TASK DETAILING MANUAL

Practical Demonstration of
TEMPERATURE INSTRUMENTS

MODULE NO. : I-6 MODULE SUBJ.: Temperature Instruments
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TASK DETAILING MANUAL
Tasks:
I-6.1 Perform calibration on bimetallic dial type temperature gauge.

I-6.2

Perform calibration on filled system temperature indicator.

I-6.3

Perform service and calibration of a temperature switch..

I-6.4

Check the accuracy of: a) Thermocouple output, and b) RTD output.

I-6.5

Perform servicing and calibration of a pneumatic temp. transmitter.

I-6.6

Perform servicing and calibration of an electronic temperature transmitter with RTD input.

I-6.7

What are self regulating temperature valves? Function & application.

I-6.8

Service and calibrate a pneumatic temperature controller.

I-6.9

Perform calibration of an electronic transmitter using thermocouple input.

MODULE No.: TASK No.:

I-6 Temperature Instruments I-6.1 Perform calibration on bimetallic dial type temperature gauge. None

Reference:

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Materials:

1. Cleaning Rags, and 2. Solvent.

Equipment & Tools: 1. Tool Box, and 2. Standard temperature thermometer..

bath

with

reference

Conditions:

To be performed in instrument workshop..

Requirements By Trainee:
       

To study the task and familiarise himself, Be able to select proper tools to perform this task, Describe different types of temperature gauges, Understand the concept of bimetallic temperature elements (flat and helical), Understand the purpose of using thermowells for temperature elements, Be able to perform calibration adjustments of dial temperature gauges, Describe an understanding to his trainer, and Write observations and procedures in his workbook. “Continue”

TASK No.: I-6.1 Details:

Bimetallic Thermometers A bimetallic thermometer is a device, which senses temperature with a helical or spiral bimetallic strip and displays the temperature on a dial for visual observation. The bimetallic temperature element expand when the temperature increases and contract when the temperature decreases. The increase length per unit length per degree of temperature increase is called the coefficient of thermal expansion for that material.

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A bimetallic element can be formed in spiral or helix to increase the amount of motion available for a given temperature change. The spiral form of bimetallic element is convenient for housing in a circular flat case and is typically used is dial thermometers that measure ambient temperature. The helical form is well suited for housing in a narrow tube (stem) for insertion into a fluid directly or housing within a thermowell with a small bore.

Figure I-6.1A, Typical Bimetallic TASK No.: I-6.1 Thermometers Types “Continue” Dial

Figure I-6.1B, Exploded and Sectional View of a Bimetallic Dial Thermometer

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Figure I-6.1A shows a typical bimetallic dial thermometer, one end of the helical element is welded to the bottom of the stem and the other end is welded to the shaft. The pointer is attached to the end of the shaft. The sensing portion of the thermometer is that portion of the stem that contains the element. The standard calibration accuracy for bimetallic thermometers is +/- 1% of the full-scale reading. Some thermometers allow single point calibration, which is accomplished by rotating the scale behind the pointer, either by rotating the case or by adjusting a gear from a screwdriver slot protruding through the case. Others allow no adjustment. TASK No.: I-6.1 “Continue”

Figure i-6.1B illustrates exploded and sectional views of bimetallic dial thermometer, where the service is limited to replacement of the dial window glass if is broken, adjust or replacement of the pointer. An external adjustment screw is usually provided so that the thermometer can be calibrated at a single point, but there is usually no adjustment for span.

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Bimetallic thermometers are available in convenient range increments for measurement between –50 to 500 degree C.

MODULE No.: TASK No.:

I-6 Temperature Instruments I-6.2 Perform calibration on filled system temperature indicator None

Reference:

Materials:

3. Cleaning Rags, and 4. Solvent.
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TASK DETAILING MANUAL
Equipment & Tools: 3. Tool Box, and 4. Standard temperature thermometer..

bath

with

reference

Conditions:

To be performed in instrument workshop..

Requirements By Trainee:
      

To study the task and familiarise himself, Be able to select proper tools to perform this task, Understand the concept of filled system temperature elements, Understand the purpose of using thermowells for temperature elements, Be able to perform calibration adjustments of filled system temperature gauges, Describe an understanding to his trainer, and Write observations and procedures in his workbook. “Continue”

TASK No.: I-6.2 Details: Thermometers

Filled system thermometers have a bulb filled with an expanding substance, (usually an inert gas) and a dial, which is controlled by a bourbon tube. The bulb is connected by a capillary tube, which can be up to about 50 feet (15 meters) long, to the dial mechanism. Their accuracy is about the same as a bimetallic thermometer and they are much more expensive. Therefore, filled system thermometers are not usually unless remote installation of the gauge is desired.

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Figure I-6.2A, Filled System Devices, Types of Compensating TASK No.: I-6.2 “Continue”

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Figure I-6.2B, Filled System Thermometers

The indicating temperature of filled system thermometer are subject to significant error from elevation changes in the capillary and are relatively difficult to compensate and The reading may change somewhat with changes in ambient temperature. The errors thus induced can be minimised by a compensating mechanism, which senses the ambient temperature and automatically adjusts the temperature reading. Figure I-6.2A illustrates types of compensation of gas field system.

