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Vol.

4 (3&4) : 103 - 107 (2002)

Development and Testing of Sugarcane Juice Extractor
Agidi Gbabo
National Cereals Research Institute, Badeggi PMB 8, Bida, Nigeria

A Sugarcane juice extractor having 3340.95-4635.3kg per day cane crushing capacity was designed and fabricated as one of the equipment of the indigenous sugar processing plant recently developed in Nigeria hy the National Cereals Research Institute, Badeggi. The equipment is made up of the juice extractor units, cane inlet and baggasse discharge chutes, juice collector, power transmission unit, covers and frame. The machine was fabricated with about 95% local materials in the Agricultural Engineering workshop of the Institute. Test results of the machine using sugarcane varieties BD 95-030, BD 96-009 and local chewing cane indicates juice extraction efficiency of 72.53-83.9%. It was also found suitable for extracting juice from varying cane sizes and simple to operate and maintain.

KEYWORDS : Sugarcane, juice extractor, design, fabricate and efficiency

INTRODUCTION Sugarcane is one of the most important crops from which sugar is produced. It accounts for about 62% of the total world's sugar while only 38% is produced from beet (Naidu 1998; Fry 1997) which is the second crop from which sugar is conventionally obtained. Unlike sugar beet which grows best in temperate climates, sugarcane does better in the tropics (Kaplinsky 1984). As a result, Nigeria which is located within the tropical zone has enormous potentials for sugarcane cultivation. As at the year 2000, over sixty (60) potential sugarcane estate sites were identified across the country (Busari, 2000). The mature sugarcane itself is composed of 69-75% water, 8-16% sucrose, 0.2-3.0% reducing sugar, 0.51.0% other organic matter, 0.2-0.6% i n o r g a n i c compounds, 0.5-1.0% nitrogenous bodies,0.3-0.8% ash and 10.0-16.0% fibre (Mathur, 1993). Similar to other crops, the cane is processed in order to extract the sucrose content. The machines used for processing sugarcane includes cane juice extractor, juice evaporator/pan boilers, cystalizers, centrifuge and dryer ( A m o n s u n et al., 2000). A m o n g these, the j u i c e e x t r a c t o r plays a very significant role in s u g a r manufacturing since it is one of the equipment that g r e a t l y d e t e r m i n e s the e f f i c i e n c y of the w h o l e processing plant. Sugar cane .juice e x t r a c t o r s are classified into advanced, intermediate'and small scale levels according to the scale of operation. The advance and intermediate
Corresponding author : G. Agidi

juice extractors usually are composed of two to three sets of rollers with shredders. Also warm water is sprayed on the fibre between the rollers aimed at extracting m a x i m u m juice from the cane (Anon, 1999). Alternatively, the small scale juice extractor uses only a single set of rollers to extract the juice without imbibition. It is the type of juice extractor that is found useful for developing countries like Nigeria where sugarcane farming is not yet practiced on extensive scale despite the huge production potentials. Also, the complex large equipments are imported fi'om developed countries and always require complex maintenance procedures in addition to lack of spare parts within the locality. The only alternative was for us to design and fabricate cane juice extractors that would be suitable to our local conditions. This p a p e r discusses the development and testing of a Cane juice extractor which is one of the major equipment in the indigenous brown sugar processing plant that was recently developed in Nigeria. MACHINE DESCRIPTION The m a c h i n e is c o m p o s e d of the components as described in Figs 1-5.
Juice Extraction Unit

