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Name

:

Mark John G. Girasol

Date of Experiment: Date Submitted:

20 Nov 2012 4 Dec 2012

Groupmates: Stephanie O. Palacios Denise Mae Q. Rosales

Experiment No. 1 ISOLATION OF CAFFEINE FROM TEA

I. INTRODUCTION

Pure caffeine is a white, tasteless substance that makes up as much as 5% of the weight of tea leaves. Structurally (as seen in the figure below), it is closely related to the purine bases, guanine and adenine, found in deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA). Caffeine causes cardiac and respiratory stimulation and has diuretic effects as well.

Caffeine

Purine

Several plants i.e., tea leaves, coffee beans, kola nuts, cocoa beans contain caffeine in varying percentages. Cola soft drinks contain 14-25 mg of caffeine per 100 mL, and a sweet chocolate bar weighing 20 g contains about 15 mg of caffeine. In tea however, the amount of caffeine depends on the variety and where they are grown. Commonly, tea leaves contain about 3-5% caffeine by weight. Coffee, on the other hand contains only about 2%, yet a cup of it

The mixture was heated for 10 minutes.5 g were placed in a 400-mL beaker together with 12.5 times as much caffeine as does a cup of tea. It was added with 30 mL . MATERIALS AND METHODS      6 bags Alokozay Black Tea (1 teabag ≈ 2. How does this happen? Coffee beans are ground extremely fine while tea leaves are simply dried and directly added with water. In the solid-liquid extraction. 175 mL of distilled water was added. The first one was divided into solid-liquid and liquid-liquid extractions. six bags of Alokozay Black Tea weighing at about 2. The liquid was decanted to a 250-mL Erlenmeyer flask and was let cool to room temperature. As a consequence.5g) 12. The second half of the extraction part was the liquid-liquid extraction. it was poured to a separatory funnel. II.58 g sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) 30 mL chloroform (CHCl3) 1 pinch sodium sulphate (Na2SO4) 1 pinch sodium chloride (NaCl) There were two parts of the experiment: the extraction and the distillation processes. there is more ground coffee in one cup than does tea. After the liquid in the previous half was cooled.58 g of Na2CO3 and some boiling chips.contains 3. the sequence of doing which is in order.

was heated on a water bath further drying it up until greenish crystals were seen. The distillate was collected in a beaker.1515 . Addition of another 30 mL portion of chloroform was conducted. The residue transferred in a pre-weighed evaporating dish. The clear chloroform layer was carefully collected in a 250-mL Erlenmeyer flask. the extract was transferred to storage bottle. The evaporating dish together with the crystals were cooled and weighed. There was a remaining impure chloroform layer filled with bubbles. the extract was distilled. A pinch of NaCl was added to it and then collected to the same flask. It was also made sure at the same time that the temperature should not exceed 60°C.1019 0. Using the devised distillation setup.chloroform. Using a cotton ball as a filter. A pinch of Na2SO4 was added to the pooled extract and then together. The second part of experiment was the distillation process. It was gently shaken and the air that accumulated inside was released once in a while.9504 33. which was not totally free of the distillate. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table showing the data gathered Weight (g) Tea bags Evaporating dish Evaporating dish + caffeine crystals Caffeine yield 15 32. III. they were swirled gently.

This is to make caffeine as the only one exclusively soluble to chloroform while the rest to water. also is slightly soluble in chloroform. The addition of Na2CO3 turns these tannins into salts that do not dissolve and ionize in chloroform but in water and eventually becoming free from caffeine.%caffeine yield = 𝑤𝑒𝑖𝑔𝑕𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑐𝑎𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑖𝑛𝑒 𝑒𝑥𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑒𝑑 × 100% 𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑤𝑒𝑖𝑔𝑕𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑡𝑒𝑎 = 0. Surfactants cause water-insoluble substances to form emulsions with water through adsorbing themselves to individual caffeine molecules. It also has a lower boiling temperature than caffeine. so it is easily distilled. We want to separate caffeine from the tannins by having the caffeine dissolved in chloroform and the tannins in the water. There is one practical disadvantage in converting the tannins to their salts—they become anionic surfactants. The idea of the extraction is to eliminate to hot water all water-soluble components and impurities in tea that contribute to an additional mass of caffeine. thus isolating caffeine from water-soluble impurities. another component in tea. Caffeine is readily soluble to chloroform.1515 g × 100% 15 g = 1. and in itself is immiscible in water. tannin. but then.01% Chloroform was chosen to be the solvent because caffeine is soluble in it. thus stabilizing the .

