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Romanticism and the Rise of German Nationalism Author(s): Hans Kohn Reviewed work(s): Source: The Review of Politics

, Vol. 12, No. 4 (Oct., 1950), pp. 443-472 Published by: Cambridge University Press for the University of Notre Dame du lac on behalf of Review of Politics Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1404884 . Accessed: 03/02/2013 23:40
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Romanticism and the Rise of German Nationalism
By Hans Kohn

I ROMANTICISM, though in its beginninglittle concernedwith politics or the state, preparedthe rise of Germannationalism after 1800. It was an aestheticrevolution,a resort to imagination, almost femininein its sensibility;it was poetrymore deeply indebted to the spirit of music than the poetryof the eighteenthcenturyhad been, rich in emotionaldepth, more potent in magic evocation. But Germanromanticism and wishedto be more than poetry. It was was an interpretation life, nature and history and this philosophic of characterdistinguished from romanticism other lands. It was it in to the rationalism the eighteenth of sharplyopposed century;it mobilized the fascination the past to fight againstthe principles 1789. of of In that indirectway romanticism cameto concernitself with political and social life and with the state. It neverdevelopeda program a for modernGermannation-state, with its emphasison the peculiarity but of the Germanmind it helpedthe growthof a consciousness Gerof man uniqueness. It started as a movementof intellectuals, many of them of the of unsettledbohemians who are often found in the vanguardof type movementsof culturalrenovationwhich coincidewith the beginning of social change. They were the spiritualchildrenof the Storm and Stresswhichhad preceded themby thirtyyears,and theywerein ardent to the mature Goethe who had long outgrownhis brief opposition Storm and Stress period. They admiredhim as a creativeman of of letters,as the embodiment the princelyartist,but his conceptof the individualthey rejected. Goethe's goal of educationwas the wellroundedharmonious the individual,the "Persinlichkeit," personality whichwillinglysubordinated itself to bindingformsand to the obligation of universallaw, which rejoicesin measure,symmetry and prothe portion,whichacknowledges limits of the humanand the humane. The romanticindividual, the other hand, regarded on himselfnot as
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THE REVIEW OF POLITICS

limits a representative the universal of but order, as unique, rejecting measure societyand demanding freedom his or full for imposed by creative in hemmed by genius.1 But the romanticist, feelinghimself the society whichhe foundaround rather beneath or did not himself, of acceptthe titanicloneliness the Stormand Stress.He wasdrawn a of who towards community like-minded individuals would longingly live a full life according theirinnermost to emotions. The complexity of for were and anguish this search a community heightened the by the underlying subjectivism; uniqueindividual longed all-demanding for a total self-assertion all his conflicting of and desires yet felt the of in union tragicneedfor fulfillment the miracle a trueharmonious in which the conflicting all of life wouldbe reconciled, a of opposites new goldenage whichseemed to accessible the magicpowerof the artist. Art became the romanticists newreligion. to the In theirquestfor the miraculous romanticists the foundthe rationof theeighteenth sense alismand common shallow superand century forceof the individual, ficial. The decisive to according the romanhim in whichdistinguished fromothers ticists,resided his sentiments men. The strength theindividual's him of andrendered unique among itself in desires whichhis trueego expressed validated them;the pasthe established rightto its object.The more sionof longing passionate was of manwas,the morefullyhe lived. Passion the prerogative the in seer who obeyeddeep impulses his innermost self. artist,poet, of Whilethis discovery the irrational enriched poetryand the underas of a standing man, it carried, Goetherecognized, threatto the
1 See on "personality"and "individuality"Fritz Strich, Dichtung und Zivilisation (Munich, 1928), p. 35, and his Deutsche Klassik und Romantik (Munich, 1922). See on romanticismin general the articlesby Arthur O. Lovejoy, Goetz A. Briefs and Eugene N. Anderson in Journal of the History of Ideas, vol. II, No. 3 (June, 1941). On the political implications see Paul Kluckhohn, Persinlichkeit und Gemeinschaft,Studien Zur Staatsauffasungder deutschen Romantik, (Halle, 1925); Carl Schmitt, Politische Romantik, 2nd ed. (Munich, 1925); Jakob Baxa, Einfihrung in die romantischeStaatswissenschaft (Jena, 1923); Gesellschaftund Staat im Spiegel deutscherRomantik,ed. by Jacob Baxa (Jena, 1924); Kurt Borries, Die Romantik und die Geschichte (Berlin, 1925); Andries David Verschoor, Die iltere deutsche Romantik und die Nationalidee, (Amsterdam, 1928); Gottfried Salomon, Das Mittelalter als Ideal in der Romantik (Munich, 1922); Reinhold Aris, History of Political Thought in Germany from 1789 to 1815 (London, 1936), pp. 205-341; Josef Kmrner,Die Botschaft der deutschen Romantik an Europa (Augsburg, 1933). Two more general works are Julius Petersen, Wesenbestimmung der deutschen Romantik (Leipzig, 1926), and Henri Brunschwig, La Crise de l'Etat Prussien a la fin du XVIIIe siecle et la genese de la mentalite romantique (Paris, 1947). On the differencebetween English and German romanticismsee Hoxie N. Fairchild, "The Romantic movement in England," part of a symposium on romanticismin PMLA, vol. 55 (March, 1940), pp. 1-60.

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pp. at as to couldbe turned of into an instrument full self-realization everything or self-enjoyment. idealcommunity theutopian The of dream refused of to acceptthe hard limitations realityimposed the interests in of it to equalfellow-men. Justus and of statesman. Both theseextremes existedoutsidethe real societywith its necessary and adjustments of life" led a "pure in the imagination theromantic compromises. dynamic of organic all theseforceswereheld withina pantheism growth. promised uniteall in an organic in which way and wouldbe fully himself without limitations yet at everybody any the sametime fully part of the wholein a lovingembrace without conflictor friction.Repelled theircontemporary by in and world. spelldanger The romanticmovement began as an artisticrevolt against whichseemed to satisfythe soul and culture not eighteenth century not to warmthe heart. far beyond above life and all legaldistinctions theneedforthem. 3 Feb 2013 23:40:52 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . they artists. the forerunners Germannationalism. On thisroadto the pasttheyfollowed M6serandHerder. of forcesat workin every a and phenomenon nature history. The anarchic individualism and in found its complement the total community. 413ff. The Idea of Nationalism. French rationalism contemptuously. This apparently and uninspired uninspiring civilization seemed with in the recent inflated philistine pride progress of men.2 But Moser was a practical of This content downloaded on Sun. The romanticists nor found thereneitherchivalry poetry. easilyappeared to poeticimagination the indispensable be achieved any cost. The romanticists in theseveryperiods wondrous the found fairyland whichthey missedin the present.To mistake for realitywas boundto imagination desirable to the freeindividual to a society on and based law. In such a perfectcommunity and individual wereno longerin needof legaland constitutional society guarantees in theirrelationship. neither nor miracle mystery. like the romanticists saw creative visionwas infinitely he broader. yet 2 Hans Kohn.ROMANTICISM AND GERMAN NATIONALISM 445 rational orderof law and society it luredmanto lose oneselfin it if of instead challenging to control The desired him it. had lookeddownupon the past and especially upon the MiddleAges. two became sidesof individual community and the one perfect whichwouldbe all in all.theydiscovered inspiration beauty history. his love of the ruralfreeholders the MiddleAges wasrooted his native and in his personal in soil Herder's experience.

couldbe embraced as a wholeby the inonly in the tuitionof greatlove whichimmersed longingindividual the and on in the present flow of the pastwhichwas organically living wascarrying into forward thefuture. He appeared conditioned the peculiar by for the national foundation had no factual community.it overcame quietstatic to character stillness and the listeningwithin characteristic of of instead voicescallingit to and eighteenth century Germany followed unfoldits dynamic forcesandto liveand explore its potentialities.446 THE REVIEW OF POLITICS of humanitarianism rational context enlightened and rejected morality. alike forcenot yet corrupted a rationalism which makes everything by it andwhichdeprives of life. Thus the individual foundhimself rootedin the past and deterof traditions minedby it. was a personality It overand withlife andpulsating movement. transferred the individual the national of The nationwasno longera legalsociety individuals community. into unionaccording generalprinciples for mutual to and entering it of and history. Theyfeltit so overflowing poetry. gaineda new centralimfor all cultural of life. 3 Feb 2013 23:40:52 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . the romanticists. This andlawweredeemed to the immanent due nationalindividuality often stirredby alive. portance unique to was from andall-containing. theycouldnot studyit withrational it to to detachment. Civilization of forces the people. growingand striving. benefits. The concept individuality. all The national or did community the state the romanticists not establish distinctions-became source all aesthetic soon clear of the and also of political ethicalcreativeness. for desires powerand expansion. venerable reviving that withlegendandprophecy. was now an original phenomenon nature its to leading own life according the lawsof its growth. romanticists to the to and succumbed the lureof history wished enrich present by with so thepast. though But by the to and theylivedin the present wished go forward. Thoughthey characteristics that were it. The national set the model.valid past it only for the one national community.seemed themimpenetrabletheanalytical approach it of scholarly reason. of as a manifestation the appeared the divinewith a special mission fulfill. the romanticists convinced thesenational The artof knights werenever pronounced in theMiddle as as Ages. MoserandHerdervaluedthe past. to seemed themto express truenational its creative the andguilds soul. a mechanical not with and flowing to the "dead" as the state of the Enlightenment concept appeared This content downloaded on Sun.

