You are on page 1of 154

KARAO TEXTS

compiled by Sherri Brainard CONTENTS
Acknowledgments Abbreviations Introduction Orthography Principles underlying the analysis of morphemes English translation Analysis of verb affixes and semantic roles Texts Edafoan na i-Karao The origin of the Karao people Say edafoan na Karao The origin of Karao Niyana eg kedathen na oleg i i-Karao Why snakes do not bite the Karao people Say istoriya na pahiy The story of unhusked rice Istoriya na kirol tan balat The story of the thunder and the banana tree Kotkot Kotkot Bolengen tan bahoko The monkey and the turtle Insalaknib koy biyag Pagit I protected Pagit’s life Biyag nontan, nagwariy kalsara Life before, there was no road Pangkep na eg kaysespa na kaybang na timpo na ani About not setting down the kaybang basket during harvest time iii v 1 1 2 2 2 5 7 21 32 42 44 46 47 60 71 78

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

Studies in Philippine Languages and Cultures is a joint venture undertaken by the Linguistic Society of the Philippines and the Summer Institute of Linguistics devoted to the timely publication of papers of an empirical or theoretical nature which contribute to the study of language and communicative behavior in the Philippines. A certain proportion of the papers published will be penultimate versions of works of special interest to the Philippine linguistic community destined for further publication in more final form elsewhere. Scholars engaged in the study and description of Philippine languages and cultures are hereby invited to submit contributions for inclusion in this series.

Series Editor: Consulting Editor:

Sherri Brainard Fe T. Otanes

For inquires and submissions, please write to: Academic Publications Manager Summer Institute of Linguistics P.O. Box 2270 CPO 1099 Manila Philippines E-mail: Acad-Pub_Philippines@sil.org

ISBN 971-780-017-0 0503−2.5C © 2003 Linguistic Society of the Philippines and Summer Institute of Linguistics

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

KARAO TEXTS
compiled by Sherri Brainard

STUDIES IN PHILIPPINE LANGUAGES & CULTURES
Volume 13, 2003

LINGUISTIC SOCIETY OF THE PHILIPPINES SUMMER INSTITUTE OF LINGUISTICS
Manila Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

Sherri. For each text included in this volume. vi. Karao texts. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . 147pp. All of them were given as oral texts that were recorded on audio tape and then transcribed. I would also like to thank the contributor for granting permission to publish it. comp. I would like to thank all the Karao speakers who contributed texts and helped transcribe and edit them. iii Brainard. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. 2003.Acknowledgments The texts in this volume have been collected over many years. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.

2003. Loc NAG NLOC NM NR NTH the more agentive. Sherri. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. comp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 v . LK LOC. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.near speaker deictic . Karao texts. 147pp.Abbreviations A ABS ACT AG AG&TH AJR CAUS CMPR CNTR COMP CONT COUNTER D D1 D2 D3 DER DIM DIR EMPH ERG EX EXT GEN HAB IMP IMPFT IN INS Lit. vi.near hearer deictic . syntactically required NP of a transitive clause absolutive action Agent Agent and Theme adjectivizer causative comparative contrast complementizer continuous counter expectation deictic deictic .far from speaker and hearer derivation diminuitive directional emphatic ergative exclusive existential genitive habitual imperative imperfective inclusive intensive literally linker Location Nonnuclear Agent (Cause or Source) Nonnuclear Loc (Beneficiary) nominal marker nominalizer Nonnuclear Theme (Instrument or Comitative/Associative) Brainard.

syntactically required NP of an intransitive clause singular simultaneous stative subjunctive surprise Theme time marker discontinuous morpheme. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. syntactically required NP of a transitive clause passive pause perfect perfective plural polite form rhetorical question reported speech the single. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. ?? object oblique optative ordinal the less agentive. Karao texts. Sherri. 2003. vi.vi Abbreviations OBJ OBL OPT ORD P PASS PAUS PERF PFT PL POL RQ RS S SG SIMUL ST SUBJNCT SURP TH TI __ __ / . ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . comp. compound word. 147pp. or phrase alternate meanings compound gloss undetermined meaning or function Brainard.

