You are on page 1of 43

U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies, EE-2G 1000 Independence Avenue, S.W. Washington, D.C.

20585-0121

FY 2006

FRACTIONAL-SLOT SURFACE MOUNTED PM MOTORS WITH CONCENTRATED WINDINGS FOR HEV TRACTION DRIVES

Prepared by: Oak Ridge National Laboratory Mitch Olszewski, Program Manager

Submitted to: Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Vehicle Systems Team Susan A. Rogers, Technology Development Manager

October 2005

ORNL/TM-2005/183

Engineering Science & Technology Division

Fractional-Slot Surface Mounted PM Motors with Concentrated Windings for HEV Traction Drives
J. M. Bailey J. W. McKeever

Publication Date: October 2005

Prepared by the OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 managed by UT-BATTELLE, LLC for the U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725

This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.

TABLE CONTENTS Page LIST OF FIGURES .................................................................................................................. LIST OF TABLES.................................................................................................................... ACROYNMS............................................................................................................................ EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ...................................................................................................... 1. INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................. 1.1 CURRENT AND VOLTAGE OPERATING REGION............................................ 1.2 CHARACTERISTIC CURRENT OF A PM MOTOR ............................................. 1.3 RESEARCH SUMMARY ......................................................................................... 1.4 REPORT OUTLINE.................................................................................................. iv iv v vi 1 1 4 5 6

2. FRACTIONAL-SLOT CONCENTRATED WINDINGS 2.1 INTEGER-SLOT WINDING .................................................................................... 7 2.2 EXAMPLE OF A FRACTIONAL-PITCH WINDING ............................................ 8 2.2.1 Fractional-Slot Concentrated Windings......................................................... 13 3. EXPERIMENTAL AND ANALYTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE 6 kW UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN/ORNL MOTOR 3.1 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................... 15 3.2 ORNL 6 kW FRACTIONAL-SLOT MOTOR MODEL WITH CONCENTRATED WINDINGS .............................................................................. 17 3.3 EFFECT OF STATOR SLOTTING ......................................................................... 21 4. MODEL OF AN INTEGER-SLOT PMSM THAT CAN MEET FCVT AND DESIRABLE ADVANCED HEV TRACTION MOTOR SPECIFICATIONS ................ 23 4.1 ORNL’S INTEGRAL-SLOT MOTOR ..................................................................... 23 5. CONCLUSIONS................................................................................................................. 26 APPENDIX A: USEFUL MATLAB PROGRAMS A.1 ZHU METHOD FOR CALCULATING BACK-EMF AND ITS HARMONIC CONTENT ................................................................................... 27 A.2 CALCULATIONS OF THE PERMEANCE FUNCTIONS ..................................... 28 APPENDIX B: FCVT SPECIFICATIONS B.1 FCVT PERFORMANCE GOALS AND TARGETS FOR A 2010 ELECTRIC PROPULSION SYSTEM ............................................................. 30 B.2 FCVT TECHNICAL TARGETS FOR POWER ELECTRONICS AND ELECTRIC MACHINES........................................................................................... 30

ii

...................B............. 32 DISTRIBUTION..................................................... 34 iii ..........................................................................3 ADVANCED TRACTION MOTOR SPECIFICATIONS................................................................................................ 31 REFERENCES ...........................

......... One phase of the coil-winding configuration for the ORNL model of a 6 kW fractional-slot PMSM motor with concentrated windings...................................... Calculated inductances for the 36-slot/30-pole SPM machine ................................ Configuration of the ORNL model of a 6 kW fraction-slot PMSM motor made with concentrated windings............. 9 15 16 16 16 16 16 18 19 23 24 24 24 iv ...................................... Comparison of 6 kW fractional-slot motor analyses ........................................................................................................................... 2 5 7 10 12 13 15 17 18 18 19 20 20 21 22 23 LIST OF TABLES Table 1 2 Page 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Conductor-slot locations .............................................................................................................................................................. Basic repeating unit of prototype SPM machine consisting of six stator slots and five poles ............................................................................................... Phasor diagram of non-salient pole (surface-magnet) sinewave motor............ Peak back-emf per phase of 6 kW motor at 800 rpm .................................................................................... A three-phase PMSM with surface-mounted magnet ................... Rotor dimensions for the 36-slot/30-pole SPM machine............... Winding layout for the PMSM of Table 1 ...................................... Stator dimensions and winding data for the 36-slot/30-pole SPM machine .......................... Slot nomenclature ....................................................................................................................... Magnet and winding data........................................................................................................................................................................................ Coil locations for ORNL’s 6 kW PMSM motor model................................................. Losses............................................................................................................................................. Intersection of voltage ellipse and current circle for an IPM motor .................. Breakdown of material mass for the 36-slot/30-pole SPM machine .................................................. Analytical results ........................................................................................................................................................................................... Concentrated windings configurations ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... Calculated current and magnet parameters for the 36-slot/30-pole SPM machine ...................................... Inductances ..... ORNL’s integer-slot PMSM motor model that meets FCVT and desirable advanced HEV traction motor specifications ......................LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 2 3 4 5 Page 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Principal IPM flux paths ............................................................ Verification test results .............. Rotor notation .. Relative permeance....... Harmonic content in back-emf of 6 kW motor at 800 rpm.................................. Per-phase equivalent circuit of 6 kW motor .......................................................................................

ACRONYMS ac BDCM CPSR d-axis dc emf FCVT FWI HEV IM IPM mmf ORNL PM PMSM q-axis rms SPM spp alternating current brushless dc machine constant power speed ratio direct-axis direct current electromotive force FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies flux-weakening index hybrid electric vehicle induction motor interior permanent magnet magneto-motive force Oak Ridge National Laboratory permanent magnet permanent magnet surface mounted quadrature-axis root mean square surface permanent magnet slots per pole v .

