted resources

Instead of focusing on a small number of com- munication interfaces for RFID systems, device manufacturers had to develop a plethora of solu- tions, such as DeviceNet, Modbus TCP, Profinet,

device manufacturers had to develop a plethora of solu- tions, such as DeviceNet, Modbus TCP, Profinet,

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device manufacturers had to develop a plethora of solu- tions, such as DeviceNet, Modbus TCP, Profinet,

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tions. The argument for separate fieldbus proto- cols was always that Ethernet did not fully meet the needs of the factory floor. However, with the advent of deterministic Ethernet protocols and zero failover redundancy protocols, the need for a separate fieldbus for relaying sensor data has diminished dramatically. It is possible and desir- able to deploy an integrated industrial Ethernet infrastructure that extends from the control cen- ter to the very edge of the network—the sensors. Enclosure-less I/O blocks (also called dis- tribution blocks) are the vehicle that supports running Ethernet all the way to the sensor. Enclo- sure-less I/O blocks can be installed close to the sensors, thus eliminating the logistics complexi- ties of running a wire back to a central control panel for each sensor. Active (or smart) enclo- sure-less I/O blocks, supporting industrial Ether- net, enable two-way communications among the I/O block and programmable logic controllers (PLCs) or remote terminal units (RTUs). An industrial Ethernet infrastructure facil- itated by enclosure-less I/O blocks has the potential to provide significant manufactur- ing efficiencies and cost savings. Not only can it support control and safety functional- ity, but also data acquisition that can be used

functional- ity, but also data acquisition that can be used Enclosure-less I/O blocks, installed close to

Enclosure-less I/O blocks, installed close to sen- sors, remove the need for an additional wire from each sensor to control and active (or smart) enclosure-less I/O blocks enable two-way commu- nications among the I/O block and PLCs or RTUs. Shown is a Belden Profibus-DP - I/O Module. Courtesy: Belden

for tracking and traceability, asset management, histori- cal records, and other opera- tions and production needs. In addition, running indus- trial Ethernet all the way out to the sensors allows plants to be operated under one communications protocol, resulting in less hardware (and operational) complex- ity. By connecting sensors to industrial Ethernet via enclosure-less I/O blocks,

the opportunities for reduc- ing deployment and maintenance costs while increasing overall performance and reliability increase dramatically. ce - Mike Miclot is the vice president of mar- keting, industrial solutions division, at Belden Americas Group.

Go Online www.belden.com
Go Online
www.belden.com
Consider this If an Ethernet superhighway runs along the manu- facturing plant floor, can sensors
Consider this
If an Ethernet superhighway runs along the manu-
facturing plant floor, can sensors connected via IO
blocks improve efficiency and profitability?

Networking articles: www. controleng.com/integration

Networking products:

www.controleng.com/net-

works

EtherNet/IP, Profibus, CC-Link, and the list goes on. The same was necessary for encoders, cam- era systems, and many other components need- ed to automate a complex machine. And to make matters worse, going forward, even those proto- cols that share Ethernet at the physical layer will need dedicated (that is, incompatible) hardware. Initially, the situation was not all that bad. For instance, until recently we could manufacture an RFID controller that could host four noncompat- ible communication protocols (Modbus TCP, TCP/ IP, Profinet, and EtherNet/IP) simultaneously on the same hardware device. Customers could buy one unit, and, without making adjustments or modifications, connect it to any of the four Ether- net-based networking technologies, and control it from a PLC. In this case fewer options trans- lates into streamlined stocking, better availability, reduced ordering errors, and enhanced familiarity when it comes to installation. In the near future, due to certain protocol changes (promoted as advancements), this will no longer be possible. The same Profinet unit will require dedicated hardware as will the system using EtherCAT. For the time being, EtherNet/ IP and Modbus/TCP can coexist on the same hardware. At this point, one may ask if it offers any advantage that those networks are based on

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Ethernet. In a world where engineering resources are free and deadlines do not exist, this would not be an issue. But in reality, duplicate engi- neering drives up costs at all levels. Is this really necessary?

Low-end compatibility

At the sensor and machine safety level a solu- tion is accepted and supported by most PLC manufacturers. While the solution is not suitable to interface devices that interchange larger amounts of data (RFID systems, drives, HMIs, etc.), it is an ideal method for bringing binary devices and safety components (like e-stops, door safety switches, and light curtains) to the PLC and give the PLC a way to control simple binary outputs (including valves, horns, and indicators). In contrast to Ethernet solutions, this system is the result of a joint development effort among 11 industrial automation companies that was open from the beginning. After the basic technology was published and released, others joined this group. Involved companies are known for their PLCs, sensors, valves, and/or safety compo- nents. Introduced in 1994, AS-Interface is now the world’s most successful low-level networking technology, based on information from AS-Inter- national, the governing organization. With nearly

AS-Inter- national, the governing organization. With nearly This 4-input and 4-output I/O module is clamped onto

This 4-input and 4-output I/O module is clamped onto the AS-Interface network cable. It takes one center-mount screw to establish the data and power connection. AS- Interface devices tend to be designed for enclosure-mount applications (IP20) or as field-mount stations (IP65 or better). This module offers protection to IP68 and IP69k. Courtesy: Pepperl+Fuchs

www.controleng.com CONTROL ENGINEERING JANUARY 2013 39

and IP69k. Courtesy: Pepperl+Fuchs www.controleng.com ● CONTROL ENGINEERING JANUARY 2013 ● 39 1/15/13 12:05 PM

1/15/13

and IP69k. Courtesy: Pepperl+Fuchs www.controleng.com ● CONTROL ENGINEERING JANUARY 2013 ● 39 1/15/13 12:05 PM

12:05 PM

Sensor networks
Sensor networks

At the I/O connection and safety level, users have a choice that is highly interoperable and compatible with most PLCs.