and a significant number of students complete college.g. 3 Bontoc languages belong to the Central Cordilleran subgroup of Northern Philippine languages. ch [t ]. 1 Brainard. Karao texts. along with Ibaloi and Kalangoya. The vowels are: i [i][e]. The glottal stop is a phoneme that occurs syllable initially but not syllable finally. 147pp.g. 150) notes that Karao shares several lexical innovations with Central Cordilleran languages exclusively. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. a [ ]. Education is highly valued among the Karaos. vi. w [w]. g [ ]. Sherri. Since all syllables in Karao are CV(C). Himes 1998). Those who have a college education often live outside of Karao in cities where employment opportunities are greater. Instead Himes proposes that Karao. e [ ].3 The main livelihood of the Karao people is farming. 2 These villages are officially located in the barangays of Karao and Ekip in the municipality of Bokod. 2003. th [ ]. It is not represented word initially or between vowels. e. The consonants are: b [b]. In Karao itself there is an elementary school but no high school. and that it had a long period of independent development. namely Proto-Nuclear Southern Cordilleran. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. o [o][u]. r [ ]. n [n]. including traditional narrative. In his investigation of Proto-Southern Cordilleran. e. inam-ay [ in m j] ‘easy’. h [X]. s [s]. bo-day [bu d j] ‘yard’. or follows a consonant. k [q][k]. t [t]. and y [j]. Orthography Texts included in this volume are written in the following orthography. High school and college students attend schools outside of Karao. comp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . The language is spoken by about 1400 speakers who live in several villages located in a small mountain valley about fifty kilometers east of Baguio in Benguet province. developed from a single common language.Introduction This volume contains a selection of Karao texts representing a variety of genre. expository. m [m]. It is represented by a hyphen within a word when it precedes a consonant. procedural. gw [ ]. ng [ ].1 Karao is a Southern Cordilleran language of the Northern Philippines and is most closely related to Ibaloi and Kalangoya (McFarland 1980. d [d]. They grow rice for their own consumption and vegetables to sell wholesale to the main market in Baguio. any 1 These texts were gathered between 1988 and 2002 while the researcher was living in Karao under the auspices of the Summer Institute of Linguistics. and hortatory. j [d ]. Himes (1998:146.2 The Karaos are not indigenous to their present location in Benguet and have an oral history that identifies Eastern Bontoc as their place of origin. l [l]. f [ ]. first-person narrative. but suggests that these innovations do not provide convincing proof that Karao was associated with Bontoc languages over a long period of time.

it appears to be decomposing in that it rarely occurs as the form na. Analysis of verb affixes and semantic roles In Karao one major function of verb affixes is to identify the semantic role of the absolutive NP. aso [ so] ‘dog’.) Brainard. Those morphemes that have more than one function are given different labels according to their function in a particular sentence. ‘oblique’ when it marks an oblique NP. In order to identify the semantic role cross-referenced by the verb affix. ‘time’ when it marks a temporal.g. This model is based on earlier localist 4 Karao is notable for its complex phonology. syntactically required NP of an intransitive clause) and P (the less agentive.g. unless such a translation was deemed too awkward or obscure. (Here ‘intransitive clause’ is a cover term for any single-argument clause. e.5 English translation The English translation given for each sentence is neither an idiomatic translation nor an exact literal translation.6 Verb affixes and semantic roles do not have a one-to-one relationship. e. comp. ‘genitive’ when it marks the possessor of a genitive NP. the same verb affix may cross-reference different semantic roles. ‘complementizer’ when it introduces a complement clause. syntactically required NP of a transitive clause). and translations of individual Karao words are fairly literal. The intent is to provide an English translation that faithfully represents the structure and meaning of the Karao text but avoids the worst pitfalls of an exact literal translation. e. Sherri. instead. A comprehensive study of Karao phonology and morphophonology is found in Brainard (1994a). and ‘linker’ when it joins constituents of a phrase. 6 The absolutive NP is S (the single. In general the English translation follows the basic structure of the Karao sentence. Karao texts. vi. too [to o] ‘person’. 5 When na functions as a linker.2 Sherri Brainard written word that begins with a vowel has a glottal stop preceding the vowel. antipassive clause. Thus the ubiquitous Karao morpheme na is labeled ‘ergative’ when it marks an ergative NP. 2003. a restricted model of localist case grammar proposed by DeLancey (1984)(1985)(1991) has been adopted. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. and the same semantic role may be cross-referenced by different verb affixes. it takes the form a following a consonant and -n following a vowel. and any written word that contains a sequence of vowels has a glottal stop between the vowels.4 Principles underlying the analysis of morphemes Morphemes have been analyzed on the basis of function.g. 147pp. active intransitive clause. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . passive clause.