and those with magnets mounted in slots in the rotor. their segmented structure simplifies assembly problems and is expected to reduce assembly costs. and testing of the unit to 4000 rpm were completed during FY 2005. which was thought to have an inherently low stator inductance. It then discusses application of the fractional-slot concentrated winding technique to increase the d-axis inductance of a PMSM showing how this approach differs from an integralslot motor with sinusoidal-distributed windings. A low stator inductance can lead to currents dangerously exceeding rated current as the back-emf across the inductance increases with speed. they can increase the motor's inductance sufficiently to reduce the characteristic current to value of the rated current. This feature also limits short-circuit fault currents. which will enable them to operate at high CPSR. attempts to do so were often not successful and a motor design was sought that would have a higher intrinsic inductance. The motor will be sent to ORNL to explore ways to control its inverter to achieve higher efficiency during FY 2006. To examine in depth this design ORNL entered into a collaborative agreement with the University of Wisconsin to build and test a 6 kW laboratory demonstration unit. having the magnets on or embedded in a rotating cylinder separated from the inside surface of a slotted cylindrical stator by an annular gap. Design. Second. consequently. This paper first reviews the concept of characteristic current and what is meant by optimal flux weakening. but has some disadvantages. These traction drives are generally powered by radial-gap motors. Although analysis suggested that there should be no problem designing sufficiently high stator inductance into PMSMs. Third. First. The two main types of radial-gap PM rotors are those with magnets mounted on the surface of a supporting back iron. but they are more difficult to fabricate. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s (ORNL) position has been to continue research on brushless direct current (dc) motors (BDCMs) because of ease of fabrication and increased power output. fabrication. Most early PM motor research was on the PMSM motor. 36-slot. vi . Commercial research at Toyota has focused on IPM motors because they can achieve a highsaliency ratio. part of the attempted solution has been to increase the stator inductance to reduce the rate of current rise. called interior PM (IPM) motors. which helps them operate over a high constant power speed ratio (CPSR). 30-pole motor with concentrated windings.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY High-power density and efficiency resulting from elimination of rotor windings and reduced magnetic-flux losses have made the rare earth permanent magnet (PM) motor a leading candidate for the Department of Energy's Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVTs) traction drive motor. Finally ORNL presents a PMSM design with integral-slot windings that appears to meet the FreedomCAR Specifications. Recently there has been a revival of interest in a fractional-slot PMSMs [15] made with concentrated windings because they possess three important features. called PM surface mounted (PMSM) motors. the back-emf waveform is nearly sinusoidal with low cogging. This discussion is followed by a presentation of collaborative analyses and comparison with the University of Wisconsin's measured data on a 6 kW.

Further collaboration with the University of Wisconsin is planned for FY 2006 to design a motor that meets FreedomCAR specifications. vii .

and c phase current and voltage coordinates in a stationary reference frame to a synchronously rotating frame in which the currents and voltages are constants during steady state operation. which is 90 electrical degrees away from the direct-axis (d-axis) along the iron axis as shown in Fig. above rated current as the voltage across the inductance. called interior PM (IPM) motors. Commercial research at Toyota has focused on IPM motors because they can achieve a high-saliency ratio. i. attempts to do so were often not successful and a motor design was sought that would have a higher intrinsic inductance. and q. b. increases with speed according to the relation i~Vt/Lstator. The equations of motion become diq/dt = l/Lq (vq – Rsiq – ωeLdid – Ef) and did/dt = l/Ld (vd – Rsid + ωeLqiq) . The rotating frame is synchronous because its rotational speed is the same as that of the sinusoidally varying voltage source. they are much easier to fabricate. part of the solution was to increase the stator inductance to reduce the rate of current rise. Although analysis suggested that there should be no problem designing sufficiently high-stator inductance into PMSMs. having the magnets on or embedded in a rotating cylinder separated from the inside surface of a slotted cylindrical stator by an annular gap. Consequently. they can achieve a stator inductance that is large enough to bring the motor’s characteristic current down to the value of the rated current. which is chosen to be aligned with a magnet.1 CURRENT AND VOLTAGE OPERATING REGION To illustrate how current and voltage regions are determined.3]. INTRODUCTION High-power density and efficiency resulting from elimination of rotor windings and reduced magnetic-flux losses have made the rare earth permanent magnet (PM) motor a leading candidate for the FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVTs) traction drive motor. Recently there has been a revival of interest in a fractional-slot PMSM made with concentrated windings because they exhibit two very pertinent features.1. This relation comes from integration of Lenz’s law over short times. but they are much more difficult to fabricate. those with magnets mounted on the surface of a supporting back iron. Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s (ORNLs) position has been to continue research on brushless direct current (dc) motors (BDCMs) because of ease of fabrication and increased power output. V. under which power and peak current are invariant under transformation. A low stator inductance can rapidly lead to excessive current. which is thought to have an inherently low stator inductance. we make an axis transformation from the sinusoidally varying a. Lstator. 1. (2) (1) 1 . 1 [1]. and those with magnets mounted in slots in the rotor. we consider the IPM motor of Fig. Using the Blondel transformation. Second. These traction drives are generally powered by radial-gap motors. The axes in the rotating frame are labeled d. which helps them achieve high constant power speed ratios (CPSRs). The two main types of radial-gap PM rotors. Most early PM motor research was on the PMSM motor. 1 [2. which will enable them to operate at high CPSR. First. called PM surface mounted (PMSM) motors.

where P m Rs Lq. id Te = = = = = = = = = = the power into the motor. number of magnet poles. 1.and q-axis currents. d. the available torque for three phases and m/2 pole pairs is Te = {P . P . the quantities in brackets are zero. electrical frequency. vd iq.Since iq and id are constant during steady state operation. rad/s. which means that diq/dt = did/dt = 0. Principal IPM flux paths [1]. operating frequency = ωe*2/m. Multiplying the bracketed terms in Eqs.and q-axis voltages. (3) (a) d-axis Fig. rad/sec. stator resistance. and total generated torque.(id2+ iq2)Rs}/ωm = 3/2{m/2} {(Ld – Lq) idiq + Efiq/ωe} . neglecting core losses. one finds that. Ld Ef ωm ωe vq. back-electromotive force (emf) per phase due to magnetic flux. d-axis and quadrature-axis (q-axis) inductance.i2Rs. (b) q-axis 2 . (1) and (2) by iq and id respectively and rearranging to obtain the developed power. d.

and IC. which is multiplied by the number of pole pairs. [4] developed a control scheme where they consider non-zero resistances. (1) and (2) become vq = ωeLdid + Ef . The locus of constant rated voltage. (6) and (7) into Eq. In the stationary system when the peak supply currents. we shall assume that the resistances are negligible and look at the steady state response where all time derivatives are zero. the transformed power in terms of the current and voltage in the rotating system and in terms of the stationary system is P= where 3 [id v d + iq v q ] = 3 I A V A cos( β ) = 3 I rmsVrms cos( β ) . VA. can be expressed as 2 2 Vr2 = v d + v q . Lopez et al. Eqs. r (9) We now substitute Eqs. which makes the power invariant under transformation. IA. m/2. and a factor. and constant rated current. however. (6) (7) (8) and 2 2 I2 = id + iq . 3/2. IB. 2 2 2 (4) β = the angle between the supply voltage and current in the stationary system. (10) 3 . VB. and vd = -ωeLqiq . Ir. the square of the current and voltage in the rotating system are related to the square of the peak voltage in the stationary system. Likewise. and VC are balanced so that IA = IB = IC and VA = VB = VC. (8) to obtain Vr2 = (ωeLdid + Ef)2 + (ωeLqiq)2. As mentioned. and voltages. (5) For diq/dt and did/dt not equal to zero. 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 id + i q = I A = 2 I rms and v d + v q = V A2 = 2Vrms . Vr.The rightmost bracketed term is the torque developed per pole. Irms = the root-mean-square (rms) current in the balanced stationary system. and Vrms = the rms voltage in the balanced stationary system.