following

This is made up of three V-grooved mild steel rollers having 8mm pitch and 6ram depth. Two of these rollers (D) have diameter and lengtla of 150ram and 270ram, respectively each and arranged horizontally on tile same plane on a frame. The third roller (C) having size 240ram diameter and 300ram long is incorporated on top of the center of the two lower rollers. Clearance adjustment device (F) were also provided to enable
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0 ~ 1 I.~ J _ 30. 75.. I n l e t and.0 ~ I 15..0 4oo.0 4oe. 4 : Right hand side view Fig. i~ 255. Flange Connecting Gear Box and Upper Roller Roller Cover Diameter of motor pulley Diameter of gear box pulley Center to center distance between motor and gear box pulleys Gear box Flanges Shaft from gear box to top roller s u g a r c a n e o f v a r y i n g sizes to be a c c o m m o d a t e d b e t w e e n t h e t o p and l o w e r r o l l e r s .0 ~-~___~ I I [ i . "" ~I / / 7 c 2. 2 : Plan J K Feed Chute Gear Box Upper Roller Lower Roller Delivery Chute Clearance Adjustment Device Juice Collection Tray Electric Motor Belt Interconnecting Elect Motor and Gear Box Upper Roller Gear Lower Roller Gear L M D~ D2 CMg Gb FL S..o Fig.0 17J 780...o ~'1 [ 4 75.i ~.0 \ k'l C D E F G H 1 Fig.oI..0 Fig.. d i s c h a r g e c h u t e s : T h e s e c h u t e s (A and E) are t r a p e z o i d a l t r o u g h s m a d e o f m i l d s t e e l sheets. T h e inlet c h u t e g u i d e s and d i r e c t s u g a r c a n e f e d to the rollers.o ----n. . 5 : Left hand side view LEGEND All dimensions in mm A B .-3o.0 E /. A 2 4 0 m m a n d 1 5 0 r a m d i a m e t e r s g e a r s are f i x e d to the top and the l o w e r r o l l e r shafts r e s p e c t i v e l y in o r d e r to t r a n s m i t p o w e r f r o m the 1 5 H P e l e c t r i c m o t o r t h r o u g h t w o f l a n g e s (I).. 3DD.-t --265. .. 3 : Front view 104 . Fig..o \. It also p r e v e n t s loss o f s u g a r c a n e j u i c e r e s u l t i n g f r o m the c r u s h i n g a c t i o n o f the r o l l e r s .. 1 Isometric view I~ !4 :~o. \\\ "\..1'4 i 84 _ ... -- ! 14 400.6 / 670.O 270.0 kf I~ I l'~q .