For a more detailed analysis of the morphosyntax of Karao. Beneficiaries are Nonnuclear Locs (NLOC). and an Agent to an Agent. depending on the verb.8 7 The application of DeLancey’s model to Karao clause structure has been described in detail in Brainard (1994b). Instrument. 8 Tables of nominal markers. 147pp. and Jackendoff (1983. and Sources are Nonnuclear Locs or Nonnuclear Agents (NAG).Karao Texts 3 case models developed by Anderson (1971). or nonnuclear. an Agent need not be animate. Sherri. Gruber (1976). Generally speaking. a Theme to a Patient. or main. That is. are core semantic roles of nonnuclear clauses that have been integrated into the nuclear. a Theme (TH) which is an element that changes location or state. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . In DeLancey’s model. and nominalizing affixes are found in the appendices. 1990). such as Comitative (or Associative). and an Agent (AG) which is the cause for a change of location or a change of state. semantic roles. see Brainard (1994b). nonnuclear roles. pronouns. Other semantic roles are identified as noncore.7 Briefly. Brainard. 2003. DeLancey’s model identifies three core semantic roles: a Loc (LOC) which is a physical site or a state. and Beneficiary. clause. vi. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. verb affixes. Thus Comitatives and Instruments are Nonnuclear Themes (NTH). comp. Karao texts. the Loc corresponds to a Location.

Blank page 4 .

ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . comp. 2003.TEXTS Brainard. vi. 147pp. Karao texts. Sherri. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.

Blank page 6 .

Karao OBL -D3 9 It is generally agreed that the Karaos are not indigenous to the area where they now live.9 2. Juanita Padon.story -PFTThere are two versions of the story that they tell. John Beray identifies a Bontoc village called Karao as the original location of the Karaos.PFT.from. each identifying a different Bontoc location as the original home of the Karaos. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.come.from. John Beray 1. 3.from -__ na I-Karao na iKarao GEN person.PFT.come. Say is-istoriya na iyangka-pos a edafoan na say CVC. 2003.3PL NM NR. 147pp. The version told here by Mr.PFT. which follows. Say sa-ki.from -__ GEN chiwan kono did Bontoc. Karao texts.come. each giving a different explanation about how Karao got its name. Several versions of this oral history exist today. sejay i istoriya na edafo -an ali na iKarao D1 ABS story GEN NR. they say it was Bontoc.Karao OBL -D3 RS DIR -OBL Bontoc The stories of those who have died about the origin of the Karao people.from -__ DIR GEN person. 4. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .story GEN AJR.from.up LK NR.use. vi.istoriya -iytwo -LK kind -LK story ABS HAB. ichiwan Karao cha -man cha.a.Karao This is the story about the origin of the Karao people. iKarao cha -man kono ali -cha Bontoc person.istoriya na iyangka. is told by Mrs. The Karaos themselves have an oral history stating that they came from Bontoc.Edafoan edafo -an NR.PL.from. Sejay i istoriya na edafoan ali na i-Karao.Karao The Origin of the Karao People Mr.come. Chegwen kilasin istoriya i nainistoriya chegwa -na kilasi -na istoriya i na. comp. This version identifies a Bontoc village called Palingaw as the origin of the Karaos and states that the location where the Karaos now live is named after the Karao hunter who first came to the valley. He suggests that the current location of the Karaos in Benguet might have been named after the village in Bontoc. say edafoan say sa-ki say edafo NM one kono na -an kono na RS i-Karao.PFT. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. Another version.from -__ GEN person.tell.epos na edafo -an na NM PL. i-Karao. and each including the story about the Karao hunter who first entered the valley where the Karaos live today. 7 Brainard. Sherri. cha ERG.

