The Hindbrain the Hindbrain or the Reptillian Brain is the oldest part of the human brain.

As you might guess from it's name, it's a piece of brain anatomy that we share with reptiles and is the most primitive. Likewise it's in charge of our primal instincts and most basic functions. Things like the instincts of survival, dominance, mating and the basic functions of respiration, heartbeat all come from this area of the brain. Located in the Hindbrain are: The Spinal Cord This is the infomation superhighway of the body. It carries information up to the brain and instructions back down. The Medulla Oblongata Helps control the body's autonomic functions (things you don't need to think about to perform) like respiration, digestion and heart rate. Also acts as a relay station for nerve signals going to/from the brain The Pons -Has roles in your level of arousal or conciousness and sleep. Relays sensory information to/from the brain. Also involved in controlling autonomic body functions. -Relays sensory information between the cerebrum and cerebellum. The Cerebellum Mostly deals with movement. It regulates and coordinates movement, posture and balance. Also involved in learning movement. The Limbic System The Limbic System sometimes called the "emotional brain" or "Old Mammalian Brain" is the next part of the brain to have evolved in the more primitive mammals about 150 million years ago. This is where our emotions reside, where memory begins and where these two functions combine together to mark behaviours with positive or negative feelings. It's where mostly unconcious value judgements are made. Information going through the Limbic System are filed under "agreeable or disagreeable". It also plays a role in salience (what grabs your attention), spontaneity and creativity. Located in the Limbic System are: The Amygdala It's name is latin for almond which relates to its shape. It helps in storing and classifying emotionally charged memories. It plays a large role in producing our emotions, especially fear. It's been found to trigger responses to strong emotion such as sweaty palms, freezing, increased heart-beat/respiration and stress hormone release. The Hippocampus This guy is all about memory and a little about learning. It's primary role is in memory formation, classifying information, long-term memory. Like the RAM in your computer it processes and stores new and temporary memory for long term storage. It's also involved in interpreting incoming nerve signals and spatial relationships. The Hypothalamus It should be called the Hyperthalamus because it does so much. It's linked closely with the pituitary gland to control many of the body's functions. It monitors and controls your circadian rhythms (your daily sleep/wake cycle), homeostasis (making sure your body is running smoothly), apetite, thirst, other bodily urges and also plays a role in emotions, autonomic functions and motor functions. The Thalamus The Thalamus is THE relay station in the brain. Most of the sensory signals, auditory (sound), Visual, Somatosensory (from your skin and internal organs), go through this organ on their way to other parts of the brain for processing. It also plays a function in motor control.

Wernicke's Area (language recognition) are located. Let there be no doubt. The right side of the brain controls the left side of the body and vice versa. The Temporal lobe is where memories take place. It's where the Somatosensory (from your skin and internal organs) Cortex resides. memory and speech. It also manages our higher emotions such as empathy and altruism. The Parietal lobe controls movement. If the brain had a White House it would be here. We share this part of our brain with other higher level mammals like the primates and dolphins. This lobe is also involved in emotion. This region of the brain is involved in auditory and visual responses as well as motor function. the cerebrum. judgement. It is the true center for command and control in your body. The Telencephalon . movement. The Corpus Callosum(Frontal) This is the neural bridge that connects the two hemispheres to each other. orientation. right and left.contains the largest part of the brain. There are basically 2 parts to the midsection of the brain. spatial and musical. recognition and speech. This lobe is also involved in motor control and memory. . and controlling motor function. and helps with speech. The midbrain is the portion of the brainstem that connects the hindbrain and the forebrain. Most of the actual information processing in the brain takes place in the cerebral cortex. Broca's Area This part of the cortex controls speech. relaying sensory information. The right being more concerned with the artistic. While the left is more concerned with the colder. This is where we find the brain power to develop language. impulse control. conciousness and imagination. linear. language recognition and facial nerves. and recognition. balance. abstract thought. This coupled with the fact that it's the last to develop when we are young adults. rational and verbal aspects. and controlling autonomic functions. thinking.contains structures such as the thalamus and hypothalamus which are responsible for such functions as motor control. The Visual Cortex is resides here. The Midbrain and the Hindbrain together make up the brainstem. The Frontal lobe is responsible for functions such as reasoning. neomammalian or rational brain. It takes up 2/3's of the human brain. problem solving. It's also associated with cognition (including calculating location and speed of objects). Located in the Neocortex are: The Frontal Lobe This is the most recent evolutionary addition to the brain. There are two major divisions of Forebrain: The Diencephalon . located centrally in brain. The Forebrain is responsible for a variety of functions including receiving and processing sensory information. Also the hemispheres are divided in terms of what kind of thought they process or produce. probably answers a lot of questions for many parents out there. this is what grants us our status on the food chain and allows us to be human. perceiving. The Occipital Lobe The Occipital Lobe controls visual sensation and processing. The Parietal Lobe The Parietal Lobe is involved in processing pain and touch sensation. orientation. The Temporal Lobe The Temporal Lobe is involved in auditory (sound) sensation and is where the Primary Auditory Cortex and on the left hemisphere.The Neocortex The last and most advanced brain to evolve to date is called the Neocortex. although in humans the neocortex is the largest. producing and understanding language. The Neocortex is divided into two hemispheres.