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TASK No.: I-6.2 “Continue”

Figure I-6.2C, Filled System Thermometer Components As shown in figure I-6.2C an industrial duratemp thermometer’ components and replacement parts. Calibration: To calibrate filled system thermometer; arrange calibration set-up using reference accurate thermometer with heating bath to compare between them. Consult your trainer for details.

MODULE No.: TASK No.:
Module I-6

I-6 Temperature Instruments I-6.3
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Perform service and calibration of a temperature switch

Reference:

None

Materials:

1. Cleaning rags.

Equipment & Tools: 1. Tool Box, and 2. Digital Multimeter / Digital Voltmeter (DVM).

Conditions:

To be performed at workshop.

Requirements By Trainee:
        

To study the task and familiarise himself, Be able to describe the operation principle of temperature switches, Be able to identify the main parts of a mechanical temperature switch, Understand deadband error of a mechanical temperature switch, Understand the advantages of a solid-state temperature switch, Perform periodic and corrective maintenance of temperature switches, Draw / Sketch calibration set-up of the solid-state temperature switch, Discuss an understanding with his trainer, and Write observation and procedures in his workbook. “Continue”

TASK No.: I-6.3 Details:

Electric Temperature Switches An electric temperature switch is a device, which causes a contact to open or close with a change in temperature. Most switches can be used as either high

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temperature or low temperature sensors, depending on how they are calibrated and electrically connected. Most mechanically operated temperature switches use a vapour-filled system or a liquid-filled system to operate pressure switch. Gas-filled systems generally do not develop enough power for switch use. Figure I-6.3A shows vapour filled system mechanically operated temperature switch. Filled system switches are available for both local and remote mounting. The local mounting type has the bulb rigidly attached to the switch mechanism and housing. The assembly has a threaded connection so that it can be screwed into and be supported by a thermowell. The remote mounting type has the bulb connection to the switch mechanism by a capillary tube from 6 feet (2 meters) to 25 feet (8 meters) or more. The switch cannot be separated from the bulb in the field. One disadvantage of mechanically actuated temperature switches is significant deadband. When temperature switch trips on raising or falling temperature, it does not reset at exactly the same temperature as it tripped. The difference is called the deadband or reset. Sometimes the required trip point is very near the normal operating temperature. In these cases, a solid-state temperature switch should be used. Solid-state temperature switches use a resistance temperature detector (RTD), a thermocouple, or a thermistor to detect the temperature and contain the required amplifiers and other electronic circuitry to activate a relay or solid-state output device at the set temperature. Figure I-6.3B shows a solid-state switch for control room mounting. The output from the temperature switch is usually either a microswitch or a relay. The contact configuration is most often either single-pole, double threw (SPDT) or double-pole, double-threw (DPDT). TASK No.: I-6.3 “Continue”

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Figure I-6.3A, Mechanically Operated Temperature Switch

Figure I-6.3B, Typical Solid State Temperature Switch

TASK No.: I-6.3

“Continue”

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Figure I-6.3C, Temperature Switch Housing for Various Installations

A double-pole type switch or snap-disk mechanism is needed if two circuits, such as a shutdown and alarm that annunciates that shutdown are to be actuated by the same sensor. Multiple temperature set adjustments are if one temperature switch needs to be actuated at more than one set-point. Switch housing must be suitable for hazardous environment. Figure I-6.3C shows temperature switches with various types of housing.

TASK No.: I-6.3

“Continue”

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Figure I-6.3D, Typical Temperature Valve Pneumatic Temperature Switches A pneumatic temperature switch is a device, which senses temperature and actuates a valve to supply or vent a gas or air signal. Pneumatic switches are not as abundant as electric switches, but they are still available from several sources. Some manufacturers will substitute an air relay for the microswitch in a mechanically actuated temperature switch. The pneumatic temperature switches, which are essentially converted electrical switches use the same principles of operation as do their electrical counterparts. The ones designed for the pneumatic system are often called temperature valves. They are manufactured with both two-way valves and three-way valves. The twoway type, are designed so that a vent port opens when the temperature exceeds the set point, the three-way valve type either connects the receiver device to the pressure source or vents it, depending on the temperature. These units use the bimetallic principle. A typical temperature valve is shown in figure I-6.3D.

MODULE No.: TASK No.:

I-6 Temperature Instruments I-6.4 Check the accuracy of: a) Thermocouple output, and b) RTD output
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TASK DETAILING MANUAL
Reference: None

Materials:

Thermocouple element and RTD element

Equipment & Tools: 1. Tool Box, 2. Bath heater with reference temperature thermometer, and 3. Digital Multimeter.

Conditions:

To be performed at workshop.