Such a stateeasilyresembled feudalpatriarchal state.are perhaps gone forever. a strange border and landof poeticgenius.the beloved the of of teacher his nation. figured pastintoa golden great age. The first von Freiherr Hardenberg or Novalis. II Novalis'close friendand contemporary Friedrich Karl Schlegel (1772-1829)definedin 1798 theirpoetic ideal. Poetry "can be fathomed no theory. as of and recognizes its firstlaw that the arbitrary caprice the poet 3 no tolerates law. The wordFatherland possible writea national lost its magicpower.for thepastof which talked hardly it had anything in common withthe past reality.but agreeable socialist Thisidealwasnot of within community. part 2. the and highlypersonal. quoted by John C. vol. It aloneis infinite. vol. This content downloaded on Sun.ROMANTICISM AND GERMAN NATIONALISM 447 intimate of The relationship man to the statebecame romanticists. 3 Feb 2013 23:40:52 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 3. the protection theindividual to a return thepast.PMLA.an objectof deeplove and admiring the devotion.It seemsalmostimto has heroicpoem. it its because aloneis free. beenalienated whilethe laterGreeks encountered of of the memory theirHomericheroesin thousands objects. p. whichis entirely directed towarddomestic 3 In an essay in the periodicalAthenaum (Berlin. a great heldtogether tiesof loveandmutual estate. pp. We have fromourancestors. thought consuming mystic he of the malady. 1798-1800). 55. responsifamily by and capitalism to the bility. was a poeticdream whichtransit German the romanticist. 1. "Thetimes whena poetby thepresentation great of events of antiquity could become preserver folk sagas.But our peacefuleducation. 28f. hatedthe Prussia Frederick Greatas a soulless II machine glorified mediocre Wilhelm and rational the and Frederick his touchingly of beautiful Louise as the fulfillment true Queen monarchy." Schlegel's brother Wilhelm(1767-1845) August in aboutthe unpoetic had already 1789bitterly character complained of the age. Blankenagel. of struction the folk religions old sagaperished the too. placeof patriotism beentaken a more the has by but also for With the degeneral therefore colderinterest mankind. only divinatory and criticism couldpresume by to characterize ideal.deeplyhostileto the spiritof rational of of measures controland to mobility trade.livedin Friedrich (1772-1801). state.

Essentiallythe state like man remainsalwaysthe same.. nevertheless." "The state is known too regards little to us. This content downloaded on Sun. the moreit approaches poetical." an epic in thirty books published in 1787. 884. by Hermann Friedemann(Berlin: Deutsches Verlagshaus Bong & Co.: Diesterweg. 887. Though Novalis hardly betrayedany he endowedthe state with an unprecedented importance. ed.). 163 (Fragments 947. Could one not introduceeverywhere marksof distinctionand uniforms? Whoever regardsthis as insignificant disan essentialpart of our nation. preachers paof almost triotism. 168. that one sees the state too little. the less will the state need it." pressed 4 Review of "The Athenaid. "It is a great mistake of our states." "The perfect citizen lives entirelyin the state." pressionof great deeds in whichwarrior the In spite of this lamentover the loss of heroicpatriotism. 1925. The states will remaindifferent.the embodiment that perfection whichman aspires. early romanticists national feeling. 3 Feb 2013 23:40:52 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 3. the moresimilarwill the spiritof man who has exthe state becometo the spirit of a single exemplary 5 foreverone law only: be as good and as poeticalas possible.seemsto have made us generallyless susceptible the im4 courageprevails.as long as men are different. state with and the the The morespiritual state is. The state should be visible everywhere and every man should be characterized as a citizen. 919)." "The state is a person like the individual.448 THE REVIEW OF POLITICS to activities. their main tendencywas unmistakable. 1789. 885. pp." This allembracingstate was howevernot a political concept. vol. n. His famous"fragments" someof which were publishedin Athenium and many more only after his death were sometimescontradictory often non-consequential. two years after the death of its author. At presentmost citizensare on a ratherindifferent hostile footing with the state. See also Friedrich von HardenRichard Samuels. 159. p. in the GottingischeAnzeigen von gelehrtenSachen.it was a poetic to of creation.und Geschichtsauffassung bergs (Novalis). he has no propertyoutsidethe state. Die poetische Staats. They all wished to make the state more of an intimaterealityin man's life. 5 Novalis' Werke. Richard Grover (1712-1785). "A life intensespiritual intellectual will by itself be political. 1988. Frankfurta. What man is to himself. the state is to men.d.the more joyfully will every citizen out of love for the beautiful great sacriindividuallimit his demandand be readyto makethe necessary fices. There should be heraldsof the state. did not see it as a German nationalstate.M. ratherthe and resultof a deep intuitionthan part of a politico-philosophical system.

p. 174. Everything becomebeautiful can art. "A trueprince the artist artists. p. Novaliscomplained in the German that citiesonlysmalllocal eventswerediscussed. ideal state was for him a The perfect divineworkof art.intimate contact harmony all members the of of and state.7 Neitherof a but republic themexistedfor the utilitarian of menhappier.andthusbroadens imagination hisunderstanding withgreatcausesand almostinvoluntarily self forgetshis narrow in the greattotality. Novaliswas convinced a king without republic a that a and without kingwerenothing emptywords. See also Fragment 946. "If we were not obliged to proceed economically.Abovethe Euroof "Ourold nationality trulyRoman.It increased burdens and the imwithout their "The poseduponthem. the purpose making truestatemademenbetter stronger. 8 Ibid.. 965. "Thisis better republics in where stateis themainconcern the of every and feels tied person everybody hisexistence up in an immense his and livingwhole. 175 (Fragment 967). was peanis the cosmopolitan." and Fragment980 which explains that there is only one king by reason of economy. whilegreatand general no aroused questions interest.. 155. 165 (Fragment 936). "The standsas high overthe German the German as does over European the Saxon. we would all be kings."True republicanism general was in participation the wholestate.this truemonarchy an was compatible a truerepublic. yet thank 8 bornin thisland?" Novalisnowhere a stressed German as a desirable state goal. fact theywerecomplimentary with in for the republic the of withthe demanded identification everycitizen state. 950). But wouldnot a government preferable be which under a peasant havea sliceof moldybreadthana roastin wouldrather another and Godfor the goodluckof having been country. 169 (Fragments863.the Saxonoverthe resident Leipzig." 7 Ibid. Every is of man shouldbecomean artist. This content downloaded on Sun. unionand interpenetration." The instinctive universal andtendency the Romans shared of is policy 6 Novalis Werke.AND GERMAN NATIONALISM ROMANTICISM 449 Novalis'emphasis the statewas a manifestation the same on of love whichhe foundin idealmarriage in religious a and mysticism. pp. "Alle Menschen sollen thronfiihigwerden.not however increasing strength. bestamongthe former French to monarchs wished makehis subjects so richthateverypeasant wouldhaveevery and Sundaychicken rice on the table."6 As every manshould become artistanda king. 3 Feb 2013 23:40:52 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .

. p. for the mediaeval Christian was too strongfor his praise hierarchy laterjoined Catholic Church. 3 Feb 2013 23:40:52 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 176 (Fragments 756. of the stage we have reached.struckand soothedby divinemusic. Schlegels Tieck. therefore idea. manyof whom of the fact that the essaymingled withreligious poetry outpourings. This content downloaded on Sun.Its editors. Novalis century." Ibid. peaceis celebrated burning Only can revive canmakethe nations can secure. in Christianity a newand visiblegloryon earthin its old peacemak10 office. reinstall religion Europe. p. lookedbackward an idealized whichhad brought to mediaeval Christianity spiritual unity Europe. 3. 4.until a loving feast of intermingling undertake with tearson smoking battlefields. 973).Germanity 9 much truepopularity."Blood will wouldagainestablish spiritual Christianity not ceaseto flowoverEurope of untilthenations become aware their whichdrivesthem aroundin a circle." is "Thereare Germans everyis where. or Hellenicity Britannity. of it lookedforward a newJerusalem the capital the earth to as where its dominion. pp. 10 Ibid." Thoughhe expected an and fromthe true state." ing This was the message Novalis'strangeand significant of essay "Die Christenheit Europa" oder to (1799) whichhe submitted the Athenaum. 137. it introducednewinterpretation history a of which counter that ran to of the eighteenth Likede Bonaldand de Maistre. Germanity to characteristics human confined a peculiar state. of his descendant Protestant Pietists.Butin spite the friends. vol.. 139 (Fragment 768). the and rationalReformation.11 to fromthe truepathof ismand revolution seemed him a deviation universal of Europe.neverembraced Catholicism. rejected claimsof reason progress.that we think so contemptuouslyof our progress. The best thing the Frenchgainedin the Revolution a shareof Germanity.a conception arbitrary.a rapiddescentfrom the spiritual monarchy 9 Ibid.stop beforethe altar to wordsof peace.theyall aregeneral whichonly havebecome is hereand theremoregeneral. 145. vol. As littleas Romanity. 11 Though Novalis himself warned wisely: "It is strong proof how far we have really progressed. visiondid not enit to the compass age of nationalism.rejected because the it and too theyfoundits historical ThoughNovalis.. 972.450 THE REVIEW OF POLITICS by the German people.and sometimes hintedin his mysterious at way somefuturecultural of his greatness the Germans.until the frightfulmadness nations.

