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Corrosion Resistant Alloy Specifications & Operating Data

PLATE, SHEET, BAR, PIPE, AND WELDING CONSUMABLES

We are suppliers of high performance wrought alloys for heat and corrosion resistant service. This brochure describes those alloys specially suited for use under various severe conditions. They are

summarized in the table below. In addition, we describe briefly on this page our heat resistant alloys. We have a separate brochure on these materials, and would be happy to supply one to you.

Corrosion Resistant Alloys


NOMINAL CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
ALLOY Ni 24 Cr 20.5 Fe 48 Mo 6.3 Other C:0.02 N:0.20

DESCRIPTION
(See also specification table, page 12) A high (6.3%) molybdenum super austenitic stainless steel. High strength. Superior resistance to chloride pitting and crevice corrosion. Applications are in high chloride environments: bleachessodium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide-chemicals containing high levels of halogens and brackish or seawater.

AL-6XN Alloy

CARPENTER 20Cb-3 Stainless RA2205

33

19.5

40

2.2

C:0.02 An austenitic stainless steel for sulfuric acid corrosion environCb + Ta:0.5 ments. Resists intergranular corrosion as welded. Resistant to Cu:3.3 chloride and polythionic acid stress corrosion cracking. C:0.02 N:0.16 Duplex austenitic - ferritic stainless with high resistance to chloride stress corrosion cracking, and to general corrosion. High strength. A nickel-chromium alloy, resistant to corrosive environments at elevated temperatures. Good oxidation resistance to 2000F. A high strength nickel-based superalloy for superior heat and corrosion resistance. Resists hot sulfuric acid corrosion and chloride and polythionic acid stress corrosion cracking.

5.6

22.1

67

3.1

RA600 RA333 Alloy

76

15.5

C:0.08 S:0.008 Co:3 W:3 C:0.05 Si 1.25 Mo:9 Cb:3.6

45

25

18

RA625

61

21.5

A high strength 9% molybdenum nickel alloy with excellent resistance to hot seawater, scrubber environments and reducing acids.

Heat Resistant Alloys


RA333 alloy is a nickel base superalloy with excellent carburization, oxidation, and hot corrosion resistance. It has high creep-rupture strength with exceptional ability to withstand repeated thermal shock. Useful to 2200F (1200C). RA330 alloy is the workhorse of the austenitic heat resistant alloys. Good strength, carburization and oxidation resistance to 2200F (1200C). RA330HC has high carbon for best hot shear strength and wear resistance for pin shock. RA 253 MA alloy is an austenitic heat resistant alloy with high strength and outstanding oxidation resistance. Advanced control of micro alloy additions provides high temperature properties comparable to the nickel base alloys. RA 353 MA is a strong, microalloyed austenitic with oxidation resistance through 2300F (1260C). Carburization, oxidizing hot corrosion resistance. The upgrade from RA330 above 1800F (980C). RA800H/AT is a high strength austenitic heat resistant alloy for ASME code applications to 1650F (900C). RA601 is a nickel base alloy with outstanding oxidation resistance, good strength and carburization resistance. RA 602 CA is one of the most oxidation resistant high nickel alloys available. High strength in the 1800-2200F range. Carburization resistant. RA309 alloy (Ni-Fe-Cr) is austenitic, and oxidation resistant in 1500-1950F (800-1070C) service. Suitable for use in moderately sulfidizing atmospheres. RA310 alloy is an austenitic heat resistant alloy with higher chromium and nickel than RA309. Good cyclic oxidation resistance beyond 2000F (1100C), good hot corrosion resistance. RA446 alloy (Cr-Fe) is ferritic with a low coefficient of expansion, and excellent oxidation and sulfidation resistance. RA321 is a titanium stabilized austenitic stainless commonly used for service in the 1000-1600F (540-870C) temperature range. Titanium stabilization provides resistance to polythionic acid stress corrosion cracking.

ra,RA333 and RA330 are registered trademarks of Rolled Alloys Inc. AL-6XN and E-BRITE are registered trademarks, and 317LXN a trademark of ATI Properties, Inc. 20Cb-3 is a registered trademark of Carpenter Technology Corporation. HASTELLOY is a registered trademark of Haynes International. INCOLOY, INCONEL and MONEL are registered trademarks of Special Metals, Inc. NITRONIC and 17-4PH are registered trademarks of AK Steel Corporation. Oakite is a registered trademark of Oakite Products Inc. RA 253 MA and RA 353 MA are registered trademarks of AvestaPolarit.

This chart is intended as guidance for what alloys might be tested in a given environment. It must NOT be used as the major basis for alloy selection, or as a substitute for competent corrosion engineering work. Alloy selection for corrosive process environments is a complex process. It should include experience with similar equipment, extensive testing in the exact corrosive environment of interest, and detailed knowledge of the various alloys to be considered. Oftentimes, apparently minor contaminants can cause major changes in corrosion rates. One example is contamination of organic chlorides with small amounts of water. This can permit the organic compound to

hydrolyze, forming hydrochloric acid. The HCl in turn, may aggressively pit or stress corrode the standard 18-8 stainless steels. Other examples are the alloys B2, 200, and 400, which contain no chromium. While they have excellent corrosion resistance in reducing environments, they have little or no resistance to oxidizing environments. Unexpected failures may therefore arise from contamination by small amounts of oxidizing salts (e.g., FeCl3, CuCl2 or NaClO3), or sometimes even dissolved oxygen. Titanium behaves in the opposite manner, and requires the presence of oxidizing species for best resistance to HCl.

Alloy Performance Guide


ENVIRONMENT CHLORIDES (pitting, crevice corrosion) Not Suggested 304L Good 20Cb-3 RA333 316L, 200(a), RA600 904L RA2205 200(a) 400(a) Better RA904L 400(a) RA2205 Best AL-6XN RA625 C-276 Titanium 200, 400, RA600, RA333, RA625 Zirconium(a) alloy B-2(a) Tantalum Titanium(b) Gold, Platinum 20Cb-3 Tantalum AL-6XN, RA625 20Cb-3 Zirconium Tantalum 200(a)

CHLORIDE STRESS CORROSION CRACKING HYDROCHLORIC ACID

304L 316L Titanium(b) RA600, 20Cb-3, RA2205 200, RA600, Ta, RA2205, etc. Titanium RA600 200, 400 316L 904L, AL-6XN 200, 400, RA600 316L Tantalum

AL-6XN 20Cb-3 RA330 59 C-22 C-276 400(a) Silver(a) 904L AL-6XN, RA333 400(a), RA625 904L RA2205

HYDROFLUORIC ACID SULPHURIC ACID PHOSPHORIC ACID (commercial) NITRIC ACID CAUSTIC

Copper(a) 316L 200(a) RA2205

304L 20Cb-3 RA2205 20Cb-3 RA2205


(b)

RA333(c) RA625 RA600, RA625 400

(a)

(c)

presence of oxygen or oxidizing salts may greatly increase corrosion Stabilize annealed 1700-1800F 1 hour

Titanium has excellent resistance to hydrochloric acid containing oxidizers such as FeCl3, HNO3, etc. However, titanium has very poor resistance to pure, reducing, HCl.

Disclaimer Clause: The data and information in this printed matter are believed to be reliable. However, this material is not intended as a substitute for competent professional engineering assistance which is a requisite to any specific application. Rolled Alloys makes no warranty and assumes no legal liability or responsibility for results to be obtained in any particular situation, and shall not be liable for any direct, indirect, special, or consequential damages therefrom. This material is subject to revision without prior notice.

AL-6XN
alloy
Features

Performance Profile
AL-6XN alloy is a superaustenitic stainless with outstanding resistance to chloride pitting and crevice corrosion. The levels of chromium, molybdenum and nitrogen all serve to provide resistance to acidic, oxidizing chloride solutions previously achieved only by the nickel base alloys. High nickel (24%) and molybdenum (6.3%) contents make AL-6XN a useful engineering solution to the problem of chloride ion stress corrosion cracking. Because of its nitrogen content, AL-6XN has greater tensile strength than common austenitic stainlesses, while retaining high ductility and impact strength. The ASME allowable stresses for AL-6XN are up to 75% higher than for 316L stainless, and more than twice those for the copper-nickel alloys.

Excellent resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion in chloride solutions Practical immunity to stress corrosion in NaCl environments High strength and toughness

Applications
Seawater heat exchangers Pulp bleaching plant washers, vats, press rolls and pipelines Scrubbers Chemical process tanks and pipelines Tall oil distillation columns and packing Reverse osmosis desalination equipment and pumps Offshore oil and gas production equipment

Chemical Composition, %
Min. Nickel 23.50 Chromium 20.00 Molybdenum 6.00 Carbon Nitrogen 0.18 Manganese Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Copper Iron Remainder Max. 25.50 22.00 7.00 0.03 0.25 2.00 1.00 0.040 0.030 0.75

Specifications
UNS N08367 ASME Section VIII, Division 1 For external pressure use Fig. NFN-12 of Section II, Part D. Section III Division 1 Class 2 and 3 construction, Case N-438-2. ASME Section IX, P No. 45 NACE MR0175

AL-6XN
Mechanical Properties
Representative Tensile and Impact Properties, Plate
Ultimate Tensile 0.2% Yield Temp Strength, Strength, F psi psi -450 218,000 142,000 -320 196,000 107,000 -200 70 108,000 53,000 200 99,900 49,400 400 90,300 40,400 600 86,000 36,300 800 87,000 36,000 1000 83,600 33,900 *K1C, ksi inch Elonga- Charpy V-Notch tion in Toughness 2" % ft-lb 36 353 * 49 85 100 47 140 47 46 47 48 50

alloy (continued)

Physical Properties
Density lb/in3 0.291 Melting Range F 2410-2540 Modulus of Elasticity Dynamic, psi x 106 28.3 27.4 26.1 24.8 23.4 22.1

ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section II D Maximum allowable design stresses, ksi, for welded construction Maximum Allowable Stress Values, ksi Welded pipe Plate forgings, & tube under bar, rod 3/16" wall 24.3 27.1 24.3 27.1 23.0 25.7 22.0 24.6 21.3 23.8 20.8 23.3 20.7 23.1 20.5 22.9 20.4 22.8 20.2 22.6 G5, G14 G5

Coefficient of Thermal Thermal Temp Expansion*, Conductivity -6 F in/inF x 10 Btuft/ft2hrF 70 6.7 200 7.9 7.5 300 8.3 8.1 400 8.4 8.7 600 8.6 10.0 700 8.7 10.6 800 8.8 11.2 1000 9.0 12.5 1200 9.3 13.9 * 70F to indicated temperature.