20 million installed field devices, it is the closest thing to a universal networking technology in the automation space. Approximately 300 vendors offer:

Binary I/O modules – These modules allow the switch state of any conventional sensor to be brought to the PLC. AS-interface is a real-time and deterministic technology with a worst-case sensor update time of 10 ms. (Worst-case means that 248 input states are communicated. Fewer I/O connec- tions means faster updates.) Analog I/O modules – Most industrial control systems have roughly twice as many digital inputs as outputs plus a small number of analog signals. These types of analog signals tend to be slow compared to binary data. AS-Interface allows such signals to be transmitted alongside the binary data with update times of 35 ms or less. Indicators and buttons – Indicators and buttons are another type of I/O signal. Tim- ing is not the main concern, but installation simplicity is. For instance, a four-element stack light is connected in seconds using just two AS-Interface leads. Functional safety – For more than 10 years, networking functional safety devices has been the “killer app” of AS-Inter- face because it addresses the cost issue (it is much cheaper than a safety PLC) and the sim- plicity issue (it exploits AS-Inter- face installation advantages). In most cases, about 90% of the wires needed when constructing a hardwired safety system can be eliminated. Suddenly, designing a safety system is a simple, two-step process. First, the hardware is connected to AS-Interface, and then it connects to required logic using drag-and-drop operations.

connects to required logic using drag-and-drop operations. This is the latest safety controller for AS-Inter- face

This is the latest safety controller for AS-Inter- face and allows the con- nection of up to 35 inde- pendent safety devices. This controller has two built-in electronic safe outputs and is easily capable of controlling eight independent safety zones. Courtesy:

Pepperl+Fuchs Go Online
Pepperl+Fuchs
Go Online

www.as-interface.net

www.pepperl-fuchs.us

Networking articles: www. controleng.com/integration

Networking products: www. controleng.com/networks

Machine builder advantages

Machine builders appreciate other benefits. Because AS-Interface can be connected to a large number of PLC backplanes and an equally large number of industrial networks, an I/O and safety system designed for a machine controlled by a PLC from manufacturer “A” can easily (and without modification) be reused if a PLC from manufac- turer “B” is used the next time. This feature makes navigating the maze of competing and incompat- ible upper-level Ethernet solutions easy. Only one gateway between the PLC and AS-Interface needs to be swapped out. End users have enjoyed forward and back- ward compatibility of the network, which is one

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● www.controleng.com CTL1301_F3_Sensor_V3msFINAL.indd 40 AS-Interface products are available from a large number of

AS-Interface products are available from a large number of suppliers. Due to their simplicity and unparalleled interoperability, it is not uncommon to have hardware from multiple manufacturers on the same network. A small field-mount I/O module, a valve assembly, and an enclosure- mounted I/O module from three manufacturers will work flawlessly on the same network. Courtesy: Pepperl+Fuchs

of the guiding principles of the governing orga- nization’s member companies. For instance, if a module on 19-year-old network fails, it takes, on average, less than one minute to replace it with a new design. And it is not even necessary to use a product from the original manufacturer. The old system may not be able to use the latest features of the new module, but it will work just as well as the old part did. Similarly, if a decade- old system that feeds into DeviceNet controlled by an older PLC now must operate as part of EtherNet/IP on a new PLC, only the gateway has to be replaced. It can hardly get any easier. And isn’t technology supposed to make automation simpler, better, and less costly? The industrial Ethernet experiment has not failed, but it unfortunately has not lived up to its potential and customers’ expectations. At least at the I/O connection and safety level, users have a choice that is universally accepted, highly interoperable, and compatible with most PLCs on the market. ce - Helge Hornis, PhD, is manager, intelligent systems group, Pepperl+Fuchs. Edited by Mark T. Hoske, content manager, CFE Media, Control Engineering, mhoske@cfemedia.com.

Consider this Can flattening a multi-tier hierarchy of networks simplify industrial communications?
Consider this
Can flattening a multi-tier hierarchy of networks
simplify industrial communications?
Consider this Can flattening a multi-tier hierarchy of networks simplify industrial communications? 1/15/13 12:05 PM

1/15/13

Consider this Can flattening a multi-tier hierarchy of networks simplify industrial communications? 1/15/13 12:05 PM

12:05 PM

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operator interface
operator interface

Creating an HMI that doesn’t get used

When that new equipment skid or machine comes in, it probably has its own HMI, but that equipment will be controlled from a larger system. What should you want that redundant HMI to do?

David McCarthy

Key concepts Even though an HMI is remote, it can be useful With a little
Key
concepts
Even though an HMI is
remote, it can be useful
With a little forethought,
you can optimize such a
system in light of larger
needs in your plant

M uch has been written on how to

design intuitive and functional

HMIs (human machine inter-

faces) across a variety of tech-

nical and process platforms.