Requirements By Trainee:
   

To study the task and familiarise himself, Be able to select proper tools to perform this task, Understand the concept of thermocouple and RTD as temperature sensors, Be able to recognise using of the reference temperature tables for thermocouples and RTD’s.

  

Demonstrate the accuracy procedure of thermocouple and RTD, Discuss an understanding with his trainer, and Write observation and procedures in his workbook. “Continue”

TASK No.: I-6.4 Details: Thermocouples

A thermocouple is a junction of dissimilar metals used to measure temperature. When two different metals come in contact with each other, thermal energy is converted into electrical energy. Any two metals can be used and the amount of electrical energy created is a direct function of the absolute temperature except in circumstances. Also the amount of energy converted depends on the metals
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selected. Certain combinations of metals have been identified which create enough energy in a sufficiently linear manner so that they can be used to measure temperature with a high degree of accuracy. Thermocouple wires of the selected metals, are joined together to make electrical contact. They can be twisted, welded, soldered or even wrapped under the same screw. The electrical limitations are that the junction, including any third metal, must be at the temperature to be measured, the wires must be insulated from each other from the junction to be receiver, and if the junction is grounded, there must be no other ground. The only physical limitation is that the wires must be able to stand the environment to which they are subjected. Figure I-6.4A, Copper-Constantan thermocouple circuit with an external reference junction

Connection of thermocouples does present some difficulty because when the selected metals are connected to any other metal, such as copper wire, another thermocouple is created and the temperature of this connection will affect the measurement as much as the temperature of the primary junction. TASK No.: I-6.4 “Continue”

Figure I-6.4A shows a thermocouple constructed from copper (Cu) wire and a copper-nickel alloy wire named constantan (c) connected to a voltmeter made of copper. The constant an wire must be connected an wire must be connected to copper somewhere in addition to the thermocouple to complete the circuit, but this will form another thermocouple. This connection is made so that the temperature can be held constant at a known temperature and is called the cold junction or reference junction (J2). A temperature that is easy to create and duplicate is that of a bath formed by pure water and the ice that water, 32ºF (0ºC) by holding the reference junction at the ice point, the temperature of the primary junction (J 1) can be found by measuring the voltage it creates in reference to the voltage created by the reference junction.

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Tables of the voltage created at temperature versus the ice point are published by the Untied National Bureau of Standards (NBS) and are used worldwide. By measuring the thermocouple voltage, the temperature can be found from the table. If the reference junction is located where the temperature is known or can be measured accurately, then the junction voltage for this temperature can be added to the measured voltage to find the temperature of the primary junction. All of the connections and the measurement are made to a thermally conductive, but electrical insulating material known as the isothermal block. This block is usually in the instrument case, but in large installations is sometimes done elsewhere by minimising the thermocouple wire. If the temperature is computed circuit it is known as software compensation. If an electronic circuit is used to correct the reading, it is known as hardware compensation or an electronic ice point. The thermocouple is connected to the isothermal block by wire made from the same metals as the thermocouple, called thermocouple extension wire. A thermocouple extension wire is usually a shielded, twisted pair with the shield grounded at the instrument to minimise interference pickup. Terminal strips constructed of thermocouple material are available and should be used if intermediate connections are required. Only a few mili-volts are produced by a thermocouple, so careful attention to proper wiring and shielding is essential to good measurement. TASK No.: I-6.4 “Continue”

Figure I-6.4B, Hardware compensated Thermocouple Assembly.

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Figure I-6.4C, Three Basic Types of Thermocouple Assembly

Some thermocouple assemblies are manufactured so that the thermocouple makes electrical contact with the sheath (called ground junction), and some are manufactured where the thermocouple is electrically insulated from the sheath (called ungrounded junction). A third option, is where the thermocouple extends slightly beyond the sheath (called exposed junction). Exposed junction offer the fastest response, but are not used in oil and gas processing because they are subject to physical damage. TASK No.: I-6.4 “Continue”

They would need to be installed without a thermowell to take advantage of this faster response. Grounded junction offer faster response than ungrounded junctions because the contact area which provides the electrical connection also provides good thermal conduction. Also, grounding at thermocouple provides the most nearly symmetrical circuit, which reduced interference picked up by the wires to a minimum. Grounded thermocouples should be selected unless other components of the circuit require that, the ground be at some other point, or the process fluid and piping are not at ground potential.grounding any measurement loop at more than one point will usually cause measurement errors because of potential difference in the grounding system. These errors are more acute with low voltage signals such as generated by thermocouples. These statements do not preclude grounding the extension wire shield at the receiver, which is recommended. The most common and least expensive thermocouple is iron versus constant an (ISA type J). Type can be used for measurement from -320°F (-195°C) to1400°F
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(760°C), but is normally limited to 32 to 1000°F (0-500°C). Type J is usually furnished when no specific type is specified. Chromal versus alumal thermocouples (ISA type K) offer better corrosion resistance. Type K can be used for-310°F (-190°C) to 2500°F (1370°C) but usually limited to 32 to 2000°F (0 to 1000°C) Type K does not produce as much out put as type Copper versus constantan thermocouples (ISA type T), are usually used when temperatures below zero are to be measured. While the usable range for type T, 310 to 750 °F (- 190 to 400 °C), is the same for the lower limit and less for the higher limit than for types J and K, the recommended range is -290 to 700°F (-180 to 370°C). The materials used in type T behave more predictably at low temperatures than those used for types J and K. Chromel versus constant an thermocouples (ISA type E) provide the largest voltage change per temperature change for standard thermocouples. An output of 40 millivolts at 1000°F can be compared to 30 mv for type J and 22 mv for type K. type E can be used for 320 to 1830°F (-195 to 1000°() and is recommended for32 to 1600°F (0 to 870°F). TASK No.: I-6.4 “Continue”