as in sentence 6 in the text The Origin of Karao and sentence 36 in the text Advice about Going Away to School. 5. ingka -cha niman kono Karao i ngaran to ngo until -OBL now RS Karao ABS name GEN. eg amta. The morpheme so appears to have been borrowed from Ibaloi. the origin of the Karao people. comp. The dependent clause may or may not retain its transitive morphosyntax. Nem say nainistoriya cha.tell.3PL The reason why they left there.istoriya -iy.ERG. and Karao speakers disagree about whether or not it is obligatory in various constructions. no one knows.10 8. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. The NP that is the object in the independent transitive counterpart may cooccur with so in the dependent clause. 10 so. vi. there was about to be a big epidemic.3PL about.a.-__ man a dogad.AG.tell.story COMP D3 RS -ABS place OBL Bontoc LK ingked niman kono Karao i ngaran to ngo.-__ ERG. No ngoy kagol a bintihan cha no nengo -i kagol na betik -iy-an cha NM what -ABS reason COMP leave -PFT.LOC. sahit illness Brainard. Sherri.8 Sherri Brainard ma afit na Eastern Bontoc. they ran away from that place. 147pp.3PL D3 LK place The people there. they say it was in the direction of Eastern Bontoc. Its exact distribution has yet to be identified. 7. it is coreferential with the object of the independent transitive counterpart of the dependent clause. bintihan sema kono ira -na too -cha man idi pinsak kono betik -iy-an D3 RS PL -LK person -OBL D3 TI once RS run -PFT. Karao texts. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . 2003. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.to EXT RS -ABS big LK But what they usually say is. so occurs only in dependent clauses and only when the independent counterpart of the dependent clause would be a transitive clause. 6. kono did kono ali -cha ma afit na Eastern Bontoc RS DIR -OBL D3 direction GEN Eastern Bontoc In one. both in this volume. istay gwara konoy banay a nem say na. so eg amta OBJ not know sahit. idi pinsak kono. Sema kono chen tood man.3SG also There are those who tell the story that there is a place in Bontoc that up until now its name is also Karao.LOC.a. cha cha man na dogad ERG.story -PFT. one day. When so is present.cha istay gwara kono -i banay na but NM HAB. In general. Gwariy engistoriya i igwa konoy dogad cha Bontoc a gwara -i eNistoriya i igwan kono -i dogad cha Bontoc na EXT -ABS PFT.

follow. igwa konoy sama-samat iren ma tofing na et ingka -cha niman igwan kono -i CVCV.certain.a. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . comp. they tell a story about where those people [the Benguet Karaos] went. Brainard. 147pp.3PL DIR LOC And these [people in Eastern Bontoc]. i ERG. vi.tell. 2003. Sherri. Et sejay ira. there are remains of the stone walls of the place where they lived at that time long ago.istoriya -iycha kono i to -emo -i now HAB.3PL RS ABS where -maybe -ABS kimowanan da iren tan a too i.-__ DIR PL -GEN D2 LK person LOC Until now.samat ira -na ma tofing na and until -OBL now D3 RS -ABS PLremains PL -GEN D3 stone. 10. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. iyanbaliy -an cha nontan da -na bayag NR. 11.reside -__ GEN. Karao texts. Et et ingked ingka -cha niman. [they have been wondering] where they [the Benguet Karaos] ended up. 12.PFT. Isonga isonga betik -iy-an cha man na dogad that’s. kowan -im-an da ira -na tan na too i go/come -NR.wall GEN iyanbalijan cha nontan den bayag. Et ingked niman. the people who are still there today [in Eastern Bontoc].time And until now. seman ngo iren niman seman ngo ira -na D3 tood too man a gwared man na gwara -cha LK EXT man na man na TI -cha and until -OBL now seman.chalan -iyand D1 PL where -maybe RS DIR -ABS CONT. nainis-istoriya also PL -LK person -OBL D3 cha kono i to-moy -OBL D3 seman na.3PL before DIR -LK long.a.3PL D3 LK place That’s why they ran away from that place. to-mo kono diy chida-chidan et sejay ira to -emo kono da -i CVCV.PFT.-__ ERG.ERG. 9.CONT.LOC.CVC.route -PFTcha cha di ali i.why leave -PFT.story -PFT.Karao Texts 9 bintihan cha man a dogad.

10 Sherri Brainard tawen ithan a edagwa-dagwas.pesaw EXT -ABS splinter LK PFT. cha la.iyan kono ira -cha man PFT. Karao texts.south/downriver simagwi la ired Vizcaya chiya Kirang.LOC.go.from. they came to Diyang. 13. Gwariy bisak a inpesa-pesaw gwara -i bisak na inCVCV. after a number of years had passed. Sherri. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Et say istoriya.ahead simagwi ched ta Diyang kono.3PL -OBL Vizcaya OBL -D1 Kirang There was a group [that separated from the main group] that kept moving south.AG. sagwi -imira -cha ta Diyang kono reach -PFT. vi.TH.PFT. et cha da et ERG.reside ABS. 16. 14.ABS.Karao -__ OBL -D3 Dupax and Aritao That’s why there in Vizcaya. 2003. and they came here to Kirang in Vizcaya. there are remnants of the Karao people who have Karao blood in them there in Dupax and in Aritao.dagwas and NM story after how.many -LK year ABS -D2 LK PASS. 15. et cha -ta Diyang iyanCVCV.Karao LK aikaragwan chiwa Dupax tan Aritao. Et chitha Diyang iyan-iya-iyan ired tan.iyan ira -cha tan and OBL -D2 Diyang PFT.PFT.CONT. 147pp. Iyan-iya-iyan kono ched man.go.3PL -OBL D2 Diyang RS And the story is.3PL DIR and Brainard.CONT.reside RS ABS. they stayed a while.3PL -OBL D2 And there at Diyang. igwa iriy samat na i-Karao a isonga cha -ma Vizcaya igwan ira -i samat na iKarao na that’s.CONT.AG.CONT.DIR ABS.3PL -OBL D3 They stayed there a while.why OBL -D3 Vizcaya D3 PL -ABS remains GEN person.LOC.from. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. Isonga chiwa Vizcaya. eiKarao -an cha -ma Dupax tan Aritao ST. iyanCVCV.person.TH. comp. sagwi -imda ira -cha Vizcaya cha -ja Kirang reach -PFT. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . idi piyen et say istoriya idi piya -na tawen i -tan na eCVCV. 17.