But have you ever thought about how to design an HMI that rarely gets used? It happens more often than you might think. You can find these devices tucked away in all sorts of process areas on your plant floor where operators rarely seem to go. Want to know more about design best practices in this specialty area? Here are some things that can help you specify and use those industrial orphans.

Come out, come out, wherever you are

The most common place to find a low-use HMI is in dedicated process equipment subsys- tems that are integrated into larger plant-wide systems. These are referred to as skidded sys- tems and can be found in many diverse appli- cations such as bioreactors, chemical injection systems, clean-in-place systems, chromatog- raphy skids, media/buffer prep systems, waste neutralization systems, pasteurizers, vitamin/ mineral injection systems, and much more. The day-to-day functionality of this equip- ment is usually controlled elsewhere, as part of a larger DCS or HMI/SCADA system. Given that, why put a local HMI at all in such plac- es? There are lots of reasons, ranging from how these subsystems were constructed and validat- ed, to routine maintenance, and even emergen- cy operation. Let’s take a closer look at each of these use cases to get better insight into the best design criteria.

Use it or lose it

Skidded systems are often assembled and validated independently of the larger system. Initial validation and testing is usually a fac-

42 JANUARY 2013 CONTROL ENGINEERING www.controleng.com

JANUARY 2013 CONTROL ENGINEERING ● www.controleng.com CTL1301_F2_Remote HMIs_V5msFINAL.indd 42 tory test at the
JANUARY 2013 CONTROL ENGINEERING ● www.controleng.com CTL1301_F2_Remote HMIs_V5msFINAL.indd 42 tory test at the

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tory test at the skid manufacturer’s facility. A similar site test is performed when the skid is installed on the plant floor. Depending on the industry and process, these validations might be quite extensive.

A local HMI can facilitate this validation

and testing in a variety of ways. During the factory test, it provides a window into the pro- cess equipment that might otherwise be dif-

ficult to see without the host system. This includes visibility of all instrumentation and

equipment status. Usually the first test ensures everything is operating mechanically and elec- trically as expected. A local HMI can force on or off (with proper security) controlled equip- ment to confirm everything is working as anticipated. Once installed and running on the plant floor, these same features can provide plant maintenance technicians with the abili- ty to monitor and control the equipment on the local skid if needed.

A local HMI can also facilitate testing of

automated sequences and phases on the skid. Local monitoring can provide at-a-glance sta- tus of all sensors, control items, sequence, or phase status active on the skid. If desired, a local HMI can also initiate individual control phases and sequences. This provides testing capability without the host system connected, and provides emergency operational service once the skid is installed on the plant floor.

Platform considerations

Now that we have an idea of where we

find these HMIs and how they are used, a key design element is to determine the best hard- ware/software platform to use. You could look to match the host system, or go with something less advanced. There are advantages with each approach.

If matching the host system, the local HMI

less advanced. There are advantages with each approach. If matching the host system, the local HMI

1/15/13

12:07

PM
PM
This ingredient-mixing skid built for a food processing plant uses the same HMI as the
This ingredient-mixing skid
built for a food processing
plant uses the same HMI
as the larger plant control
system. As a result, it is
more elaborate than would
be necessary to provide
only the most bare-bones
functionality. While it cost
more initially, it uses com-
mon parts, spares, and
software that the plant
already has. This can
make for lower lifecycle
costs. Courtesy: TriCore

can be maintained in the same software devel-

n

Is the budget really tight?

opment platform, which simplifies archiving, version control, and routine maintenance of

On the other hand, if standardization is your thing:

the system. This also eliminates procurement, maintenance, and training costs associated

Common software development platforms throughout the process

n

with multiple development platforms. Stan- dardized hardware further reduces spare parts

n Similar graphic look and feel across all workstations

inventory and carrying costs. Network connec-

n

Common hardware platforms

tion to the local HMI is the same as the rest of

n

Standardized network cabling, or

the workstations in the host system. If need-

n

Security concerns keep you up at night.

ed, it is generally easy to display host system screen and tag information in the local HMI. If the skid is designed for local maintenance and emergency operations, security is likely more robust with this approach.

If these are important, think about matching the host system platform.

For the less advanced option, consider pro- gramming these HMIs with simple text and

 

A

less advanced HMI platform has its own

numeric status limited to instrumentation,

set of advantages. This approach usually has

equipment, and functional status of the skid. If

lower upfront hardware and software costs. Programming costs may also be less expen-

manual override control is required (this will likely be the case if the skid is not close to a

sive in this environment. These solutions often have smaller physical fingerprints with regard to control panel real estate. Network connec- tions may match the host system, or employ

host system workstation), secure this as much as the development platform allows, and program with native objects in the simplest manner pos- sible. Ditto for any emergency control opera-

a

simpler direct connection to the skid pro-

tions you may require.

grammable controller, savings network cabling costs.

If your local HMI is on the same platform as the host system, consider presenting status and

Bringing it all together

control information similar to the host system. You may simply want to insert screens or con-

 

As we have discussed, local HMIs may be

trols from the host system into the local HMI for

used only for testing, or they may play a lon- ger-term role in the maintenance and emergen- cy operation of their associated equipment. They can be on the same platform as the host system

these purposes. If you need information from other areas for effective emergency control, think about inserting host screens from those areas. Be sure that all manual and emergency operations

or

on a less advanced platform.

are fully secured.