1. (10) we obtain (Vr/ωeLd)2 = (id + Ef/ωeLd)2 + ((Lq/Ld)iq)2. ωe. (15) which means that for an IPM motor. we now have the three equations 2 2 I2 = id + iq . Ix = ψm/Ld. but as the speed increases and the ellipse shrinks this intersection can disappear depending on the value of ψm/Ld. plays the critical role here and is given the symbol. the additional current needed for field weakening produces resistance losses and leads to lower efficiency. ψm. and Te = 3m/4 {-(Lq – Ld) idiq + ψmiq}. If the motor has surface PMs (SPMs). The motor/inverter must operate within the crosshatched intersection. the value of id must be negative or torque is lost. (16) 4 . r (13) (14) (Vr/ωeLd)2 = (id + ψm/Ld)2 + ((Lq/Ld)iq)2. however. The two loci are shown in Fig. 0). Lq is larger than Ld. From Eqs. however. negative id is used to oppose the magnet flux with no torque penalty. the ellipse becomes a circle. increases. 2. which has the units volt-sec. Since the reluctance of the quadrature path is smaller than the reluctance through the direct path because of the magnet thickness. where ψm = Ef/ωe (12) and is the flux linkages due to the magnet.2 CHARACTERISTIC CURRENT OF A PM MOTOR We note that id is the flux-producing component of stator current and iq is the torque-producing component of stator current. (9) and (12). From Faraday’s law. the ellipse shrinks as the motor speed. we know that volt-sec equals Nφ or Weber-Turns. This parameter is so important we give it the name “Characteristic Current” and the symbol Ix.q) plane is a circle centered at the origin and the locus of constant rated voltage is an ellipse centered at (-ψm/Ld. it is seen that the locus of constant rated current Ir in the (d. For a PMSM motor whose Lq = Ld. (11) The voltage frequency ratio.Rewriting Eq.

We summarize with the statement. then even though the ellipse shrinks there will be an intersection. this value must be ψmn = 1 2 . For the SPM motor. and Lipo [5] first investigated the viability of IPM motors as traction devices and were followed in 1987 by Jahns [1]. For optimal performance defined to allow infinite CPSR.0) Fig. they chose as a design parameter the normalized flux linkage. However. 2. as their parameter.q axis Ir Vr (-ψm/Ld. they state that present day (1980’s) SPM motors have values of ψm between 0. (16). We can now see the importance of Ix by noting that if the locus of constant rated current intersects the center of the voltage ellipse. the normalized d-axis reactance. Intersection of voltage ellipse and current circle for an IPM motor. Novotny. “If a lossless motor is designed such that its rated current is equal to the characteristic current. Adnanes and Undeland [8] perform a similar normalization but choose Xs. (17) Furthermore.96. of Eq. (12). In this paper they normalized the parameters of the motor and introduced the concept of the IPM parameter plane. the seminal paper was that of Soong and Miller [7].83 and 0. Then Schiferl and Lipo [6] in 1990 developed the criteria for optimum field-weakening design criteria expressed by Eq.3 RESEARCH SUMMARY In the 1980’s Sneyers.” 1. ψmn. the optimal value is again 5 . 0) (0. it will have an infinite CPSR. For the SPM motor.

In Chapter 4. namely the use of fractional-slot concentrated windings and how it differs from an integral-slot motor with sinusoidal-distributed windings. In this report. we summarize these research efforts and how they apply to the FCVT program. Both papers concentrate on IPM motors and present day research efforts have followed this trend. (18) They further state that Xs is typically in the range of 0.4 REPORT OUTLINE In Chapter 2 we present our solution to increasing the d-axis inductance of an SPM.35. Since the magnet is the only source of air-gap flux density. 6 . However. Chapter 3 presents analytical and experimental results for a 6 kW 36-slot. the SPM motor is much easier to manufacture than the IPM motor and research efforts have continued with the emphasis on techniques for increasing Ld of Eq. Since the magnet acts like an additional air gap. ψm must be large. we present a PMSM design with integral-slot windings that appears to meet the FCVT and desirable advanced hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) traction motor specifications but has some disadvantages. and 2. While neither paper states that optimum SPM value cannot be obtained. (14). 30-pole motor with concentrated windings.Xs = 1 2 . the d-axis inductance must be low. 1.3–0. the general thinking has been that 1.

A three-phase PMSM with surface-mounted magnet. 3. In Fig.2. 3 there are 24 slots and 4 poles. or more usefully in electrical radians. To review coil parameters. Nspp. FRACTIONAL-SLOT CONCENTRATED WINDINGS 2. which has two sides and two ends. we review coil parameter definitions and discuss integer-slot windings using as an example the three-phase PMSM with surface-mounted magnets as shown in Fig. Fig.1 INTEGER-SLOT WINDINGS Before discussing fractional-slot windings. is rectangular with opposite sides referred to as side 1 and side 2 lying in two slots whose angular separation is the coil pitch. This angular separation may be defined in mechanical radians. Angular separation of opposite sides of the coil is referenced to the angular width of one magnet pole so that the word fractional in the term fractional-slot means the fraction of a magnet covered by the coil. 7 (19) . ωe. recall that each coil. 3. τp. ωm. The angular separation of the two sides determines if the winding is integer-slot or fractional-slot. where ωe = ωm p and p is the number of pole pairs. An important parameter is the number of slots per pole (spp) per phase. given for our example by Nspp = 24/(3*4) = 2.