"Thesewerebeautiful liant times.no longer DarkAge of savagery andsuperstition a haven peace spirituality.""Thehistorian becomean orator. by the under spellof Rousthe to hima vastaudience among generation whichhe put on old chronicles The seau'ssentimentalism.it was only one stepto a visionof the the were nation's as a gospelto which livinggenerations beholden past the to and to whichthey wouldhave to betakethemselves discover treasures whichweretheir own. III For Novalisthe MiddleAges wasstill a universal period. by of literature the MiddleAges wascollected edited. For he recitesgospels -the wholehistoryis a 12 gospel.ROMANTICISM AND GERMAN NATIONALISM 451 brilChristendom the thirteenth in century. 191." his Herewas and a newpicture theMiddle of the Ages. Soon were it the however. 3 Feb 2013 23:40:52 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . romanticists to reinterpret as the fountainhead of national cultures." Fromthis view. Withoutgreat one head directed unitedthe great and earthly possessions supreme forces. romanticists found a modelin Johannes MullerwhoseGeschichten love schweizerischer (1786) combined for mediaeval Eidgenossenshaft to with and history skillin writing ability evokelocalcolor. pact the of evenas we havereceived their "We carry burdens ourfathers live and thusmenactually in the wholepastandin the future good."whenEuropewas a Christian land one interest unitedthe inhabited one Christianity. 1072)."the essaybegan. greatcommon by most distantprovinces this vast spiritual of realm. poetry the and of The as courtsand knights well as the talesof the common people. 192 (Fragments 1064. Within one artisticand spiritual the decadea pioneerwork was accomplished the romanticists. less mustoften and nowhere than in the present. slightlysupported exactknowledge. His rhebut secured toricalbrilliancy. to execute hints his submissive ready to andto try zealously strengthen benefits power. emphasis 12 Ibid. A numerous casteto whicheverybody access had political was immediately to his orders. pp. This content downloaded on Sun. EvenNovaliscontributed this historicism.Through romanticism established imits history to overnationalism.. romanticists but of The and the rediscovered MiddleAges and presented themin the transfigured gloryof magic poetry.

the founderin 1814 of the Gesellschaftfur deutscheSprache. transearly lated the Nibelungenlied. Ludwig Tieck (1773-1853) who with the Schlegelsand Novalis belongedto the older generation 13 Later the romanticistsaccused JohannesMiller of a lack of patriotism. 14 Josef Krnmer. on which he could build his army camp. 3 Feb 2013 23:40:52 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . therefore also the scholarly hero. in Nibelungenforschungen der deutschen Romantik. a cosmopolitanmentality was contraryto true humanity." An historian must take a stand.F. a firm foundation. 1911). Untersuchungen ed. could be admitted while discussing the domestic affairs of the fatherland but it was inadmissible regardingan external enemy. So did August Zeume (1778-1853). his place d'armes. by O. Adam Muller maintained.Deutschlands Weinstrom. The heart of the historian must include hatred besides love which can be easily corrupted. Friedrich Germanistic scholarswho popularizedmediaevalpoetry. blamed the historian for being too impartial. nicht Deutschlands Rainstrom"("printed on the Rhine in the second year of German liberty") which never achievedthe fame of Amdt's similar book.und Zeltausgabe. an articlein Friedrich Schlegel'sDeutsches Museumin 1812. one of the fulfilled. Walzel.452 THE REVIEW OF POLITICS men of the Middle Ages and confirmed romantic the convictionthat the Middle Ages was a period of true patriotismand heroic manhood.14His wish was soon Heinrichvon der Hagen (1780-1856). Such an attitude.who gave Germanyouth on their way to war in 1815 a special edition of his translation. Adam Miiller conceded. He wrote with patriotic fervor about the strong Swiss This content downloaded on Sun. August Wilhelmdemanded that the Nibelungenlied be used as the chief classicin German education. "Every hero.so as to endowGerman history with a great poetic background.a Feld.to carry with them as an inonto the battlefield into theirtents.13 Muller also drew attentionto the importance the Nibeof whichwas published 1782.an enthusiast for human rights and liberty. 9 (Leipzig. A few yearslater.. an opinion in which August Wilhelm In Schlegellaterconcurred.und Literaturgeschichte. Miiller was fundamentallyan eighteenth century rationalist and cosmopolitan. endeared him as much to the romanticistsas his theory that a historian needs a soul. Adam Miiller in an article in Phoebus. needs a fatherland. a periodical which he published together with Heinrich von Kleist in Dresden in 1808. offeredan example the nationalawakening other to of central and eastern Europeanpeoples. no. zur neuern Sprach. after having been practically in lungenlied for unknown threecenturies. and spiration The firstdecadeof the new centurybroughta richcropof editions of mediaevalliterature. N.This quest for nationalculturalroots in the soil of the past.Miillerdeclared his in Histories of the Swiss Confederation that the Nibelungenliedcould becomethe GermanIliad. In reality. Zeume was also the author of "Der Rheinstrom.

Gorres. In 1807 their friend Joseph G6rres (1776-1848) investi1842). of the romanticists. pp. my 15 Des Knaben Wunderhorn. then we shall be about the quickchangewhich in so short a time has come astonished of in about. vol. Two further volumes followed in 1808. 1807).welche teils innerer Wert. and the Rhinelander. 3 Feb 2013 23:40:52 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . by Paul Kluckhohn.the romanticists which the past to kindle spirits. Alte deutsche Lieder appeared in Heidelberg in the fall of 1805 with the date of 1806. in the Volksgemit which had not yet been influencedby the universalrational civilizationof the eighteenthcentury. the generation. poor my he fatherland. PrussianJunker. "If we look back. "and tears began to flow out of our eyes.they went back to the treasures up they believedburiedand yet alive in the minds of the people. The first volume contained an importantintroductionby Tieck.. teils Zufall Jahnhundertehindurch bis auf unsere Zeit erhalten hat. Arnim's letter "An Herrn Kapellmeister Reichardt" which appeared first in Reichardt's Berlinische Musikalische Zeitung was printed as a postscript to the "Wunderhorn. Nahere Wiirdigung der schonen Historien-. 10 (Leipzig. Professor der Physik an der Sekondarschulezu Coblenz (Heidelberg. Wetter-." wrote. In 1808 Amim edited the Zeitung fur Einsiedler("Joural for the themHermits"). opened the cycle with his Minnelieder aus dem This content downloaded on Sun.Jacob Ludwig(1785-1863) and Wilhelm Karl (1786-1859) the Kinder-und Hausmirchen(1812-1815) and the DeutscheSagen (1816-1818).16 and the next decade brought the famous editions by the brothersGrimm.Die Deutschen Volksbucher." Both texts are reprinted and easily accessible in Deutsche Vergangenheit und Deutscher Staat. 1935). poor. ed. when therewas called hardlyanywherean active national sentiment.there appeareda collection of folk songs. und Arzneibuchlein. Reihe Romantik. Deutsche Literaturin Entwicklungsreihen. an of analysisof the oldest epic traditions the Germans.LudwigJoachim(called Achim) von ClemensBrentano (1778Amim (1781-1831).15 gated popularalmanacsand other old story books. 83-126."he wrote in the introduction. Von J. In his introduction changedthemesannounced selves-the birth of a new patriotism: "Germany. Des Knaben of edited by two representatives the youngerromantic Wunderhorn." 16. by "upon a period hardlypast which was characterized to of indifference and disregard the lettersand arts. Two years after Tieck's minnesongs.ROMANTICISM AND GERMAN NATIONALISM 453 schwibischen Zeitalter (1803)." At a time when Germanpolitical fortunes seemedat so low an ebb as in the ThirtyYears War.so that one is not only interested the monuments the past but appreciates them. Under the impression of romanticism Stendhal wrote in 1807 to his sister Pauline: "Je ne sais pourquoi le moyen age est lie dans mon coeur avec l'idee de l'Allemagne.

The historical Volksgeist had to determine. the Allgemeine 17 The full title of the journal read: "Zeitung Einsiedler. Even should the French Revolution establish a regime fitting for France. "because God himself wrote it like the laws of Sinai. In 1794 Prussia had introduced a new code of legislation. at the very last moment when it still could be collected.1924). the romanticists argued." Wilhelm Grimm wrote." was publishedas no. They represented the true folkspirit." This literature of the common people seemed to the romantic enthusiasts of great value: truly national and superior to modern art-literature." appeared onlyhalf a yearandwas It for then publishedin book form "Trist-Einsamkeit. The folk traditions were securely founded in history and had stood the test of the time whereas. und Geschichten Gedichte. not only the constitution but also the laws of a nation. there seemed in them much greater wisdom than in all the lofty constructions of rational principles. 3 of the It romantischer Seltenheiten Neudrucke (Munich. in terror and war? Surely." Romantic nationality was based not upon a modem constitution but upon traditional customs which grow organically and which should not be interfered with from without. it is not put together from pieces like human work is. This content downloaded on Sun. according to the romanticists. Had the edifice so proudly built on these abstract foundations survived a few days of enthusiasm? Had it not crumbled in chaos and disorder.454 THE REVIEW OF POLITICS 17 Jacob Grimm wrote: "In our eyes and the eyes of the readers. and romanticism made the study of national history and the exploration of the national past important to statesmen who found therein an arsenal for fighting the spread of revolution and for establishing or maintaining national independence. the principles of 1789 had failed because they were conceived without regard for history and had claimed universal validity." time a great love of folk songs has developed and will also draw attention to the sagas and folk tales which still circulate among the same people and are preservedin some forgotten places. as the romanticists believed. it could not be imitated in other countries where it must fail because it was alien to the national character. The ever growing realization of the true nature of history and poetry has aroused the wish to save from oblivion what previously appeared contemptible. History alone was a safeguard for national destiny. "Only folk poetry is perfect. the Volksgeist. men could not find their salvation in rational generalizations but only in the concrete historical tradition. fir Alte und neueSagen undWahrsagungen. 3 Feb 2013 23:40:52 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .

Kantorowicz."Volksgeist und Historische Rechtsschule. all to enlightenment thoughmaking due concessions the aristocratic and militaristic structure Frederick's of kingdom. 211. Zeit und of new Savignydeniedthe vocation the age to introduce legislation andjurisprudence. 3 Feb 2013 23:40:52 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ." This content downloaded on Sun. 18 Hermann U.18 truelawcouldbe only cuslaw. codified modern principles wasrejected the "historical schoolof law"as much wasthe conas by law on of ceptof natural founded reason." another me In letter of thattimehe expressed conviction the newcodewoulddehis that For stroyall truejudicalscholarship. Not only law but also religion was a product of the Volksgeist. 19 A translationof Savigny's pamphlet by Abraham Hayward.research the history German for in into of law the promotion the continuity legal development accord of of in with the nationalcharacter the folk traditions.he was sharply answered Friedrich Karlvon Savigny(1779-1861). 1831 (?). was printed by Littlewood & Co.19 "True" wasan emanation the Volksgeist.ROMANTICISM AND GERMAN NATIONALISM 455 Preussische in of conceived thespiritof the rationalism the Landrecht. London. and When AntonFriedrich Thibaut(1772-1840). if needbe excuse.. and of endingthe confusion diversity the manyantiquated laws.The romanticists it as a violation the Volksgeist of the lawsof history.Karl Friedrich Eichhorn (1781-1854)inaugurated withhis Deutsche StaataundRechtsgeschichte. vol. of the leading one GerJustus manjurists that period. of which firstvolthe ume appeared 1808.Romantic and historic had and scholarship its greatday. Of the Vocation of Our Age for Legislation and Jurisprudence.it couldexplain. Musteverything imitated sprouts of the flatPrusbe out that siansand? The newshas affected grievously. rootedin the remotepast and an almostunconscious tomary the Law to growth throughout generations. as theexponents a as not of commonreason. law of of andcourts lawacted its representatives. 108 (1912). 1805Jacob Grimm Wilhelm: received "I wrote hisbrother in bad news.In his VomBerufunserer fur Gesetzgebung Rechtswissenschaft. of afterthe defeatof Napoleonin pleaded his (Jberdie Nolwendigkeit einesallgemeinen Rechtes biirgerlichen for the unification Germany Deutschland of the fur (1814) through of introduction a civil law code common all German to thus lands."Historische Zeitschrift. Boththeseconcepts law seemed universal therefore too and unhistorical unscholarly. "Not for Sale. by thenprofessor law at the newlyfounded of of university Berlin.that a codeof lawsshallbe introduced yesterday very Hesse. p. of and regarded to In May.

Everywhere see traces of and growth. of the various Volksgeisterwhich formed and character events." wroteto his he brotheron November8. and they have severalqualitiesof which we can find no tracein any knownpeople. II. Minor (Vienna. Friedrich Schlegel als politischer Denker und deutscher Patriot (Berlin-Steglitz. "RecentlyI think I have discovered that our peoplehas a very great character. ProsaischeJugendschriften 1794-1802. 1882). mann and Kant. only the germ of an approachinggreat time.he looked to classical antiquityas the model for the ideal political form which could be nothing other than republican. and I believe that things will happen among our people as never before among men. 57-71. There on page 68 Schlegel wrote in the Kantian way: "Nur universellerund vollkommenerRepublikanismuswiirde ein giltiger ." Like many Frenchmen that period.profound into the interiorof things." becoming 20 Ernst Wieneke. Otto Brandt. 3 Feb 2013 23:40:52 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . J. Definitivartikelzum ewigen Frieden sein. ed. especiallyin the field of scholarship.constitutions law. der Romantiker und die Politik (Stuttgart. 1919). vol. Ceaselessactivity. pp.456 THE REVIEW OF POLITICS everythingby appealingto the newly discoveredmysticallycreative forces of the folk.Klopstock." This content downloaded on Sun. Patriotismusund Religion in Friedrich Schlegels Gedichten (Munich.20Under the influence of Kant's essay on perpetualpeace he wrote in 1796 an in "Essayon the Concept of Republicanism" which he regardedpolitical liberty and equality as indispensable conditionsof the good on state. 21 The "Versuchiiber den Begriff des Republikanismus veranlasstdurch die Kantische Schrift zum ewigen Frieden"was printed in FriedrichSchlegel. .art and religion.Frederick. 1913). In the enthusiasm youthhe wroteto his brother May 27. WinckelGoethe. "Thereis not much found anywhereto equal this race of men. of 1796: "I can not deny it beforeyou that divinerepublicanism still is a little nearerto my heart than divine criticismand the most divine of poetry.21But he had alreadydiscoveredthe promiseof greatnessof the Germannationalcharacter. 1916)."He saw it accomplished so far only in a few greatmen. Similar was the developmentof his brother August Wilhelm who first welcomed the Revolution and the consulate and later changed under the influence of Madame de Stael. I see in all the achievements the Gerof mans. August Wilhelm Schlegel. and determined and IV Earlierthan other Germanwriters. 1791. Richard Volpers.FriedrichSchlegel found the to way from rationaluniversalism a mysticnationalism. very great fitness for morality penetration I and liberty. . "One does not pay much attentionyet to the Germancharacter.these I find in our people.

p. trulyfeels. 413. 3 Feb 2013 23:40:52 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . ed.ROMANTICISM AND GERMAN NATIONALISM 457 in This newtunewasresumed a poem"Andie Deutschen" the in to their of beginning 1800. heights castles Thus the MiddleAges and theirruinsbeganto standdeserted. 23 See The Idea of Nationalism. von Feuchtersleben(Wien. 2. presence France of character the newenvironment. the and assured leadership mankind. p.15 vols. This content downloaded on Sun. Had not the Greeks. vol. Originalausgabe. the for and roads. ourancestors livedin theircastles always why on the top of mountains whatjoy of life wasconnected the and with in Sincemenhavegathered thevalleys around great the and heights. 1846).. one andwouldunderstand. X. In the mountains the Rhineriverhe discovered and crossing Thuringian His in madehim conscious the alien of Germany." The changecamewith Schlegel's to journey Parisin 1802.22 fliesst Geisterlosch:In Deutschland Europas Der Quell der neuenZeit: Die aus ihm tranken Sind wahrhaft deutsch:Die Heldenschar ergiesst Sich iiberall:Erhebtden raschen Franken. mission to create and spiritual philosophy civilizations HellasandIndia. at like land." 22 FriedrichSchlegel. WhileEurope of theformer flowering the he decayed. Sammtliche Werke. He calleduponthe Germans remember andpoetry anewin religion. Looking suchhighcastles theWartburg. desiring achieving of tionalstatehood. was deeplyimpressed the He by ruinsof the castleWartburg Eisenach near where famous contest the of the Minnesingers beenheld and whereLuther had and struggled "If worked. foundin Germany sourceof new life whichwould awaken other the peoples.onecannot helpremembering like whatthe Germans formerly whenthemanstillhada fatherhad been. 14. cultural to but had Schlegel beenconverted nationalism it wasa purely naor without nationalism. one seesobjects these. greedy alienwaysandalienmoney." The Germanswere unithe universal mission was"tofulfilin themselves it whose people. by E. versalmankind to unitein a wreath mostbeautiful flowers and the of all peoples. Den Italiener Natur und Rom zur Wird wach. had their character? Could not greatworks bornethe stampof theirnational of the the Germans followtheirexample become Greeks the not and similar new age? At aboutthe sametimeSchiller hopes expressed 23 in his fragmentary poem "DeutscheGrosse.