If

you answer yes to any of these questions,

Although these local HMIs may not be used

you can probably manage with a less advanced and less expensive option:

frequently, they do serve important purposes. Follow these tips to find the right design criteria

Is the skid physically close to a host system workstation?

n

for your application. ce

 

n

Is the local HMI only used for testing?

David McCarthy is president and chief execu-

n

Is physical control panel space a concern?

tive officer of TriCore, Inc.

The day-to-day functionality of this equipment is usually controlled elsewhere, so why put a local HMI at all in such places? There are lots of reasons, ranging from how these subsystems were constructed and validated, to routine maintenance, and even emergency operation.

to routine maintenance, and even emergency operation. ’ Go Online n Learn more about TriCore at

Go Online

n Learn more about TriCore at www.tricore.com

n For more on HMI design, subscribe to our Information Control eNewsletter at www. controleng.com/newsletters

www.controleng.com CONTROL ENGINEERING JANUARY 2013 43

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automation future
automation future

5

Five ways to enable

the next generation

workforce

Technology advances challenge and enable industries worldwide, and five key factors influence the success of future and current engineers in this dynamically changing labor market.

Krzysztof Pietrusewicz, Paweł Waszczuk

Key concepts Match education to needs of local industry Increase hands-on expe- riences in education
Key
concepts
Match education to
needs of local industry
Increase hands-on expe-
riences in education and
research
University should help
local alumni and promote
continuing education

D ynamically changing world markets

expect constant growth of knowl-

edge, skills, and competencies of

future engineers, and partnerships

among universities and manufactur-

ing and technology companies can help. Market reports show that innovative technologies—such as programmable logic controllers and program- mable automation controllers (PLCs/PACs), digital servodrives, and industrial robots—are increasing market share in industrial applications. Therefore, modern higher education must upgrade its thinking about incorporating the lat- est industrial trends and technologies. The fol- lowing five key factors critically influence the success of future engineers in this dynamically changing labor market.

STEP 1: Correlate educational offerings with demands of the local labor market.

Tomorrow’s engineers who want to find work in this dynamically changing world seek educa- tional offerings that provide advantages for their future professions. An IT engineer, controls engi- neer, electrical engineer, and mechanical engi- neer will always be among needed specialists in the labor market. Well-prepared alumni in related occupations can expect good salaries and careers in progressive branches of industry. For these reasons, technical universities must communicate with local industry representatives to evaluate necessary knowledge and critical skills of their future employees. To achieve this goal, it’s helpful to establish a council of selected university educators and area industrial leaders to ensure course offerings are in line with regional needs of employers.

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STEP 2: Increase the number of practical courses in the education process.

Besides lectures, the educational process must include laboratory classes and small practical projects to apply knowledge learned. Cooperat- ing with companies that have similar operations profiles to the fields of study at area universities enables additional modern teaching techniques. These include workshops, hands-on labs, and certificated lectures prepared with training mate- rials given by the companies. Moreover, students can perform their theses based on real-world problems provided by cooperating companies. To help develop and advance students’ prac- tical skills, we must help them participate, with experienced engineers, in supervised engineering internships. External financing from cooperat- ing partners, other institutions, and governments (in our case, EU grants) allows universities to choose the best students, via an application pro- cess, and provide a well-paid engineering intern- ship for a minimum of three months. This kind of operational model can be suc- cessfully supported by exploiting modern Inter- net-based tools (such as the intranet system of the West Pomeranian University of Technol- ogy Szczecin, Faculty of Electrical Engineer- ing). The system allows cooperating companies to get familiar with the current level of students’ knowledge and skills in selected fields of study. The platform also supports companies’ process of submitting thesis topics.

STEP 3: Allow students to participate in research work.

Constant cooperation between the research faculty and regional companies often results in

research work. Constant cooperation between the research faculty and regional companies often results in 1/15/13 12:10

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research work. Constant cooperation between the research faculty and regional companies often results in 1/15/13 12:10

12:10 PM

Diagram: Resources flow during the educational process—modeling the pathways of industry-academia partnership. mutually

Diagram: Resources flow during the educational process—modeling the pathways of industry-academia partnership.

mutually led R&D projects. This model, which supports participation of the most active stu- dents in research, significantly increases their experiences with high-technology control and measurement equipment, creating elite future alumni as part of the education process. These activities also augment the number and quality of PhD candidates.

STEP 4: Universities should support alumni entering the labor market.

To meet help meet student expectations, technical universities should organize meet- ings with future employers. Described in step 2, a Web-based information exchange platform allows companies to present jobs and intern- ships for highly qualified engineers. The frame- work of a university’s organizational activities should include: cyclic job fairs, presentations of scientific clubs, and meetings organized in cooperation with companies. By obtaining external financing, universities also can support development of students’ so- called “soft skills,” such as presentation tech- niques, interpersonal skills, and coping with stress and time pressures.

STEP 5: Promote constant growth of the quality of alumni knowledge and skills.

