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LONG a zone of contention among a number of littoral states, the South China Sea is fast becoming the focus

of one of the most serious bilateral disputes between America and China. Over the weekend China‘s foreign ministry summoned an American diplomat to express ―strong dissatisfaction and resolute opposition‖ to a statement issued by the state department on August 3rd. Tensions in the sea have mounted this year, especially between China and the Philippines on the one hand, and between China and the Vietnam on the other. Although there has not been a serious armed clash in the sea since 1988, and none is likely now, there are worries that in the current climate some low-level confrontation might escalate by accident. The specific Chinese complaint this weekend was over America‘s criticism of its recent upgrading of the administrative level of Sansha city, on one of the Paracel islands (known in China as the Xisha), from a county to a prefecture, and the establishment of a new military garrison there. In its riposte China judged its own decision to be ―normal and reasonable‖, though only a few hundred people live on the islets covered by the vast new maritime prefecture. More broadly, China complains that America is taking sides in the many territorial disputes in the sea. China and Taiwan both claim virtually all the sea. Vietnam claims the Paracels, from which it was evicted by China in 1974, as well as the Spratly chain further to the south. In the south both overlap extensively with the exclusive economic zone the Philippines claims under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). Further complicating things, Malaysia and Brunei also have smaller territorial claims, and the regional club to which they, the Philippines and Vietnam all belong, the Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN), has tried to play a co-ordinating and mediating role. America insists it is entirely neutral on the territorial disputes. However China has long seen it as a troublemaker, especially since, at a security forum in Hanoi two years ago, Hillary Clinton, the secretary of state, declared the United States‘ ―national interest‖ in the affairs of the sea. China blames America for encouraging—and perhaps even instigating—a more aggressive approach from both the Philippines and Vietnam. It asks why the American statement chose ―to turn a blind eye‖ to what China sees as provocations by (unnamed) other countries. This is a reference to Vietnam‘s adoption of a maritime law asserting its territorial claims, and to recent disputes with it and the Philippines over fishing and the opening of disputed waters to oil and gas exploration. One reason tempers are rising is that the seas are so abundant in resources. The most serious recent confrontation, between the Philippines and China over the Scarborough Shoal, has eased after both sides withdrew their armed patrols and competing fishing boats, as storms approached. But the Philippines says the Chinese boats left the mouth of the lagoon roped off to prevent other fishermen from entering.

And it must be suspicious that. and the regional club to which they. The first is the perception that China has become more strident and more of a bully in asserting its claims. which they held last month in Phnom Penh. has tried to play a co-ordinating and mediating role. In its riposte China judged its own decision to be ―normal and reasonable‖. however. More broadly. There are two reasons for the welcome to America. if bland. the Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN). The second is that it remains unclear what those claims are based on. islets and rocks over which it claims sovereignty. has taken to using the term ―the West Philippine Sea‖. Further complicating things. still less if they are backed up by America. in keeping with the global ―rebalancing‖ of its military posture in favour of Asia and the Pacific. That the American approach is broadly appreciated in the region. America is backing its rivals‘ claims. China couches many of its statements by reference to the islands. It has a point when it says that the American statement was one-sided. Its members are still smarting over their failure—for the first time in the organisation‘s 45-year history—to agree on a joint statement after their annual foreign ministers‘ meeting. ASEAN position on the sea.The American statement backs the multilateral approach to the disputes championed by ASEAN. and the establishment of a new military garrison there. must give China pause. despite its denials. China complains that America is taking sides in the many territorial disputes in the sea. China‘s neighbours have reason to worry China sees their sea as its lake. In the south both overlap extensively with the exclusive economic zone the Philippines claims under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). The specific Chinese complaint this weekend was over America‘s criticism of its recent upgrading of the administrative level of Sansha city. But it insists the territorial disputes are a series of bilateral issues. It does not want its smaller neighbours ganging up on it. for example. It was blocked because Cambodia. to cement its position in the region. It is also understandable for China to fear that America is trying to capitalise on the disputes. China is working (ever so slowly) with ASEAN towards a regional code of conduct to lessen the risks of conflict. But it has not renounced the ―nine-dashed line‖ (see map) which it says gives it historic rights over virtually the entire sea. China and Taiwan both claim virtually all the sea. on one of the Paracel islands (known in China as the Xisha). from which it was evicted by China in 1974. a faithful Chinese client. refused to accept wording on the South China Sea demanded by some of its fellow members. . Vietnam claims the Paracels. Mrs Clinton. and their associated waters. though only a few hundred people live on the islets covered by the vast new maritime prefecture. as if it were following UNCLOS. Dogged Indonesian diplomacy subsequently managed to cobble together a palatable. the Philippines and Vietnam all belong. Malaysia and Brunei also have smaller territorial claims. as well as the Spratly chain further to the south. from a county to a prefecture.