Some sources extend this range downward to -100°F (-73 °C), but type T is generally considered a better choice for below freezing temperature. Type E has more tendency to change characteristics with time than types J, K and T. These four types of thermocouples comprise the base metal thermocouples.

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Figure I-6.4D, Output versus temperature curves for the four types of base metal thermocouples. (Types J, K, T and E) Other thermocouple types, called the noble metal types are available for measurements where the base metal types are not suitable. They are made from expensive metals such as platinum, rhodium, iridium and tungsten thus are more expensive. Also, they do not provide as much output as the base metal types. These noble metal thermocouples are used in laboratories, for molten metals and other applications, but are rarely used in production facilities. TASK No.: I-6.4 “Continue”

Figure I-6.4E, Typical Installation of Thermocouple or RTD Element Module I-6 into Thermowell

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Thermocouple Accuracy Check: Figure I-6.4F shows thermocouple accuracy check set-up. Every six month thermocouple sensor must be checked against the standard conversion table. Thermocouple has no repair or maintenance procedure.

TASK No.: I-6.4

“Continue”

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Figure I-6.4F, Typical Bench Set-up for Thermocouple Accuracy Check.

Check procedure 1. Unscrew the thermocouple head cover and disconnect the electrical wires to transmitter. 2. Using V adjustable wrench to remove the thermocouple element from the thennowell. 3. Immerse the element in a regulated thermal bath with a reference temp. indicator. 4. Using accurate digital multivolt meter to record measured mv values across the leads wires of the thermocouple at different temp. values (5 points at least). 5. Compare the record data with the standard data table for the specified thermocouple type. TASK No.: I-6.4 “Continue”

Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTD’s) The resistance of a conductor usually increase as the temperature increase. If the properties of that conductor are known, the temperature can be calculated from the measured resistance. A resistance temperature detector (RTD) is a conductor of known characteristics constructed for insertion into the medium for temperature measurement. Any conductor can be used to construct an RTD, but a few have

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been identified as having more described characteristics than others. The characteristics, which are desired, include. 1. Stability in the temperature range to be measured. The material must not melt, corrode, embrittle or change electrical characteristics when subjected to the environment in which it will operate. 2. Linearity. The resistance change with temperature should be as liner as possible over the range of interest to simplify readout. 3. High resistively. Less material is needed to manufacture an RTD with a specified resistance when the material has a high characteristic resistively. 4. Workability. The material must be suitable for configuring for insertion into the media. The materials which, have been identified as having acceptable characteristics are copper, nickel, tungsten and platinum. Copper has good linearity, workability, and is able up to 250°F (120°C), but has low resistively, thus either a long conductor or one with a very small crosssectional area is required for a reasonable resistance. Nickel and nickel alloys have high resistively, good stability and good workability, but have poor linearity. Tungsten is brittle and difficult to work with. Platinum has been accepted as the material which best fits all the criteria and has been generally accepted for industrial measurement between -300 and 1200 °F (-150 and 650°C). The effect of resistance inherent in the lead wires of the RTD circuit on the temperature measurement can be minimised by increasing the resistance of the sensor; however, the size of the sensor will also be increased. RTDS are commercially available, with resistance from 50 to 1000 ohms at 32°F (0°C) and increase resistance 0.385 ohms for every °C of temperature raise. TASK No.: I-6.4 “Continue”

Chemically pure platinum has a resistance of.392 ohms per °C for a 100 ohm RTD in accordance with the American (A) standard. When the resistance of the RTD is found by measurement, the temperature can be calculated: °C = (Ohms reading -100)/0.385 The accuracy of this calculation is determined primarily by the accuracy of the