Temperature for Initiation of Crevice Corrosion in 10% Ferric Chloride.


Critical Crevice Corrosion Pitting Resistance Alloy Temp, F Equivalent (PRE) N 316L 27 23 825 27 30 317L 35 29 317LXN 68 34 RA2205 68 37 E-BRITE 75 29 G 86 43 AL-6XN 110 48 (PRE) N = % Cr + 3.3% Mo + 30% N

For Metal Temp Not Exceeding, F 100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 NOTES:

Corrosion Rates in Boiling Organic Acids


mils per year Alloy 20% Acetic 45% Formic 10% Oxalic 304 0.1 48 48 316L 0.1 23 48 317LM 0.24 11 47 904L 0.6 7.7 27 AL-6XN 0.1 4.6 11 E-BRITE 0.1 2.6 2.8 Bulletin 203 contains detailed fabrication information.

* For welded pipe and tube, a joint efficiency factor of 0.85 must be applied.

Maximum Penetration (mm)

2 1.6 1.2 0.8 0.4 AL-6XN 0 0 254SMO 1.2 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 % Copper by Weight 25-6MO 1925hMo

Effect of Copper content on crevice corrosion attack of 6% Mo alloys in natural seawater after removal of the original mill surface.

RA2205
alloy
Features
High resistance to chloride stress corrosion cracking Chloride pitting and crevice corrosion resistance superior to 317L stainless Good general corrosion resistance High strength Good sulfide stress corrosion resistance

Performance Profile
RA2205 is an austenitic-ferritic stainless steel containing about 40-50% ferrite in the annealed condition. This duplex stainless has been a practical solution to chloride stress corrosion cracking problems experienced with 304L or 316L stainless. The high chromium, molybdenum and nitrogen contents provide corrosion resistance superior to 316L or 317L stainless in most environments. The design strength of RA2205 is significantly higher, often permitting lighter wall construction. RA2205 has good notch impact toughness down to -40F, and is fabricated by established duplex welding procedures.

Applications
Chemical process vessels, piping and heat exchangers Pulp mill digesters, bleach washers, chip presteaming vessels Food process equipment Oil field piping, heat exchangers

Mechanical Properties
Specified tensile properties, ASTM A 240, ASME SA-240 Ultimate tensile strength, psi, min 0.2% Yield Strength, psi, min Elongation, %, min Hardness, Brinell, max

90,000

Chemical Composition Range, %


Chromium Nickel Molybdenum Carbon Nitrogen Manganese Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Iron 22.0-23.0 4.50-6.50 3.00-3.50 0.030 max 0.14-0.20 2.0 max 1.0 max 0.030 max 0.020 max Balance

65,000 25 290

ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code, Sect. VIII Div. 1, allowable stress values, ksi
-20 to 100F 22.5 300F 21.7 400F 20.9 500F 20.4 600F 20.2

For external pressure design in ASME Sect VIII, use Chart No. HA-5, in Section II D.

Specifications
UNS S31803 / UNS S32205 DIN 1.4462 ASTM A 182, A 240, A 276, A 479, A 789, A 790, A 923, A 928 ASME SA-182, SA-240, SA-479, SA-789, SA-790 Sect. VIII Div 2 Code Case 2067-2 ASME Sect. IX P No. 10H, Group 1 ASME B31.1 Code Case 153 NACE MR0175 W. Nr. 1.4462

Physical Properties
Density: 0.278 lb/in3 Melting Range: 2525-2630F
Coefficient of thermal expansion, 68F to temp, inch/inch F x 10-6 Thermal conductivity, Btu ft/ft2 hr F Specific Heat, Btu/lb F Modulus of Elasticity, psi x 106 68F -8.1 0.112 27.6 212F 7.5 8.7 0.119 26.1 392F 7.8 9.9 0.127 25.4 572F 8.1 10.5 0.134 24.9

RA2205
alloy (continued)
Corrosion Resistance
Typical Critical Crevice Corrosion Temperature in 10% FeCl3 6H2O Alloy RA2205 316L 825 317L 317LXNTM 904L AL-6XN F 68 27 27 35 68 75 110 Corrosion Rate, Base Metal 24 78 16 0.1 mil/year Weld 23 85 17 0.1

Welding
In welding RA2205 duplex stainless the aim to maintain the same ferrite-austenite balance in a structure essentially free of intermetallic phases. This is achieved by control of heat input and interpass temperature, and by limiting total time for the HAZ to be in the 1300-1800F range. RA2205 should be welded with fairly high heat input, comparable to that used for 316L stainless. Do NOT treat RA2205 like a nickel alloy low heat input and tiny stringer beads are UNdesirable in welding a duplex. Welding should be performed only by welders specifically qualified for 2205. Matching filler metals for RA2205, AWS E2209 and ER2209, are somewhat overalloyed in nickel to maintain phase balance. Request Bulletin 1071 for more details of RA2205 fabrication.

Alloy RA2205 316L AL-6XN E-BRITE

Boiling NaOH, 290F, average of five 48 hr periods.

Machining
Because of its high strength, RA2205 is generally more difficult to machine than conventional austenitic stainless. Higher cutting forces and more tool wear may be expected. It is relatively easier to machine duplex stainless with high speed steel, rather than cemented carbide, tooling. With HSS the machinability rating of RA2205 is similar to that of 316L stainless, while with carbide tools the rating is about 65% that of 316L. For drilling with HSS, 3/16 to 1/2" diameter, suggested cutting speed is 33 to 40 sfpm, feed 0.004 to 0.016 ipr.

Corrosion Rates from Exposures in a Terephtalic Acid Plant, mills per year 75% acetic acid, traces of Br, Cu, Mn 350F 17 18 0.47 1.1 0.24
5

Alloy 317L 317L, welded 2205 2205, welded 2507, welded

96% acetic acid, traces of Br, Cu, Mn 300F 26 27 2.4 2.8 0.63

CARPENTER 20Cb-3
stainless steel
Features
Excellent resistance to hot sulfuric acid Resistant to intergranular corrosion in the as-welded condition Chloride stress corrosion cracking resistance

Performance Profile
Carpenter 20Cb-3 stainless is the alloy designed specifically to withstand sulfuric acid. Its nickel, chromium, molybdenum and copper levels all provide excellent general corrosion resistance. At 33% nickel, 20Cb-3 stainless has practical immunity to chloride stress corrosion cracking. This alloy is often chosen to solve SCC problems which may occur with 316 stainless. Restricted carbon plus columbium stabilization permits welded fabrications to be used in corrosive environments, normally without post-weld heat treatment. 20Cb-3 stainless finds extensive use processing pharmaceuticals, food, plastics, explosives and synthetic fibers.

Applications
Flue gas scrubbing systems Sulfuric acid pickling tanks, racks, and heating coils Phosphate coating drums and racks Heat exchangers Bubble caps Process piping Mixing tanks Chemical and petroleum process equipment

Mechanical Properties
Minimum Room Temperature Properties:
Tensile Strength, psi 0.2% Yield Strength, psi Elongation in 2" or 4D, % Hardness Brinell

80,000

35,000

30

217 max.

Typical Room Temperature Properties:


Tensile 0.2% Yield Elong. Reduction Hardness Strength, psi Strength, psi % of Area, % Brinell

Chemical Composition, %
Nickel Chromium Carbon Molybdenum Copper Manganese Phosphorus Sulfur Silicon Cb + Ta Iron Min. Max. 32.50 35.00 19.00 21.00 0.06 2.00 3.00 3.00 4.00 2.00 0.035 0.035 1.00 8xC 1.00 Remainder

91,000

48,000

45

67

174

Physical Properties
Density Melting Point Modulus of elasticity (E) Modulus of rigidity (G) Poissons Ratio Electrical resistivity Specific Heat 0.292 lb/in3 (8080 kg/m3) 2515F (1379C) 28 x 10 psi 3 (193 x 10 MPa) 11 x 10 psi 3 (75.8 x 10 MPa) 0.31 651 ohm - cir mil/ft (1.08 microhmm) 0.12 Btu/lbF (500 J/kg K)
6 6

Specifications
UNS ASME N08020 SB-463, SB-474, SB-468, SB-473 Under ASME Section IX, 20Cb-3 (N08020) has been assigned P No. 45. ASTM A 265, B 366, B 462, B 463, B 464, B 468, B 471, B 472, B 473, B 474, B 475 NACE MR0175

Mean Coefficient of Thermal Expansion


Temperature 77F to (20C) to 212F (100C) 392F (200C) 662F (350C) 842F (450C) 1652F (900C)
6

Coefficient 10 /F (10-6/C) 8.16 (14.7 ) 8.37 (15.1 ) 8.71 (15.7 ) 8.84 (15.9 ) 9.53 (17.15)
-6

CARPENTER 20Cb-3
Thermal Conductivity
.060

stainless steel (continued)

Corrosion Rate vs. Concentration Boiling Sulfuric Acid


Corrosion RateInches per year (ipy)

Temperature F (C) 122 212 392 572 752 (50) (100) (200) (300) (400)

Btuft/ft2hrF

W/mK

.050

.040

7.05 7.57 8.56 9.53 10.5

12.2 13.1 14.8 16.5 18.1

.030

.020

.010

10

20

30

40

50

Corrosion Resistance
The corrosion resistance in reagent grade sulphuric acid, with no intentional aeration or deaeration, is shown in Figures 1-3. Corrosion rates in reagent grade acid should be used only as a guide. Many contaminants in commercial sulphuric acid can affect the degree of corrosive attack. The iron, copper and chromium ions, usually present in pickling and plating solutions, tend to reduce corrosion rates. Conversely, the presence of chloride ions increases corrosion attack.
TemperatureF

Acid ConcentrationPercent by weight

Figure 2
Typical Corrosion Resistance of 20Cb-3 Stainless in Boiling Sulphuric Acid

Iso-corrosion Chart for Carpenter 20Cb-3 Stainless in Sulfuric Acid.


300 280 260 240 110 220 200 180 160 140
5 to 25 mpy 25 to 50 mpy Boiling Point Curve >50 mpy

140 130 120

Non-Aerated Sulfuric Acid at 176F (80)


.080
Corrosion RateInches per year (ipy)

100 90 80 70 60 50

.060

.040

120
<5 mpy

100
.020

40 30

80 0
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 75 80 90

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Percent H2SO4 (by weight)

Acid ConcentrationPercent by weight

Figure 3
Typical Iso-Corrosion Chart for 20Cb-3 Stainless in Sulphuric Acid

Typical Corrosion Resistance of 20Cb-3 Stainless in nonaerated Sulphuric Acid at 176F (80C)

RA333
alloy
Features

Performance Profile
RA333 is a high chromium nickel base superalloy with extreme temperature corrosion resistance and strength. RA333 is one of the few materials that can withstand corrosive conditions ranging from aqueous to white heat. The alloy has been used for dampers and refractory anchors in 13% SO2/SO3 at 1800F, and for refinery flare tips. Upon shut-down, RA333 resists attack by sulfuric acid formed below the dew point. It also resists polythionic acid stress corrosion cracking. RA333 has exceptional resistance to molten glass.