A very important aspect of a university’s activity in the presented model is monitoring and validating the knowledge and skills of can- didates and alumni who have entered the labor market. A survey can provide necessary infor- mation about the most important qualifica- tions students require. This information helps to evaluate and improve the quality of teaching by lecturers. Teachers and students coopera-

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tively working to publish articles in scientif- ic journals provide additional engagement and learning. Monitoring the number of participating alumni and time they spent to get their first job is another possible university role and could provide future opportunities to react and adjust to the dynamically changing environment of the industrial labor market. Alumnus career paths of the development model described here and in the diagram are consistent with new legal considerations of higher education in Europe. They provide a basis for building close relations among tech- nical universities and industry. Implementing this model for more than 10 years, the faculty of Electrical Engineering on West Pomeranian University of Technology Szczecin have edu- cated many engineers working in Poland and Europe, who now successfully manage depart- ments in leading automation companies. The model presented here has been implemented with 95% of the Electrical Engineering faculty at the university. ce

- Krzysztof Pietrusewicz, DSc, is the director of two EU-funded grants ($3.7 million, almost 700 participating students, including control engineers, electrical engineers, ICT engineers, mechanical engineers, material engineers, and mechatronic engineers), increasing the value of education at the West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin. Paweł Waszczuk is a PhD student in electrical engineering there. Both are editors for Control Engineering Poland. Edit- ed by Mark T. Hoske, content manager, CFE Media, Control Engineering, mhoske@cfeme- dia.com.

Consider this Are you engaging local engineering universities, technical colleges, and high schools to help
Consider this
Are you engaging local
engineering universities,
technical colleges, and high
schools to help guide, culti-
vate, and take advantage of
research and talent there?
Send a link of this article
to a local engineering pro-
fessor to start or enhance
cooperation.

More advice on next page

More advice on next page

www.controleng.com CONTROL ENGINEERING JANUARY 2013 45

cooperation. More advice on next page www.controleng.com ● CONTROL ENGINEERING JANUARY 2013 ● 45 1/15/13 12:10

1/15/13

cooperation. More advice on next page www.controleng.com ● CONTROL ENGINEERING JANUARY 2013 ● 45 1/15/13 12:10

12:10 PM

automation future
automation future

Next-generation control engineer advice

The next-generation workforce: Are young automa- tion and control engineers hard to find? If so, what can be done? Views follow from the LinkedIn Automa- tion & Control Engineering Group, moderated by CFE Media’s Control Engineering magazine.

moderated by CFE Media’s Control Engineering magazine. ‘ At our level it really does not matter

At our level it really does not matter what is in the pipes, it is the control that is important.

A sk an engineer about the future of

engineering and you are sure to elicit

an intense and lively response. Case

in point: an ongoing discussion thread

among the LinkedIn Automation & Control Engi- neering Group for the past year. [At www.con- troleng.com click on the “in” box on the home page.] A query about the supply of and demand for young engineers in automation and control engi- neering unleashed a flood of comments, generating hundreds of responses from around the globe. Most participants agreed a problem exists to one degree or another. Unquestionably, each had his or her own take on the topic. A taste of the discussion, ongoing, is presented here. Read more opinions online under this headline at www.controleng.com.

Few younger engineers

Brett Israelsen, a young process control engi- neer at Corning Inc., Oneonta, N.Y., with degrees in mechanical and chemical engineering, noticed there are not many others his age, especially degreed engineers, in this industry. “Even though some companies are trending more to IT, many understand the true value of control engineering and knowledge of the process. This means that there is still a need for competent control engi- neers and will be in the future. I am glad to see this discussion, although I am not sure there is a clear solution. Engineering students need to be interested in control. That requires programs and teachers that show how critical control systems are to industry and pass on the passion.” Although most felt that the shortage of auto- mation and controls engineers is real, a few disagreed, at least in part. Will Wagoner, PE, president, Wagoner Consulting, process control engineer, Richmond, Va., said no, the problem is that “we have too many automation engineers who

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lack the background to understand what they are automating. Young engineers should get operation experience, field experience before launching into this side of the business because they fancy writ- ing programs.” There won’t be any good automation control design without the engineer touching the process he or she is trying to control, added Veronica Ramos, procurement coordinator at International Consulting Group, Miami. “It doesn’t matter how good you are with PLC programming. When I worked in the pharmaceutical industry, my men- tor never considered having me get involved with the chemical engineering team or with other plant operators before starting the design. Educate the young generation of control engineers on the prac- tice of going to the field first. Getting to know the basics of the process must be primordial for every company.”

The control is important

Dean Ford, CAP, VP, automation and informa- tion solutions at Glenmount Global Solutions, Baltimore, said the real issue is that the profession does not exist as a profession. “None of us on this thread have an automation degree because it doesn’t exist,” he said, “and I would also bet that it is not what you entered the job market expecting to become. Another damaging component is that each industry sees itself as different from other industries. Although there are nuances to each, at our level it really does not matter what is in the pipes, it is the control that is important.” From a recruiter’s point of view, a shortage of qualified controls and automation engineers— entry level or seasoned—certainly exists, offered Michael Grillo, an engineering recruiter at City and National Employment, Waterloo, Iowa. “Com- panies often use integrators to fulfill engineering needs, and that generally requires a great deal of travel by the controls and automation engineer. And travel is perhaps a reason many do not join the forces. Recruiting a controls and automation engineer for a company is often not too difficult until I tell them they may have to work at different facilities across the country, or around the globe, for that matter,” Grillo said. Controls engineering is evolving with the times,

or around the globe, for that matter,” Grillo said. Controls engineering is evolving with the times,

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or around the globe, for that matter,” Grillo said. Controls engineering is evolving with the times,

12:10 PM

said Dyana Rollason, project engineer at Emer- son Network Power, Columbus, Ohio. “It’s not all relay logic to control processes anymore. It’s not even all PLC programming. There are communica- tion platforms to learn, operator interfaces to design, address mapping between the interface and the PLC programs,” she noted. “I didn’t learn 80% of what I do in college. Controls engineering is not a defined field; there isn’t a job description. That’s a big reason why there are few young engineers in this area. The current ones evolved into their cur- rent state, as I am doing now,” Rollason said.