in Fig. there are as many coils as slots. the winding is full pitch and if the ratio is less than unity the winding is fractional pitch (short chorded). Typically. is ⎡ (coil span in electrical degrees )⎤ k pn = ⎢n ⎥ 2 ⎣ ⎦ (20) Thus by using a fractional-pitch winding and the right-coil span. side 2 is in slot 6 and we have short chorded by one slot to make the coil span 150 electrical degrees. If this ratio is less than unity. In our case. side 1 of coil 1 is in slot 1 and side 2 is in slot 7. If this ratio is unity. kpn. we can eliminate any harmonic. the coil span is 150 electrical degrees and the fundamental-voltage component is decreased due to the pitch factor by ⎛ 150 ⎞ kp1 = sin ⎜ ⎟ = 0. The slot pitch is 15 mechanical degrees. however.Since this parameter is an integer. The decrease in the back-emf due to the fractional-pitch winding is given by the product of the full pitch back-emf and the pitch factor. For a full pitch coil. these motors have double-layer winding. which for two pole pairs (four poles) makes the pitch of one distributed winding 30 electrical degrees. ⎝ 2 ⎠ (21) 8 . which means each slot will contain coil sides from two different coils. the pitch of this winding is 5/6. 3 is summarized in Table 1 and shown in Fig. n. Since one magnet pole spans 180 electrical degrees. 4 for a coil with 10 turns. often termed short chorded because the chord connecting coil side 1 and coil side 2 is shorter than one required to cross a complete magnet pole. the back-emf will be decreased. [3] whose magnitude for any harmonic. 2.2 EXAMPLE OF A FRACTIONAL-PITCH WINDING A sinusoidal-winding configuration of a fractional-pitch winding for the motor of Fig. The two choices are (1) full pitch or (2) fractional pitch. we refer to the winding as an integer-slot winding. consequently. PMSM’s have sinusoidal back-emfs and thus must have sinusoidal-distributed windings. This motor could be wound as a single-layer winding with only 12 coils each wound in slots 180° apart. 4 if coil side 1 is in slot 1. A fractional-pitch winding is determined by the ratio of the coil span to the magnet span.966. but there are advantages to the double layer.

Table 1. Conductor-slot locations Slot# 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Phase A 20 10 0 0 0 -10 -20 -10 0 0 0 10 20 10 0 0 0 -10 -20 -10 0 0 0 10 Phase B 0 0 0 10 20 10 0 0 0 -10 -20 -10 0 0 0 10 20 10 0 0 0 -10 -20 -10 Phase C 0 -10 -20 -10 0 0 0 10 20 10 0 0 0 -10 -20 -10 0 0 0 10 20 10 0 0 Total 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 9 .

Winding layout for the PMSM of Table 1. There is another factor due to the fact that the coils are distributed in space and are displaced from each other by the slot pitch. 4. α = 30° and m = 2. For an alternating current (ac) winding with m coils per pole per phase.966.Fig. thus kd1 = sin (1 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 15 ) = 0. In our case. 2 sin (15 ) (23) sin(nm α 2 ) m sin (α 2 ) (22) 10 . there is a distribution factor kd [3] where kdn = and α = slot angle.

5. The mechanical angular velocity is ωm = where p = pole pairs. (29) The subscript q indicates E is along the q-axis. (23) now becomes Eq = ωm ψm1. ωe = 2π f rad/sec . where kw1 = kd1 kp1 . Eq. (3) can be written as 11 . 2π 2 (24) (k w1 N ph ) φ m1 f (25) In normal operation. the open-circuit rms phase back-emf [14] is Eb = where kw1 Nph φm1 f = = = = fundamental winding factor. Using the phase notation of Fig. 2 (28) and Eq. the stator electrical supply frequency (in rad/sec) is made equal to the rotational frequency. (10) is (26) ωe p (27) ψm1 = k w1 N ph φ m1 . The rms flux linkages of Eq. and stator electric supply frequency. kw1.We combine these two factors into a winding factor. series turns per phase. For three-phase PMSM. Winding factors for the harmonics are developed in [3]. fundamental flux due to the magnet.

of equal magnitude and separated by 120 electrical degrees. the gap reactance xg and leakage reactances xg + xek = ωeLd. ωm (30) During field weakening Id is negative. xs. but they do emphasize the “sine quo non” for a viable PMSM.e. (16). xs. does not enter into torque production but determines the voltage ellipse of Fig. consists of two parts. Fig.. Phasor diagram of non-salient pole (surface-magnet) sinewave motor. 12 . i.Te = 3 EIsinβ. The d-axis reactance. (31) These formulae are not detailed enough to design a real life motor. (4) The d-axis and reactance. xs. to obtain Eq. We now recap these necessities: (1) The winding configuration must produce a three-phase set of voltages that are balanced. (2) The winding factor affects the back-emf and must be high enough to minimize copper loss. (3) The rms flux density due to the magnet φm1 directly affects the torque and must be relatively large. 2 and hence the CPSR. Adnanes and Undeland [8] normalized and used the d-axis reactance. 5.

Concentrated windings configurations. However. Two important observations are evident: 13 .13]. the sinusoidal-distributed winding became the winding of choice.e. these windings were developed for standard ac machines. Liwschitz [10] has developed the distribution and pitch factors of the harmonics of fractional-slot windings. it was recognized that there were disadvantages [11] which increased the costs in the manufacturing process.1 Fractional-Slot Concentrated Windings It is well known that fractional-slot windings have the advantage of behaving as a winding with many spp [9].2. i. However. During this time frame. (10). We now look at concentrated fractional-slot windings and their effects on kw and xs. With the emergence of the PMSM with IPMs. thus reducing the distribution factors of the harmonics. where each coil is wound around one tooth became a viable candidate by allowing segmented stator poles and a high slot fill factor (70% compared to 50%). the electromagnetic design and performance characteristics of PMSMs with surface-mounted magnets and concentrated windings were presented in two papers [12. The stator became a prime target for cost reduction efforts and concentrated coils [11]. ψm is high and xs is low. Figure 6 shows the different winding configurations. 6.Items (3) and (4) above illustrate the predicament discussed in Chapter 1 and in Eq. 2. Fig..

The major conclusion of this paper was that SPM machines could be designed to achieve optimal flux-weakening conditions by introducing concentrated fractional-slot stator windings. By optimal conditions. Ld. This need was then met by El-Refaie and Jahns [15] of the University of Wisconsin when they developed a design technique and applied it to the design of a 36 slot.(1) There are combinations of slots and poles that allow a fractional-slot concentrated winding to have a high-winding factor and a balanced three-phase output (Table 1 of [12]). This would also increase the d-axis inductance. (14) and (30) and hence the CPSR of the motor. As of this time frame. (14) can be achieved. ORNL would use the SPEED program to model the motor and verify its performance with the test data. 36-slot/30-pole PMSM with SPMs and concentrated fractional-slot windings. 14 . and (2) A characteristic of concentrated windings [13] is that they generate both odd and even magneto-motive force (mmf)-waves which leads to increased leakage inductance. The results showed promise as a candidate for the FCVT program and ORNL entered into collaboration with the University of Wisconsin to have them build and test a 6 kw. The experimental results are now available and will be discussed in the next chapter. 42 pole PMSM with fractional-slot concentrated winding and surface-mounted magnets. of Eq. it is meant that the d-axis inductance Ld of Eq. there were no previous publications that describe specific design techniques for applying such windings to achieve optimal flux-weakening conditions in SPM machines.