Metal dusting resistance Practical immunity to chloride ion and to polythionic acid stress corrosion cracking High temperature SOx, hot salt corrosion resistance Good resistance to sulfuric acid Excellent oxidation and carburization resistance at elevated temperatures

Mechanical Properties
Minimum Room Temperature Properties:
Tensile Strength, psi 0.2% Yield Strength, psi Elongation in Hardness 2" or 4D, % Rockwell B

Applications
Chemical and petrochemical process equipment Sulfuric acid plant dampers Tube hangers in crude oil distillation Flare tips Gas turbine combustion cans Sour water stripper reboiler lining Molten glass Carburizing furnace fixtures

80,000

35,000

30

95 max.

Physical Properties
Density lb/in3 0.294 Melting Range F 2375-2450

Chemical Composition %
Min. Nickel 44.00 Chromium 24.00 Molybdenum 2.50 Cobalt 2.50 Tungsten 2.50 Carbon Silicon 0.75 Manganese Phosphorus Sulfur Iron Remainder Max. 47.00 27.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 0.08 1.50 2.00 0.030 0.030

Coefficient of Thermal Thermal Temp Expansion*, Conductivity F in/inF x 10-6 Btuft/ft2hrF 70 6.4 400 8.1 600 9.1 1000 8.6 11.3 1200 9.0 12.4 * 70F to indicated temperature.

Modulus of Elasticity Dynamic, psi x 106 29.2 28.1 27.0 24.6 23.4

Polythionic Acid SCC


Specimens 1/8 x 3/8 x 3 inches (3 x 9.5 x 76mm) made into 3/16 inch (4.76mm) radius U-bends. Sensitization treatments performed 1200F (649C) 4 hour air cool. Welds made with RA333-70-16 AC/DC electrodes.
Condition mill annealed mill annealed & sensitized as welded welded & sensitized RA333 passed (160 hours) passed (160 hours) passed (160 hours) passed (160 hours)

Specifications
UNS N06333 W. Nr. 2.4608 ASTM B 718, B 719, B 722, B 723, B 726 AMS 5593, 5717

Metal Dusting Comparison


Alloy RA333 RA333 RA330 N07214 N07214 N08120 Condition bright preoxidized bright bright preoxidized bright Results no pits, 27,594 hr light pits, 16,183 hr pitted, 19,472 hr many pits, 19,472 hr many pits, 19,472 hr pitted, 11,264 hr

atmosphereendothermic with 0.7-0.8% CH4 metal dusting occurs at about 600C (1100F)

RA625
alloy
Features
Outstanding resistance to chloride pitting and crevice corrosion Immune to chloride ion stress corrosion cracking Resistant to caustics Resistant to seawater under both flowing and stagnant conditions, and under fouling

Performance Profile
RA625 is used both for its high strength and outstanding aqueous corrosion resistance. The strength of RA625 is primarily a solid solution effect from molybdenum and columbium. RA625 has excellent weldability, and the matching filler metals are often used for dissimilar metal joining, and to weld the aqueous corrosion alloy AL-6XN.

Mechanical Properties
Representative Tensile Properties, bar, 1800F anneal
Temp F 70 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 Ultimate Tensile Strength, psi 144,000 134,000 132,000 131,500 130,000 119,000 78,000 40,000 0.2% Offset Yield Strength, psi 84,000 66,000 63,000 61,000 60,500 60,000 58,500 39,000 Elongation in 2" % 44 45 42.5 45 48 34 59 117

Applications
Chemical process equipment handling mixed acids both oxidizing and reducing Flue gas desulfurization scrubbers Evaporators for wet-process phosphoric acid containing H2SO4, HF and ferric salts

Chemical Composition Range, %


Chromium Nickel Molybdenum Cobalt Columbium + Tantalum Aluminum Titanium Carbon Iron Manganese Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur 20.00-23.00 remainder 8.00-10.00 1.00 max* 3.15-4.15 0.40 max 0.40 max 0.10 max 5.00 max 0.50 max 0.50 max 0.015 max 0.015 max

ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code Section II D Maximum allowable design stresses, psi, for welded construction through 4" thick, Grade 1
Temp, F 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Stress 27,500 27,500 27,500 26,800 26,100 25,450 25,000 Temp, F 800 900 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 Stress 24,600 24,050 23,700 23,600 23,400 21,000 13,200

For external pressure design use Fig NFN-17

*Determination not required for routine acceptance

Physical Properties
Density lb/in3 0.305 Melting Range F 2350-2460

Specifications
UNS N06625 W. Nr. 2.4856 ASME SB-443 Gr 1 Plate, Sheet & Strip Annealed SB-446 Gr 1 Rod & Bar, Annealed ASME Section IX P No. 43 NACE MR0175

Temp F 70 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion*, in/inF x 10-6 7.3 7.4 7.6 7.8 8.2 8.5 8.8

Thermal Conductivity Btuft/ft2hrF 5.7 7.2 8.2 9.1 10.1 11.0 12.0 13.2

Modulus of Elasticity Dynamic, psi x 106 29.8 28.4 27.5 26.6 25.6 24.4 23.1

* 70F to indicated temperature.


9

RA625
alloy (continued)
Aqueous Corrosion
Average Concentration Test Temp Corrosion Rate, Media % F mils per year Acetic Acid 10 Boiling 0.6 4 24 hour periods 99 Boiling 0.4 Nitric Acid (Huey test) 65 Boiling 20 Phosphoric Acid 55 Boiling 6.3 4 24 hour periods 70 240 12 boiling, others 70 300 11 96 hr 85 Boiling 67 Sodium Hydroxide 10 199 Nil 96 hr test 10 Boiling 0.1 30 Boiling Nil 50 151 0.1 50 199 0.4 50 Boiling 2.4 Sulfuric Acid 1 Boiling 2.2 5 Boiling 8.9 10 Boiling 25 Wet Chlorine Room 0.1 48 hr test 122 81 158 186

Stress Corrosion Cracking


Alloy 304, 316L 20Cb-3 G RA625 Time to Crack in Boiling 42% magnesium chloride, hours <24 <100 No Cracks 1000 No Cracks 1000

Crevice Corrosion in Simulated Scrubber Environment (Green Death)


Weight Loss, mg/cm2 75F(24C) 122F(50C) 158F(70C) 316L 0.6 34.3 39.0 317L 0.7 37.7 50.0 317LXN 0.0 12.9 46.2 904L 0.0 22.1 41.9 AL-6XN 0.0 0.0 26.6 RA625 0.0 0.0 14.9 C-276 0.0 0.1 0.4 Test solution 7 vol % H2SO43 vol % HCI 1 wt %CuCL2 1 wt % FeCl3. Test duration 72 hr, procedure ASTM G 48 B Alloy

Corrosion by Quiet & Flowing Seawater, Wrightsville Beach, NC


Quiet Flowing, 2 ft/sec Weight Range of Weight Range of Loss, Pit Depth, Loss, Pit Depth, g mils g mils Crevice Crevice Panel Area Panel Area RA625 Nil Nil Nil 0.25 Nil Nil C-276 Nil Nil Nil 0.10 Nil Nil Ren 41 0.80 Nil Nil 0.30 Nil Nil RA X 0.10 Nil Nil 0.60 Nil Nil 825 0.25 0-1 0-9 0.20 3-6 1-26 RA718 2.70 Nil 37-165P 5.15 Nil 40-165P Test duration two years. P = perforated by local attack. Alloy

Heat Treatment
For most applications to 1500F, and maximum fatigue strength, RA625 is annealed 1700-1900F, air cool or faster.

Temperature for Initiation of Crevice Corrosion in 10% Ferric Chloride


Critical Crevice Pitting Resistance Alloy Corrosion Temp, F Equivalent (PRE) N 316L 27 23 825 27 30 317L 35 29 317LXN 68 34 904L 75 35 AL-6XN 110 48 RA625 113 51 C-276 130 66 (PRE)N = %Cr + 3.3% Mo + 30%N 317LXN is a trademark of Allegheny Ludlum Corporation

10

RA600
alloy
Features
Oxidation resistance to 2000F Carburization resistance Resistant to dry Cl2 to about 1000F Virtually immune to chloride ion stress corrosion cracking Good caustic corrosion resistance

Performance Profile
RA600 is a nickel-base alloy with excellent carburization, and good oxidation resistance at elevated temperatures. RA600 has useful resistance to dry Cl2 and HCl gases at moderately elevated temperatures. RA600 is not suggested for use at red heat when sulfur is present. RA200/201 nickel is normally preferred for handling concentrated, high temperature caustic. However, when sulfur compounds are present as well, or for ammonium hydroxide service, RA600 is suggested. RA600 is subject to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in hot, concentrated caustic alkalies. To avoid SCC, the RA600 fabrication should be fully stress relieved prior to use. A minimum treatment of 1650F 1 hour is suggested, 1800-1850F 1 hour preferred.

Applications
Heat treating muffles and retorts Bar frame heat treating baskets Chlorination equipment to 1000F Pulp mill alkaline digesters Min. 72.0 14.0 -----remainder Min. 72.0 14.00 -----6.00 ----Max. -17.0 0.15 1.0 0.5 0.5 0.015

Chemical Composition, %
ASTM/ASME Nickel Chromium Carbon Manganese Copper Silicon Sulphur Iron AMS 5665* Nickel + Cobalt Chromium Carbon Manganese Copper Silicon Sulphur Iron Cobalt Columbium + Tantalum Titanium Aluminum

Mechanical Properties
Typical Room Temperature Property Range
Tensile 0.2% Yield Strength, psi Strength, psi
80,000-105,000 35,000-50,000

Elongation %
30-55

Hardness Brinell
130-180

Physical Properties
Max -17.00 0.15 1.00 0.50 0.50 0.015 10.00 1.00 1.00 0.50 0.35
Density lb/in3 Melting Range F 0.306 2470-2575 Coefficient* of Modulus of Thermal Thermal Elasticity Temp Expansion, Conductivity Dynamic, F in/inF x 10-6 Btuft/ft2hrF psi x 106 70 8.6 30 1000 8.4 13.2 25.6 1200 8.6 14.3 24.5 * 70F to indicated temperature.