Mrs Clinton. It does not want its smaller neighbours ganging up on it.America insists it is entirely neutral on the territorial disputes. Its members are still smarting over their failure—for the first time in the organisation‘s 45-year history—to agree on a joint statement after their annual foreign ministers‘ meeting. at a security forum in Hanoi two years ago. must give China pause. between the Philippines and China over the Scarborough Shoal. That the American approach is broadly appreciated in the region. But it has not renounced the ―nine-dashed line‖ (see map) which it says gives it historic rights over virtually the entire sea. and to recent disputes with it and the Philippines over fishing and the opening of disputed waters to oil and gas exploration. It was blocked because Cambodia. has taken to using the term ―the West Philippine Sea‖. Dogged Indonesian diplomacy subsequently managed to cobble together a palatable. The first is the perception that China has become more strident and more of a bully in asserting its claims. The most serious recent confrontation. China blames America for encouraging—and perhaps even instigating—a more aggressive approach from both the Philippines and Vietnam. to cement its position in the region. declared the United States‘ ―national interest‖ in the affairs of the sea. But the Philippines says the Chinese boats left the mouth of the lagoon roped off to prevent other fishermen from entering. However China has long seen it as a troublemaker. But it insists the territorial disputes are a series of bilateral issues. the secretary of state. a faithful Chinese client. for example. despite its denials. There are two reasons for the welcome to America. China is working (ever so slowly) with ASEAN towards a regional code of conduct to lessen the risks of conflict. China‘s neighbours have reason to worry China sees their sea as its lake. islets and rocks over which it claims sovereignty. in keeping with the global ―rebalancing‖ of its military posture in favour of Asia and the Pacific. still less if they are backed up by America. if bland. . It is also understandable for China to fear that America is trying to capitalise on the disputes. This is a reference to Vietnam‘s adoption of a maritime law asserting its territorial claims. refused to accept wording on the South China Sea demanded by some of its fellow members. which they held last month in Phnom Penh. and their associated waters. America is backing its rivals‘ claims. Hillary Clinton. It has a point when it says that the American statement was one-sided. It asks why the American statement chose ―to turn a blind eye‖ to what China sees as provocations by (unnamed) other countries. One reason tempers are rising is that the seas are so abundant in resources. as storms approached. however. The second is that it remains unclear what those claims are based on. The American statement backs the multilateral approach to the disputes championed by ASEAN. has eased after both sides withdrew their armed patrols and competing fishing boats. And it must be suspicious that. especially since. ASEAN position on the sea. as if it were following UNCLOS. China couches many of its statements by reference to the islands.

meaning bilateral negotiations to resolve the dispute.‖ the DFA said. which the Philippines believes must be challenged in order to protect its national territory and maritime domain.‖ The DFA summoned Ma last Jan. the DFA said China‘s action ―will not interfere with the process of arbitration initiated by the Philippines on January 22. The Chinese embassy maintained that disputes in the South China Sea (West Philippine Sea) should be settled through direct negotiations by the parties concerned.Beijing also urged Manila to return to the right track. 22 and DFA Assistant Secretary for AsiaPacific Affairs Teresa Lazaro handed her a note verbale. under Annex VII of UNCLOS and the 5-member arbitration panel will be formed with or without China. In a statement. DFA Secretary Albert del Rosario said the Notification initiates the arbitral proceedings under Article 287 and Annex VII of UNCLOS. The diplomatic note contained the Notification and Statement of Claim that challenges before the Arbitral Tribunal the validity of China‘s nine-dash line claim and to desist from unlawful activities that violate the sovereign rights and jurisdiction of the Philippines under the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). ―The Philippines remains committed to arbitration which is a friendly. 2013. Del Rosario said the initiation of arbitral proceedings against China on the ninedash line is part of President Aquino‘s policy for a peaceful and rules-based resolution of disputes in the West Philippine Sea in accordance with UNCLOS. Ma reiterated China‘s often stated position that it has indisputable sovereignty over the entire South China Sea encompassed by its nine-dash line claim.‖ it said. China‘s nine-dash line claim virtually lays claim on the entire West Philippine Sea.‖ ―The arbitration will proceed under Annex VII of UNCLOS and the 5-member arbitration panel will be formed with or without China. ―This excessive claim is the core issue of the Philippines‘ arbitration case against China. peaceful and durable form of dispute settlement that should be welcomed by all. .‖ it said.