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Figure I-6.4G, Two-wire RTD Circuit

reading. Modem instruments can measure resistance very accurately and the temperature can be determined precisely if the resistance of the connecting circuit is insignificant or is known. Unfortunately, this resistance usually not negligible or known for most practical circuits. The wire that usually used (16 AWG stranded copper) has a resistance of approximately 4 ohms per 100 feet (305 m). If it is assumed that the RTD is connected to the instrument by a 625- foot cable as shown in Figure, the total resistance will be 5 ohms larger than the RTD resistance, which will cause a 23.4 °F (13°C) error. Furthermore, copper wire has a temperature coefficient of about 0.0039 ohms /°C/ so the reading will vary about a degree for every 20° change in ambient temperature. These errors can be compensated by measuring the resistance of every loop and keeping track of the ambient temperature. A compromise connection method for RTDS that uses three wires and a balanced bridge circuit is shown above. For this circuit, Rl and R2 are selected to be the same resistance so that the voltage at the negative terminal of the voltmeter is one half o the supply voltage. R3 is selected to be the same resistance as the RTD at the base temperature, 100 ohms if 0°C is used as the base. For this circuit, it is important that wire A and wire B have the same resistance. The usual practice is to run the three wires as a shielded raid, thus they will all be the same length and the same resistance within manufacturing tolerance. TASK No.: I-6.4 “Continue”

Figure I-6.4H, Three-wire RTD circuit with a balanced bridge

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At the base condition, the positive terminal will also see one-half of the supply voltage and the reading will be zero. If 5.2 volts is used to power the bridge, the voltage will be 2.6 at each terminal of the voltmeter at the base temperature. When the temperature of the RTD is raised one degree C, the voltage reading will increase to one millivolt. The symmetry will be upset as the reading moves away from the base temperature and the one millivolt per degree will not continue to be exact, but various schemes of completion are available to give an acceptable reading. The proceeding paragraphs are intended to explain the basis of two, three and four wire RTD connections. The selection of resistors and compensation schemes are left to the manufacturer of the instrument, but the facilities engineer selects which of the connection methods to use. The three wire method is the proper selection for virtually all production facility applications. Resistance temperature detectors (RTDS) are the most frequently used electronic temperature sensors for production facilities. The industry has standardised on RTDS that are calibrated to Din standard 43760 which is also known as the European standard RTDS which meet this standard measure 100 ohms at 0°C, are made of platinum and exhibit a resistance increase of 0.385 ohms per °C temperature increase. Another standard, called the American Standard, is available but is not in wide use. TASK No.: I-6.4 “Continue”

RTDS are usually purchased as a probe assembly consisting of the RTD sensor installed in a type 304 stainless steel sheath. The sheath is held in the thermowell by a fitting which is threaded on both ends for attachment to the thermowell and the head so that the tip of the sheath touches or is very near the end of the well. The preferred method of attachment of the sheath to the fitting is with a spring assembly which allows the fitting to be screwed into the thermowell as the spring is compressed. The spring holds the sheath firmly against the bottom of the well for good heat transfer. Another method is to sliver solder the sheath into the fitting which makes a good firm assembly, but requires a small clearance from the bottom of the well. The third popular method is with a comparison fitting so that the sheath can be pushed against the bottom of the well after the fitting is screwed into the well. The compression nut is then tightened to hold the sheath. The compression fitting allows use of a universal probe in different lengths of thermowells.

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The head of the assembly is a chamber where the leads from the RTD and the leads to the receiver instrument can be terminated and connected to each other. RTD Accuracy Check Figure I-6.4I shows RTD accuracy check set-up. Every six month RTD sensor must be checked against the standard conversion table. RTD element has no repair or maintenance procedure. Accuracy Check Procedure: 1. Adjust the multimeter to OHM position. 2. Measure the resistance value of the RTD at workshop temperature, suppose it is 20 c. 3. From reference table find the RTD value (107.79 ohms) and check the multimeter reading to be the same value. 4. Prepare the temperature bath maintained at 100 c. TASK No.: I-6.4 “Continue”

5. Immerse the sensing part of the RTD in the bath, when the multimeter reading is stabilised, note the reading. 6. Check the value of RTD at 100 c. from the table and the multimeter reading to be the same (138.5 ohms). 7. Increase the temperature of the temperature bath gradually to 200 c. 8. When the multimeter reading is stabilised, note the reading. 9. Check the value of the RTD at 200 c. from the table, and the multimeter reading to be the same (175.84 ohms).

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Figure I-6.4I, Typical Bench Set-up for RTD Accuracy Check.

MODULE No.: TASK No.:

I-6 Temperature Instruments I-6.5 Perform servicing and calibration of a pneumatic temperature. transmitter OJT Instructor to arrange reference catalogue / Service manual for pneumatic temperature transmitter model relevant to each working area. 1. Cleaning rags, and 2. Solvent.

Reference:

Materials:

Equipment & Tools: 1. Tool Box, 2. Stirred heated control bath, 3. Standard pneumatic calibrator, and
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4. Standard output gauge. Conditions: Work permit.