it nevertheless rootwhere soil wasnot too unfavorable. Instead the furortedesco beenmentioned frequently the Italianpoets." desdeutschen gende Zug 24 Schlegel's "Reise nach Frankreich"appeared in Europa." fromtheGreek of to turned Schlegel republic antiquity theGerman of Novalis.but with a new monarchy the Middle Ages. as one-sided destrucsimplicity. has times disappeared "Butthepoetry former of goldandimmorality. future history be full of the deedsof theGermans. was romantic eventheoriental world. "Among worldconquering nations the past.458 THE REVIEW OF POLITICS recalla timeof joyouslivingand highmorality. die mehrist als die Gerechtigkeit Gesetzes eine kindlich Treue und aufrichtige unerschiitterliche und Herzlichist keit der Gesinnung der tiefsteund hoffentlich ganz zu vertilnie 24 Charakters. whilein themodem to in assembled the cities. following no on but and emphasis. Perhaps slumbering not will wakeup oncemoreandperhaps if we should live to see even will world it. wishto we manslos fieros But of the image rather truth thesegreattimesandnot or the retain firmly lion the become confused the present by misery. them What distinguishes aboveall fromthe Romans theirgreater is it love of liberty. liberty it appears in its goodtimemoreoriginally enduringly also and nation. as faras we areconcerned.succumbed the lureof foreign age people. whichhad of andwithit virtue. keit.patience now has so by to in become firstnational our virtueandbesideit humility. as it ought to be." In Paris Schlegel This content downloaded on Sun. longer Christian spirituality unity. on German the of virtue. was withthemnot a merewordand rulebut an to innatesentiment. where the natural greatness of the spirit and the freer heart had better fitted the great aim. in Germany.its sister. a periodical which he in edited in Frankfurt-am-Main 1803. joy. Its enthusiasm fullof than fairy without not and coveting.the Gera them mansoccupy placeof the firstrank. contrast who of the formerly a on account which Spaniard reigning mentality.childlike of who fanatics settheglobeon tiveas theenthusiasm thoseadmirable Rechtlichfirefasterand widerthaneventhe Romans. There he wrote also: "How immensely farther would Europe be on the road to true liberty and culture. the and and and of courage loyaltygrewtheremightily. 3 Feb 2013 23:40:52 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .On account thisoriginal of of the German whichis an everlasting character the life.if the center of the Church in past times had not been in Italy but. whether compare and we or will withthe Romans the Arabsthe comparison be in theirfavor.Thoughtheyweremuchtoo high-minded wish to imposetheircharacter struck upon othernations. thenhonor love. with Emperor calledthe Gertraveled Charles through V Germany Alemanos.Einegefiihlte des und der Ehre.

26 Eight years before.republicanism become "a transient has meteorwhichshinesa few momentsin a splendorof light but quickly and goes out in a stormof civil discordand leavesbehinddestruction confusion. was intimately it and intricatelytied up with the naturaland spirituallife of all its members." "Der alte vaterlandische Stromerscheint wie ein machtiger uns Strom naturverkiindeter 25 Dichtkunst. 212. Schlegel was also the first to sing the glory of the romanticGerman forest. To form a true nation. professor of philosophy at the University of Bonn. therein the precursorof Eichendorff. But Schlegel went far beyond Novalis in his emphasison nationalitywithin this Christianuniversality." These sentiments found their theoreticalexpressionin his Philosophische Vorlesungen aus den his Jahren1804 bis 1806. he praised Diirer because he had decided to paint not like the ancients or the Italians but in a German way. The antiquityand purity of this commondescent would discoveredold German art. In Estates. vol. international among union and the tie nationswas guaranteed the hierarchy priestsand scholarswhich of by was above all national differences. p. 26 They were edited after his death by his friend C. old German poetry to Greek poetry and old German painting to Italian art. 3 Feb 2013 23:40:52 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . p.as a natureand history. not a constitutional monarchybut the mediaevalmonarchyof the the Standestaat underthe moralguidanceof the Church. historyand our charour acter. 93 and vol. in two volumes (Bonn: 1836-37). a second edition appearedthere in 1846. He went even so far as to prefer for national and religious reasons. Now. of descentfrom the same be ancestors. the mediaeval of Empire Church. This content downloaded on Sun. J. on the nation as a higherrealityof natureand history. Windischmann." Only the monarchycould be a true guardianof peace. the republichad appearedto him the most perfectform of government the only safe guarantee and of peace. 25 See Sammtliche Werke.and this meant to Schlegelto resemble a closely knit and all inclusivefamily-he demandedthat all its members held togetherby ties of blood. VI." This fictitiouscorporate becamea only personality whichit jealousguardianof the lives of the single and real individual and which comprised whichit claimedto mold. It imposedconditions wentfar beyondthe conceptof a politicalnationality.His poem"AmRheine"(1802) symbolof German markedthe beginningof the glorification the riverwhichhe called of "the all too faithfulimageof our fatherland. "The that all its members should form as it were conceptof nation requires one individual. H.ROMANTICISM AND GERMAN NATIONALISM 459 The Rhine impressedSchlegel as much as the Wartburg. however. X. in whichhe for the firsttime expressed political philosophy.

poeticactivity took and like whenothers Amdt. Schlegel also the firstto writepatriotic This to Germans a confident tyranny. 385.it is unconditionally ownmaster.460 THE REVIEW OF POLITICS customs the of.Schlegel of past to in difficult underratedthe unityof language which for reasons all contradict historical evidence-he saw "the stand because they of of descent. 358.themore people of would the a nation. Such an attitude justified destroy in the in his opinion unionof all peoples threatened the French a by of war whichwould lead to the "totalannihilation" this "corrupt 2 of the writer renown was nation...Schlegel maintained. 27 and governsitself by its peculiarlaws. 382. pp. however. 28 Ibid. Schlegel was in his lectures. defeated backward of moral character a "Thatwouldbe highlyimmoral. The many nations. traditional habits: the greater community blood. habitsand customs." must and people. by the In withits character." Schlegel perhaps firstGerman war. struggle againstNapoleon's filledonly a few yearsof his life. but it as must be maintained a separate entity subjectnationality evenforcibly. to reservemilitary service to the aristocracy. Magyars to wereabusing theirsuperiority however. Secondto a common and affinity blood. vol. Gerpatible the mans have educated and others.The original A as its customs peculiarities. Eachstateis an independent individual in recent existing for itself. guarantee persistence and the loyaltyto. Riickert up the task him and of national bards soonsurpassed by farin popularity.and the stronger of and the form the therefore perseverancethepast.." From of thatpointof viewSchlegel also the protested against assimilation a of nationto the higher and civilization the victor. that he was against universal military service of citizens and wished. 3 Feb 2013 23:40:52 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . During Church a northGerman the Catholic thoseyearsSchlegel and. Schlegelthought.Schenkendorff. from1805to 1809. far as thatbe comas mightbe educated the victor.. of the nationality otherpeoples. itspeculiar has its character. so fascinated by the mediaeval Standestaat and so hostile to all the innovationsof the French Revolution. II. thatway.."This newtheory naindisputable testimony common characsentences tionalism in and culminated two summary apodictic to "It of teristic the age of nationalism: is muchmoreappropriate race nature thehuman be strictly that (strenge abgesondert) separated be nations intonations thanthatseveral should fusedas hashappened times . joined 27 Ibid. French. be regarded sacred. This content downloaded on Sun. call andfor a sacred to issuesucha strong for German nationality the was exhorting poetry. in the interests of peace. p.

(Vienna. You will find there one of your own which was sung here yesterday in church to a good melody by Zelter..a picture of the former German nation painted in colors as strong as I could. Voll Hochgefiihlund Glauben." Briefe von und an 2 August Wilhelm Schlegel. "to present to the Germans the image of their ancient glories. there is no better counterweight against the onrush of the age than the memory of a great past. he declared that he knew only one aim for a writer in that historical age. as well as of its development and culture in the Middle Ages.. from Schonhausennear Magdeburg on July 1.in propagandist the Austrian 1809in strong stirring and he the Germans proclamations. This demanded a spe29 Sammtliche Werke. p. Therehe became official an for cause. wrote to him and Dorothea. vol. So spottejederder Gefahr.wennStiirmeschnauben. p.. Those of 1810 glorified the heroes of German history. X. Though patriotic which in to his of continued elaborate theory nationalism. appealof his through "Geliibde" ("The Vow") : 29 Es sei mein Herz und Blut geweiht. Philipp Veit who served in the free corps.. 1930)..turnedto Austriaas the hope for German regeneration. by Josef Kmrner.." edited by Jahn in 1813. Ferdinand II. zu Dich Vaterland retten. his mother. 159. especially the Habsburg princes. Wankt nicht.." His brother August Wilhelm had preceded Schlegel to Vienna. and Charles V. vol. For that reason I thought of adding to the interpretationof the three great world-shaking periods-the migration of the Germanic tribes. Die Freiheitruft uns allen. Schlegel's stepson. the Crusades and the Reformation. of its oldest conditions when it lived in its original liberty and character. "If one does not look on details but on the whole. 3 Feb 2013 23:40:52 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .. and thus to kindle every spark of national sentiment which might be dormant somewhere. I. and the mirrorof the past.ROMANTICISM AND GERMAN NATIONALISM 461 by birth. In a letter from Coppet he wrote in 1807 to Countess Louise von Voss. vols. This content downloaded on Sun.. 1813: "Jahn is sending you herewith the first issue of a collection of songs which are being sung in our corps or are being rehearsed. Der deutsche Stammist alt und stark. Die Treue ist der EhreMark. he "TheVow"marked end of Schlegel's the poetry. thelectures in he delivered Viennain 1810"OnModer History" the lecture and in serieson "Historyof Ancient and ModernLiterature" 1812. ed. 199f. their old dignity and liberty. The poem was also included into "Deutsche Wehrlieder. Rudolf I.called upon to outside Austria standby herandto brave dangers unityand in all The samespiritbreathed the fervent courage..