‖ Wu said. when Chinese officials prevented the Coast Guard from arresting Chinese fishermen who were caught poaching in the area. Chinese law enforcers will also continue to supervise regular patrols in Panatag shoal. chief of the South China Sea Fishery Bureau under the Ministry of Agriculture. However. He added that patrol missions will be carried out around the Xisha Islands (also called the Paracel Islands). the number of supervision missions will increase. Beijing announced on Monday that it planned to ―intensify‖ its supervision and control over disputed territories in the West Philippine Sea. Foreign Affairs Commission on Maritime and Ocean Affairs secretary general Henry Bensurto said that even after the Philippines submitted its case before the Arbitral Tribunal. Beibu Gulf and the Huangyan Islands. especially in the waters near the Nansha islands. China viewed the submission of maritime dispute to international arbitration as a ―weird‖ thing in international affairs. In raising an argument to evade the ITLOS. the country will speed up the routine patrols. told China Daily that on top of their priorities for this year. was to make more patrols on the Spratly Islands. Panatag Shoal was the focal point of the dispute since this was where the conflict started in April 2012. it can still file future protests against China‘s excessive claims on Philippine territories. Wu Zhuang. . The Foreign Affairs Department earlier said that the patrols was part of China‘s ―excessive claim‖ and violates provisions of the United National Convention on the Law of the Sea and other international laws. He added that the routine fishery administrative patrols will be conducted ―to better safeguard the legitimate interests of Chinese fishermen‖. one of the three major islands in the area. As far as China enlarges the fleet of patrol vessels.The Philippines formally invited China last April to bring their claim before the International Tribunal on the Law of the Sea (ITLOS) for a legal and lasting solution to the territorial dispute. ―With the growth of law enforcement capacity. Beijing made the announcement a few days after it rejected Manila‘s notification inviting China to participate in the arbitration of the dispute before the United Nation‘s Arbitral Tribunal. China rejected the Philippine invitation.

without discrimination or preference. Aside from the Philippines. echoing Article IV. taken over the social roles of the church. Although the concept of separation has been adopted in a number of countries. while some socially secularized countries such as [1] Denmark and the United Kingdom have maintained constitutional recognition of an official state religion. to an official religion with total prohibition of the practice of any other religion. PHILIPPINES In Article II "Declaration of Principles and State Policies". China has consistently insisted that it owns 90 percent of the resource-rich West Philippine Sea based on its ninedash line found in old Chinese maps. other claimants on some islands and waters in the West Philippine Sea were Vietnam. including building permanent high-rise buildings in disputed territories. branded the claims as ―excessive‖ and invited China to prove the validity of its claim before the arbitral tribunal which was created under the 1982 Unclos. Beijing had made several aggressive moves.". The degree of separation varies from total separation mandated by a constitution. shall forever be allowed. While a country's policy may be to have a definite distinction in church and state. among others. The buildings are expected to be completed by next year. The concept parallels various other international social and political ideas. including secularism. Foreign Affairs Secretary Albert del Rosario earlier said that three Chinese vessels are still anchored just outside the Panatag Shoal and Chinese maritime officials even installed ropes around it to prevent Filipino fishermen from entering the fishing area. Taiwan. Manila and Beijing. exclusive economic zones and continental shelves of each country. Section 5 declares. the 1987 Constitution of the Philippines declares. there are varying degrees of separation depending on the applicable legal structures and prevalent views toward the proper role of religion in society. over the centuries. and religious pluralism. leading to a [2] generally secularized public sphere. The Philippines. SEPARATION OF CHURCH AND STATE The separation of church and state is the distance in the relationship between organized religion and the nation state. "The separation of Church and State shall be inviolable. as in India and Singapore. . the state has. or prohibiting the free exercise thereof. A similar but typically stricter principle of laïcité has been applied in France and Turkey. as in the Maldives. No religious test shall be required for the exercise of civil or political rights. disestablishment. with minor differences in wording and [65][66] capitalization.Since then. religious liberty. there may be an "arm's length distance" relationship in which the two entities interact as independent organizations." This reasserts. a declaration made in Article XV. The free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship. Section 6. however. Whitman (2009) observes that in many European countries. Similarly. on the other hand. Section 15 of the 1973 Constitution. are signatories to the convention that delineated ownership of the coastal waters. Article III. Section 8 of the 1973 constitution verbatim. "No law shall be made respecting an establishment of religion. Malaysia and Brunei Darussalam. shares Beijing‘s claims in the region.