and digestion.The Hindbrain extends from the spinal cord and is composed of the metencephalon and Myelencephalon. problem solving. heart rate. and planning Occipital Lobes-involved with vision and color recognition Parietal Lobes – receives and processes sensory information Temporal Lobes – involved with emotional responses. Below is a list of major structures of the brain and some of their functions. The Myelencephalon is composed of the medulla oblongata which is responsible for controlling such autonomic functions as breathing. and the pons. The Metencephalon contains structures such as the pons and cerebellum. movement coordination. These regions assists in maintaining balance and equilibrium.Forebrain -Diencephalon -Telencephalon Mesencephalon . medulla oblongata. memory. Prosencephalon . and the conduction of sensory information. and speech Cerebrum -Largest portion of the brain Consists of folded bulges called gyri that create deep furrows .5mm to 5mm) of the cerebrum -Receives and processes sensory information -Divided into cerebral cortex lobes Cerebral Cortex Lobes Frontal Lobes –involved with decision-making. Basal Ganglia -Involved in cognition and voluntary movement -Diseases related to damages of this area are Parkinson's and Huntington's Brainstem -Relays information between the peripheral nerves and spinal cord to the upper parts of the brain -Consists of the midbrain. Broca's Area -Speech production Understanding language Central Sulcus (Fissure of Rolando) -Deep grove that separates the parietal and frontal lobes Cerebellum -Controls movement coordination Maintains balance and equilibrium Cerebral Cortex -Outer portion (1.Midbrain Rhombencephalon – Hindbrain -Metencephalon -Myelencephalon Anatomy of the Brain: Structures The brain contains various structures that have a multitude of functions.

involved in emotional responses.produces cerebrospinal fluid Fourth Ventricle .connecting system of internal brain cavities filled with cerebrospinal fluid Aqueduct of Sylvius .Corpus Callosum -Thick band of fibers that connects the left and right brain hemispheres Cranial Nerves -Twelve pairs of nerves that originate in the brain.Membranes that cover and protect the brain and spinal cord Olfactory Bulb -Bulb-shaped end of the olfactory lobe -Involved in the sense of smell Pineal Gland . neck and torso Fissure of Sylvius (Lateral Sulcus) -Deep grove that separates the parietal and temporal lobes Limbic System Structures Amygdala . medulla oblongata.provides a pathway for cerebrospinal fluid to flow Wernicke's Area .Nerve fibers located inside the brainstem -Regulates awareness and sleep Substantia Nigra .The ventral region of the mesencephalon (mid brain). and lead to the head. hormonal secretions.The dorsal region of the mesencephalon (mid brain) Tegmentum . and memory Cingulate Gyrus .canal that runs between the pons.receives sensory information from the olfactory bulb and is involved in the identification of odors Thalamus . fibrous band of nerve fibers that connect the hippocampus to the hypothalamus Hippocampus . exit the skull. and the cerebellum Lateral Ventricle .directs a multitude of important functions such as body temperature.Reticular Formation . Ventricular System .largest of the ventricles and located in both brain hemispheres Third Ventricle .canal that is located between the third ventricle and the fourth ventricle Choroid Plexus .Region of the brain where spoken language is understood.Helps to control voluntary movement and regulates mood Tectum . hunger.mass of grey matter cells that relay sensory signals to and from the spinal cord and the cerebrum Medulla Oblongata .a fold in the brain involved with sensory input concerning emotions and the regulation of aggressive behavior .Endocrine gland involved in homeostasis -Regulates other endocrine glands Pons . and homeostasis Olfactory Cortex .Lower part of the brainstem that helps to control autonomic functions Meninges .sends memories out to the appropriate part of the cerebral hemisphere for long-term storage and retrievs them when necessary Hypothalamus . .Endocrine gland involved in biological rhythms -Secretes the hormone melatonin Pituitary Gland .an arching. Fornix .