1 INTRODUCTION The 6 kW. EXPERIMENTAL AND ANALYTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE 6 kW UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN/ORNL MOTOR 3. CC+ B+ BAA+ Fig. The design data and calculated parameters are summarized in Tables 2–6.6[mm] 25.4 [mm] Number of poles Slots/pole/phase Number of turns/coil Number of parallel paths Active length Slot fill factor Slot bottom width Slot opening height Back iron depth Phase resistance 30 2/5 18 1 60 [mm] 35% 10[mm] 3 [mm] 9 [mm] 63[mΩ] 15 . The basic repeating unit of the SPM machine is shown in Fig.3. Basic repeating unit of prototype SPM machine consisting of six stator slots and five poles [15]. Table 2. 7.4 [mm] 11. 7. 36-slot/30-pole concentrated winding fraction-slot motor funded by ORNL has now completed its verification testing cycles and both the results and the analytical techniques utilized in the design are published [15]. Stator dimensions and winding data for the 36-slot/30-pole SPM machine [15] Number of slots Number of phases Series turns Number of coils Outer diameter Total length Slot opening width Slot top width Slot height Tooth width 36 3 108 6 280 [mm] 72 [mm] 2 [mm] 14.

11 100.8 [kg] 3.6 [mm] 13 [mm] Magnets outer radius Air gap thickness Magnet span 101.3 90.7 Pout Watts 4901 6392 6415 6404 5400 6075 6099 6146 Eff % 86.0 89.579 81.4 15.0 -26.03[mH] ~0 ~0 ~0 Table 5.6 [kg] Iron mass Total mass 12.88 16 .44 314.8 [mWb-rms] 43 [Arms] 7 [Arms/mm2] Magnet relative permeability.8 43.9 Experimental 800 83.0 91.88 Iq Amps 43.2 28.4 16.3 64 29 19.0 24.1 [psi] = 21 [kPa] Table 6.0 91.5 20.421 6089.7 7935.84 85.0 21.44 3000 314.19 95.3 100% load Vphase Pin = 3IVphase Volts Volt-amps 85. Table 7. IR Copper current density 0.0 10449 9768. Calculated inductances for the 36-slot/30-pole SPM machine [15] Self inductance (including harmonic leakage) Self slot leakage inductance Total self inductance Mutual inductance (including harmonic leakage) Mutual slot leakage inductance Net mutual inductance 225[µH] 805[µH] 1. Ιch= Ψm/Ld Flux=weakening index FWI =Ιch/ IR Air-gap shear stress 1.0 10965 87.0 92.78 209.4 14.7 44.55 [Tesla] @ 100°C 34.6 14.4o [mech] Table 4.9 -14.675 87. Rotor dimensions for the 36-slot/30-pole SPM machine [15] Rotor outer radius Inner radius Magnet depth 88.7 -26.9 I Amps 43 34.6 [mm] 63.0 -26. Br RMS PM flux linkage Ψm RMS rated current.22 33. Breakdown of material mass for the 36-slot/30-pole SPM machine [15] Copper mass Magnet mass 2.79 3.028 87.7 7504. Calculated current and magnet parameters for the 36-slot/30-pole SPM machine [15] Magnet remanent flux density. Verification test results [15] rpm 800 2000 3000 4000 mech rad/s 83.16 418.5 -26.7 9035.8 [Arms] 0.78 2000 209.6 -14.5 43 36.4 10.16 4000 418.614 Pout/Pin Tout N-m 60 30.7 70.68 62.0 91.6 [kg] 19 [kg] The analytical and experiment results of the verification tests are shown in Table 7.6 Id Amps 0.0 91.4 0.0 91.9 84.88 6412. µr RMS characteristic current.74 80.0 90.5 22.6 [mm] 1 [mm] 11.3 30.6 23.8 18.33 51.Table 3.

The nomenclature is shown in Figs.55T) and relative permeability μr (1. Ir (32) This means the d-axis inductance Ld is higher than the optimal value so that the rated current is smaller than the characteristic current. Configuration of the ORNL model of a 6 kW fraction-slot PMSM motor made with concentrated windings.79 . 17 . 3. 9 and 10. the motor as represented in the SPEED program is shown in Fig. Also unlike IMs.It is noteworthy that bonded neodymium-iron-boron magnets were utilized to minimize eddycurrent losses in the magnets. We now compare the results with the results of the ORNL calculations. however. 7 we find that the repeating unit of 6 stator slots and 5 poles is evident. the slot-leakage inductance was almost a factor of four higher than the self inductance. Fig. its length of 13 mm is large compared to that of an induction motor (IM). Figure 11 is the winding diagram for one phase. 8. The important result is shown in Table 5 which shows the flux-weakening index (FWI). 8. which employ the SPEED software. Table 8 shows the coil locations and shows that this is indeed a single-layer winding. as seen in Table 7 and in [15] the motor meets its goal of CPSR = 6.22). Because of its relatively low Br (0. Comparing Figs. Each of the 18 coils is wrapped around a separate tooth and each slot has only one coil side inserted.2 ORNL 6 kW FRACTIONAL-SLOT MOTOR MODEL WITH CONCENTRATED WINDINGS Using the data from Table 1. I FWI = ch = 0. 8 and 11 with Fig.

Fig. 10. Rotor notation. Fig. Slot nomenclature Table 8. 9. Coil locations for ORNL's 6 kW PMSM motor model Coil 1 2 3 4 5 6 From 1 8 13 20 25 32 Phase A To Thr 2 1 7 -1 14 1 19 -1 26 1 31 -1 Turns 18 18 18 18 18 18 Coil 1 2 3 4 5 6 From 9 16 21 28 33 4 Phase B To Thr 10 1 15 -1 22 1 27 -1 33 1 4 -1 Turns 18 18 18 18 18 18 Coil 1 2 3 4 5 6 From 17 24 29 36 5 12 Phase C To Thr 2 1 7 -1 14 1 19 -1 26 1 31 -1 Turns 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 .

047 mΩ 55.805 mh – 1. whereas the University of Wisconsin uses the technique of Zhu [17].03 mh 0. One phase of the coil-winding configuration for the ORNL model of a 6 kW fractional-slot PMSM motor with concentrated windings.75 rms volts The most significant deviation is the 33% difference of the back-emf.Fig. the back-emf of Fig. (33) 19 . which is based on a two-dimensional solution of LaPlace’s equation. Comparison of 6 kW fractional-slot motor analyses Parameters per phase Gap inductance Slot inductance End-turn inductance Total stator inductance Resistance Back-emf Wisconsin 0.04 mh 1.767 mh 0.1 mh 0. 12 was generated.87 rms volts ORNL (SPEED software) 0. Using this technique.293 mh 0. it was determined that SPEED uses a one-dimensional analysis to model the air-gap flux density. In discussions with the University of Wisconsin.063 mΩ 41.225 mh 0. Calculations by the University of Wisconsin and ORNL for the 6 kW fractional-slot motor with concentrated windings are compared in Table 9. the fundamental rms back-emf per phase at 800 rpm becomes rms E = 45 V phase . 11. 13. as shown in Fig. From its harmonic content. Table 9.