sedong PFT. vi. 19.3PL -ABS Bokod and OBL -D2 -OBL D2 Bokod PFT. 21.from.PFT.CONT. Gwara konoy gwara kono -i samat ira -na tan na iyanCVCV.north/upriver Owak. aikaragwan ira man.reside -__ GEN. 20. 147pp.Karao also OBL Owak That’s why there are also Karao people in Owak. et chiyed ja cha kono mowan ali et cha -ja -cha ja ERG.Karao -__ PL D3 The Owak people. et sibi cha kono mowan ali et sagwi -iyERG.iyan cha -man EXT RS -ABS remains PL -GEN D2 LK PFT. they have Karao blood in them.person. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Insedong insedong PFT. sema ira -na iOwak eiKarao -an ira man D3 PL -LK person.LOC.north/upriver cha kono mowan ali.CONT. Owak Owak They [a small group of the Dupax-Aritao group] moved north again.TH. et chithed ta Bokot.AG.out i-Bokot ali jay a pan-iyanan cha. Hema iren i-Owak.3PL RS again DIR and OBL -D1 -OBL D1 riy Bokot.LOC. 2003.Karao Texts 11 samat iren tan a iyan-iya-iyan chiwan. and there at Bokod. Isonga igwa iriy i-Karao mowan cha Owak.LOC. 18.from. isonga igwan ira -i iKarao mowan cha Owak that’s. and then they reached Bokod.point.Bokod DIR D1 LK NR. and they are here at Owak. the Bokod people showed them this place to stay.from. Brainard. 22.go.Owak ST.from.3PL RS again DIR and reach -PFTkono na kono na RS ERG cha kono mowan ali.reside OBL -D3 There are remnants of those who used to live there.why D3 PL -ABS person. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . comp.go. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. Sherri. intoro cha -i Bokot et cha -ta -cha ta Bokot intoro ERG. Karao texts.IMPFT. iBokot ali jay na paniyan -an cha person.3PL They kept moving northward. Insedo-sedong inCVCV.

Nem nonta gwara kono ched nem nonta gwara kono ira -cha Diyang gwara kono -i sa-ki -na but when EXT RS ABS.3SG RS di tan a olsa et ingked insagwi to did jay Karao. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.-__ kono jay “Ara! to to kono jay ara ERG.PFT.tened -iyto kono CONT. tine-tined to kono kaCVCV.down -PFT. Brainard.3SG RS D1 ara When he got to the top of the mountain.3SG DIR -OBL D1 Karao When he was chasing a deer (his hunting dog was chasing it). he kept following that deer until he came here to Karao. vi. 24. Aman da kebolo-bologwa na ason anop. aman da kaCVCV.reach RS -OBL top GEN mountain look. Karao texts.3SG -LK hunt CONT.bolow -a na aso -na anop D3 DIR CONT. 147pp. he looked down here. saying “Ah! 26. Aman ded man iwa olsa.osil -a na aso to -na anop CVCV. gwara konoy sa-kin 23.CONT. iyoschongan idi onsagwi kono -cha toktok na chontog oschong -iy-an when IMPFT.ERG. Idi gwara konoy toha osi-osilen olsa idi gwara kono -i to -ka CVCV.bark -TH ERG dog -LK game There was an animal that the dog was barking at.CONT.osil -a -na olsa when EXT RS -ABS ERG.3SG -CONT CONT. ali tan na olsa et ingka -cha insagwi to ali -cha jay Karao DIR D2 LK deer ?? until -OBL NR.reach GEN.12 Sherri Brainard Diyang.TH. Idi onsagwi konod toktok na chontog. comp.TH.follow -PFT. ma-nop hunter But while they were still in Diyang.” aman da -cha man i -ma olsa D3 DIR -OBL D3 ABS -D3 deer There is that deer down there.3PL -OBL Diyang EXT RS -ABS one -LK ma-nop. Sherri.chase -TH -LK deer (kaosi-osila na aso thon anop). 25. 2003. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.” 27.chase -TH ERG dog GEN. there was a certain hunter.