. (9) R e q u i r e d speed o f u p p e r rollers (rpm) R e q u i r e d s p e e d o f l o w e r rollers (rpm) 105 .................... 1982) YL G W h e r e d? is the radial d e f o r m a t i o n or a n g l e of twist (radians) Y is the a l l o w a b l e torsional stress in the shaft = 9. (8) Ng = G r x N r in equation (7) Ng D oo D m (1) . Thus.. dr = rs = (iii) Radial d e f o r m a t i o n F r a m e and C o v e r s : T h e frame o f the m a c h i n e is f a b r i c a t e d with m i l d steel a n g l e iron while the m a c h i n e c o v e r s were m a d e from m i l d steel sheets. p u l l e y s and belts.... r e c o m m e n d e d speed o f the top roller connected to the gear box and the diameter the pulley o f the electric m o t o r and the g e a r box... Speed reduction ratio of gear b o x DESIGN THOREMS (i) Power requirement T h e p o w e r r e q u i r e d to d r i v e the m a c h i n e is a f u n c t i o n o f the total m a s s o f the rollers and the gears and is obtained fi'om the g e n e r a l l y established equation: P = Fv V e ...T h e d i s c h a r g e chute is f i x e d at the o p p o s i t e end o f the inlet chutes to d i s c h a r g e s u g a r c a n e b a g g a s s e after e x t r a c t i n g the juice........... shearing and p r e s s i n g action o f the r o l l e r s on the sugarcane results in extraction of the ..... The electric motor and speed reduction units are interconnected with the belt and pulleys while the speed r e d u c t i o n unit is c o n n e c t e d to the top roller with a 2 0 0 r a m d i a m e t e r flange.......juice.......It is i n c l u d e d at an a n g l e 25 o from the h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e to e n a b l e the .. N u m b e r o f lowers rollers = 2 (ii) D i a m e t e r of shafts of r o l l e r s ..... length and m o d u l e s of r i g i d i t y (Ryder. The r a d i a l d e f o r m a t i o n t e n d e n c y o f the shaft is d e p e n d e n t on the torsional stress. = R e c o m m e n d e d speed o f the top r o l l e r (rpm) Volume of u p p e r roller.......... (2) .... T h e s p e e d r e d u c t i o n ratio o f the g e a r box is a function o f the electric motor...... 15hp s p e e d reduction unit h a v i n g s p e e d r e d u c t i o n ratio o f 1:20....juice to flow towards the spout. = Nt.. 1989) 115 x 10 N / M 2 (m/sec 2) Juice C o l l e c t o r : The j u i c e c o l l e c t o r (G) is also a t r a p e z o i d a l trough p l a c e d d i r e c t l y b e l o w the l o w e r r o l l e r s to c o l l e c t the e x t r a c t e d j u i c e ........... It is c o m p u t e d based on the f o l l o w i n g equation: Nx TT = N L LT ...... v in equation (3) P = rsvgpd N = r s [v U gpd U N u + 2(vLgpdLNu)] where rs vtl v L --- ... it is c o m p u t e d from e s t a b l i s h e d relation: Nm Dm = Ng = N m Dg Substituting Gr = N m D m Dg x N r" .... The s h r e d d i n g .. (4) W h e r e G r = the expected gear ratio o f the g e a r b o x Density o f mild steel (780kg/m 3) N m = S p e e d o f the pulley of the electric m o t o r (rpm) D m = D i a m e t e r o f the p u l l e y o f the m o t o r (m) N........ shaft and gears (m 3) a c c e l e r a t i o n due to gravity Diameter of upper roller (m/sec 2) (m) g = Du = Nt. which d r a i n s down to the c o l l e c t o r and finally transferred to the e v a p o r a t o r through pipes... The d i a m e t e r of each o f the shaft o f the rollers was d e t e r m i n e d u s i n g the equation b e l o w (web 1982): 16 MTg d r d= 2rip s W h e r e M x = Total mass of r o l l e r s and gears (kg) g = A c c e l e r a t i o n due to g r a v i t y D i a m e t e r of rollers (m) shear stress of street = (Juvinal.. P o w e r T r a n s m i s s i o n U n i t : This is c o m p o s e d o f a 15HP electric motor. .. . = SPEED OF L O W E R R O L L E R S The s p e e d o f the lower rollers are the same and inter-related with that o f the top roller..0 x 10 l~ N/ m 2 (Juvinal 1989) (iv) W O R K M O D E OF T H E M A C H I N E T h e m a c h i n e is put on with the aid o f an e l e c t r i c s w i t c h c o n n e c t e d to the e l e c t r i c motor.. It is left to run for 2 minutes b e f o r e it is l o a d e d with s u g a r c a n e by f e e d i n g m a n u a l l y with a b o u t three canes at a time.....89 x 107 N/ m e ( J u v i n a l 1989 ) G is m o d u l u s of r i g i d i t y of the shaft = 8. shaft and g e a r (m 3) Volume o f each o f the lower rollers. A c l e a r a n c e is p r o v i d e d b e t w e e n the rollers and the chutes to prevent them from m a k i n g c o n t a c t with each other. (6) S u b s t i t u t i n g F T = M g and V = pd N in equation (1) P = M g pd r N ............ (7) S u b s t i t u t i n g M = r...