Harmonic content in back-emf of 6 kW motor at 800 rpm.Fig. 20 . Fig. The MATLAB program used to calculate the back-emf and harmonic content are listed in Appendix A. 13. 12. Peak back-emf per phase of 6 kW motor at 800 rpm.

The MATLAB program used to calculate this function is in Appendix A. but they do not dramatically affect the results.3 EFFECT OF STATOR SLOTTING [16] Slotting influences the magnetic field in two ways: 1. and 2. 0. To account for the second effect. the Fourier permeance function. It reduces the total flux per pole by increasing the effective air gap. is introduced in Fig. 15. λ(θ). can be approximately modeled by the circuit of Fig. The 6 kW motor. This effect is accounted for by the Carter Coefficient. The back-emf is then multiplied by this function for the corrected back-emf. It affects the distributions of the flux in both the air gap and the magnets.In general. 14. which is given by E ' = E • λ( θ ) . 14. 3. as analyzed in the SPEED program.3 mh I= -Id + jIq Vφ Vφ = -Vd + jVq Eφ 90ο = j45 · Ω rpm 800 Fig. Per-phase equivalent circuit of 6 kW motor.071 mΩ 1. kc. (34) 21 . there is good correlation between ORNL and the University of Wisconsin analyses and the actual motor response. The winding resistances differ.

15.Fig. 22 . Relative permeance.

291 mm 32 2 40 Magnet material Br Hc μr Incor 0.1 ORNL’S INTEGRAL-SLOT MOTOR The preliminary design is shown in Fig. A preliminary design of such an integral-slot motor is discussed in the following sections. ORNL’s integer-slot PMSM motor model that meets FCVT and desirable advanced HEV traction motor specifications.05 23 . MODEL OF AN INTEGER-SLOT PMSM THAT CAN MEET FCVT AND DESIRABLE ADVANCED HEV TRACTION MOTOR SPECIFICATIONS The next step in ORNLs FCVT program is to collaborate with the University of Wisconsin to design.3.1 and B. The parameters used in the analysis are shown in Tables 10–13. The intent is to use this design to show why the fractional-slot motor is a viable candidate for the FCVT traction drive. Fig. which is 7 mils thick. 16. the lamination material was chosen as Arnon 7. build.940 660 kA/m 1. At the same time.2 along with desirable industrial specifications in Appendix B. Magnet and winding data Wire size Strands in hand NSH Turns/coil Turns/phase 1. ORNL is pursuing the design of an integral-slot motor. Table 10. 16. Recognizing that the losses will play a large role in this design.4. and test a fractional-slot motor with concentrated windings and other PMSMs that meet the FCVT specifications in Appendices B. 4.

rms Amps 0 -107.001462 = 38. the optimal inductance is Ld = 0. Analytical results Pshaft. rpm 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 Table 13.5 97. From [14] (36) ψ m1 = k w1 N phφm1 2 = 0. kW 30 30 30 30 30 Iq.070 mh 0.3 95 97 99 Eback-emf. W 111 335 673 1125 1691 Pmagnet.054 mh -0.6 mWb 2 . W 2. Inductances Lph Lslot Lg Lend_turns 0. peak lineto-line 97 194. (16) the characteristic current would be 24 .462 mWb. From these values.3 -107 -106. ωe = 1046. the 10-pole motor at 2000 rpm has the following characteristics. rms Amps 251 127 86 66 53. rms Amps 251 166 137 125 120 Vphase. Lawler [18] shows that the optimum Ld was Ld = 3E 2 ωe Pr h .299 mh 0.1507 mh .5 93.Table.72 Vrms/phase. W 965 422 287 239 221 Pcore. E = 39. rms volts 101 94.5 96.6 292 389 487 Peak efficiency.093 mh Mph Mslot Mg -0.31 mh Table 12. percent 96. (35) From Table 12.137 mh 0. and Pr = 30 kW. Losses N.8 95. (37) From Eq.023 mh -0. rpm 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 PCopper.8 N.8 11 25 45 70 From the SPEED program the fundamental flux due to the magnet is 1.7 rad/s.8 -107 I.4 Id. 11.933( 40 )0.

0386 = 256 RMS Amps .299 mh.000 to 10. This will be addressed in the next phase of research.000 rpm is met as shown in Table 12. The problem is in attaining 55 kW at 2. 0.0001507 (38) however. Even so.000 rpm. as seen in Table 11 the actual inductance is 0. 25 .I ch = ψ m1 Ld = 0. the goal of 30 kW over the speed range from 2. which is more than necessary.

The higher fill factor of the concentrated winding allows a more compact motor.5. The greater than 93% efficiency requirement for 20% rated torque at speeds from 2000 rpm to 10. By extrapolating data from Table 12. which point out that an advanced cooling technique is a major requirement for this motor.3) could be difficult to attain. The results of the losses in the magnet seem low. 26 . which are 400 A and 200 V. values from the two-dimensional Zhu method of calculating back-emf compare more favorably with experimental data than values from the one-dimensional method. The two analyses compared well with the experimental University of Wisconsin results. This will place a premium on the type and thickness of the laminations. The 6-kW motor analyzed with SPEED software was also modeled with a per-phase equivalent circuit. The affect of stator slotting on permeance of the 6-kW motor has been calculated and compares well with the University of Wisconsin calculations.3. Desirable industrial specifications in Appendix B. This could pose problems in forming the laminations. which leads to higher power density and higher specific power. Next year’s research will explore calculation of magnet and core losses. we see that this amount of power will require 251 Arms × 55 kW / 30 kW = 460 Arms and rms 101 V rms × 3 /0. For the 6-kW motor with soft magnetic material with a lower remanence requiring larger thicker magnets. The slots are long and slender and are not necessarily the optimal design.000 rpm (Appendix B. Design changes to eliminate this problem will be explored in the next phase of this study.78 = 224 Vbus voltage . The current and bus voltage exceed the maximum specifications. This places a premium on the design of the slot-opening configuration and must be considered further. call for 55 kW for 18 seconds at 2000 rpm. CONCLUSIONS The biggest contributor to the phase inductance is the slot inductance.