Static Corrosion in Molten Caustic Soda Corrosion Rate, Mils Per Year
Alloy RA 201 RA 400 RA 600 400C (750F) 0.9 1.8 1.1 500C (932F) 1.3 5.1 2.4 580C (1076F) 2.5 17.6 5.1 680C (1256F) 37.8 66.4

Specifications
UNS N06600 W. Nr. 2.4816 ASTM B 168, B 166, B 167 ASME SB-168, SB-166, SB-167 AMS 5665 For external pressure design under ASME use figure NFN-4 of Section II, part D. In Section IX, RA600 is listed as P No. 43. NACE MR0175
*bar only

Corrosion in Dry Chlorine:


Approx. Temperature at Which Suggested Upper Given Corrosion Rate is Exceeded Temperature in Short Time Tests, F Limit for Con0.03 in. 0.12 in. 1.2 in. tinuous Service F Per Year Per Year Per Year

Alloy

RA 400 RA 200 RA 600 Copper Platinum

750 950 950 350 900

900 1100 1050 500 1000

1000 1250 1250 550* 1050

800 1000 1000 400 500

*Ignites at about 600F


11

WELDING DATA
Suggested Weld Fillers For Like Metal Joints
BASE METAL Bare Wire grade
AL-6XN 20Cb-3 RA625 RA600 RA333 RA2205 RA625 RA320LR RA625 RA82 RA333 RA2209

specification
ERNiCrMo-3 ER320LR ERNiCrMo-3 ERNiCr-3 UNS N06333 ER2209

WELD FILLERS Covered Electrodes grade


RA112 RA320LR RA112 182 RA333 RA2209

specification
ENiCrMo-3 E320LR ENiCrMo-3 ENiCrFe-3 UNS W86333 E2209

Suggested Weld Fillers for Dissimilar Metal Joints

Base Metals
AL-6XN 20Cb-3 904L, RA625 2205

Carbon or low alloy steel


82, 182 E309LMo E309L E309LMo 182 190 182 RA333 182

Stainless 304L, 316L, etc.


RA625 RA112 E309LMo E316L E309LMo 2209 82, 182 62, 182 82, 182 RA333 82, 182

Duplex 2304, 2205, 255


C-276 G-3 C-22 2209 2507 82, 182 62, 182 2209 82 2209

400*

Nickel alloy C-276, C-22, G


C-276 C-22 C-276 G-3 C-22 82, 182 62, 182 82,182 C-276 C-276 C-22

62, 182 RA112 62, 182 60, 190 60, 190 62, 182 62, 182

NICKEL 200 NICKEL-COPPER 400* RA600 RA333

*Nickel-copper alloy 400 weld metal will not tolerate above 6-8% chromium without cracking. It may be necessary to butter (overlay) the 400 with ENi-1 or ERNi-1 before making the weld to Ni-Cr-Fe alloys. Considerations in selecting a filler metal for dissimilar metal weld joints include the expected corrosive conditions at the joint and freedom from weld cracking. This suggested list of weld filler metals is based primarily on welding knowledge and experience rather than laboratory work. Final selection should be approved by the end user and dissimilar metal weld procedures qualified by the fabricator.

SPECIFICATIONS
Alloy
AL-6XN alloy A 312

UNS/ W. Nr.
N08367

Product Form
Plate, sheet, strip Welded pipe Welded tube Welded pipe, filler added Rod, bar, wire Forged flanges, fittings and valves Nickel alloy forgings Wrought welding fittings Bar and billet for reforging

ASME
SB-688 SA-240 SB-675 SA-312 SB-676 SA-249 -SB-691 SA-479 SB-462 SA-182 SB-564 SB-366 Code Case N-438-3 B-31-1 Case 155-1 SB-463 SA-240 SB-464 SB-473 SB-366 SB-443 Gr 1 SB-446 SB-168 SB-166 AMS-5593 AMS-5717

ASTM
B 688 A 240 B 675 A 312 B 676 A 249 B 804 B 691 A 479 B 462 A 182 B 564 B 366 B 472

Carpenter 20Cb-3 stainless

N08020

RA625 alloy

N06625 2.4856 N06600 2.4816 N06333 2.4608

Plate, sheet, strip Welded Pipe Bar, wire Wrought welding fittings Plate, sheet, strip Bar, wire Plate, sheet, strip Rod, bar and wire Plate, sheet, strip Bar, forgings Welded pipe Welded tube Seamless pipe and tube Plate, sheet, strip Bars and shapes Seamless and welded pipe Seamless and welded tube

RA600 RA333 alloy

RA2205

S31803 S32205 1.4462

SA-240 SA-479 SA-790 SA-789

B 463 A 240 B 464 B 473 B 366 B 443 Gr 1 B 446 B 168 B 166 B 718 B 719 B 723 B 726 B 722 A 240 A 479 A 790 A 789

12

Corrosion Tables
These tables of laboratory data are intended as guidance for what alloys might be tested in a given environment. They must NOT be used as the major basis for alloy selection, or as substitutes for competent corrosion engineering work.

Corrosion Rates in Caustic (NaOH) Alloy Notes Concentration, % 439 E-Brite 17-4PH 17-4PH 17-4PH 17-4PH 2205 2205 2205 2205 304 304L 316 316L 316Ti 316Ti 316Ti 316Ti 316Ti 316Ti 316Ti 904L AL-6XN 2525LCN 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 C-276 625 400 400 (boiling) (boiling) condition H 1075 condition H 1075 condition H 1075 condition H 1075 nitrogen purge nitrogen purge nitrogen purge (boiling) (boiling) (boiling) (boiling) (boiling) (boiling) (boiling) (boiling) (boiling) (boiling) (boiling) (boiling) (boiling) quiet immersion plant test, receiving tank 50 50 30 50 30 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 25 25 25 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 25 25 25 50 50 50 50 50 50 4 75

Temperature C F 143 143 80 80 boiling boiling 80 85 90 143 143 143 143 143 75 100 104 75 100 125 146 143 143 146 75 100 104 75 100 125 146 143 143 20 135 176 185 194 290 290 290 290 290 167 212 219 167 212 257 295 290 290 295 167 212 219 167 212 257 295 290 290 68 275 290 290 176 176

Time 5x48hr 5x48hr 5x48hr 5x48hr 5x48hr 5x48hr 96hr 96hr 96hr 5x48hr 5x48hr 5x48hr 5x48hr 5x48hr 28 days 28 days 28 days 28 days 28 days 28 days 28 days 5x48hr 5x48hr 28 days 28 days 28 days 28 days 28 days 28 days 28 days 28 days 5x48hr 5x48hr

Corrosion Rate mm/yr mils/yr 7.77 0.00024 0.18 0.10 0.28 14.2 0.6 0.12 0.15 0.61 4.65 1.8 3.12 1.98 <0.01 0.12 0.63 0.08 0.35 1.6 8.0 0.254 0.41 1.35 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.452 0.061 0.0041 0.043 306 0.1 7 4 11 560 2.4 4.8 5.8 24 183 71 123 78 0.4 4.7 25 3 14 63 315 10 16 53 <0.4 <0.4 <0.4 <0.4 <0.4 <0.4 <0.4 17.8 2.4 0.16 1.7

Ref 1 1 13 13 13 13 10 10 10 1 1 1 1 1 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 1 1 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 1 1 15 15

13

Corrosion Tables
Corrosion Rates in Caustic (NaOH) continued Alloy Notes Concentration, % nickel nickel nickel nickel nickel nickel nickel nickel 201 201 201 201 Static conditions. Above 540C (1004F), dynamic conditions increase rates dramatically 50 50 50 50 70-73 70-73 70-73 70-73 (molten) (molten) (molten) (molten) Temperature C F 40 60 55-75 150 110 90-115 120 130 400 500 580 680 100 135 130-165 300 230 190-240 245 265 750 932 1076 1256 Time Corrosion Rate mm/yr mils/yr 0.00023 0.0005 0.0005 0.013 0.0025 0.0025 0.005 0.025 0.023 0.053 0.064 0.96 0.009 0.02 0.02 0.5 0.1 0.01 0.2 1 0.9 1.3 2.5 37.8 Ref 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4

Temperature for Initiation of Crevice Corrosion in Ferric Chloride (FeCl36H2O) 10% FeCl36H2O, per ASTM G 48 Practice B, (PRE) N = Cr + 3.3Mo +30N Alloy Mo, Temperature Pitting Resistance % C F Equivalent, (PRE) N 316L 825 317L 2205 317 LXN 28 904L 904L G 28 2507 1925hMo 33 AL-6XN 625 625 31 G-30 C-276 2.1 2.7 3.2 3.1 4.4 3.5 4.4 4.4 6.5 3.5 4.0 6.2 1.4 6.2 9.0 9.0 6.5 5.5 15.4 -3 -3 2 20 20 24 24 25 30 35 35 40 40 43 45 55 55 50 55 27 27 35 68 68 75 75 77 86 95 95 104 104 110 113 131 131 122 130 23 30 29 38 34 38 35 35 43 39 47 47 50 48 51 51 54 48 66

Ref 1 1 1 1 1 22 1 19 1 19 19 19 19 1 1 22 22 19 1

Corrosion Rates in Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) Alloy Notes Concentration, % 17-4PH 17-4PH 2205 2205 2205 2507 2507 2507 2507 317L condition H 1075 condition H 1075 plus 0.3% FeCl3 plus 0.3% FeCl3 plus 0.3% FeCl3 welded w 25.10.4.L 0.5 1 1 1 1 1 1.3 1.3 3 1

Temperature C F 35 35 30 45 55 104 40 40 30 boiling


14

Time 5x48hr 5x48hr 96hr 96hr 96hr 28 days 28 days

Corrosion Rate mm/yr mils/yr 0.08 13.2 0.01 0.20 0.38 0.10 0.02 2.58 0.10 1.38 3 518 0.2 7.8 15 4 0.8 102 4 54.3

Ref 13 13 10 10 10 14 21 21 14 1

95 95 86 113 131 218 104 104 86

Corrosion Tables
Corrosion Rates in Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) continued Alloy Notes Concentration, % 904L 904L welded 1.3 1.3 Temperature C F 40 40 104 104 Time 28 days 28 days Corrosion Rate mm/yr mils/yr 0.47 0.54 18.5 21.3 Ref 21 21