Religious views Beyond law and philosophy. 'My kingdom is not of this world: if my kingdom were of this world. depending upon the history of a nation.Matthew 22:21.' " . beyond which are the "things which are Caesar's" . hence it is acceptable and consistent with religious freedom for countries such as England. however. seeks to confine religion purely to the home or church [84] and limits religious education. believing by not participating they are closer to the Kingdom of God. religious rites of passage and public displays of faith. not just Catholics) on matters it considers relevant. in Dignitatis Humanae. The friendly type limits the interference of the church in matters of the state but also limits the interference of [83] the state in church matters. thereby serving as check and balance to the power of the state. in the 20th Century. The hostile model of secularism arose with the French Revolution and is typified in the Mexican Revolution. although the current schemes in both countries are considered generally friendly. the Second Vatican Council's Declaration on Religious Freedom. carry arms. special civil recognition is given to one religious community in the constitutional order of a society.S. While the Church teaches that church-state separation is permissible.John 18:36. and tries to influence legislation (affecting all the residents of a country. it is necessary at the same time that the right of all citizens and religious communities to religious freedom should be acknowledged and maintained. while the question of the degree of separation of church from the state such as a prohibition on an established religion (enshrined in the U. and the Church [79] in particular. leaving only Christian people. France's President Nicolas Sarkozy at the beginning of his term. the Catholic bishops in the United States adopted a plan in the 1970s calling for efforts aimed at a constitutional amendment providing "protection for the [81] unborn child to the maximum degree possible".'s "free exercise clause") is doctrinal. often leading to their persecution.S. it does not endorse a [78] separation of religion and politics. Malta. Islamic principles state that the politics of government should be separate from the doctrine of religion. Jehovah's Witnesses in many countries. since "Jesus answered (Pilate). For them. The hostile variety. to guide and inform consciences. as happened toAnabaptists. considered the current scheme a "negative laicite" . some Christians refuse to vote. The Church teaches that the right of religious freedom (enshrined in the U. For example. their descendants including the Amish and Mennonites. as it is the position of the Church that the proper role for religion. Special preference should not be given to a Muslim over [75][76] a non-Muslim. Costa Rica. [edit]Friendly and hostile separation Scholars have distinguished between what can be called "friendly" and "hostile" separations of church and [82] state. The hostile model exhibited during these events can [84] be seen as approaching the type of political religion seen in totalitarian states. then would my servants fight (to defend him). [edit]Catholicism The Catholic Church teaches. or participate in civil government in any way. the term "Christian nation" cannot be a valid governmental position. [80] The Catholic Church takes views on political issues. its [85][86] resulting Constitution and the Spanish Constitution of 1931. and. that all people are entitled to religious freedom and that such freedom should be recognized in [77] constitutional law. by contrast. and Denmark to have an established religion as long as they grant religious freedom to all: If. possibly in Christian communities.'s "establishment clause") is variable. The French separation of 1905 and the Spanish separation of 1931 have been characterized as the two most hostile [71] of the twentieth century. [edit]Ahmadiyya According to the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community's understanding of Islam. under consideration of historical circumstances among peoples. Quakers.

" Alexis de Tocqueville. The French philosopher and Universal Declaration of Human Rights drafter Jacques Maritain noted the distinction [88] between the models found in France and in the mid-twentieth century United States.S.‖ How is the principle of separation of church and state applied in some countries? In one country. the King is also the head of the state church. Why is there a need to separate Church affairs from state affairs and vice-versa? Is such separation borne out of necessity? Is it a prescription for good government? Or is it because there are different types of religion and the state does not want to favor anyone? The internet provided some interesting answers. "Please to God that you keep it [88] carefully.and wanted to develop a "positive laicite" more open to religion. And the church propagating this religion is administered through a government department. "In the U. and they have not ceased to be so since. The concerns of the state toward religion have [87] been seen by some as one cause of the civil war in Spain andMexico. In another country. cult or religion will legislate its creed into law if it acquires the political power to do so. the separation of church and state involves limiting the exercise of religious beliefs only in church structures or within the private confines of the home.‖ What happens if the government favors a particular religion? Harry Blackmun has this to say: ―When the government puts its imprimatur on a particular religion it conveys a message of exclusion to all those who do not adhere to the favored beliefs. and do not let your concept of separation veer round to the European one. In another country. from the beginning. the separation of church and [47] . what he called "an historical treasure" and admonished the United States." Many of us wonder why there is a separation of church and state. and leads to corruption within the religion itself.‖ therefore. one is not even allowed to carry a Bible or a rosary in public view. the state collects some taxes from recognized religious communities upon their request and a fee is charged for the service. He said that ―Almost any sect. state support of an established religion tends to make the clergy unresponsive to their own people. the church does not interfere with the affairs of the state and vice-versa. The same constitution guarantees freedom of religion but while it guarantees such freedom. the Pope had accepted the ordination of a bishop who was pre-selected by the government for a Catholic association.‖ Is it possible to have a middle ground in the principle advocating the separation of church and state? Ronald Reagan declares that ―Freedom prospers when religion is vibrant and the rule of law under God is acknowledged. A government cannot be premised on the belief that all persons are created equal when it asserts that God prefers some. although most of them are quite indirect and incomplete. The display of faith in public is prohibited. Moreover.. politics and religion were in accord. while there is separation of church and state. Under this policy. another French observer tended to make the same distinction. it also designates one type of religion as the official state religion. Thomas Jefferson explains that ―Religious institutions that use government power in support of themselves and force their views on persons of other faith or of no faith. In some countries. In extreme cases. undermine all our civil rights. He considered the US model of that time to be more amicable because it had both "sharp distinction and actual cooperation" between church and state. Its constitution requires that more than half of the members of its legislative body are members of the state church.‖ What if there is no separation of church and state? Robert Heinlein tries to answer this question. while its constitution guarantees freedom of religion. Religion is taught in some schools but no teacher can be compelled to teach the subject of religion because the state considers itself as neutral as far as religion is concerned. But those who teach religion are required to secure prior permission from their religious community. In another country. Erecting the ―wall of separation between church and state. is absolutely necessary in a free society.