” 32. I will leave my meal of meat here [on the boulder]. “Ah! 30. this is a good place for us to live.boulder ABS -D3 pack.3SG RS COMP ara And when he saw this place. comp.reside -__ GEN.” sejay et mango mapteng na panbaliy -an mi ali jay D1 ?? ?? good LK NR. 29.3SG RS PERF ABS -D1 good RS -LK kigwan to kono i “Ara! kowan -iyto kono i ara say -PFT.” ko -cha jay na bohi GEN. Sejay et mango.ERG. ispak i sikdop nemnem -iyto kono i kay isepa -ko i sikdop think -PFT. “Ah.IMPFT. 147pp.1SG -OBL D1 LK meat So while he was on that big boulder at Boliniy.lunch ton bohi. Et idi metaen et idi matha -en and when see/look -IMPFT.ERG. Inpa-tok to kono wed ma boleka iwa sikdop inpa-tok to kono ma -cha ma boleka i -ma sikdop PFT.3SG -LK meat He put his meal of meat down on top of that boulder.3SG RS PERF -OBL D3 big. he thought.tened -iyto kono ma ali CONT.follow -PFT. vi.on. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Brainard. Karao texts.ERG.boulder -OBL D3 Boliniy niyemnem to kono i “Kay.TH.3SG RS COMP kay IMPFT. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .1PL.3SG RS PERF DIR He kept following it. 2003.TH.leave -ERG. et idi cha -man kono -cha ma banay na boleka -cha ma Boliniy and when OBL -D3 RS -OBL D3 big LK big.Karao Texts 13 to kono wa ali. mapteng a panbedijan mi di jay. Tine-tined CVCV.top ERG. it was good and so he said.TH to kono wa iyay. Sherri. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. Et idi chiwan konod ma banay a boleked ma Boliniy.” 31.lunch kod jay a bohi. 28.put.1SG ABS pack. mapteng konon to kono ma i -jay mapteng kono -na ERG. to -na bohi GEN.EX DIR D1 This place.

prayer ERG. Et no on-ono-onong iyay a bohi.3SG RS COMP if IMPFT.1PL. Karao texts.IMPFT.type GEN. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .IMPFT.” panbaliy -an mi NR. Sherri.TH.remain ABS -D1 a bohi a na bohi na LK meat LK nagwariy nagwara -i EXT -ABS menga-mengan a titit ono animal ono CVCV. 36. this will be a good place for us to live.madmad.meNkan na titit ono animal ono INSIMPFT. Setan kono ngoy madmad to iy on-oli setan kono ngo -i madmad to iy onoli D2 RS also -ABS prayer. 147pp.TH.disappear ABS -D1 LK meat bad mi.TH.IMPFT. anyaman anything on-oliak ali na mekcheng i sa-kin bolan.return -ABS. comp. 2003.reside -__ GEN. vi.return wa ded ma da -cha PERF DIR -OBL Brainard.TH.type GEN.reside -__ GEN.AG.3SG That was his prayer.3SG SIMUL IMPFT. this will be a bad place for us to live. ngaaw iyay a dogad a i -jay na bohi ngaaw i -jay na dogad na ABS -D1 LK place LK enchi LK ST. I will return here after one month.finish ABS one -LK month He prayed saying.onong i -jay na bohi mapteng i -jay na dogad na and if IMPFT. “Kamo wango na maenchi kamo mango na meif panbedijan ?? iyay a bohi.say. onoli -ak ali na mekecheng i sa-ki -na bolan IMPFT.EX “If on the other hand this meat disappears. mapteng iyay a dogad a et no onCVCV. Inmadmad inmadmad to kono i no onCVCV.CONT. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.IMPFT.1SG DIR TI PASS.TH.14 Sherri Brainard to kono i “No on-ono-onong iyay 33.eat LK bird or animal or anyaman.1PL. Hetan konoy madmad to. 34. “If this meat remains untouched and no bird or animal or anything eats any of it.remain ABS -D1 LK meat good ABS -D1 LK place LK panbedijan mi.” panbaliy -an mi NR. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.” 35. setan kono -i madmad to D2 RS -ABS prayer.” 37.EX And if this meat remains untouched.onong i -jay PFT.CONT.