1925hMo 1925hMo AL-6XN AL-6XN AL-6XN AL-6XN AL-6XN AL-6XN AL-6XN AL-6XN AL-6XN AL-6XN AL-6XN AL-6XN AL-6XN AL-6XN AL-6XN AL-6XN AL-6XN 31 31 31 31 33 33 825 825 825 825 825 825 825 825 825 825 RA333 RA333 RA333 RA333 RA333 RA333 RA333 RA333

welded w 625 welded w 33

1.3 1.3 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 3 4 5 6 pH 1.5 pH 1.0 pH 0.5 pH 1.0 pH 1.5 pH 1.0 5 10 20 30 1.3 1.3 5 5 5 10 10 10 15 20 concentrated concentrated 2 5 15 25 37 2 5 15

40 40 boiling 23 23 23 23 23 23 52 52 52 52 65.5 65.5 65.5 79.4 93.3 93.3 50 20 20 20 40 40 20 220 66 20 220 66 20 220 220 66 27 27 27 27 27 66 66 66

104 104

28 days 28 days 28 days 28 days

<0.01 0.42 1.49 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.102 0.216 0.270 0.553 0.348 1.698 1.935 0.0009 0.0010 0.9139 0.0009 0.0008 0.0008 0.01 0.3 0.2 0.12 <0.01 <0.01 0.124 0.452 2.0 0.183 0.472 2.59 0.185 1.52 12.2 28.7 0.17 0.22 0.17 0.16 0.58 1.5 5.0 4.9

<0.4 16.5 58.7 0.12 0.12 0.12 4.02 8.82 10.6 21.8 13.7 66.9 76.2 0.035 0.039 36.0 0.035 0.031 0.031 0.4 12 8 4.7 <0.4 <0.4 4.9 17.8 79 7.2 18.6 102 7.3 60 480 1130 6.6 8.5 6.6 6.4 23 60 196 194

21 21 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 23 23 23 23 21 21 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

78 78 78 78 78 78 126 126 126 126 150 150 150 175 200 200 122 68 68 68 104 104 68 104 150 68 104 150 68 104 104 150 80 80 80 80 80 150 150 150

15

Corrosion Tables
Corrosion Rates in Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) continued Alloy Notes Concentration, % G-30 G-30 G-30 G-30 5 10 20 30 Temperature C F 50 20 20 20 122 68 68 68 Time Corrosion Rate mm/yr mils/yr 0.49 0.5 0.5 0.5 19 20 20 20 Ref 23 23 23 23

C-276 C-276 C-276 C-276 C-276 C-276 C-22 C-22 C-22 C-22 C-22 C-22 625 625 625 625 625 625 625 625 625 400 400 400 B-2 B-2 B-2 B-2 B-2 B-2

welded w 625 no aeration no aeration no aeration

1 1 1.5 2 2 3 1 1.5 2 2 3 3 1.3 1.3 5 10 15 20 25 30 concentrated 0.5 1 5 1 2 5 10 15 20

boiling boiling boiling 90 boiling boiling boiling boiling 90 boiling 90 boiling 40 40 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 boiling boiling boiling boiling boiling boiling boiling boiling boiling 104 104 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 194 194 194

28 days 28 days 10days 10days 10days 120hr 120hr 120hr 120hr 120hr 120hr

0.25 0.34 0.74 0.025 1.55 1.78 0.076 0.28 nil 1.55 <1 2.13 <0.01 0.09 1.8 2.1 1.7 1.3 1.0 0.9 0.4 0.74 1.07 1.12 0.02 0.08 0.13 0.18 0.28 0.38

10 13.4 29 1 61 70 3 11 nil 61 <1 84 <0.4 3.5 71 81 65 50 38 34 15 29 42 44 0.8 3 5 7 11 15

7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 21 21 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 15 15 15 11 11 11 11 11 11

Corrosion Rates in Hydrofluoric Acid (HF) Alloy Notes Concentration, % 316 316 316 316 316 316 3 5 5 1 2 5

Temperature C F 21 21 40 50 50 50 70 70 104 122 122 122

Time

Corrosion Rate mm/yr mils/yr 1.25 2.33 7.8 1.82 5.3 15.9 49.1 91.8 306 71.8 209 626

Ref 1 1 1 1 1 1

16

Corrosion Tables
Corrosion Rates in Hydrofluoric Acid (HF) continued Alloy Notes Concentration, % Temperature C F 904L 904L 904L 904L 904L 904L 904L 904L 904L 904L 904L AL-6XN AL-6XN AL-6XN AL-6XN AL-6XN AL-6XN AL-6XN AL-6XN AL-6XN AL-6XN AL-6XN C-276 C-276 C-22 C-22 625 625 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 C71500 C70600 saturated with air saturated with air saturated with air saturated with air purged with nitrogen purged with nitrogen purged with nitrogen purged with nitrogen vapor purged w. N2 vapor purged w. N2 vapor purged w. N2 3 5 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 3 5 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 2 5 2 5 2 5 25 25 50 50 25 25 50 50 48 48 48 21 21 40 50 50 50 50 50 70 70 70 21 21 40 50 50 50 50 50 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 30 80 30 80 30 80 30 80 108 108 108 70 70 104 122 122 122 122 122 158 158 158 70 70 104 122 122 122 122 122 158 158 158 158 158 158 158 158 158 86 176 86 176 86 176 86 176 226 226 226 Time 24hr 24hr 24hr 24hr 48hr 48hr 48hr 48hr 96hr 96hr 96hr Corrosion Rate mm/yr mils/yr 0.125 0.18 0.73 0.23 0.71 0.85 1.36 1.82 0.99 2.0 3.31 0.08 0.20 0.82 0.10 0.43 0.98 1.42 2.0 0.54 1.98 3.05 0.23 0.25 0.23 0.36 0.51 0.41 1 0.28 0.2 1 0.005 0.061 <0.003 0.01 0.457 0.083 0.067 4.9 7.2 28.8 9.2 28 33.5 53.5 71.6 39 80.2 130 3.2 8.0 32.4 4.1 16.9 38.4 55.9 78.7 21.1 78 120 9 10 9 14 20 16 37 11 8 39 0.2 2.4 <0.1 0.5 18.0 3.25 2.64 Ref 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7 7 7 7 7 7 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 24 24 24

17

Corrosion Tables
Corrosion Rates in Hydrofluoric Acid (HF) continued Alloy Notes Concentration, % Temperature C F 400 400 400 400 400 400 C71500 C71500 C71500 vapor purged w. N2 vapor purged w. N2 vapor purged w. N2 anhydrous anhydrous anhydrous anhydrous anhydrous anhydrous 50 65 70 60 60 60 16/27 27/38 82/88 27/38 54 82/88 140 140 140 60/80 80/100 100/200 80/100 130 180/190 Time 35 day 35 day 35 day 6-40 day 6-40 day 6-40 day 6-40 day 6-40 day 6-40 day Corrosion Rate mm/yr mils/yr 0.462 0.122 0.137 0.081 0.23 0.12 0.05 0.008 0.25 18.2 4.80 5.4 3.2 0.9 4.7 2.0 0.3 10 Ref 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24

Corrosion Rates in Nitric Acid (HNO3) Alloy Notes Concentration, % 17-4PH 17-4PH 17-4PH 17-4PH 2205 2205 304 304L 304L 304L 304L 304L 304L 304L 304L 304L 304L 316 316 316 316 316L 316L 316Ti 316Ti 316Ti 316Ti 316Ti 316Ti 317L condition H 1075 condition H 1075 condition H 1075 H 1075 + 1%HF plus 3%HF plus 3%HF plus 2%HCl A 262 C plus 3%HF plus 3%HF plus 5%HF plus 7%HF plus 3%HF plus 5%HF plus 7%HF 25 50 65 10 65 65.3 65 10 75 75 75 80 80 80 85 85 85 5 10 60 65 65.3 10 20 20 20 20 20 20 65.3

Temperature C F boiling boiling boiling 35 boiling boiling 116 70 25 50 75 25 50 75 25 50 75 68 90 50 boiling boiling 70 25 25 25 50 50 50 boiling 158 77 77 77 122 122 122 241 158 77 122 167 77 122 167 77 122 167 155 194 122 95

Time 5x48hr 5x48hr 5x48hr 5x48hr 240hr 4hr >21 days >21 days >21 days >21 days >21 days >21 days >21 days >21 days >21 days 24hr 4hr 3x168hr 3x168hr 3x168hr 168hr 168hr 168hr

Corrosion Rate mm/yr mils/yr 0.18 1.2 2.72 38 0.20 0.13 0.23 157 <0.4 0.4 4.8 <0.4 0.4 3.5 1.3 1.3 15 4.18 0.22 0.28 0.872 0.25 64.6 3.70 6.90 6.32 19.2 27.1 37.2 0.21 7 47 107 1500 7.9 5.3 9 6410 <17 17 189 <17 17 138 52 52 590 165 9 11 34 9.8 2540 146 272 249 758 1070 1465 8.3

Ref 13 13 13 13 8 9 1 1 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 1 1 1 1 9 1 19 19 19 19 19 19 9

18

Corrosion Tables
Corrosion Rates in Nitric Acid (HNO3) continued Alloy Notes Concentration, % 310S 310L 310L 310L 310L 310L 310L 310L 310L 310L AL-6XN AL-6XN AL-6XN 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 plus 3%HF plus 3%HF plus 3%HF A 262 C plus 0.9% HF plus 3.5% HF plus 3% HF plus 5% HF plus 7% HF plus 3% HF plus 5% HF plus 7% HF plus 0.4% HF plus 0.4% HF plus 0.4% HF plus 0.4% HF plus 0.9%HF plus 3.5%HF plus 3%HF plus 5%HF plus 7%HF plus 3%HF plus 5%HF plus 7%HF plus 0.4%HF plus 0.4%HF plus 0.4%HF plus 0.4%HF 10 75 75 75 80 80 80 85 85 85 5 10 65 12 12 12 20 20 20 20 20 20 32 44.5 56 67.5 75 75 75 80 80 80 85 85 85 12 12 12 20 20 20 20 20 20 32 44.5 56 67.5 Temperature C F 70 25 50 75 25 50 75 25 50 75 68 70 boiling 90 90 90 25 25 25 50 50 50 90 90 90 90 25 50 75 25 50 75 25 50 75 90 90 90 25 25 25 50 50 50 90 90 90 90 194 194 194 77 77 77 122 122 122 194 194 194 194 77 122 167 77 122 167 77 122 167 194 194 194 77 77 77 122 122 122 194 194 194 194 158 77 122 167 77 122 167 77 122 167 155 158 Time 4hr >21 days >21 days >21 days >21 days >21 days >21 days >21 days >21 days >21 days 4hr 24hr 504 504 504 3x168 3x168 3x168 3x168 3x168 3x168 504 504 504 504 >21 days >21 days >21 days >21 days >21 days >21 days >21 days >21 days >21 days 504 504 504 3x168hr 3x168hr 3x168hr 3x168hr 3x168hr 3x168hr 504 504 504 504 Corrosion Rate mm/yr mils/yr 9.36 <0.4 <0.4 3.5 <0.4 0.9 2.6 1.3 0.9 6.1 1.55 2.56 0.738 < 6.4 23 0.033 0.045 0.067 0.20 0.32 0.46 1.1 2.0 3.8 6.1 <0.4 <0.4 1.3 <0.4 <0.4 <0.4 <0.4 <0.4 3.1 < 0.27 1.3 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.089 0.12 0.19 0.30 0.75 1.8 3.4 369 <17 <17 138 <17 34 103 52 34 240 61 101 29 <0.4 251 908 1.3 1.8 2.6 7.9 13 18 42 78 148 239 <17 <17 52 <17 <17 <17 <17 <17 121 <0.4 10.5 52 0.4 0.4 0.9 3.5 4.8 7.4 12 29 73 135 Ref 1 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 1 1 1 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19