In Dignitatis Humanae. It is clear that these people do not really care about the so-called principle of ―Separation of Church and State. It also says: ―But Peter and the apostles answered. Anne Marie Pamintuan of the Philippine Star. conversion to another religion is totally prohibited and any violation is punishable by death. ‗We must obey God rather than men‘‖ (Acts 5:29) and again in Romans 13:1 — ―Let everyone be subject to governing authorities. the Catholic Church teaches that all people are entitled to religious freedom. 2008. they will support a church . Wait a minute! We thought that these people are against any Church ―meddling‖ in legislative and state matters? Obviously. While it protects religious expression from state interference. It believes that the proper role of the Church is to guide and inform the people of their rights. On the Separation of Church and State by Carlos Antonio Palad The supporters of the RH Bill in the media and in Congress often cite ―Separation of Church and State‖ in order to muzzle the opposition of the Catholic Church. But what does the Bible say? ―Render to Caesar the things that are Caesar‘s. they are using this principle only for their own ends. whether by individuals or by countries. for there is no authority except that which God has established. In another country which has Islam for its religion. But do they really believe in their own propaganda? Apparently.‖ How do you apply these Biblical prescriptions to a particular country? The answer to this question may vary from one country to another for indeed. said in her column for September 22. At the same time. and to God the things that are God‘s‖ (Mark 12:17). this vociferous critic of the Catholic Church calls upon women to join the Iglesia Ni Cristo because it supports the RH Bill. Monday. the Catholic Church has always opposed any bill that seeks to impose the death penalty. while it permits the separation of church and state.state means the separation of religion from political power. the practice of faith. she calls on people to drag the Catholic Church to court. which is supporting the bill. that: ―Maybe women should join the Iglesia Ni Cristo. is a subjective decision. Rep. this meddling is ―bad‖ only when it goes against the preferences of certain politicians and of certain media people. the Second Vatican Council‘s Declaration on Religious Freedom. One of the Philippine media‘s most rabid supporters of the RH Bill and one of its harshest critics of the Catholic Church. partial or no separation at all of church and state? In a democratic setting. And will someone ever file a case questioning violations of the constitutionally enshrined principle of separation of church and state?‖ In two sentences. To this end. This admission was recorded in many newspapers and can easily be found in the Internet.‖ What they simply want is to terrorize the Catholic Church and make it comply with their beliefs. It is now also strongly opposing the passing of the Reproductive Health bill. Which policy therefore is best for a country — complete. it does not support a separation of religion and politics. The Iglesia Ni Cristo is praised because it supports the RH Bill while the Roman Catholic Church is condemned and spat upon by these pro-RH people because it opposes the Bill. This only shows that the supporters of the RH Bill are cynical and manipulative. it is the people who decide what is best for their country and their preference is expressed in their constitution and statutes. it also puts a limit to public religious expression to ensure that public power is insulated from the influence of religious institutions. In the Philippines. However. which aims to guarantee access to methods and information on birth control and maternal care. Janette Garin said that the opinion and support of the Iglesia ni Cristo is important for the Bill. While defending the RH Bill.