9 Throughput (capacity) kg/day : BD 95 .W d .3 Bd 96-009 1 2 3 1 2 3 Local chewing cane Mean Juice extraction efficiencies (%) : BD 95 ..45 3483.75 8. 0 0 5 m for both the i n d u s t r i a l and local c a n e v a r i e t i e s .8 11.. T T is no.0 81...009 = 4401.05 72. % Machine through put (capacity) kg/day Bd 95-030 1 2 3 15.6 21..8 0. o f teeth o f e a c h o f the l o w e r rollers.5 2.. of moisture Wm (kg) Wt.. ..0 11. of sugar in baggasse (kg) Time Sec Juice extr.7 8... T h e b a g g a s s e w e r e i n i t i a l l y s u n .. T h e m o i s t u r e l e f t in the b a g g a s s e . . o f T e e t h o f the top r o l l e r L T is no.25 124 122 122 130 125 125 132 128 130 75.5 4. ( G b a b o 1991): (D 2 + DI) 2 L v = n/2 (D 2 + DI) + 2C + 4 ..6 4843.. (12) T h r e e B V .24 0.7 Mean 4. T h e s a m e e x t r a c t i o n .009 = 72.2 8.1 9. . of cane kg Brix of juice Wt.0 23 24 23 19 21 20 16 14 14 6.4 71. T h e s a m p l e s w e r e w e i g h e d and c r u s h e d w i t h the j u i c e e x t r a c t o r . Wwb = W w .. (v) Belt Lengths Three samples of sugarcane varieties: BD 95-030 B D 9 6 ...15 73.I'll D2 ~l "1 GI~ / F where. ..6 44100 4652.3 1. (i0) W h e r e N L is s p e e d o f e a c h o f the l o w e r rollers (rpm).5 Local chewing cane = 4635. m a c h i n e t h r o u g h p u t and j u i c e e x t r a c t i o n e f f i c i e n c y w e r e c o m p u t e d and v a l u e s r e c o r d e d in table 1 as f o l l o w s : (i) M o i s t u r e left in the b a g g a s s e ... N x is s p e e d o f the top r o l l e r ( r p m ) ...39 0. .9 3422. . . T h e s e a d j u s t m e n t s w e r e o b t a i n e d as o p t i m u m c l e a r a n c e s d u r i n g series o f p r e v i o u s test r u n n i n g .86 Local chewing cane = 83. of dried baggasse (kg) Wt.3 106 ..7 7..5 13. baggassc. .0 22. of wet baggassc (kg) W h e r e W w = W e i g h t o f wet b a g g a s s e (kg) W a = Weight of dried baggasse (kg) Wt. T h e i r l e n g t h s w e r e c o m p a r e d u s i n g the f o l l o w i n g e q u a t i o n .40 0. MATERIALS AND METHODS I~ D I 1~ I Fig. of juice (kg) Wt..4 1.5 1.1 11.9 ot~ 96 .6 4..pressure p r o v i d e d by a t 0 m m c l e a r a n c e b e t w e e n the top and i n t a k e r o l l e r w i t h the aid o f the a d j u s t m e n t m e c h a n i s m was u s e d for all the s a m p l e s o f the i n d u s t r i a l canes.0 10. ( l l ) Table 1 : Juice extraction data Cane variety Replication Wt.5 4285. .6 19.53 BD 96 ..6 7..5 9.75 72.'7b~'ix o f the j u i c e and t i m e t a k e n to e x t r a c t the j u i c e w e r e r e c o r d e d ..2 20. ..25 84. A TESTING T h e m a c h i n e was tested to assess its t h r o u g h p u t and e f f i c i e n c y . .7 9.0 0 9 and l o c a l c h e w i n g c a n e w e r e u s e d for the e x p e r i m e n t .. .3 6.48 0.06 4541.2 1.belts o f e q u a l l e n g t h s w e r e used to t r a n s m i t p o w e r fi'om the e l e c t r i c m o t o r to the s p e e d r e d u c t i o n u n i t as s h o w n in F i g 6. .9 3116.. .70 2.4 9..0 8. . T h e c l e a r a n c e b e t w e e n the d e l i v e r y top and d e l i v e r y rollers w e r e m a i n t a i n e d at the s a m e l e v e l o f 0 . efficiency. .3 86..7 8.58 72..2 2. .53 0.0 7. . .d r i e d for 2 d a y s and later o v e n d r i e d for 4h..3 7..46 0.9 1. 6 : Belt connection between electric motor and top roller through the gear box NT TT Nc .1 7.2 19.9 11. T h e w e i g h t o f the d r i e d b a g g a s s e was a l s o noted.48 0. .030 = 3340. T h e w e i g h t o f the e x t r a c t e d j u i c e ..030 = 72.75 2.0 7.5 18. E D1= D2 = C= Diameter of motor pulley Diameter of gear box C e n t r e to c e n t e r d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n g e a r b o x and m o t o r pulley..2 10.7 5.4 4377.18 0.0 14.