19

Corrosion Tables
Corrosion Rates in Nitric Acid (HNO3) continued Alloy Notes Concentration, % 800 20Cb-3 825 825 RA333 RA333 RA333 RA333 plus 3%HF plus 3%HF plus 3%HF plus 1%HF mill annealed anneal + 1250F 1hr anneal + 1700F 1hr anneal + 1700F 1hr + 1250F 1 hr plus 1%HF plus 6%HF plus 1%HF plus 3%HF plus 3%HF plus 0.9%HF plus 3.5%HF plus 0.4%HF plus 0.4%HF plus 0.4%HF plus 0.4%HF plus 3%HF plus 2%HCl plus 3%HF plus 3%HF plus 0.9%HF plus 3.5%HF plus 0.4%HF plus 0.4%HF plus 0.4%HF plus 0.4%HF 10 10 10 53 65 65 65 65 Temperature C F 70 70 70 80 boiling boiling boiling boiling 158 158 158 176 Time 4hr 4hr 4hr 336hr 5x48hr 5x48hr 5x48hr 5x48hr Corrosion Rate mm/yr mils/yr 18.6 7.65 3.02 5.1 1.07 3.96 0.292 0.292 732 301 119 200 42 156 11.5 11.5 Ref 1 1 1 12 3 3 3 3

G-30 G-30 G-30 G-30 G-30 G-30 G-30 G-30 G-30 G-30 G-30 G-30 G-30 G-30 C-276 C-276 C-276 C-276 C-22 625 625 690 690 690 690 690 690 690

20 20 50 10 5 10 60 12 12 12 32 44.5 56 67.5 10 10 65 60 10 10 65 12 12 12 32 44.5 56 67.5

80 80 80 70 68 boiling boiling 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 70 116 50 70 70 boiling 90 90 90 90 90 90 90

176 176 176 158 155

194 194 194 194 194 194 194 194 158 241 122 158 158

4hr 504 504 504 504 504 504 504 4hr 4hr 4hr 504 504 504 504 504 504 504

0.85 3.6 4.9 1.04 0.741 0.02 0.13 < 0.3 1.3 0.55 1.61 2.66 5.0 <0.01 6.71 0.74 0.21 1.71 3.96 0.76 <0.01 0.678 7.06 1.62 2.19 5.22 8.26

34 140 192 41 29 0.7 53 <0.4 12.3 5.3 21.5 63.5 105 197 0.2 264 29 8.2 67 156 30 <0.4 27 278 64 86.3 205 325

6 6 6 1 1 6 6 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 2 1 2 2 1 1 16 19 19 19 19 19 19 19

194 194 194 194 194 194 194

Corrosion Rates in Phosphoric Acid (H3PO4) Alloy Notes Concentration, % 17-4PH 17-4PH 17-4PH 17-4PH 2205 condition H 1075 condition H 1075 condition H 1075 condition H 1075 2.5 20 50 70 70

Temperature C F boiling boiling boiling boiling 110


20

Time 5x48hr 5x48hr 5x48hr 5x48hr

Corrosion Rate mm/yr mils/yr nil 0.025 0.08 1.5 0.22 nil 1 3 60 8.7

Ref 13 13 13 13 9

230

Corrosion Tables
Corrosion Rates in Phosphoric Acid (H3PO4) continued Alloy Notes Concentration, % Temperature C F 304 304 316 316 316 316L 317L 310L 310L 310L 654 SMO 654 SMO 654 SMO AL-6XN AL-6XN AL-6XN AL-6XN AL-6XN AL-6XN AL-6XN 28 28 28 31 33 33 33 825 825 825 825 G-30 G-30 G-30 G-30 G-30 G-30 G-30 C-22 C-22 C-22 plus 800ppm Clplus 1% HF %P2O5 chemically pure chemically pure chemically pure wet process acid +20%HF % P2O5 % P2O5 + 2000ppm Cl% P2O5 % P2O5 + 2000ppm Cl 50 70 20 54 60 70 70 85 85 85 85 85 85 10 10 10 20 54 70 70 85 85 85 54 85 85 85 60 70 85 20 44 44 52 54 85 85 85 85 85 85 boiling boiling boiling boiling boiling 110 110 100 100 154 100 100 154 120 135 150 boiling boiling 100 100 100 100 154 120 100 100 154 212 212 212 212 309 250 212 212 309 230 230 212 212 309 212 212 307 248 275 302 Time 5x48hr 5x48hr 24hr 168hr 24hr 24hr 168hr 24hr 120hr 120hr 120hr 5x48hr 168hr 168hr 24hr 168hr 24hr 24hr 168hr 24hr 3x20hr 4x20hr 4x20hr 624hr 24hr 168hr 24hr 24hr 168hr 24hr Corrosion Rate mm/yr mils/yr 0.18 0.81 0.183 0.580 0.305 3.9 2.4 0.15 0.25 >200 0.39 0.17 4.0 0.021 0.197 0.400 0.006 0.015 1.22 0.518 0.19 0.05 1.4 0.05 0.2 0.08 0.07 0.17 0.18 1.3 0.036 0.18 0.19 0.70 0.18 0.30 0.04 1.33 0.19 0.05 1.08 7 32 7.2 2.28 12 154 95 5.9 9.8 >7900 15 6.7 157 0.81 7.76 15.75 0.24 0.059 48 20.4 7.5 2.0 55 2 7.9 3.15 42 6.8 7.1 50 1.4 7.0 7.7 28 7 12 1.6 52 7.5 2.0 42.5 Ref 13 13 1 1 1 9 9 19 19 19 19 19 19 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 19 19 19 23 19 19 19 12 12 12 12 6 6 6 6 19 19 19 19 19 19

boiling boiling boiling 21-29 70-85 116 116 149 116 100 100 154 100 100 154
21

241 241 300 241 212 212 309 212 212 309

Corrosion Tables
Corrosion Rates in Phosphoric Acid (H3PO4) Alloy Notes Concentration, % 625 B-2 B-2 B-2 B-2 plus 0.8% HF chemically pure chemically pure chemically pure chemically pure 55 10 30 50 85 Temperature C F boiling boiling boiling boiling boiling Time 48hr 120hr 120hr 120hr 120hr Corrosion Rate mm/yr mils/yr 0.42 0.05 0.08 0.15 0.63 16.5 2 3 6 25 Ref 16 11 11 11 11

Corrosion Rates in Sulphuric Acid (H2SO4) Alloy Notes Concentration, % 17-4PH 17-4PH 17-4PH 17-4PH 17-4PH 17-4PH 2205 2205 2205 2205 2205 2205 2507 2507 304 304 304 304 304 316 316 316 316 316 316 316 316 316 316 316 316Ti 316Ti Nitronic 50 Nitronic 50 Nitronic 50 Nitronic 50 Nitronic 50 Nitronic 50 condition H 1075 condition H 1075 condition H 1075 condition H 1075 condition H 1075 condition H 1075 nitrogen purge nitrogen purge nitrogen purge nitrogen purge nitrogen purge nitrogen purge plus 2000 ppm Clplus 2000 ppm Cl plant test 1 m/s reagent grade + 59ppm Cl + 119ppm Cl + 1187ppm Cl + 10600ppm Cl reagent grade + 80ppm Cl + 135ppm Cl + 1277ppm Cl + 10900 ppm Cl plant test 1 m/s plant test 1.2 m/s industrial grade 2 5 1 2 98 98 10 10 10 60 96.4 96.4 10 20 1 5 1 95 96-98.5 10 10 10 10 10 10 30 30 30 30 30 96-98.5 99.1 80 80 93 93 98 98

Temperature C F 35 35 80 80 35 80 55 60 70 15 20 25 67 23 35 35 80 30 95 95 176 176 95 176 131 140 158 59 68 77 153 73 95 95 176 86 135-140C boiling 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 176 176 176 176 176 176 176 176 176 176 135-140C 302 176 212 212 248 212 248
22

Time 5x48hr 5x48hr 5x48hr 5x48hr 5x48hr 5x48hr 96hr 96hr 96hr 96hr 96hr 96hr 5x48hr 5x48hr 5x48hr 14 days 5x48hr 5x48hr 5x48hr 5x48hr 5x48hr 5x48hr 5x48hr 48hr 48hr 5x48hr 5x48hr 14 days 134 days 3x48hr 48hr 3x48hr 3x48hr 3x48hr 3x48hr

Corrosion Rate mm/yr mils/yr nil 0.28 0.025 0.33 nil 0.18 0.06 0.17 0.32 4.0 0.11 0.14 0.10 0.10 0.71 6.1 8.9 0.28 0.18 nil 11 1 13 nil 7 2.3 6.7 13 157 4.4 5.4 4 4 28 240 350 11 7.1

Ref 13 13 13 13 13 13 10 10 10 10 10 10 14 14 13 13 13 2 21 1 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 21 21 18 18 18 18 18 18

9.42 371 2.3 91 5.56 219 5.6 221 2.0 80 6.3 250 60.34 2375 dissolved dissolved 10.4 407 8.84 348 0.24 0.81 0.05 66.5 9.25 9.73 0.24 0.23 9.4 32 2.0 2620 364 383 9.4 9.3