―What is an establishment of religion? It must have a creed. in the Philippine legal and constitutional context. and from encroaching upon the rights of the Church. any citizen has the right and duty to use his influence and moral suasion in order to persuade the government to take a particular course of action. In a democratic republic. as long as they use purely moral. these people who support the RH Bill have a wrong and ignorant understanding of the meaning of the separation of Church and State. In short. It was established in order to protect the Churches.g. not the State. to teach doctrines and administer the rites. Separation of Church and State does NOT mean that Church officials cannot speak or try to influence state policy.that does what they themselves will consider as ―meddling‖ if that church supports them. and which has no provision for forcing non-Catholics to follow Catholic beliefs and practices at gunpoint. they praise the INC. the Separation of Church and State was established in order to prevent the government from forcing a particular church down the throats of its citizens. Since Church officials are citizens. What Separation of Church and State really means is that the State does not have any State or ―Established Church‖. with punishments for those who do not want to conform. which has no ―state religion‖. the supporters of the RH Bill are. Where there are no such penalties. the Separation clause has its origins in the First Amendment of the Constitution of the United States. non-Catholics churches and religions also have a strong voice in the affairs of state and have considerable public influence in the Philippines. or prohibiting the free exercise thereof…‖ (Take note: the phrase ―Separation of Church and State‖ can never be found anywhere in the US Constitution) As a US Congressional Report noted in 1854. Texas. very ignorant of what the ―Separation Clause‖ really means. in a true situation of Union of Church and State. it must have rites and ordinances. Therefore there is true separation of Church and State in the Philippines. which does not require classes in Catholic beliefs in public schools. it does not subsidize the Church or pay the salary of its clergy. the Establishment clause has been broadened in some countries to include the non-use of government property or funds in order to promote the beliefs of a particular Church or religion over that of other churches and / or religions. Furthermore. And. the principle that no Church must be established by the state has never been understood to mean that no one has the right to speak out in public in accordance with his or her religious beliefs. the Catholic Church is violating the principle of the Separation of Church and State by daring to speak out against the Bill. 31 of David Barton‘s ―The Myth of Separation‖. and that no Church has any official access to the instruments of State power (e. it must have ministers of defined qualifications. not a few of this Bill‘s supporters have. Nevertheless. it must have tests for the submissive and penalties for the nonconformist…‖ (cited in p. Aledo. once more. All of these conditions continue to apply to the Philippines. non-violent and legal means of expressing these beliefs. they continue to have the right to speak out in favor of their beliefs. it cannot use the armed forces to fight other churches or to enforce its beliefs and practices on citizens). in fact. invoked the ―Separation of Church and State‖ in order to muzzle the Catholic Church‘s opposition to the RH bill. According to these people. 1992). Wallbuilder Press. Thus. which states that: ―Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion. there is no question of an ―Established Church‖ In modern times. the State will force its citizens to adhere to a particular Church. with its legendary animus against Catholicism and its reliable support for artificial contraception. This is . defining what a man must believe. PART 2: WHAT DOES ―SEPARATION‖ REALLY MEAN AND WHY RH BILL SUPPORTERS DON‘T UNDERSTAND WHAT IT REALLY MEANS In their fight for the passage of the RH Bill. which believers must observe. As we shall see. Indeed. In short. which does not subsidize the Catholic Church or pay the salaries of its priests. as we shall see.

Henry created a new church because the old one said no to him. and not just in your private life. whatever the reason that motivated it. are in effect attacking the congressional defenders of the pro-life position for having the guts to stick to their moral and religious convictions. then it does not matter whether a church speaks out FOR or AGAINST the Bill. an office. It was the honorific given to Henry by the pope several years before the break with Rome. Henry VIII. This paper was circulated in the House of Representatives by pro-life advocates in 2008. as if the job affords the office holder some special proximity to God. And by so doing. "Elizabeth II DG FD" is what is still written on all our coins. After all. may well have a consequence far beyond that of its intended purpose. it rightly challenges some of the cult of personality that has built up around that office. Some minor edits have been made for this particular posting. to require Catholics to abandon their religious and moral beliefs in matters of public policy is the same as requiring these Catholics to believe that their religious beliefs are not really true. The supporters of the RH Bill. in attacking the defenders of the pro-life position for upholding their Catholic beliefs. not even the pope. and that they should act like they have no Catholic beliefs at all in the public square. "Is this a Protestant church or a Catholic church?" is a question tour guides at English cathedrals get asked every day. admittedly one of the greatest cultural criminals of English history. He wasn't especially enamoured of those earnest Protestant reformers and their new European ways. If it also required a break with Rome. It doesn't. what matters is that the said church spoke ABOUT the Bill. outside the confines of their private lives. then the INC should be charged guilty of the same violation. It reveals that the papacy is simply a job. His vast destructive ego demanded a legitimate male heir at all costs – and that required marriage. And the answer is . created the Church of England as a means of having his way with Anne Boleyn. He cared little that the monasteries were the National Health Service of the medieval world. If the Catholic Church is to be condemned for violating the separation of Church and State. The purposes of the almighty do not flow exclusively through the narrow weir of the papacy. is plain and simple discrimination. This is absurd! In any democracy. then so be it. So he effectively made himself the English pope – transferring the glamour of papacy to the English crown – and appropriated the wealth of the monasteries. To force Catholics to think and act like they are not Catholics. But this news isn't really news to Protestants. if we are going to condemn the Catholic Church for violating the separation of Church and State by speaking out against the Bill. Nobody was going to tell Henry what he could or couldn't do. Henry's original sin is loaded into the constitutional DNA of the Church of England. if you believe that something is true. if speaking out on a proposed Bill in Congress is a form of interference in State matters. knocking to the ground these traditional strongholds of Vatican power. nor indeed to the English. That is why he was a cultural criminal of world historical proportions. In the final analysis.what the CBCP does. Still to this day our coinage reflects Henry's belief that he could shoulder the weight of Catholic Christianity on his own. it should be expected that people will stick to their moral convictions and make decisions according to their conscience! Furthermore. Its members are only exercising their rights under the Constitution. He cared little that they were great centres of education and learning. then why should the INC not be accused of committing the same violation when these support the Bill? After all. you will stick to it anywhere and everywhere and in all things. But he wasn't a Protestant ideologue. and they have certainly not resorted to violent means. Separation of Church and State does not mean that Catholics are required to leave their religious beliefs in their private life. They were just a means to an end. FD is an abbreviation of fidei defensor – defender of the faith. And he wasn't going to give that one up. POPES RESIGNATION The resignation of the pope. without the pope.