Pp.(ii) Juice Extraction efficiency (hey) = Wi % W j + W m -. Ryder.W s . Global perspective of the Sugar Industry. Pp3.... Project pro)file and viability appraisal fi~r the NCRI 10 TCD Brown Sugar Processing Plant. National Cereals Research Institute Annual Research Review Meeting. University of lbadan Nigeria Sept. Juvinal..M (1981).world Technology. Sugar Processing: The Development of a third . 13 Oxford University Press. Thomas House.. hey = Wi = Efficiency of j u i c e extractor Weight of j u i c e (kg) Weight of extracted j u i c e (kg) Weight of moisture left in the baggasse (kg) Weight of sugar left in the baggasse (kg) 96-009.juice extraction efficiency between the local c h e w i n g cane and the other two.. Shafts in Alloy Steel. Potential yield in Sugarcane and its utilization through varietal improvement Pp 1-17 In: Sugarcane Varietal hnprovement... London.... A Research project submitted to the Department of Agric.C. 66 Sapath.. Mohan Privailin..I. Web. (13) Where. The efficiency of the m a c h i n e when the c h e w i n g cane variety was used is 83.15.... Strength of Materials. India. Pp. Badeggi. Delhi. Nigeria. Mc..3kg/day) for different cane varieties..... Nigcria. B D 9 5 . Mc. Open Pan Sugar Processing Technology: An option for developing Countries. In: Intensive Sugarcane production: Meeting the challenge beyond 2000. (1991).. (15) W h e r e Bj = Brix of j u i c e Wmb = Moisture left in the baggasse. A.. Bacita... 9 kg/day. Fry.B.l-16... Combatore. Design and Fabrication of a centrifuge for Separating Sugar Crystal and Palm oil.. A. Nationally Co-ordinated Research Progranune on Sugarcane. Ghabo. (1999). Brisbane... (1984).. Badeggi. and Wada. Hand book on cane Sugar Technology.. London. 1988.. Gbabo. G.. Sugarcane breeding Institute.. REFERENCES Amosun.. The internal Nickel Company Limited. the weight of moisture and sugar left in the baggasse after j u i c e extraction is m o r e for BD95-030 and BD 107 . NewYork Kaplisky. R. Nigeria. 50-51 Busari L. These results indicates that the design of the m a c h i n e suits its purpose as one of the e q u i p m e n t for p r o c e s s i n g s u g a r in d e v e l o p i n g countries like Nigeria. A....D.. Australia.. (14) C m = m a c h i n e capacity (tons/day) W~ = weight of cane crushed t = Time taken to crush the sugarcane Weight of sugar left in the baggasse (W~) = Bj 100 x Wmb . Naidu. Composition of cane juice.9% which is higher than the other two varieties. A c c o r d i n g l y .. (2000). R. Sugar Tech (2). Graw Hill Company. pp 7 . Proceedings ()f the Sugar 2000 Symposium.. Machine Performance Assessment and Conclusion The result of the cane j u i c e extraction test using three sugarcane varieties as shown in tablel shows variation in . Engineering Consideration of Stress. 20-23 August 1996.. easy to operate and maintain. This variation could be as a result of the fact that the local chewing cane c o n t a i n s more j u i c e than fibre c o m p a r e d to those of the exotic cane varieties m e a n t for industrial uses. The m a c h i n e is also simple. Engineering.H (1982).L (1993). Mathur... India. Anonymous (1999)... J (1997). The t h r o u g h o u t (capacity) of the m a c h i n e also varies ( 3 3 4 0 . June 2000 India Anonymous (1988). K.0 3 0 and BD96009. 4-28 Nov.C (1976).. Strain and Strength. 20-23 April 1999. A. Proceeding of the International Symposium on Sugarcane Varietal Improvement. C. R.. Within the period it was used in the sugar plant.....4635. New Delhi. wj= Wlll : Ws = (iii) Capacity of m a c h i n e Cmwhere Wc t ... h~termidiate Technology Publications 1984. National Cereals Research Institute. it worked c o n t i n u a l l y without much interruptions from m e c h a n i c a l failures. (1982).. 1991. Laboratory manual on sugarcane and sugar Analysis Nigeria Sugar Company Ltd. pp.. Millian Press Limited.