and for the 30 had all the fervor which spirit of knighthood.embellish them and perpetuate gloriesof a the "as happensin the heroic epics wherethe miraclefreely great past.31 The lectures of 1812-and the periodicalDeutsches Museum which Schlegel edited then-were devotedto the thesis that "every literaturemust and should be national. 7th ed." which would justify every strong state and every strong individual to establish his own "nature"as a yardstickof all morality.But the first place belongedto poetry. but it was turnednostalgicallybackward the period when the imto idea. It was his Catholicreligionwhichprevented from the secularized with its unlimitedmoral selfglorifying popularstate sufficiency.462 THE REVIEW OF POLITICS concernfor the great mediaevalforces and forms cial interpretative of the state. 3 Feb 2013 23:40:52 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . XI. "Beide schalten das als blinde Herrschsucht. it must preservefor a people its memories and legends. paintingand philosophy. most wonthe derfulheritage that a peoplecan have. Memorable to deeds.and if a peoplefinds itself in its own feelingselated and so to speakennobledby the possession a great past. Weltbirgertum und Nationalstaat.of whichSchlegelthoughtthe Germans alone worthyperial and the universalism the churchstill maintained of some ethicalunity him amongnations." Meinecke begriindetlag. 92. it times. Such nationalmemories. this is its vocation and this alone can give it its true and full value.greateventsand destiniesalone are not sufficient 31 Friedrich Meinecke. This content downloaded on Sun. 1928). p.are an advantage whichnothing else can replace. 30 Sammtliche Werke. p. will be raisedby this very fact in our judgmentto a higher plane. was Ausfluss seiner Selbsterhaltungund Selbstbestimmung argued that besides universal morality for individuals there exists an individual morality for the state and that this individual morality justifies the apparent immorality of the of power-egotism the state. was aus der tiefsten individuellen Natur eines Wesens stammt." The same nationalspirit should determinelanguageand music. was im Wesen des Staates selbst war. occurs and where the poet attaches himself to mythology. (Munich. 195. "Denn unsittlich kann nicht sein." His nationalism the age of nationalism later developedin centraland easternEurope. vol. for the relationand unifyingtie of the Churchand of the old imperial position in Germany.Italy and Europe. of memof ories from prehistoric in brief by the possessionof poetry. objected from the point of view of the modem German power-stateas much to the Christianpolitical ethics of the romanticistsas to the rational universalismof the enlightenment." The spiritualgrowth of a nation dependedon its possessionof great national memories"whichoften lose themselvesin the darknessof its and of originsand the preservation glorification whichconstitutesthe most excellenttask of poetry.

und Gemiitskrafteim Volk.Heinrich the never of reached popularity a Schiller. by Kosch and Sauer. 32 The Germans owe to the romanticists. Sammtliche Werke. 33 "Eine geistige Gemeinschaft zu einem m6glichst vollkommenenLeben durch Entwicklung der Geistes. 24 vols. HistorischKritische Ausgabe. p. 327. the state"a for a life as perfect possible developing as the spiritual community by of mindand soul in a people. leader powerful. welche ja eben allein Leben genann werden kann. applyto thestateof the romanticists. 12 vols.whichalonecouldbe called strength 33 who started a disciple the as of Werner. VIII. ed. 1848). pp. Schlegel and Tieck. vol. This self-consciounsess a nationwhichexpresses in reflective and descriptive works. ed. vol. the workof men. 159. KritischeSchriften. I. Joseph of the younger Catholic of called generation romanticism.is its history. Schlegel. 3 Feb 2013 23:40:52 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .ROMANTICISM AND GERMAN NATIONALISM 463 keep our admirationand to determinethe judgmentof posterity. and by Tieck. 38. The words Hugo Grotius of the defining Western of the state-"Est autemcivitascoetusperfectus liberorum concept hominum fruendi communis et utilitatis sociatus"-did not causa juris It a being. dramatic theater. W. vol. 1846-47). an like and only infinitely greater von more Freiherr Eichendorff a (1788-1857). 1908-13). (Leipzig. unfortunately romanticists.a of people must also gain a clear consciousness its own deeds and of itself destinies. p. by Eduard Bicking. 145. X.likethe human of will creation the unfathomable of God andof the elemental forces of nature.32 V the again an objectof Throughthe romanticists state became it as something lofty and so and adoration. truly life." The romanticists pointedto Shakespeare's historicplays as the model for the to revive national andto makeit partof the national the attempt past of The theater to consciousness. the to a than wereunable create national manyin reflection in creation. (Regensburg. seemed themthe most "national" in muchstronger Gerall the arts. poetry they regarded so full of miracle mystery it couldno longerbe that and wondrous." Zacharias Church the romantic and and enlightenment laterjoinedthe Catholic defined state as "a unionwhichshouldmakeit posthe movement. (Leipzig. individual manhimself. von Kleist. Sammtliche Werke. W. was. This content downloaded on Sun." Joseph Karl Benedikt von Eichendorff. Shakespeareas a great national poet was praised by A.to A. Even their strongest talent. their first famous Shakespearetranslation.

He found this cosmopolitan and individualistic libertyas loathsomeas he found the natural of that periodwhichregarded religionsas equal manifestaall religion or tions of the Divine. it was a defensiveattitudewhichlooked long34 Zacharias Werner (1768-1823). III.36 The romanticconceptof the patriarchal state and its union of love. Accordingto their ideal.To him liberty was the ancient and vital freedom (jene uralte. 36 Ibid. X. 35 "So wird auch der grossen Genossenschaftdes Staates mit innerlich ausgewechselten Gesellen nicht gedient. representeddecadence and moral corruption. equal rights. Geschichte der deutschen Polenliteraturvon den Anfangen bis 1800 (Halle. vol. vol. weil mit ungebrochener Eigentumlichkeit.. p." Schlegel went as far as to oppose taxes because they might give to the moneyed classes the power to influence the state."but he did not mean the universal. sondern der der liebste sein. withoutgradations preferences. Sdimmtliche Werke. He suggested that the state should receive its income from the ownership of land and from the monopoly of all foreign trade. der ihr. the individualshould serve and love the state with all his soul and mind. Another romantic historian Karl Ottfried Muller (1797-1840) found in Greek history his model in Sparta and its constitutionfull of "deepest political This content downloaded on Sun. p. served the Prussian government in Warsaw and in other Prussian parts of Poland where he became one of the first German poets expressing their sympathy for the Polish cause. while the later period based upon commerceand trade. was compatible with the existence of strong and independentindividualsconsciousof their positionand their privileges." Eichendorff."34 in isolatesthis groupto give it backto mankind an ennobled too strongly artistic to Yet the romanticists were as individuals allow the state to imposea deadening uniformity. 325. commerce and the "influence of money. 37 The romanticists opposed capitalism. aus ganzer Seele dient. But it rejectedthe new age of individof ualism.464 THE REVIEW OF POLITICS sible for a groupof humanbeingsto fulfill theirhighestvocation. 341. philosophical and libertyof 1789.natural. 3 Feb 2013 23:40:52 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 277. lebendigeFreiheit) whichhe found in the proudand simplelife of mountain peopleswho could not live except as honor dictates. approaching apparently from the West. p. whichwas the samefor everybody in whicheverybody felt himselfproudlyfree everywhere. of economicrationalism. See Robert F. To Iniebuhr in his "Roman History" the period when the Romans tilled their own fields represented the ideal. It form.35They praisedlibertybut it was libertynot In rootedin reasonand equalitybut in historyand peculiarity. Eichendoff's novel Ahnung und GegenwartLeontin shouted "Long live liberty. wie er eben kann und mag. 1900).yet he shouldnot be a robotbut a free individual living his own personaland peculiarway and uniting with the otherswithout losing his individuality. Arnold. an east Prussian.