Requirements By Trainee:
       

To study the task and familiarise himself, Be able to describe the main parts of pneumatic temperature. transmitter, Understand the principle of operation of pneumatic transmitter, Describe wiring connections of pneumatic temperature transmitter, Describe the procedure for calibrating a pneumatic transmitter, Perform periodic maintenance and troubleshooting of a pneumatic transmitter, Discuss an understanding to his trainer, and Write observations and procedures in his workbook. “Continue”

TASK No.: I-6.5 Details:

Temperature Transmitters Temperature transmitters are used when it is necessary to convert the signal from a temperature sensor to one of the standard signals for transmission over a long distance or interface with other instruments. The signal is usually 4 to 20 mA. for electronic transmission and 3 to 15 psig for pneumatic if a transmitter is used. Other signals can be used if required by the receiver, but these are the most common and should be used if possible. It is also possible to bring a temperature measurement into a control room without using a transmitter, a thermocouple / RTD can be wired directly to an instrument in the control room and this is acceptable practice. Figure I-6.5A illustrates Foxboro 12A series pneumatic temperature transmitter, which is a force-balance instrument, that continuously measures temperature and transmits it as a proportional 3 to 15 psi air pressure output signal.

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TASK No.: I-6.5

Figure I-6.5A, Pneumatic Temperature “Continue” Transmitter, Foxboro 12A Series

Figure I-6.5B, Pneumatic Temperature Transmitter Principle of Operation

Principle of operation
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As illustrated in figure I-6.5B, any change in the sensor temperature of the gasfilled thermal element causes a change in the gas pressure and, therefore, a change in the force being applied to the bottom of the force bar. The force bar pivots about a cross-flexure, and any motion of the force bar causes a change in the clearance between the nozzle and the top of the force bar. This produces a change in the output pressure from the relay to the feedback bellows, until the force exerted by the bellows balances the force exerted by the thermal system. The output pressure, which establishes the force balance, is the transmitted pneumatic signal and, therefore, is proportional to the measured temperature. The signal is transmitted to a pneumatic receiver to record, indicate, and/or control. TASK No.: I-6.5 “Continue”

Figure I-6.5C, Pneumatic Temperature Transmitter Calibration Set-up Calibration Figure I-6.5C illustrates bench calibration set-up of a pneumatic temperature transmitter, follow the detailed calibration procedure listed in the reference catalogue or service manual. Consult your trainer. Maintenance and Servicing Maintenance and servicing of pneumatic temperature transmitter are limited to clean or replace its parts, such as:
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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Supply Air Filter blow out at least once a day, Replace Screen Filter of the process inlet, Clean Nozzle Assembly, Clean booster relay Restrictor, Replace thermal element, Replace compensating bellows, “Continue”

TASK No.: I-6.5

7. Replace Booster Relay, 8. Install or Adjust derivative unit, 9. Change Range Bar, and 10. Adjusting Flexure Cap Screw. Disassembly; Normal servicing of the transmitter does not require the removal of any parts other than those already mentioned. Further disassembly is not recommended because of possible loss of accuracy or damage to the transmitter, detailed servicing procedures are mentioned in maintenance section of the selected transmitter model. Consult your trainer.

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MODULE No.: TASK No.:

I-6 Temperature Instruments I-6.6 Perform servicing and calibration of an electronic temperature transmitter with RTD input. OJT Instructor to arrange reference catalogue / service manual for electronic temperature transmitter model relevant to each working area.

Reference:

Materials: Equipment & Tools: 1. 2. 3. 4. Conditions: Tool Box, Standard dc power supply 24 Vdc at 35 mA, Resistance decade box, and Digital multimeter.

Work permit.

Requirements By Trainee:
       

To study the task and familiarise himself, Be able to describe the main parts of RTD input electronic temp. transmitter, Understand the principle of operation of RTD input transmitter, Describe wiring connections of RTD input transmitter, Describe the procedure for calibrating an RTD transmitter, Perform periodic maintenance and troubleshooting of an RTD transmitter, Discuss an understanding to his trainer, and Write observations and procedures in his workbook.

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TASK No.: I-6.6 Details: RTD input Electronic Temperature Transmitter Temperature transmitters for new installations are predominantly electronic with 4 to 20 mA. Outputs and inputs from thermocouples or RTDS. These transmitters can be mounted in the field and on the thermowell or in the field on a support and connected to the sensor by a cable. Temperature transmitter mounted in the field must be protected from the elements by an appropriate housing. A weatherproof (INEMA 4) housing is adequate for m most applications, even in Division 2 hazardous area because there are no arching contacts in a typical temperature transmitter. An explosion proof (NEMA 7) housing is required for Division I area unless the installation is certified intrinsically safe. The energy level required in temperature transmitters is such that they can be used in intrinsically safe installations if isolated from the power supply and receiver by approved barriers. “Continue”

Figure I-6.6A, Electronic Temperature Transmitter with RTD Input TASK No.: I-6.6 “Continue”

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Figure I-6.6B, Electronic Temperature Transmitter Typical Wiring Connection Figure I-6.6A, illustrates the main parts of an RTD temperature transmitter, which are: RTD sensor and thermowell, Transmitter electronic housing includes; Range board, Amplifier board and Output board. Figure I-6.6B, illustrates field-wiring connections of 3-wire RTD input temperature transmitter. The dc power supply to be regulated at 24 Vdc grounded at negative side terminal. The transmitter will operate with current signal loop 420 mA proportional to the calibrated temperature range. Theory of Operation Figure I-6.6C, illustrates RTD input electronic temperature transmitter functional block diagram The specific operation of the different functional blocks described below: TASK No.: I-6.6 “Continue”