the pedophilia and the corruption of the Holy See's monsignors. Just hours after the pope announced his resignation. the Church and the Signs of the Times. the gossip. Gone with the Wind in the Vatican. under some circumstances. The United States' HARP project has been designed to control and modify global weather conditions and ionosphere processes. This has always seemed to me its strongest feature. yes. I guess that is why. the ambition. who become all the more blood-thirsty at the sight of the color purple. we are natural democrats. The last pope before Benedict XVI to step down was Gregorio XII. Yet I would describe myself as a Catholic. but to the entire world community. but one also that spreads out over the four corners of the earth. and that he is well versed in the system's ins and outs. also an obligation to resign. But many have serious doubts that this is the main reason. Catholicism is bigger than the job description of a bishop of an Italian city. like me.2 billion Catholics in the world. psychologically and spiritually capable of handling the duties of his office.an event that some interpreted as a sign of God's discontent. while others saw it as the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HARP) in action. Catholic Protestants. at a certain level. Peter's Basilica in the Vatican -. just not a Roman Catholic. The interview was later reproduced in Seewald's 2010 book "Light of the World: The Pope. who resist any attempts to clear out the cobwebs. beginning in AD 33 when the pope resigned. It was actually that knowledge that ensured his rapid ascent to the top of the Catholic hierarchy. Pope Benedict XVI could not possibly be unaware of the Vatican's inner workings. In his resignation statement. a religion that is not just top down and doctrinally authoritarian.and each should be governed by an appropriate authority. Monsignor Luigi Marinelli. What better way for a church to be inoculated from the outset against its own self-importance? Pope's resignation reveals a Catholic Church heading for disintegration by Vicky Pelaez at 22/02/2013 13:35 "Human existence has two aspects -. we take a certain pride in our theological squabbling. Pope Benedict XVI hinted at the possibility of stepping down in an interview a few years ago with German Catholic journalist Peter Seewald. And democracy is messy. The Church of England was born in disgrace.natural and supernatural -. . Journalist Pablo Ordaz reported from Rome that "the Pope is surrounded by wolves. back in 1415. he had to recognize his "incapacity to adequately fulfill the ministry" entrusted to him. And it seemed pretty much impossible to several generations following Henry VIII as well. Benedict XVI admits that "if a pope clearly realizes that he is no longer physically. Conspiracy theories aside. believe in a form of Christianity with a far greater degree of institutional subsidiarity. the intrigue. Benedict XVI explained that due to his advanced age. one the stretches back in time. As "one of the Roman Catholic Church's greatest and most lucid minds." It is pretty much impossible to explain to a Spanish tourist with broken English how this can possibly be. Benedict XVI's sympathizers argue that the actual reason for his resignation is Vatican infighting and the constant intrigues among church officials. The secrets. the Vatican launched proceedings against one of its authors. however unedifying that may be at times. To be a Catholic is to regard oneself a part of the universal church. the shady deals." Benedict XVI's trip to Cuba and Mexico last year also sparked rumors of his imminent resignation." In it." according to Seewald." (Jose Ortega y Gasset) Pope Benedict XVI's decision to resign his post came as a shock not just to the 1. And that is not simply because I like smells and bells. without the dangerous glamour of any cult of the strong leader." But Ordaz failed to mention that Joseph Ratzinger had himself been part of that pack of wolves since 1981. lighting struck St. There have only been six occasions in the history of the Roman Catholic Church. bishops.completely baffling to visitors from mainland Europe: "It's both. In response. and cardinals were exposed in the book. he has a right and. Politically.