1907) were edited by Arthur Salz (Munich. 29. LI (1924). his Zwoilf Reden iber die Beredsamkeitund deren Verfall in Deutschland (Vienna. 1930). Adam Muller. 1920)." Archiv fir Sozialwissenschaft und Sozialpolitik. XII.Franz Xaver von Baader (1765-1841) charged in his das "OCber damalige Missverhaltnisder Vermogenslosenoder Proletars zu den Vermogenbesitzenden Klassen der Sozietat in betreff ihres Auskommens. 1929). 1812) and his Vorlesungen iber die deutsche Wissenschaft und Literatur (Dresden. The state . 3 Feb 2013 23:40:52 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . als intellektueller Hinsicht.. Othmar Spann's series "Die Herdflamme" published his Die Elemente der Staatskunst. aus dem Standpunkte des Rechts betrachtet" (Munich.in these words wisdom. by Jakob Baxa. Ferdinand Reinkemayer. 1927). 40 Die Elemente der Staatskunst. "Man cannot be imagined outside the state. Sammtliche Werke. 38 August Wilhelm Schlegel became a student of Sanskrit and Indian literature. Ein Lebensbild aus und aus der deutschenRestoration(Jena. Jakob Baxa. p. of the whole wealth. Von der Notwendigkeit einer theologischen Grundlage der gesamten Staatswissenschaftenund der Staatswirtschaftinsbesondere (Leipzig.39With characteristic vagueness the limitsbetweenpoetryand scholarship werenot clearlydrawn. I. 1922).Franz von Baader unde die philosophischeRomantik (Halle. XVI of the Allgemeine Biicherei der 6sterreichischenLeo-Gesellschaft (Vienna. . See Otto Weinberger. See on his social philosophy David Baumgardt. the brothersSchlegel were literaryhistoriansand critics. p.. vol." A romanticphilosopher. sowohl in materieller. Reinhold Aris. FriedrichSchlegel regardedhis Standestaat as related to the Indian caste system and both as an Aryan heritage.Adam Millers ethische und philorophische Anschauungen im Lichte der Romantik (Osterwieckam Harz. The German neo-romanticists the twentieth century rediscoveredhim. This content downloaded on Sun... and his Versuche einer neuen Theorie des Gelds mit besondererRicksicht ed auf Grossbritannien. "Das Neue Schrifttum iiber Adam Miiller. At the same time den Befreiungskriegen many of his works were republished.vol. is the intimateunion of all physicaland spiritualneeds. 347. Die Staatslehre Adam Millers in ihrem Verhaltnis zur Deutschen Romantik (Tiibingen. 808 ff. 48. 1897). 1819) as vol. held fast to the thesisthat the state was not man's politicalphilosophy workor established the benefitof the individual for who on the other hand was indissolubly part of the state and inevitablydetermined by its past. had preserved and Novalis and Eichendorffwere poets. 1926). It is the totality of all human concerns" (Der Staat ist die Totalitat der menschlichenAngelegenheiten)40. Lieser (Vienna. by H.of the whole inwardand outwardlife physicaland intellectual of a nation in a great energeticwhole infinitelyfull of movement and life. 1835) that plutocraticservility to gold under liberalism rendered the poor into serfs of money whose conditions were worse than those of rural serfs. 2 vols. vol. ed.38 Adam Miller (1779-1829) was the of politicalphilosopher romanticism.ROMANTICISM AND GERMAN NATIONALISM 465 which communities ingly to the good old times and to moreprimitive theirancienttraditions theirsocialorder. pp. . Yet amid its contradictions the romanticists were not systematic thinktheir work remainedmostly fragments or lectures romantic ers. 39 Adam Muller was practicallyunknown in the second half of the nineteenth cenof tury. 37.

This content downloaded on Sun. hadno doubtthatthe capitalisticsystem incompatible the divineorderof things. by Jakob Baxa (Jena.he turned an organic with to theoryof the state. that arrogant of for enthusiasm falsereason falseenlightand egotism." In 1805he joinedthe Catholic for he remained a Church. of Frederick While a studentin Gottingen. cameunderthe II. looked century of Miilleropposed optimism an the regarding past. few yearslongerin Dresden Berlinin closetouchwithPrussian and circles beforehe foundin Austria political spirconservative his and itualhome.41 regarded were its liberty equality a change and as fromrural to serfdom wageslavery and foundthe latterinfinitely he worse. After1817he became evermore traditionalist removed and fromthe mainstream German of intellectual political bent and life. he of AdamSmith. p. of exclusively thepraise thepastandthevainhopefor its return. 3 Feb 2013 23:40:52 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . he "then understands human that one cannot conceived be as an august complete and society except person-and one will neverwish to subject inward outward the and ality of to peculiarities thestate. upon 1806and 1810. past was knownto the the optimism might of to the research.a son of a Prussian in the Berlin official. 1921).whenthe German seemed andfoundscarcely a 41 Ausgewihlte Abhandlungen." wrote. thatimmoral He enment" which therootsof theFrench Revolution. To with was the optimism theeighteenth of the which toward future. Whilebothforms be equallyunfounded. thismayexplain in thelongrunutopias to and why whichplacethe goldenage in the future--especially the distant in future exercise greater a attraction thoseplacing in thepast than it -especially a not too distant past. helped arouse velopment German confidence its mission. Miiller's revoltagainst enlightenment a revoltagainst the was his own youth. saw in Western He capitalism of of mostgeneral manifestation that anti-social spirit.the formof its constitution arbitrary speculation.yearsof decisive But between in importance the deto of theGerman he national resistance mind.underthe influence Burke influence of and of his friendship Gentz.466 THE REVIEW OF POLITICS Miillerexpressed to romantic state.only later. futurewas memory men and accessible historical known Godalone. in to Western ideasandto strengthen cause lost After 1806.he and his opposition the liberal of friendswere equallyfirmin theiruncompromising rejection the "the of economic doctrine liberalism. ed. He was born. "If oneregards stateas a great the individual encompassing all thesmallindividuals. 21.

thusGermany. that. 59f. Germany destined spiritual German morethanany other. "Die gesamte Erdoberflache einer grossen Gesellschaft. unseres Planeten strebt offenbar nach Europe is to the world.p.the German mindwill sooneror laterdominate 42 This content downloaded on Sun.. mindtolerant in its longing.even if this penetration understanding may of sometimes into the idolatry foreign habitsand persons. The ancestors also evoked calledto testify. 48. are not merelywitnesses by history of to the theycontinue act full of thewarmth life. 4. pp.bei deren ErrichtungEuropa im Ganzen dieselbe Vermittlerrolle spielen wird. 38.they respond. Againsttheserational he of as inorganic. leadership." the by his German WhenMiillerdelivered addresses." it." orderof Europe.just as German to was The Politically prostrate. soll Europa werden. Eventhe German governments eagerto introduce whichMiillercondemned innovations forms. I. nicht bios ihr Gipfel. Vorlesungeniber die deutsche Wissenschaft und Literatur. "the and in scholarship literature whichhe proclaimed: development of the scholarly is event mindin Germany themostimportant in modem intellectual that foreignintellectual in life history.sich in humanismof the Germans see also A." Ibid. found theirconsummation their and mind. What Germany is to Europe. "TheGerman to to mindis forced ascribe itselfas an overall othernations obedient piousunderstanding and its advantage of everything and alien.because spellof the 42 Adam Miiller.Mullerclaimed."Only the der letter Geschichte Vorwelt)cantransform meaningless of presenttimes. unserer neulichen Auseinandersetzungzufolge. die deutsche Bildung im Verhaltnis zu dem Staat von Europa hinneigt. 43 it willdominate world its spirit. W. 3 Feb 2013 23:40:52 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . It is certain all its variety haveto attach will itselfin the course timeto thatof of tribes havefounded political the and Germany. Schlegel in Europa. 43 Ibid. of thestate. a universal was mind. of and the flowering not needto denyits respect others will fortunate for when heartland. About the pangeringeresangelegt als die Vorziige der verschiedenenNationalitaten zu vereinigen.intoa wordof light.in whichothercultures a harmonious all towards others infinite and mediation. 269: "Es ist auf nichts alle hineinzudenkenund hineinzufiihlen und so einen kosmopolitischenMittelpunkt des menschlichenGeistes zu stiften. 14f.. See also pp. calledup the power the deadand the necessity of the traditions and the historyof the past (die continuity. Mittelpunkt der Zivilisation der Welt. nach der sich. and passim. p. degenerate not We findourown happiness in the suppression in the highest but of the civilization ourneighbors.ROMANTICISM AND GERMAN NATIONALISM 467 on Miillerdelivered Dresden in lectures German friendin Germany. and political social of life seemed a process transformation theimpact Western in under of reseemed ideas.

. He paid his tribute also to the oratory of Fox and of the two Pitts des unsichtbaren but Burke was the greatest of all to him.p. for the welfare of which the hero exposed his mortalbody. 167 ff. 124 ff.44 of In this subordination the presentto the past. 135 ff. in Fox einen Gipfel erreicht hat: so hat die heilige Beredsamkeitin diesem Jahrhundertnur durch Einen Mund geredet. first to be built in some awakenedhearts and throughsome miraculoustransformation triumphingover the enemy."for only in the immortality the nationalcommunity. he wished to call the Germansto a fatherlandof the mind.Prophet seiner Zukunft. Miiller followed with the of Burke. of his respectfor individualliberty and for constitutionalrights.Muller Like Fichte. . anticipated of all periodsand all nations"who belongedmore to the Germans than to the British who never understoodhim fully. most powerful and most human statesman 44 Vorlesungeniber die deutsche Wissenschaft und Literatur. Wenn die weltliche Beredsamkeit. the old one alwayslives on. 169. 165 f. 1891). du vielfach verwundetesund unterdricktes. he should derivethe blood of his instinctive advice. (describinghis oratory duel with Fox in the night of February 11th to 12th. . of his understanding the living forces of knew little.. in his identification the individual'simmortality Fichte. as an absolutelynew beginning:his deeds should only continue the deeds of the ancestors. . Geisterseherseiner Geschichte. 163 f.die die spitesten Enkel deiner Unterdriicker noch segnen werden. 3 Feb 2013 23:40:52 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ..468 THE REVIEW OF POLITICS in one hearthas rousedthem: in theirpresence performs a loftierway not act for himselfand out of and with greaterfreedom. profoundest. Man should himselfalone.45 But of the practicalwisdom of Burke.he should attach himself to a are whichhas alreadybeen in existence all communities community one but the nearestis the best to him. the state could the passingindividual find his own immortality could and his life and actionsreceive meaning. aber auch jetzt schon mit Guitern." Vorlesungen uber die deutsche Wissenschaft und Literatur. vielfach entschadigtes Volk . The great and immortal and crumbled soul. p. 167." 46 "Bilde dein angewiesenes Werk nur ruhig fort.the spiritof his decisionfromolderandeverolder ancestors. pp.46 The victoriousstate whichwould emergewas hardlydefinedas a state of the German nation-Muller was little concerned with the problem of "the greatest. This content downloaded on Sun. His politicalsensewas hardlydeveloped. 186 f. He called him "Stellvertreter Englands. . worthy and that only cold and vile souls speakof it as if it had gone forever into dust. . durch den Mund Burkes. He called Burke he continuityof the fatherland. must be called his true of of body. See also Zwolf Reden iber die Beredsamkeit. This is the immortality all greatnessand goodnesson of earththat wherever new life stirs. 45 Ibid.p.. p. . history.