Perfect blend

According to Scot Garner, PE, electrical and controls department manager at Industrial Turn- Around Corp., Richmond, Va., the perfect controls engineer should possess a blend of process knowl- edge, electrical knowledge, logic theory, software development skills, and instrumentation and IT knowledge. “Someone with all of those characteris- tics is extremely hard to find,” said Garner. “There is more to controls engineering than just analog pro- cess control. There is hardware design, sequential discrete logic, custom software development, motor control, safety circuits, and regulatory requirements. We don’t execute projects in a vacuum. Controls engineers, mechanical engineers, process engi- neers, IT professionals, and project engineers must work as a team to get projects done.” There is a lack of recruitment for our industry, Garner went on. “Automation companies tend to be small and don’t do a whole lot of recruiting from colleges. Fortune 500 manufacturing companies are downsizing and shipping jobs elsewhere, which is also contributing to the lack of young people in auto- mation and control engineering.” Doug Brock, manager, Chattanooga territory at Kendall Electric, Chattanooga, Tenn., admits that at the time he graduated from college in electrical engineering, he had never touched a PLC from an automation vendor. “I was well versed in theory but had no industrial automation exposure. Fortu- nately, I found opportunities later and gained that experience. I think it’s harder for new graduates to find those opportunities now. Chattanooga has some neat partnerships between industry and area schools, but most of those are two-year programs. Until there is a concerted effort to team four-year programs with industrial leaders, factory automa- tion manufacturers, associations, and end-users, it will be difficult to provide the quick assimilation that is required to pull young people into the industrial automation and process control fields,” Brock said. In the view of Chris Stergiou, mechanical and manufacturing systems, Boston, to ask if there is a

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lack of young engineers in automation and control engineering is a bit of an oxymoron. “There is no such field as ‘automation and control engineering,’” Stergiou said. “Automation and control engineering is simply the execution or integration of any to all of the conventional engi- neering fields. It represents a synthesis of process knowledge (so that we can know what we are trying to control), hardware knowledge (so that we can know what tools are available to us to monitor those control points), and a sense of algorithm develop- ment (so that we can devise an architecture that is simple, robust, and repeatable with well-understood and controlled internal reaction times). All of this takes time and experience to cultivate. Just as grad- uates from the most prestigious culinary schools start out chopping lettuce and learning from estab- lished chefs before they can truly become one, systems engineers are grown over time. They can’t come out of school that way,” Stergiou said. “The issue is obviously complex, added James Federlein, PE, an experienced industrial automa- tion consultant and instructor in the Pittsburgh area and a member of ISA’s Standards and Practices Board.”There are fewer young engineers today,” he said. “Given that baby boomers are retiring in larger numbers than young engineers are graduat- ing, there will be a lack of young engineers in all disciplines.” Automation is not considered a unique discipline by most colleges and some companies, he contin- ued. “Young engineers don’t graduate with a degree in automation. Even if they had some control cours- es in college, they may not be aware of automation as a field. The level of college education in automa- tion is in no way commensurate with the importance of automation’s and industry’s need.” Read more comments from LinkedIn Automa- tion & Control Engineering Group forums online at www.controleng.com. LinkedIn members may view complete discussions or raise questions of their own. ce -Jeanine Katzel is a contributing editor to Control Engineering. Contact her at jkatzel@sbc- global.net.

We need to take action to attract more young people to engineering and automation if we want to remain competitive in a global world.

Until there is a concerted effort to team four- year programs with industrial leaders, factory automation manufacturers, associations, and end-users, it will be difficult to provide the quick assimilation that is required to pull young people into the industrial automation and process control fields.

the industrial automation and process control fields. ’ Interactive LinkedIn Automation & Control Engineering

Interactive

LinkedIn Automation & Control Engineering Group, moderated by CFE Media’s Control Engineering [Click in via the “in” box, upper right, at www.controleng. com], provides an engineer- ing social media platform for automation and controls engineers to share ideas, opinions, and solutions. CFE Media’s Control Engineering manages and monitors this discussion platform, keep- ing its fingers on the pulse of participants as they air issues and offer opinions. We periodically summarize and present some of the group’s observations and insights, with more posted online.

www.controleng.com CONTROL ENGINEERING JANUARY 2013 47

insights, with more posted online. www.controleng.com ● CONTROL ENGINEERING JANUARY 2013 ● 47 1/15/13 12:10 PM

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inside process
inside process

Dynamic simulation predicts steam consumption in unpredictable paper mill application

Langerbrugge used simulation analysis to make sure the boiler and steam system could remain stable even during the biggest disruption: a turbine trip.