kaonong. to -cha ma toktok na boleka kaonong ERG.3SG -OBL D3 top GEN big. 38. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .DIR He came here.remain When he saw the meat that he had left on the top of the big boulder. siya mapteng i -jay na panbaliy -an mi all.3SG RS PERF COMP a CNTR LK good Then he believed saying. 2003. Brainard.TH.3PL -OBL Diyang That was his prayer as he returned to their place at Diyang. Sherri. Piyati tho kono wa i “A. he returned here. comp. mapteng iyay a panbedijan mi. oli -imali return -PFT.IMPFT. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. 147pp. ngaran ni mapteng.TH.reside -__ GEN.set.3SG RS D2 LK meat -LK PFT.TH.Karao Texts 15 Diyang. Idi mekcheng idi mekecheng when PASS. 41. Siya. 39. Kimowan ali. Idi metaen idi matha -en when see/look -IMPFT. it was still the same.TH to kono tan a bohin insepa to kono tan na bohi -na insepa ERG.down kono wiy sa-kin bolan.IMPFT. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. pati -iyto kono ma i a ngaran ni mapteng believe/obey -PFT.EX All right then. kono ma -i sa-ki -na bolan RS PERF -ABS one -LK month thod ma toktok na boleka.finish imoli di.ERG. 40.right good ABS -D1 LK NR. Karao texts. kawad-an ched kawad-an cha -cha Diyang place GEN. kowan -imali go/come -PFT.boulder CONT. vi.1PL. this is a good place for us to live. “Ah.DIR After one month. this is a good place after all. 42.

45. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. 46. et istoriya -iyto ma da -cha ma echom to et tell. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.from -__ GEN.” 44. Sherri.istoriya -iyif true -LK very D3 HAB. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . Aja a. Karao Karao And so this place. say iyanngaranan to emo na et isonga sejay na dogad say iyanngaran -an to emo na and so D1 LK place NM NR.TH.TH. this meat which I left was not disturbed at all.” 43. 2003. Karao texts.PFT.RS PERF DIR -OBL Diyang Then he returned to Diyang.leave -ERG.tell.3SG RS PERF DIR ABS. oli -imkono ma da -cha Diyang return -PFT. maybe that’s why it was named Karao.koti ja bohi -na insepa -ko D1 D not PASS.PFT. No agpayson pasiya ma nainistoriya no agpayso -na pasiya ma na. Et isonga sejay a dogad.a.3PL D3 D3 DIR -ABS place LK PFT. 48.IMPFT.PFT.TH.3PL He told this story to his companions.16 Sherri Brainard ja bohin insepak. Seman ma iy mebonal ma ali ched jay.1SG Look here. hema igwa aliy dogad a iyanngaran na edafo -an cha sema igwan ali -i dogad na iyanngaran na NR.3SG PERF DIR -OBL D3 companion GEN.name OBL Brainard.story -PFT. 47.ERG.3PL -OBL D1 That is when they moved here. olop -iyto kono ma ali ira take/go. comp.a.name -__ GEN. Imoli kono wa ded Diyang. vi.3PL i say i say COMP NM edafoan cha.ERG. and he brought them here. nat ekoti-koti aja a nat eCVCV.3SG maybe OBL Karao. Inistoriya to wa ded ma echom to.transfer PERF DIR ABS.story -PFTcha cha ERG.come.3SG and iyodop to kono wa ali cha. seman ma iy mebonal ma ali ira -cha jay D3 PERF SIMUL PASS.INSdisturb D1 meat -LK PFT. 147pp.along -PFT.