However. This is depicted by the bubbles formed between the chloroform and aqueous layers. the stopper should be removed. coagulating them. It should be noted. Another technique is adding NaCl. the density of the compound against that of water is the contributing factor. The emulsified molecules formed are too small to be filtered. a single portion will do. however. if it is more than 100. it means there is a high probability of the compound to mix with water. That is why an additional portion of chloroform should be added in order to extract the remaining caffeine molecules that mixed with water. an ionic substance which is adhered to the adsorption layer and sequentially attracting more emulsified molecules.36). Shaking of the separatory funnel increases the collisions of the molecules and thus coagulating them. The extraction should be done with two portions of chloroform because of its low distribution coefficient (K25ºC = 8. the extract remains inside. thus. bubbles were eliminated and a purer chloroform layer. thus contributing to a decrease in mass of caffeine yield. the pressure is released and the liquid is free to flow. The chloroform-caffeine mixture should be eliminated from the emulsion. free of tannin. Through these. again. so instead of being drained. If K<10. As depicted in the formula illustrated below. Otherwise. the stopper establishes a pressure inside the separatory funnel. was extracted. By removing the stopper. Emulsion is a suspension of one liquid to another.molecules. If K is low. the extraction should be done in multiple portions. K= 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑑 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑚𝐿 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑣𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑑 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑚𝐿 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 . that when draining the extract.

thus evaporating the residual chloroform and leaving the caffeine crystals. The percent caffeine yield in Alokozay Black Tea is 1. IV. the other components of tea are eliminated using water as the solvent. therefore. The extraction process is further divided into solid-liquid and liquid-liquid extractions. chloroform was used to dissolve caffeine and to separate it from water. it is not distilled.01%. In the liquid-liquid extraction. The portion left in the distilling flask is the one that contains caffeine. .The chloroform layer extracted is not 100% free of the aqueous portion. The distillation process eliminates the chloroform through difference in volatility. so the chloroform was readily distilled. Water interferes with the distillation process since water has a higher boiling temperature than chloroform. Chloroform has a lower boiling temperature (60°C) than caffeine. Since chloroform has lower boiling point. Traces of water should be eliminated and the addition of Na2SO4 could do this for us. CONCLUSIONS The method used in the isolation of caffeine from tea includes two parts: the extraction and distillation. It was further heated until caffeine crystals showed. The remaining liquid was then heated. it evaporated faster. Chloroform and caffeine are then subjected to distillation for separation due to the difference in their boiling points. In solid-liquid extraction.

Caffeine Extraction. it added to the yielded caffeine crystals. Woodward.edu/~shanbhag/chemistry/oc1labs/caffeine.. REFERENCES Brown.nova. Retrieved from “http://www.pdf” .. The green pigmentations in the caffeine crystals were due to the dissolved chlorophyll.E.. T.V. This.polaris. thus is less accurate. COMMENTS The mass of tea used was 15 g instead of 20 g. LeMay. 2009 Shanbhag. B. Same is true with some organic molecules that might still be present together with the yielded caffeine. C. the decrease in actual percentage is greater than if the same amount was spilled in the latter condition. 2006. Inc. VI. P. could contribute to a greater negative constant error than if 20 g of tea was used. Chemistry the Central Science 11th Edition. This is because if a portion of it was spilled. as hypothesized. Murphy. Pearson Education. Bursten. Chlorophyll is also soluble in chloroform and since there was no measure conducted in order to isolate it.. H..