Nor could scienceand of exist as "pure"effortsor responsibilities the individual scholarship 47 Die Elemente der Staatskunst. was proclaimed guaranteeof the conthe tinuityand identityof stateand nation. mind and body. twelve yearsbeforeMiiller deliveredin the winter of 1808-09 his lectureson Die Elementeder Staatskunst. 81. a union not only infinitelygreatin in on spacebut also immortal time. But in reality. Miiller proclaimed.of whomeach single generation. in the present king of that family.in commoncustomsand laws. pp. Adam Miiller.in the immutable nature of things. and to make the true center of the whole even more visible. think or feel." Against the emphasis the present and on the pursuitof happinesshe stressedeternityand duty: "A of people is the august communityof a long endurance past."47 Thus the hereditary nobility. live or love withoutthe state. and in each each individual.and every generation would be free to begin anew. living and future generations.finallyin the one immortal familywhich forms the centerof the state. 3 Feb 2013 23:40:52 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . manylong-flourishing in familieswhichareespecially designedto link the periodsof historymoreclosely. theocraticstate much less ina spiredby Burkethan by the Vicomte de Bonald and his Theorie du Pouvoir Politique et Religieuxdans la socie'tecivile which had appearedin Constancein 1796.the individual none of thesefreedoms had and the state was. 41. 3rd and 7th lectures. so indispensable the fulfillmentof the most elementary for needs of man's heart. Vom Geiste der Gemeinschaft. 1931).ROMANTICISM AND GERMAN NATIONALISM 469 of 1789 and to economicliberalism. by FriedrichBillow (Leipzig. that at no time could he hear or see. the commonunion. the royal family.ed. to German in unification it wasa stateopposed everything theideas This content downloaded on Sun.who all hang together in a great intimate union for life and death. single generation again guarantee and are againguaranteed it in their whole existence. Miiller believedthat the tragicerrorsof the Revolutionoriginated in the belief that the state was designedto assurethe securityand prosperityof its members. If that were true. the individualcould direct the life of the state into new channels. in thousandsof beneficentinstitutions.this beautiful by immortalcommunity itself to the eyes and sensesin a comrepresents mon language. There he developedat length his theorythat "the state is not only the union of many familiesliving togetherat one time but also followingeach otherthroughtime. inextricably so linked up with everything human. and above all the royal house.

28.Nothingseemed hima firmer to velopment cementing of nationsand statesthan "the true war. its peculiarity. A truewarmore thananyothereventwould fill and saturate existence everyindividual the life of the the of with state." He proposed to "nationalize the armies and militarize the nations. a supra-national Christian order times.one system weights measures overtheearth of all would and lack that creative whichsprings fromdifference forceof movement and conflict. 236. The highest was to goodof a nation according Miillerthe ideaof fromall others." which in Treitschke's opinion "proved victoriously the indestructible blissful necessity of war.whether a universal or by a league republican of nations (permanenmonarchy ten Volker-Kongress). because and that manifest everything can be hiddenin peacemustin warbecome andgivento thewhole."Theconcept of the fatherland. I. 589. 49 Treitschke. p." In reality the book was largely plagiarizedfrom Adam Muller. 20-23. Deutsche Geschichte im neunzehnten Jahrhundert.he accepted other the of at as the Holy Alliancedid. center all orderbecause is the idea of 50 itself:the Christian world order religion.470 THE REVIEW OF POLITICS of mind. pp. way in whichit wasdifferent its the A worldin whichtherewouldbe only one government. Mullerregarded assured by perpetual peace. The political the intellectual wereonly two and sidesof bodyandsoulwhich couldexistbut as one. sorrow and tearsbind betterthan luck and prosperity. There of Prussian in the like-minded noblemen romantic and company poets he couldnote with satisfaction "thebetterones amongus have that beenfortunately it was curedof cosmopolitanism. p.independent the state. a misfortune as which dewouldbringhuman to a standstill. uniqueness. 34f.48 Theywouldlose all vigorif they the ever triedto develop theirown rightwithout in serving society life and the state."because common peril. vol. deeplyas it mightbe felt. withinwhichnationscouldnot isolatethemselves. one law. is not sufficient: as thereis the of it only one world-idea. the chapter our of whichwe had to pass. 50 34th lecture." FromDresden Miiller for returned a shortwhileto Berlin. This content downloaded on Sun." Understandably found he historythrough muchto blamein Frederick Greatwho had rationalized adthe the 48 2nd lecture. 3 Feb 2013 23:40:52 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . praised very highly a book Vom Kriege by Riihle von Lilienstern (1780-1847): "Nowhere did the keen political idealism of the War of Liberation find a nobler expression than in that book.49 ThoughMiillerbelieved war as a vital and beneficial in forcewhichenhances character the state.

The great confederation of European nations will come some future day. ist ja in der Rechnung. kann erziehen. an enthusiasm foe. p. ist ein weites Feld des Zufalls. will also wear German colors.das Vaterland. he did not alter his fundamental conviction. ist dagegen etwas sehr Bestimmtes und Besonderes.51 As regards a European community." This content downloaded on Sun. Religioses. und weil es den unendlichen Gott von sinem einsamen Standpunke nicht fassen kann. Was der Privatmann "Zukunft" nennt. 52f. "I."52 Miiller. must be as insulting as to declare that one was without sex or honor.bevor ihr einen Altar. 5. our own fatherland. worauf alles bezogen werde. 3 Feb 2013 23:40:52 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . for everything great. ein vaterlandischesh6chstes Gut fest und fur die Ewigkeit erkannt habt? Ohne so ein Mittelstes. "Our concern is the nearest and concrete. Wirde und Bestimmungder Preussischen Monarchie. too.h. und welches die junge Generationund ihr ganzes Streben ordne und festhalte. for our own royal lord and for his centenary crown which with royal devotion he regards as something higher than himself." The Germans have sown their seeds over Europe. muss man erst das Nationalleben empfunden haben.In the lectures the king and the on ciple natureof the Prussian whichhe delivered Berlinin 1810. wovon das Herz nichts ahndet: eben weil es ein isoliertes Herz. whether praising the Hohenzollern or serving the Habsburgs. sonder nur der nationale Burger. also ist die Nationalitat selbst conditio sine qua non aller Erziehung. erzieht Ihr nur Privatmanner. Gott selbst und sein Gesetz. their growth should be left to the care of nature. dreamt much of a union of that great nation of which we are only a branch. while paying his respectsin Berlin to the Prussian monarch. Nationales. sein Gesetz in den Erziehungscalciilnicht aufnehmen kann. He waged war 51 Ober Konig FriedrichII und die Natur. d. woriiberdie Wetter Gottes und seine Winde und Zeiten walten. Was der nationale Burger "Zukunft" nennt.that is the only certainty which has remained from all those hopes." he declared. ein Heiligtum. too. Offentliche Vorlesungen gehalten zu Berlin im Winter 1810 von Adam Muller (Berlin. 1810). thorough and lasting in all European institutions is German. to declare that one has none or that one belongs to a cosmopolitan society of independent rational minds. 1st lecture. p. in monarchy he stressedthat it must be for everyman a point of honor to have a definite fatherland. was soon to follow the Schlegels to Austria but whether in Berlin or in Vienna. Nicht also der Privatmann. ein Privatherz ist. and as truly as we live. Wie moigtihr denn erziehen. Muller believed that it could be realized only through German ideas.ROMANTICISM AND GERMAN NATIONALISM 471 of ministration the state and had felt himself culturallyto be a disof the Frenchenlightenment. There is something of the spirit of Fichte's "Reden" in Miiller's eighth lecture: "Um die Zukunft mit Kraft und Bestimmtheit zu empfinden. expected revolutions and heroes and changes in the mentalities of peoples which would come and favor the realization of my dream. 5:2 2nd lecture.und ereuert die alte Misere. "I.

Burke and some Germansdivined that there the lost jewel might be found. anti-Western a Germanophilism which becamethe model of the later nationalism. 3 Feb 2013 23:40:52 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Thus the idea of nobilityagain reappeared."But with it also the theories and the realityof an anti-liberal. into people's mystical nationalismsin central and eastern Europe. Theirunitinglinkwas "thewaragainstthe West.a nationalismunknown to the Middle Ages and to Burke. After 1813 he was happy to see-partly throughhis efforts the tide turn.472 THE REVIEW OF POLITICS against Western ideas. Slavophilism. and tury later. There "grewup in betternations a tremendouslonging for the discreditedbarbarians the Middle of Ages. The esoteric romanticists turneda centhoughtsof the German undera differentleadership with a differentemphasis." This content downloaded on Sun.