Ratzinger soon earned himself another nickname. When Boff accused the Catholic Church of misinterpreting Christ's true teachings. started a progressive movement that became known as the Theology of Liberation. Paola Freire's The Pedagogy of the Oppressed. Cardinal Ratzinger has always felt a certain reactionary nostalgia. In his early years as a scholar. As a cardinal and later as pope. and his death was officially classified as a suicide. he resumed his theology studies at various German universities. accused of repeated sexual abuse of children and teenagers. Ratzinger could not bring himself to accept the Liberation Theology. Calvi was found dead. 1984.As a 14-year-old seminary student. theologians and laymen seeking to modernize the Church and to uphold human rights in the face of social injustice. speed and maneuverability. In the '80s. And. and it is only in heaven that we can achieve eternal peace. his handling of pedophile priests. the post known in the Middle Ages as the Grand Inquisitor. dubbed "God's banker. he embraced many progressive ideas. He famously stood by Archbishop Paul Marcinkus. Oscar Arnulfo Romero. perhaps. which seeks to build a paradise on Earth instead of aspiring for heavenly life after death. After the war. This is not an image of a reconciliatory Church. He subsequently became a cardinal. and piety. Ratzinger cracked down on all things progressive and liberal. and in 1977 he was nominated Archbishop of Munich and Freising. and then embarked on an academic career. a period of military dictatorships across the region. And he also protected Los Angeles Cardinal Roger Mahony . from his dogmatic point of view. could undermine the seeming harmony of his conservative church. sure enough. and Ernesto Cardenal." due to his relentless attacks on priests." But in a letter to the faithful of Ireland." a nickname alluding to the German WWII-era tank model characterized by high precision. who was involved in a financial scandal around the Ambrosiano bank. Grand Inquisitor Ratzinger had no mercy for the Latin American priests who in the 1960s'80s. Prefect Ratzinger consigned him to one year of silence." Benedict XVI defended the founder of the Legion of Christ. Leonidas Proano. No doubt those qualities. Jose Maria Pires. and he was ruthless toward everything and everyone that. The Vatican has been through many similar scandals since then. and has their books censored and banned. he described one of the pedophilia cases in that country as "a manifestation of insufficient saintliness rather than perverse conduct. "sticking to the image of the Church filled with Latin-language liturgy. who is currently serving time for money laundering. motivated Pope John Paul II's decision in 1981 to appoint his future successor as Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith." served as the key link between the Vatican. only to renounce them following the student riots of 1968 in Europe. hanging from a bridge in London. which dramatically undermined the Church's moral authority. on the other. Brazil's Leonardo Boff." His piety kept him confined within the boundaries of traditionalism. Gustavo Gutierrez's Liberation Theology and Enrique Dussel'sLatin American Liberation Ethics are just a few of the titles banned by the Vatican. The bank's chairman. Ratzinger soon gave up his research career for the ministry. saw the publication of a Vatican statement condemning Liberation Theology as a religious thinking contaminated with Marxist ideology. The Holy See condemns theologians who seek sources of terrestrial happiness. According to Ratzinger. on the one hand. Speaking in front of John Paul II's tomb. Ratzinger consigned to silence some of the prominent Liberation Theology advocates. According to one of his theology students. The most controversial aspect of Benedict XVI's papacy is. He craves a Church that is no more. During his tenure as the Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. Roberto Calvi. a confidant of Benedict XVI. Pope John Paul II's confidant. Ratzinger joined the Hitler Youth and went on to serve in a Nazi air defense unit during WWII. Raul Silva Enriquez. "God's Rottweiler. inequality and hunger. November 23. and was dubbed "Panzercardenal. he once promised to "clean the Church of filth. and the Mafia and the Masonic Lodge P-2. Marcial Maciel. manifested by Cardinal Ratzinger in his efforts to uphold the Roman Catholic Church's conservative traditions. but rather that of a fortress Church. And the list goes on. increasingly out of touch with modern-day realities. which defends itself against the world. but was extremely soft on corruption. this world is meant for suffering. One of them involves former Banco de Vaticano head Gotti Tedeschi. incense. including Helder Camara.

000 each. Paul Wolfowitz.4%. These advisers are joined by reactionary allies such as Opus Dei. one of the staunchest advocates of pre-emptive wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. And this spells doom for a church. the pope looks for support among the rich and powerful. instead of focusing on apostolic and pastoral work to reach out to parishioners.including those revealed by the pope's butler. Perhaps the Vatican's "most lucid mind" has finally realized this. And Mexico. down from $12 billion. According to SNAP surveys. the US Catholic Church will have to pay out as much as $132 billion in compensation. the percentage of Catholics has decreased over this same period from 73. donations to the Catholic Church have in recent years shrunk to $6 billion per year. In Brazil. Paolo Gabriele. the victims include 100. Bush's most hawkish advisers. his geopolitical assistant is one of former US president George W. the Legion of Christ. and is now washing his hands of any responsibility. If that figure is correct. Many of them convert to Protestantism. Yet.000 minors in the United States alone.200. Islam. or become atheists. or $1. The Church had to pay $660 million to the victims in compensation. Buddhism.9% to 68. the country with the world's largest Catholic population. and dubbed Vatileaks . the world's second largest Catholic nation. These and other Vatican-related scandals . The Roman Catholic Church is growing increasingly out of touch with the grassroots.by hiding evidence against 124 priests accused of abusing 500 minors. and the Communion and Liberation Movement. In the US. is experiencing the same trend. . The Survivors Network of those Abused by Priests (SNAP) is now suing the Vatican for its involvement in the cover-up of sexual abuse and other crimes against children across the globe. He has appointed Goldman Sachs executive director Peter Sutherland as his financial advisor.are the reason behind the current exodus from the Catholic Church.