Muo=4*pi*1e-7. Rr=88. Rrs=Rr/Rs.6.f) axis([0 30 0 70]) grid 27 . Br=0.3. x=57. Alpha=11. Mur=1.6. Rms=Rm/Rs. mm pole pairs relative permeability permeability of a vacuum remanent flux density . Kw=0. revolutions per minute angular velocity. Summation to Obtain Eph for n=1:2:nmax % mechanical angle in radians Mn=C1*(sin(C2*n)/(C2*n)). Mum=(Mur-1)Mur. end Eph=SCph*Kw*v*Lstk*(Rs/1000)*omeg.06. rpm=800. C2=pi*Alphp/2. p=15. Harmonic Content of Eph bar(0:max(size(f))-1. C1=2*(Br/Muo)*Alphp.105:0. vold=0.3*theta. a=2Muo/Mur. SCph=216. T series conductors per phase winding factor stack length. m angular velocity.315.*(cos(n*p*(theta))). An=a*Mn*((n*p)/((n*p)^2-1))*Rms^(p*n+1). mm radius of outer edge of rotor back iron. Lstk=0.1 ZHU METHOD FOR CALCULATING BACK-EMF AND ITS HARMONIC CONTENT % % % % % % % % % % % % rotor outer radius including magnets. radians per second Rm=101.001:0. mm stator inner radiu. vold=v. Rs=102.6. Dn=Mup*(1-Rrs^(2*p*n))-Mum*(Rms^(2*p*n)-Rrm^(2*p*n)).4/12. Nn=(n*p-1)+2*Rrm^(n*p+1)-(n*p+1)*Rrm^(2*p*n).966. Rrm=Rr/Rm. v=vold+An*(Nn/Dn). theta=-0. omeg=rpm*2*pi/60.6. Mup=(Mur+1)/Mur. nmax=5000.APPENDIX A: USEFUL MATLAB PROGRAMS A.

% magnet height in meters mur=1. % stator slot pitch in radians tau=2*pi*Rs/qs . vold = v. % Physical air gap in meter hm=0.5*log(cp. alpho = 0. % Determine the Fourier Series of lambar An= . f4=f2+f3. cp=sqrt(c)+z. end lambarf = v +(1-1. plotyy(x. vold=0. 28 . % relative permeability Kc= 1. Dn =0. % effective air gap in meters f1=gp*pi/bo. Mn =sin(1.001. f=(gp*pi/bo) -f4.6*beta*bo/tau)/Kc y =47.^2. % no of slots Rs=0.001:0. % Slot opening in meters g=0. d=(h2*(1+z^2)+1).^2. D= sqrt(d).5+ Nn/Dn)*Mn*(cos(n*qs*alph)). % radius of stator in meters bo=0. nmax=5000.3*alph. a2=1+(2*gp/bo)^2. % slot pitch in meters alph = 0:0.002.lambarf) grid Summation to Obtain Eph for n=1:2:nmax Mn=C1*(sin(C2*n)/(C2*n)).6*pi*n*bo/tau). v= vold +An*(0.102. % relative Permeance Fuction x=57.y. Dn=Mup*(1-Rrs^(2*p*n))-Mum*(Rms^(2*p*n)-Rms^(2*p*n)).2*(n*bo/tau).A.beta*4/(pi*n) Nn = (n*bo/tau). beta= 0.003 % Carter's coeffient gp= g+hm/mur. Nn=(n*p-1)+2*Rrm^(n*p+1)-(n*p+1)*Rrm^(2*p*n).5*(1. CALCULATIONS OF THE PERMEANCE FUNCTIONS qs=36 .x.1/D).2. An=a*Mn*((n*p)/((n*p)^2-1))Rms^(p*n+1). for n=1:1:nmax.00624*pi. z=16.3.8*alpho))*alph).013.78125 .5*sin(qs*(alph+pi/15))+10*sin(qs*3*(alph+ pi/15)) permeance=lambarf. f3=(2*gp/bo)*atan(((2*gp/bo)*(z/sqrt(c)))).6 c=a2+z^2. lambar = 1-beta-beta*cos((pi/(0. cm=sqrt(c)-z f2=0./cm). % a zero indicates your value of z is correct h2=(bo/(2*gp))^2. % stator slot opening in radians alpht = 2*pi/qs.*y.5.

*(cos(n*p*(theta))). vold=v. end Eph=SCph*Kw*v*Lstk*(Rs/1000)*omeg. Harmonic Content of Eph bar(0:max(size(f))-1.v=vold+An*(Nn/Dn).f) axis([0 30 0 70]) grid 29 .

1 FCVT PERFORMANCE GOALS AND TARGETS FOR A 2010 ELECTRIC PROPULSION SYSTEM FCVT Goals Peak power Continuous power Lifetime Cost 55 kW for 18 seconds 30 kW > 15 years or 150.000 miles < $12/peak kW (< $660) FCVT Technical Targets Peak power to weight ratio > 1. FCVT TECHNICAL TARGETS FOR POWER ELECTRONICS AND ELECTRIC MACHINES (INCLUDES ACTIVE MATERIALS.5 kW/liter (< 16 liters) Efficiency (10 to 100% speed at 20% rated torque) >90% B.3 >5 <7 > 93 @ 10% to 100% of max. speed 325 400 30 .2. AND HOUSING) Power electronics (inverter and controller) 2010 target Peak power to weight ratio (kW/kg) Peak power to volume ratio (kW/liter) Cost/peak power ($/kW) Efficiency (%) Coolant inlet temperature (°C) Lifetime (years) Traction motor Peak power to weight ratio (kW/kg) Peak power to volume ratio (kW/liter) Cost/peak*($/kW) Efficiency (%) Nominal voltage (volts) Maximum current (A ) rms > 12 > 12 <5 97 105 15 2010 target > 1.APPENDIX B: FCVT SPECIFICATIONS B.2 kW/kg (< 46 kg) Peak power to volume ratio > 3. MOTOR GEARS.

(2) alternative approaches will be considered if system requirements and targets are met.2 -40 to +105 -50 to +125 105 10 2 20 1 20 Characteristic current (ψ mag /L ) (A) (see note 2) d Efficiency at 10 to 100% of maximum speed for 20% of rated torque (final check: may use FTP-75 or equivalent drive cycle) Back-emf at 100% of maximum speed.B.3 ADVANCED TRACTION MOTOR SPECIFICATIONS These specifications were sent to industry in 2005 with a request for proposal to provide motors that could meet their requirements.000 Minimum top speed (rpm) (see note 2) Peak power at 20% of maximum speed for 18 seconds and nominal voltage (kW) Continuous power at 20% to 100% of maximum speed and nominal voltage (kW) (see note 1) Battery operating voltage (Vdc) Maximum current at motor (A ) rms 55 30 Nominal: 325 range: 200 to 450 400 < Maximum current > 93 < 600 <5 > 2. percent of peak torque (%) Peak power to weight ratio for active materials (see note 4) only (kW/kg) Peak power to volume ratio for active materials (see note 4) only (kW/liter) Life (years) Motor cost of active materials at peak power ($/kW) Ambient (outside container) operating temperature (ºC) Storage temperature (°C) Coolant inlet temperature (ºC) Maximum coolant flow rate (liters/min) Maximum coolant pressure drop (psi) Maximum coolant inlet pressure (psi) Minimum isolation impedance – terminal to ground (M ohm) Minimum insulation impedance – terminal to ground (M ohm) Table notes: (1) address scalability issues in your proposal for motors rated between 20kW and 70kW continuous power. Requirement Target specification 10. and (4) active material consists of stator core.75 > 12.5 > 15 < 3. rotor core. and magnets. (3) higher values maybe considered if system requirements are met. stator windings. peak line-to-line voltage (V) (see note 3) Torque pulsations – not to exceed at any speed. They are desirable industrial specifications. 31 .