150 80 100 100 120 100 120

Corrosion Tables
Corrosion Rates in Sulphuric Acid (H2SO4) continued Alloy Notes Concentration, % A 611 A 611 A 611 A 611 A 611 A 611 1018 20Cb-3 RA330 RA333 600 310L 310L 310L 310L 310L AL-6XN AL-6XN AL-6XN AL-6XN AL-6XN AL-6XN AL-6XN AL-6XN AL-6XN 904L 904L 904L 904L 904L 904L 904L 904L 904L alloy 31 alloy 31 alloy 31 alloy 31 alloy 31 alloy 31 alloy 31 alloy 31 alloy 31 alloy 31 alloy 31 alloy 31 plant test 1m/s plus 0.15% Oakite PC-10 inhibitor reagent grade + 10,000ppm Cl + 10,000ppm Cl technical grade technical grade technical grade technical grade technical grade technical grade technical grade technical grade technical grade technical grade technical grade technical grade 98 98 98 98 98 98-98.5 15 15 15 15 15 98 98 98 98 98 pH 1.5 pH 1.0 pH 0.5 pH 0.5 pH 1.5 pH 1.0 pH 0.5 10 10 10 10 5 10 10 30 45 90 96 20 40 60 80 20 40 60 80 20 40 60 80 Temperature C F 100 125 150 175 200 212 257 302 347 392 135-140C 160 160 160 160 160 212 257 302 347 392 150 150 150 175 200 200 200 boiling boiling boiling boiling 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 60 60 60 60 80 80 80 80 100 100 100 100 176 176 176 176 176 176 176 140 140 140 140 176 176 176 176 212 212 212 212 Time 168hr 168hr 168hr 168hr 168hr 14 days 168hr 168hr 168hr 168hr 168hr 5x48hr 5x48hr 5x48hr 5x48hr 3x48hr 3x48hr 3x48hr 3x48hr 3x48hr 3x48hr 3x48hr Corrosion Rate mm/yr mils/yr 0.02 0.36 0.81 0.70 0.61 0.03 7.44 0.127 0.461 0.241 0.205 0.38 0.43 0.98 0.38 0.07 0.0007 0.0007 0.0013 0.0013 0.0013 0.0027 0.541 2.14 2.34 2.52 2.56 0.005 0.013 2.87 4.01 1.9 3.86 3.30 0.001 0.002 0.002 0.004 0.002 0.004 0.010 0.019 0.007 0.016 0.025 6.220 0.79 14 32 28 24 1.2 293 5 18.8 9.85 8.07 15 17 39 15 2.8 0.029 0.029 0.053 0.053 0.053 0.11 21.3 84.4 92.3 99.4 101 0.2 0.5 113 158 75 152 130 0.04 0.08 0.08 0.16 0.08 0.16 0.39 0.75 0.28 0.63 0.98 245 Ref 19 19 19 19 19 21 3 3 3 3 3 19 19 19 19 19 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22

71 71 71 71 71 100 125 150 175 200 65.6 65.6 65.6 79.4 93.3 93.3 93.3

23

Corrosion Tables
Corrosion Rates in Sulphuric Acid (H2SO4) continued Alloy Notes Concentration, % 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 20Cb-3 20Cb-3 20Cb-3 20Cb.3 20Cb-3 20Cb-3 20Cb-3 20Cb-3 20Cb-3 20Cb-3 20Cb-3 20Cb-3 20Cb-3 20Cb-3 20Cb-3 20Cb-3 20Cb-3 20Cb-3 20Cb-3 N08020 825 825 825 825 825 825 825 825 825 825 825 825 825 825 825 825 825 825 825 825 plant test 1m/s plant test 1.2m/sec reagent grade + 59ppm Cl + 119ppm Cl + 594ppm Cl + 859ppm Cl + 1187ppm Cl + 10600ppm Cl + 10,000ppm Cl reagent grade + 32ppm Cl + 85ppm Cl + 1055ppm Cl + 10,625ppm Cl + 10,000ppm Cl (control alloy) C.P. acid C.P. acid C.P. acid C.P. acid C.P. acid C.P. acid C.P. acid C.P. acid C.P. acid C.P. acid C.P. acid C.P. acid plant acid plant acid plant acid plant acid plant acid plus 22% HNO3 plus 22% HNO3 plant test 1m/s 98 98 98 98 98 96-98.5 99.1 5 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 30 30 30 30 30 30 45 90 96 60 40 40 40 50 50 50 60 60 60 80 80 80 25.3 25.3 50.3 50.3 50.3 50 50 99.1 Temperature C F 100 212 125 257 150 302 175 347 200 392 135-140C 150 302 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 50 50 100 boiling 50 100 boiling 50 100 boiling 50 100 boiling 50 boiling 50 100 boiling 66 83 150 150 182 302 122 212 122 122 212 122 212 122 212 176 176 176 176 176 176 176 176 176 176 176 176 176 176 176 176 176 176 176 122 122 212 Time 168hr 168hr 168hr 168hr 168hr 14 days 134 days 3x48hr 3x48hr 5x48hr 5x48hr 5x48hr 5x48hr 5x48hr 5x48hr 5x48hr 3x48hr 5x48hr 5x48hr 5x48hr 5x48hr 5x48hr 3x48hr 3x48hr 3x48hr 3x48hr 96hr 168hr 168hr 48hr 168hr 168hr 48hr 168hr 48hr 48hr 168hr 168hr 48hr 168hr 48hr 168hr 168hr 48hr 288hr 240hr 134 days Corrosion Rate mm/yr mils/yr 0.04 0.07 0.08 0.16 0.04 <0.01 <0.01 0.0038 0.066 0.065 0.098 0.094 0.18 0.34 0.37 1.1 0.97 0.24 0.21 0.22 0.42 2.0 1.8 0.16 0.343 0.48 0.02 0.013 0.36 0.28 0.025 0.36 0.51 0.10 0.51 3.05 0.13 0.51 34.5 0.013 0.41 0.13 1.3 48.8 0.013 0.11 1.46 1.6 2.8 3.2 6.3 1.6 <0.4 <0.4 0.15 2.6 2.5 3.9 3.7 7 14 15 43 38 9.4 8.2 8.9 16 80 70 6.3 13.5 19 0.9 0.5 14.0 11.0 1.0 14.0 20.0 4.0 20.0 120 5.0 20.0 1360 0.5 16 5.0 50 1920 0.5 4.3 57.5 Ref 19 19 19 19 19 21 21 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 10 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 21

24

Corrosion Tables
Corrosion Rates in Sulphuric Acid (H2SO4) continued Alloy Notes Concentration, % G-30 G-30 G-30 G-30 G-30 G-30 G-30 G-30 G-30 G-30 C-276 C-276 C-276 C-276 C-276 C-276 C-276 C-276 C-276 C-276 C-276 C-276 C-276 C-276 C-276 C-276 C-276 C-276 C-276 C-22 C-22 C-22 C-22 C-22 C-22 C-22 C-22 625 625 625 625 625 625 400 400 400 400 400 400 plus 10%HNO3 plus 5%HNO3 plus 0.5%HNO3 plus 0.5%HNO3 plant test 1/ms technical grade technical grade technical grade technical grade technical grade technical grade technical grade technical grade technical grade technical grade technical grade technical grade industrial grade +10,000ppm Cl plus 4.9% HF boiling boiling boiling boiling boiling boiling 25 50 80 99 99 50 60 70 70 96-98.5 10 20 20 30 30 70 95 20 40 60 80 20 40 60 80 20 40 60 80 10 10 10 20 20 30 30 70 15 50 60 70 80 28 5 10 19 50 75 96 Temperature C F boiling 107 52 130 140 225 125 226 284 boiling boiling boiling boiling 135-140C boiling 79 boiling 79 boiling 38 30 60 60 60 60 80 80 80 80 100 100 100 100 boiling boiling boiling 79 boiling 79 boiling 38 80 80 80 80 80 49-79 101 102 104 123 182 293 100 176 176 176 176 176 120-175 214 216 219 253 360 560 174 174 100 86 140 140 140 140 176 176 176 176 212 212 212 212 174 174 Time 14 days 3x48hr 3x48hr 23hr 23hr 23hr 20hr 20hr 3hr Corrosion Rate mm/yr mils/yr 0.19 1.05 0.3 0.86 1.2 0.41 1.1 3.4 3.4 0.08 1.1 0.076 1.1 0.10 1.4 nil <0.01 0.015 0.036 0.031 0.021 0.102 0.081 0.088 0.372 0.172 0.247 0.287 6.220 0.12 3.26 0.28 0.025 0.84 0.076 1.6 nil 0.19 0.43 0.71 1.6 2.3 1.2 0.086 0.061 0.19 16.5 58.4 83.8 7.5 42 12 34 46 16 45 133 133 3.1 43 3 42 4 55 nil 0.12 0.59 1.4 1.2 0.83 4.02 3.19 3.46 14.6 6.77 9.72 11.3 245 4.5 128 11 1 33 3 64 nil 7.4 17 28 64 90 49 3.4 2.4 7.5 650 2300 3300 Ref 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 21 7 7 7 7 7 7 2 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 18 18 7 7 7 7 7 7 16 16 16 16 16 16 15 15 15 15 15 15

25

Corrosion Tables
Corrosion Rates in Sulphuric Acid (H2SO4) continued Alloy Notes Concentration, % B-2 B-2 B-2 B-2 B-2 B-2 B-2 B-2 B-2 2 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Temperature C F boiling boiling boiling boiling boiling boiling boiling boiling boiling Time 120hr 120hr 120hr 120hr 120hr 120hr 120hr 120hr 120hr Corrosion Rate mm/yr mils/yr <0.02 0.08 0.05 <0.02 <0.02 <0.03 0.03 0.05 0.23 0.5 3 2 0.7 0.7 0.9 1 2 9 Ref 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11