S tora Enso’s Langerbrugge (Bel- gium) paper mill decided to install a new CFB (circulating fluidized bed) boiler and a condensing tur- bine back in 2008. Pöyry was

chosen as the consultant for the project, and assigned the task of engineering a dynamic sim- ulation of the steam network, which would be used in the process of designing the new instal- lation. This was a particularly complex proj- ect in that the mill had previously purchased steam from an outside supplier and this was a major change to generating and controlling its own steam supply. The underlying idea of using dynamic simulation to assist with the design process is that control specialists take part in the entire engineering cycle, ensuring that once

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the plant is started, the controls and process will be capable of handling all process disturbances anticipated, such as paper machine web breaks and turbine trips. This approach proved to be very successful in Langerbrugge, and this dis- cussion explains how the process dynamics part of the engineering was carried out.

Dynamic vs. static simulations

In spite of the variety of design tools avail- able today, it seems that much power plant design work is carried out using only stat- ic simulations, such as heat-balance calcula- tions. While these are useful, static simulations typically assume that power-plant operating conditions, such as steam consumption, are completely stable at the given operation point.

Hans Boghaert,

Jarno Nyman,

Mikael Maasalo

Key concepts Process simulators can characterize a new facility even before construction Simulation results can
Key
concepts
Process simulators can
characterize a new facility
even before construction
Simulation results can
suggest specific con-
figurations and equipment
choices to ensure desired
operating characteristics

www.controleng.com CONTROL ENGINEERING JANUARY 2013 P1

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inside process
inside process
inside process Figure 1. Langerbrugge’s old BFB plant and new CFB plant comprise a somewhat complex

Figure 1. Langerbrugge’s old BFB plant and new CFB plant comprise a somewhat complex steam network, with many different process components affecting each other via the net. Courtesy: Pöyry

affecting each other via the net. Courtesy: Pöyry Figure 2: Partial Modysim model of the Langerbrugge

Figure 2: Partial Modysim model of the Langerbrugge mill

However, day-to- day power plant operation is filled with different kinds of distur- bance situations. Since dynamic simulations have historically been very expensive to carry out, distur- bances have not been tested during engineering. Even today, many ele- ments of the con- trol strategy are pieced together

only during the commissioning, through trial and error. Pöyry developed a dynamic steam-net simula- tor, Modysim, 10 years ago. The most important feature of Modysim is that the mod- els are simple enough to carry out cost-efficient simulations, but detailed enough to pro- vide accurate results. So far Modysim has been used in over 40 projects, and it has proven to produce accurate results within just a few days once the modeling process has begun. After Modysim had been used successfully in separate steam-network optimization proj- ects for several years, in 2007, Pöyry decided to modernize its whole power-plant engineer- ing process by adding Modysim simulation in all power-plant engineering phases. Stora Enso Langerbrugge was among the first ones to use this new approach in full. Dynamic simulation gives a lot of input to process dimensioning, but pays particular atten- tion to power plant control configuration. In Pöyry’s approach, the control specialists who carry out the simulation tests also supervise tur- bine and boiler control configuration and give assistance during commissioning, ensuring that the controls work properly from the first moment when the equipment is started. Expe- rience has shown that if the recommendations obtained from the simulation have been fol- lowed correctly, steam-network control com- missioning is typically over in just a few weeks instead of months.

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Dealing with turbine trips

Before the new boiler project, a significant part of the Langerbrugge mill’s process steam was purchased from a nearby utility. After the new boiler was installed, the steam pipe to the

utility was completely cut off. Since the mill’s process steam pressure had been controlled with a valve at the point where the utility sup- ply came into the mill, the whole steam network control concept had to be redesigned. Even while the new power-plant concept was still under development, it was obvious that

a turbine trip would cause challenges for the

operation. Therefore, Stora Enso was very keen on seeing how well Pöyry and the Modysim simulation of the steam network could check the process dimensioning and control behavior during a turbine trip. The existing pressure control scheme was developed by Pöyry in 2003, so the Langerbrug- ge staff was already familiar with Pöyry’s meth- od of building an integrated control scheme and combining independent control systems. The purpose of the dynamic simulation was not only to check the process dimensioning, but also to connect the new and existing controls together (Figure 1).

Process dimensioning checks

Dynamic simulation provides a way of checking process dimensioning. Typically, valve capacities, actuator stroke times, and accumula- tor volume are checked by feeding process dis- turbances, such as paper machine web breaks, into the model. Naturally, in the Langerbrugge case, the existing power-plant process could not be altered. However, at the new CFB plant, a turbine trip provided a lot of challenge. Initially the bypass to the turbine condens-

er was to be connected from the HP (high-pres-

sure) header, mainly due to the fact that, for cost reasons, the turbine bypass valve was ini- tially dimensioned only for the minimum load of the new condensing turbine, not for the max- imum load as might be expected. However, a more cost-efficient way would be to connect the bypass from the LP (low-pressure) header. The question was whether the steam network could handle a turbine trip in this way. The capacities and opening times of the tur- bine bypass, turbine condenser bypass, and CFB start valves were studied as critical elements of the process.