331–340 in IEE Proceedings of the Electronics Power Appl. Lipo. of 2004 IEEE Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting. 6. Soong and T. IA-21. S. Novotny. Sarma. July/August 1986. M. “Power Capability of Salient Pole Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor in Variable Speed Drive Applications. West Publishing Company. Gunawan. 8. Design of Brushless Permanent-Magnet Motors. Zhu. M. 62. Inc. W. and Whipple. and T.REFERENCES 1.” IEEE Transactions on Magnetics.. 1971. “Instantaneous Magnetic Field Distribution in Brushless Permanent Magnet dc Motors. Part I: Open-Circuit Field. Liwschitz. Electric Machinery Vol II AC Machines. R. 169–175 in Proceedings of IEEE Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting. “Field Weakening Performance of Brushless Synchronous AC Motor Drives. 2004. L. 17. K. 3. Miller. Walters.” IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion. M. November 1994. 12.“ pp. LLC. Washington. Magna Physics Publishing and Clarendon Press. Viarouge. “Optimum Torque Control of Permanent-Magnet AC Machines in the Field-Weakened Region. Undeland. M. 2. 5. “Distribution Factors and Pitch Factors of the Harmonics of FractionalSlot Windings. Von Nostrand Company. S. G. Garik. 29(1). Adnanes and T. M. New York. 398–407 in IEEE Transactions. Sneyers. Newmann. 11. Part III: Effect of Stator Slotting. 10. Electric Machines. W. Wisconsin.” IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. 333–339 in Proceedings of 2003 IEEE International Electric Machines & Drives Conference (IEMDC).” pp. Jahns. M. F. 1994. J. 115–123 in IEE Transactions. 1994. A. F. 1990. T. Madison. Cros and P. 16. Q. 14. 738–747 in IEEE Transactions of Industrial Applications. IA-22(4).. M. G. “Optimum Torque Performance in PMSM Drives Above Rated Speed. J.” IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Z. Lipo. IA-26.” pp 664–666 in AIEE Transactions. Electric Energy Systems Theory. O. R. B. W. F. B. Klieman. El-Refaie and T. Hendershot. and J. October 1991. “Winding Factors and Joule Losses of Permanent Magnet Machines with Concentrated Windings. Schiferl and T. J. 1946. New York. “Instantaneous Magnetic Field Distribution in Brushless Permanent Magnet dc Motors. E. M. Miller. “Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors for Adjustable-Speed Drives. 1. Jahns. 4. T. Interim Report: Cost Reduction Opportunities for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines. “Synthesis of High Performance PM Motors with Concentrated Windings. and T. Liwschitz. May 24. Magnussen and C. “Optimal Flux Weakening in Surface PM Machines using Concentrated Windings. E. 7. June 2003. January 1993. J. October 1943.” pp. Elgerd. 17(2). 29(1). Jahns.” pp. Z. and T. May/June 2005). “Field-Weakening in Buried Permanent Magnet AC Motors Drives. I. A. E. A. McGraw-Hill. October 2004 (scheduled for publication in the IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications. July/August 2005. January 1993. 32 . 1038–1047 in Rec.” pp. D. Sadarangani. Gallegos-López. A. New York. D. Zhu and D. June 2002. Seattle.” pp. 15. 141(6). Jr. 9. Q. 1985.” pp. New York. 41(4). 13. Howe. Oxford. UT-Battelle. New York New York.

J.18. “Maximum Current Magnitude Control of Surface PM Synchronous Machines During Constant Power Operation. 3(2). Lawler et al. S. 33 .” IEEE Power Electronics Letters. June 2005.

W. 25. J. General Motors Advanced Technology Center.org 19. GM R&D Center. 3. 3317. 5. Auburn Hills. D. 3050 Lomita Boulevard. Maryland 21046. Rm. 15. 12. A.. Scientific Research Laboratory. External D. Torrance. Michigan 48124-2053. 8–9. U.C.C. Rm. 1000 Independence Avenue. 7164 Columbia Gateway Drive. 15050 Commerce Drive. 2101 Village Road.DISTRIBUTION Internal 1. Rogers.W. U. 13. Rm. 6. Rogers. Department of Energy. Department of Energy. 16. Fessler. 1000 Independence Avenue. Olszewski M. 2. Department of Energy. North. Welchko. S. M.W.W. D. 3050 Lomita Boulevard. Yoshida. Washington. Inc. Ford Motor Company. Department of Energy.C. S. Dearborn. General Motors Advanced Technology Center. Adams J. Bailey E. EE-2G/Forrestal Building. Chemical and Environmental Sciences Laboratory. MD-2247. Michigan 48121. P. Michigan 48121. 2101 Village Road. Marlino 5. Warren. 21. Columbia. 20585. 22. Mehall.S.C. A.. F. McKeever M. D. W. USCAR. Starke Laboratory Records 10. 800 Chrysler Drive. 2101 Village Road. Scientific Research Laboratory. MD1170. P. R. Ford Motor Company. K. Brenda Medellon. Torrance. Smith. Q. Lloyd.. Fox K. Ford Motor Company. 20. MD-2247. brenda@uscar. Lee. Fiegenschuh. 1000 Independence Avenue.S. S. 4. J. Michigan 48121. Energetics.S. D. Scientific Research Laboratory. EE-2G/Forrestal Building. Liang. D. Washington. Daimler Chrysler. U. C. V. CIMS 484-08-06. Evanston... 20585. Duong. Inc. 2101 Village Road. S. 820 Roslyn Place. T. 30500 Mound Road. Ford Motor Company. J. 14. California 90505. 23. 11. M. Michigan 48326-2757. E. Washington. EE-2G/Forrestal Building. 20585. B. BIZTEK Consulting. Gambrell L. EE-2G/Forrestal Building. G. Michigan 48090-9055. R. G. California 90505. 20585. Washington. Jih. U. Scientific Research Laboratory. Illinois 60201-1724. E.. 1000 Independence Avenue. J. 7. Wall. Ford Motor Company. 24.S. 2331/SRL. 2331. Dearborn. M. S. W. MD1170. S. 17. Dearborn. 34 . Garg. Dearborn. Michigan 48120-1261. Dearborn. 18.