RTD: Is a platinum temperature sensor, 100 Ohms at zero degree C. Resistance Bridge: This bridge converts the resistance versus temperature relationship of the sensor to a millivolt versus resistance signal. Modulation, ac Amplification, Demodulation: The differential signal from the bridge is converted to an ac signal. This signal is then amplified and converted
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back to a dc signal, and this to ensure that the signal will not be affected by ambient temperature changes. Dc Amplification, Current Control: The dc signal is further amplified to drive a transistor that controls a current signal that proportional to sensor temperature. Voltage Regulation: A voltage regulator circuit provides a stable voltage to ensure the signal is independent of supply voltage and load resistance variations.

Figure I-6.6C, Electronic Temperature Transmitter Functional Block Diagram Calibration The transmitter is calibrated at the specified range on the nameplate, figure I-6.6D illustrates calibration set-up of RTD input electronic temperature transmitter. To re-calibrate this transmitter, reference catalogue or service manual has the detailed procedure for calibrating an RTD transmitter. Consult your trainer. TASK No.: I-6.6 “Continue”

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Figure I-6.6D, Electronic Temperature Transmitter Calibration Set-up Maintenance Repair: In case of transmitter’s failure, the first step is to determine whether the fault lies with the sensors or the transmitter’s electronics, to repair or replace the faulty device. RTD Test: A platinum RTD with an ice-point resistance of 100 Ohms should read approximately as shown in reference R vs. T table. Consult your trainer. Electronics Assembly: The transmitter is designed for easy replacement of its plug-in, modular circuit boards. A malfunction can be most easily isolated by substituting boards one at a time until the unit functions properly. Detailed procedures for disassembly and reassemble of transmitter’s electronics are listed in the reference service manual. Consult your trainer.

MODULE No.: TASK No.:

I-6 Temperature Instruments I-6.7 What are self-regulating temperature valves? Function & application

Reference:
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Materials:

1.Cleaning rags, and 2. Solvent.

Equipment & Tools: 1. Tool Box, and 2. Digital Multimeter orstandard output gauge.

Conditions:

Work permit.

Requirements by Trainee:
     

To study the task and familiarise himself, Understand, zero value of a level transmitter (pneumatic / electronic), Demonstrate zero adjustment of a level transmitter, Be able to perform field zero check of a level transmitter, Discuss an understanding with his trainer, and Write observation in his workbook. “Continue”

TASK No.: I-6.7 Details:

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MODULE No.: TASK No.:

I-6 Temperature Instruments I-6.8 Service and calibrate a pneumatic temperature controller OJT Instructor to arrange reference catalogue / Service manual for pneumatic temperature indicating controller model relevant to each working area. 1. Cleaning Rags. Pneumatic calibrator, Standard test gauges, Service/ Repair Kit, and Tool Box.
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Reference:

Materials:

Equipment & Tools: 1. 2. 3. 4.
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Conditions: Work permit

Requirements by Trainee:
   

To study the task and familiarise himself, Understand principle of operation of a pneumatic temperature controller, Describe the effect of the controller’s modes (PID) on the output signal, Be able to perform periodic adjustments / calibration of a pneumatic indicating controller,

   

To perform P.M, service, parts replacement of an indicating controller, Draw/ Sketch calibration set-up in his workbook, Discuss an understanding to his trainer, and Write observations and procedures in his workbook. “Continue”

TASK No.: I-6.8 Details:

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Figure I-6.8A, PID Pneumatic Temperature Controller Components Location Temperature Controllers A temperature controller is a device which senses temperature and manipulates an end device to control that temperature. The sensor is one of temperature sensors and the end device can be control valve to control any process variable or other device. TASK No.: I-6.8 “Continue”

Pneumatic temperature controller supplied by 20 psi regulated air pressure and the output signal is 3 to 15 psi. Full featured, temperature controllers offer more precise control than the simple type. The integral and differential control modes in addition to the proportional mode will allow stable operation in fast processes where simple controller would oscillate between no output and full output. Figure
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I-6.8A illustrates a full featured, pneumatic temperature controller, in which use an external temperature sensor. Principle of Operation As shown in figure I-6.8B A PID pneumatic temperature controller. This temperature controller operate on the motion balance principle; motion from a pneumatic feedback unit balances the motion from a process measuring element. When the temperature at the sensing element increases, the bourdon spring uncoils and moves the process pointer to the right and the baffle-actuating pin to the left. The movement of the pin lowers the baffle to decrease the nozzle-baffle gap and increase the nozzle-back pressure. This pressure is fed to chamber A of the output relay. As the pressure in chamber A increases, the diaphragm assembly moves the relay stem downward closing the vent port and opening the air supply port to increase the output. The output increases until it balances the downward force on the diaphragm assembly. By proportional response, the output pressure is fed to the follow-up bellows and raises the baffle-actuating pin and baffle and the output change is proportional to a change in process measurement. Reset response, automatically returns the process variable to the set-point after a sustained load change. This is accomplished by opposing the action of the followup bellows with a reset bellows. Pre-act response, reduces the offset caused by a process disturbance as well as reduce the recovery time following the disturbance. This is accomplished by feeding the output pressure to the follow-up bellows through a needle valve. The controller can be set for either direct or reverse action by positioning the gain dial. TASK No.: I-6.8 “Continue”