References 1. AL-6XN alloy PHYSICAL, MECHANICAL and CORROSION PROPERTIES, Bulletin No. 210, Rolled Alloys 2. H.E. Deverell, C.R. Finn and G.E. Moller, Corrosion Performance of 6 percent Molybdenum Austenitic Alloys AL-6X and AL-6XN, Corrosion 88, Paper No. 313, NACE, Houston, Texas 3. RA333, Bulletin No. 110, Rolled Alloys 4. Corrosion Engineering Bulletin CEB-2, INCO, New York 5. Metals Handbook Ninth Edition Vol. 13, ASM, Ohio 6. HASTELLOY alloy G-30, Bulletin H-2028, Haynes International, Kokomo, Indiana 7. HASTELLOY alloy C-276, Bulletin H-2002B, Haynes International, Kokomo, Indiana 8. Rolled Alloys Investigation 97-29 9. Steve Bukovinsky, Henrik Gripenberg, Ulf Lundell, Mats Tynell, SANDVIK SAF 2205 a high-performance ferritic-austenitic stainless steel, bulletin S51-26-ENG, Steel Research Centre, Sandvik AB, Sandviken, Sweden 10. MTI-1 11. HASTELLOY Alloy B-2, Bulletin H2006C, Haynes International, Kokomo, Indiana 12. INCOLOY alloy 825, Bulletin T-37, Huntington Alloys Inc., Huntington West Virginia 13. Armco 17PH Precipitation-Hardening Stainless Steel, Product Data Bulletin No. FS-11, Armco Advanced Materials Co., Butler, Pennsylvania, 1994 14. Sandvik SAF 2507, Bulletin S-1875-ENG, Sandvik AB, Sandviken, Sweden 1997 15. MONEL alloys, Bulletin T-5, Huntington Alloys Inc., Huntington, West Virginia 16. INCONEL alloy 625, Bulletin T-42, Huntington Alloys Inc., Huntington, West Virginia 17. Corrosion Engineering Bulletin CEB-5, INCO, New York 18. Private correspondence, Carpenter Technology Corporation, 1991 19. Paper No. 338, Corrosion 95, NACE International, Houston, Texas 1995 20. Paper No. 115, Corrosion 97, NACE International, Houston, Texas, 1997 21. Paper No. 428 22. R. Kirchheiner, H. Portisch, R. Solomon, M. Jahudka and J. Ettere, Designing Components for Water Treatment Units for Radioactive Waste Liquids in a Modern NiCrMo-Alloy, Corrosion 98, Paper 166, NACE International, Houston, Texas 1998 23. Nicrofer 3127 hMo - alloy 31 Material Data Sheet No. 4031 Edition of August 1997 24. T. F. Degnan, "Materials for Handling Hydrofluoric, Nitric and Sulfuric Acids", in Process Industries Corrosion, National Association of Corrosion Engineers, Houston, Texas 1975

Trademarks RA333 and RA330 are registered trademarks of Rolled Alloys Inc. AL-6XN, AL 29-4C and E-BRITE are registered trademarks, and 317LXN a trademark, of ATI Properties, Inc. 20Cb-3 is a registered trademark of Carpenter Technology Corporation Nicrofer is a registered trademark of Krupp VDM GmbH HASTELLOY is a registered trademark of Haynes International INCOLOY, INCONEL and MONEL are registered trademarks of Special Metals, Inc. NITRONIC and 17-4PH are registered trademarks of AK Steel Corporation Oakite is a registered trademark of Oakite Products Inc.

26

Forms of Corrosion
General Corrosion This is the most common form of corrosion, accounting for the greatest tonnage loss of metal. It is characterized by relatively uniform attack of the entire area exposed to the corrosive environment. Rusting steel exposed to the weather is a common example. Since the attack is linear with time, the life of equipment subject to general corrosion is reasonably predictable. Localized corrosion modes, such as pitting, crevice and stress corrosion, are more difficult to predict and tend to cause premature equipment failures. Uniform corrosion rates may be stated as an average metal thickness loss with time, mils per year or mm per year. A convenient rating for metals subject to uniform attack based on corrosion rates is as follows: Excellent rate less than 5 mils/year (0.13mm/year). Metals suitable for making critical parts. rate 5 to 50 mils/year (0.13 1.3mm/year). Metals generally suitable for non-critical parts where a higher rate of attack can be tolerated. rates over 50 mils/year (1.3mm/ year). Metals usually not acceptable in the environment. nickel or the high nickel alloy RA600 are used. For sulphuric acid additions of both molybdenum and copper are beneficial. 20Cb-3 is often chosen. However, if chlorides are present in the acid, a higher molybdenum grade such as AL-6XN would be preferred. AL-6XN is used for organic acids, such as napthenic acid in refinery service. For nitric acid service chromium is beneficial, molybdenum not, so alloys selected include 304L or a low carbon version of 310. RA333 is used when the same piece of equipment must see very high temperatures, in the red heat range, in one zone and aqueous corrosion in another. Stress Corrosion Cracking 95% of chemical plant equipment corrosion failures are from chloride stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of 316L stainless. The source of stress to cause cracking is usually a combination of residual forming and welding stresses. Chlorides concentrate from trace amounts present in the cooling water, as well as from the product itself. If chlorides cannot be eliminated, or prevented from concentrating, an alloy change may be considered. The most cost-effective choice is a duplex stainless such as RA2205. This grade may handle many of the environments which crack 316L over a few years time. More severe, or low pH, environments require higher nickel grades such as AL-6XN alloy, 20Cb-3 stainless, RA333 alloy, or alloys 625, 600 or C-276. Alloys with 45% or more nickel are considered practically immune to chloride SCC. Another form of stress corrosion cracking is polythionic acid stress corrosion cracking (PASCC), caused by sulphur compounds in the environment. Any sensitized stainless, or nickel alloy, can be subject to PASCC. To resist this form of SCC the alloy must contain a strong carbide forming element, or stabilizing element, such as columbium (niobium) or titanium. Examples include 321, 347,

Satisfactory

Unsatisfactory

A very, very rough ranking of alloys by increasing resistance to general corrosion would be 304L, 316L, RA2205, 20Cb-3 stainless, RA333, AL-6XN alloy, RA625 and C-276. Alloy selection does depend upon the exact corrosive environment in question!! See the Corrosion Tables for general guidance. Some specific examples include hot concentrated caustic, where commercially pure

27

Forms of Corrosion, Cont'd.


20Cb-3, and 625. In addition the alloy must be given a stabilizing anneal so that the carbon is effectively combined with the Cb or Ti. RA333, because of its W and Mo content, resists PASCC when stabilize annealed. Pitting and Crevice Corrosion Most often caused by chlorides. Molybdenum is the alloying element that confers resistance. Nitrogen enhances the effect of molybdenum. A measure of resistance to pitting corrosion is the Critical Pitting Temperature, or CPT, which is the highest temperature at which an alloy resists pitting in a given environment. Likewise crevice corrosion resistance may be quantified as the Critical Crevice Corrosion Temperature, CCCT. It is crevice corrosion which is the limiting factor in service. Alloy ranking would be 304L (0%Mo, poor), followed by 316L (2%Mo), 20Cb-3 (2.2%Mo) and RA333 (3%), RA2205 (3%Mo, 0.16%N), AL-6XN (6.3%Mo 0.22%N) and RA625 (9%Mo and Alloy C-276 (15.5%Mo). AL-6XN has sufficient resistance to be a practical choice for hot seawater. The lower molybdenum grades, even RA2205, are usually unsuitable for use in seawater. Intergranular Corrosion Intergranular corrosion consists of localized attack along the grain boundaries of the metal. Sensitization to this attack in stainless or nickel alloys is caused by precipitation of chromium rich carbides in the grain boundaries, at a temperature low enough that a chromium-depleted zone forms. This precipitation most commonly occurs from the heat of welding. It may also result from a slow cool after annealing, or from prolonged exposure to about the 10001600F (538871C) temperature range. Another approach is to add columbium or titanium to tie up the carbon, the same as is done to resist polythionic acid stress corrosion cracking. 20Cb-3 stainless takes both approaches, being melted to very low carbon, as well as having a columbium addition. Galvanic Corrosion Caused when two very dissimilar metals are in contact in a corrosive environment. The more noble, or cathodic, alloy is protected at the expense of the anodic, or least noble, alloy which corrodes. Not usually a problem among the stainless and nickel alloys. Two examples which can occur include copper alloys, which may corrode in contact with high alloy stainlesses. A Muntz Metal tubesheet, 60%Cu 40%Zn, may corrode if the heat exchanger is retubed with AL-6XN tubes. Also, be aware that graphite is at the noble end of the galvanic series. If graphite is in contact with stainless or nickel alloys in a corrosive environment, those alloys may corrode preferentially. Galvanic effects may also be used to protect equipment, a common example being a zinc coating on steel. The zinc corrodes preferentially, and protects the steel. Zinc or magnesium anodes are often connected to equipment to protect it from corrosion. The most effective means of combating intergranular corrosion is to restrict the carbon content of the alloy. In the stainless L grades 0.03% maximum is considered sufficient. High chromium and molybdenum additions, as in AL-6XN, also reduce the chance of intergranular attack.

28

Machining
Nickel alloys work harden rapidly during machining and require more power to cut than does plain carbon steel. The metal is gummy, with chips that tend to be stringy and tough. Machine tools should be rigid and used to no more than 75% of their rated capacity. Both work piece and tool should be held rigidly; tool overhang should be minimized. Rigidity is particularly important when machining titanium, as titanium has a much lower modulus of elasticity than either steel or nickel alloys. Slender work pieces of titanium may deflect under tool pressures causing chatter, tool rubbing and tolerance problems. Make sure that tools are always sharp. Change to sharpened tools at regular intervals rather than out of necessity. Titanium chips in particular tend to gall and weld to the tool cutting edges, speeding up tool wear and failure. Remember cutting edges, Material AISI B1112 AISI 12L14 AISI 1215 Nickel 200/201 416 annealed 416 hardened AISI 1137 AISI 1018 303 304L 17-4PH H1150 17-4PH A 17-4PH H1025 AISI 1045 H11 316L 321 RA446 RA309 RA310 AL-6XN RA400 440C 4340 20Cb-3 RA2205 Speed Surface ft/min 165 325 225 170-200 170 80 135 120 100-105 90 80 75 60 75 75 75 75 75 70-75 70-75 65-75 60-70 65 65 65 50-65 Speed as a % of B1112 100 197 136 103-121 103 48 82 73 61-64 55 48 45 36 45 45 45 45 45 42-45 42-45 39-45 36-42 39 39 39 30-39 particularly throw-away inserts, are expendable. Dont trade dollars in machine time for pennies in tool cost. Feed rate should be high enough to ensure that the tool cutting edge is getting under the previous cut thus avoiding work-hardened zones. Slow speeds are generally required with heavy cuts. The tool should not ride on the work piece as this will work harden the material and result in early tool dulling or breakage. Use an air jet directed on the tool when dry cutting, to significantly increase tool life. The following speeds are for single point turning operations using high speed steel tools. This information is provided as a guide to relative machinability, higher speeds are used with carbide tooling.

Material K500 annled K500 aged RA330 RA85H Ti 6Al 4V annealed aged 718 A-286 RA825 RA800AT RA601 RA600 RA333 X 625 617 X-750 WASPALOY C-276 C-22 B2 G-30 N155 188 L605 (25) Ren 41

Speed Surface ft/min 60 25 35-45 32-40 30-40 15-45 20-40 30-35 25-35 25-35 25-35 25-35 20-25 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 15-20 15-20 15-20 15 15 12

Speed as a % of B1112 36 15 21-27 20-24 18-24 9-27 12-24 18-21 15-21 15-21 15-21 15-21 12-15 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 9-12 9-12 9-12 9 9 7

29