Dynamic simulation and results

When a dynamic simulation model is run- ning, results come as precise dynamic curves where one can easily see if the selected capac-

is run- ning, results come as precise dynamic curves where one can easily see if the

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inside process
inside process

ities, actuator speeds, and component connections are enough for the steam net- work to survive the select- ed situations. In this case the selected situations were a paper machine web break and new condensing turbine trip (Figure 2). The simulation results indicated several operation- al facts:

During normal opera- tion, the new condensing turbine was able to con-

trol low pressure during the worst disturbances, such as web breaks. The bypass to the turbine condenser could be connected to the low-pressure header instead of the high-pressure network, resulting in a more cost-efficient solution.

To make the power plant sur- vive a turbine trip, the turbine and condenser bypass valves had to be opened very quickly, and the start-up valve had to be equipped with a fast pneu- matic actuator. The tur- bine control sys- tem needed some modifications to

Regardless of how good the simulation results are, they are meaningless if the control configuration and tuning parameters developed during the simulations are not implemented.

function well with the exist- ing power plant (Figure 3).

Specification for steam network controls

One interesting fact about steam network sim-

ulations has emerged from

a growing number of proj-

ects. While the process itself has an effect on the results, experience suggests that at least half of the phenomena seen on the curves, especial-

ly disturbance magnitude and

behavior, come from how the controls have been config- ured and tuned. Therefore, regardless of how good the simulation results are, they are mean- ingless if the control configuration and tuning parameters developed during the simulations are not implemented. The most important deliv- erable from the dynamic simulations is there- fore a specification for a steam network control configuration where all modifications and deci- sions are explained in the form of a steam net- work control strategy. This control strategy acts as a basis for all control configuration elements, such as the turbine pressure control. The analysis suggested two very important requirements for the controls:

First, all pressure controllers should use only one pressure transmitter. This makes it possible to avoid measurement errors between different control loops, integrate functions of all pieces of equipment, and stabilize the steam network. Second, the turbine pressure control algo- rithms had to be modified. Turbine pressure controllers now use external pressure signals, and turbine valve interaction was changed. The mill decided to follow these recommen- dations from the simulation results, and the design was altered accordingly.

simulation results, and the design was altered accordingly. Figure 3: Some turbine trip Modysim simulation curves,

Figure 3: Some turbine trip Modysim simulation curves, without and with fast HP blow-out.

simulation curves, without and with fast HP blow-out. Figure 4: Implementation time schedule Implementation Pöyry

Figure 4: Implementation time schedule

Implementation

Pöyry assembled a team comprising engi- neers from the DCS supplier, the turbine and boiler builders, and mill personnel, which worked in close cooperation. Since there are many control systems that need to interact prop- erly, it is important that everyone interprets the results and implements the specifications in the same and correct way. This can be achieved most easily by good communication between all parties involved. Figure 4 illustrates the imple- mentation time schedule. After initial testing, the new loops were turned on and tuned one-by-one according to

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inside process
inside process
inside process Figure 5: PM break: Modysim simulation results vs. actual trend curves after fine tuning

Figure 5: PM break: Modysim simulation results vs. actual trend curves after fine tuning

simulation results vs. actual trend curves after fine tuning Figure 6: TG trip: Modysim simulation results
simulation results vs. actual trend curves after fine tuning Figure 6: TG trip: Modysim simulation results

Figure 6: TG trip: Modysim simulation results vs. actual trend curves after fine tuning

simulation results vs. actual trend curves after fine tuning P6 ● JANUARY 2013 CONTROL ENGINEERING ●

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a predetermined procedure. Pöyry also held

training sessions for mill personnel to clarify

the new steam network control concept. Initial parameters for the controllers were obtained from the simulator model, which sped up the fine-tuning process.

Results

Start-up of the new equipment went smooth- ly. The predetermined implementation order

was carried out, and step-by-step, the connec- tion to the nearby utility was separated and the new equipment was turned on. After start-up and fine-tuning, the steam network behaved just

as

it did in the simulator. It was also clear that

if

the control strategy had not been modified

according to the simulation results, any turbine trip would have also caused trips in the CFB and LP header. Figures 5 and 6 compare simula- tion results and actual trend curves. Stora Enso realized a number of practical benefits from the project:

The worst types of disturbances that can take place during new power plant operation had already been tested at the beginning of the engineering phase, so they didn’t have to be learned the hard way. Process and automation engineering needs were supported during the entire power plant control strategy design process. The modifications that were required for the DCS and in the turbine control system were specified at an early stage instead of fixing them by trial and error during commissioning. The steam network control system devel- oped during the simulations worked just as pre- dicted from initial start-up, providing very good pressure stability, maintaining ±0.05 bar during normal operation and ±0.1 bar during upsets. Steam network control commissioning was over in just a few weeks instead of several months. Back-pressure power generation from the turbines is maximized during operation, because pressure remains stable and as low as possible under all circumstances. ce

Hans Boghaert is energy manager for Stora Enso. Jarno Nyman is a power plant controls advisor and Mikael Maasalo is a senior power plant controls advisor for Pöyry Finland.

is a senior power plant controls advisor for Pöyry Finland. Go Online Find information about Stora

Go Online

Find information about Stora Enso’s forest products at www.storaenso.com

Learn more about Pöyry at www.poyry.com

about Stora Enso’s forest products at www.storaenso.com Learn more about Pöyry at www.poyry.com 1/15/13 12:14 PM

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