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Figure I-6.8B, Schematic Diagram of PID TASK No.: I-6.8Pneumatic Temperature Controller “Continue” Calibration Calibration adjustments of pneumatic temperature controller are limited to perform the following:

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1. Process pointer calibration; zero adjustment, span adjustment and linearity adjustment. 2. Pneumatic-set pointer calibration; zero adjustment and span adjustment. 3. Controller alignment; fixed high controller, differential-gap controller, proportional controller, proportional plus reset controller, proportional plus pre-act controller and proportional plus reset plus pre-act controller. 4. Nozzle-height adjustment. Detailed procedures to perform the above adjustments are mentioned in the reference service manual of the relevant pneumatic temperature controller model. Consult your trainer. Periodic Servicing If the air supply is clean and dry the instrument should be serviced once a year. If the air supply is dirty or oily, more frequent servicing may be required. Servicing the pneumatic controller is limited to clean / repair / replace its parts; such as: 1. Clean nozzle-tip and baffle-surface, 2. Clean or replace the output relay, 3. Clean the manual regulator, 4. Clean reset and ore-act restrictors, and 5. Replace internal O-Ring seal of auto-manual switch. Detailed procedures to perform the above services are mentioned in the reference service manual of the relevant pneumatic temperature controller model. Consult your trainer. TASK No.: I-6.8 Troubleshooting: Reference catalogue or service manual of the pneumatic temperature controller model used has the details of possible causes of controller’s problems and actions to be taken to overcome these problems. Consult your trainer. “Continue”

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MODULE No.: TASK No.:

I-6 Temperature Instruments I-6.9 Perform calibration of an electronic transmitter using thermocouple input. OJT Instructor to arrange reference catalogue / service manual for Thermocouple input electronic temperature transmitter model relevant to each working area. None

Reference:

Materials:

Equipment & Tools: 1. Tool Box, 2. Standard dc power supply 24 Vdc at 35 mA,
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3. A stirred ice bath, 4. Thermocouple reference junction, and 5. Digital multimeter. Conditions: Work permit.

Requirements By Trainee:
     

To study the task and familiarise himself, Be able to describe the main parts of thermocouple input temp. transmitter, Understand the principle of operation of thermocouple input transmitter, Describe wiring connections of thermocouple input transmitter, Describe the procedure for calibrating a thermocouple input transmitter, Perform periodic maintenance and troubleshooting of a thermocouple transmitter,

 

Discuss an understanding to his trainer, and Write observations and procedures in his workbook. “Continue”

TASK No.: I-6.9 Details:

Figure I-6.9A Elect. Temp. Transmitter with Thermocouple Input Functional Block Diagram
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Theory of Operation Figure I-6.9A, illustrates thermocouple input electronic temperature transmitter functional block diagram The specific operation of the different functional blocks described below: Thermocouple: A thermocouple consists of two specific dissimilar metals joined at the measurement site, the thermocouple produces a millivolt-level signal proportional to process temperature. Bridge: Cold-junction compensation for the thermocouple is provided by two compensation resistors, the output from these resistors and the temperaturesensitive simulates that of a thermocouple temperature. Modulation, ac Amplification, Demodulation, dc Amplification, Current Control: Identical to that of RTD input transmitters. TASK No.: I-6.9 “Continue”

Isolation: Isolated power to run the unit, is provided by a dc-to-ac converter, which feeds a transformer. On the secondary side of this transformer, diodes rectify that ac to provide dc power to the circuitry. Voltage Regulation: Regulates the voltage across the dc/ac converter, to protect transmitter’s electronics against damage due to reverse power hook up.

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Figure I-6.9B, Temperature Transmitter Thermocouple Input Calibration Set-up Maintenance Repair: In case of transmitter’s failure, the first step is to determine whether the fault lies with the sensors or the transmitter’s electronics, to repair or replace the faulty device. TASK No.: I-6.9 Thermocouple Test: A thermocouple could be tested with a reference junction relevant THE thermocouple type and should read approximately as shown in reference mV vs. T table. Consult your trainer. Electronics Assembly: The transmitter is designed for easy replacement of its plug-in, modular circuit boards. A malfunction can be most easily isolated by substituting boards one at a time until the unit functions properly. Detailed procedures for disassembly and reassemble of transmitter’s electronics are listed in the reference service manual. Consult your trainer. “Continue”

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