Karao LK 11 The abo-nan is a meeting place for men only.NR.3SG PL COMP Bontoc maybe EMPH edafoan na af-afo na i-Karao. On certain occasions all the men in the village gather together to share a meal or discuss an issue. 50.IMPFT.house OBL Bontoc The men’s house also exists in Bontoc.3SG D1 men’s.Bontoc inges to ja abo-nan. The custom of the abo-nan still exists in Karao today. ija aliy ali -i edafo -an na CVC.believe/obey -__ GEN.why CAUS.PFT. 2003.TH. 49. Et say kepatian to ira i Bontoc emo nowan et say kepati -an to ira i Bontoc emo nowan and NM NR.from. isonga impanngaran cha ngo i -jay na dogad na Karao that’s.Karao D1 ogadi na i-Bontoc nowan i nowan i ogadi na iBontoc EMPH ABS custom GEN person.ancestor GEN person.Karao Texts 17 Karao cha Bontoc. Igwa ngoy abo-nan cha Bontoc. Karao texts. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi.from.name ERG. 147pp.come.PFT. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .11 51.afo na iKarao ijay DIR -ABS. Sherri. it is the place named Karao in Bontoc. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. comp. Oftentimes it is just a simple shelter. a ogadi ngo na i-Karao a na ogadi ngo na iKarao na LK custom also GEN person. inges to ja abo-nan same/like ERG.3PL also ABS -D1 LK place OBL Karao That’s why they also had this place named Karao. Karao cha Bontoc Karao OBL Bontoc If it is really true what they say about the place where they came from.from -__ GEN PL.house And the things that make them believe that Bontoc might indeed be the place where the ancestors of the Karao people came from are. igwan ngo -i abo-nan cha Bontoc D3 also -ABS men’s. Brainard.from. Isonga impanngaran cha ngo iyay a dogad na Karao. like the men’s house. there are Bontoc customs which are also Karao customs.

ancestor -__ GEN person. Bontoc bengat tan chiyay i kawad-an to. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. Karao texts. No kasta ngarod. The custom no longer exists in Karao. 52. eathiw da PASS. 2003. Iya-tiw da. the girls in one group house and the boys in another. comp.lose DIR It [the custom of the sleeping house] has been lost.inges DIR -OBL Bontoc because D2 LK IMPFT. vi. nem nagwara diy amangan.same/like and 12 The amangan was a group sleeping house.AG. 56. cha -ja Benguet ket nagwara met ira tan OBL -D1 Benguet PAUS EXT also PL D2 Here in Benguet. Children would leave their parents’ house and sleep in the group house.house OBL Bontoc The sleeping house also exists in Bontoc.PFT.18 Sherri Brainard toy amangan.house It is the same for the sleeping house. setan i sa-kin memaneknek i say no kasta ngarod setan i sa-ki -na meNpaneknek i say if that EMPH D2 ABS one -LK IMPFT. neither of these customs exists [among the other cultural groups].prove COMP NM edafoan na kaapoan na i-Karao ket chiwan edafo -an na ka.AG&TH.12 53.house but EXT DIR -ABS sleeping.afo -an na iKarao ket cha -man NR. Igwa ngoy amangan cha Bontoc. but now there is no sleeping house here [in Karao]. Inges inges to -i amangan nem nagwara da -i amangan same/like ERG. Bontoc bengat tan cha -jay i kawad-an to Bontoc only and OBL -D1 ABS place GEN. 54. Chiya Benguet ket nagwara met ira tan.from -__ GEN NR.Karao PAUS OBL -D3 alid ali -cha Bontoc tep Bontoc tep setan iren karawjan a man-iinges setan ira -na karawjan na manPL -LK custom tan tan CV.from. Sherri. igwan ngo -i amangan cha Bontoc D3 also -ABS sleeping.3SG -ABS sleeping.PL.PFT.3SG It is only in Bontoc and here that they exist. 147pp.come. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . 57. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Brainard. 55.

Karao Texts

19

toy chaha pengenop na too nontan. inges inges to -i cha -ka peNanop na too nontan same/like ERG.3SG -ABS GEN.3PL -CONT NR.IMPFT- hunt OBL person before If that is indeed the case, that is one piece of evidence that the place where the ancestors of the Karao people came from, it was Bontoc because there were those same customs and they had the same way of hunting people before. 58. Chaha dengsoiy bokdow na too nonta bayag. cha -ka dengso -i -i bokdow na too nonta bayag ERG.3PL -CONT cut.off.part -TH -ABS neck GEN person TI long.time They used to cut off the heads of people long ago. 59. Gwara ngod jay nontan da, nem nagwara da na seman. gwara ngo -cha jay nontan da nem nagwara da na seman EXT also -OBL D1 before DIR but EXT DIR TI now That [custom] also existed here before, but it no longer exists now. 60. Aamo wiy too. eamo ma -i too PASS.PFT- tame PERF -ABS person Now people are civilized. 61. Et setan a aramid ket aramid ngo na tood Bontoc ithan. et setan na aramid ket aramid ngo na too -cha Bontoc i -tan and D2 LK action PAUS action also GEN person -OBL Bontoc ABS -D2 That practice, that was also the practice of the people in Bontoc. 62. Isonga hetan i sa-kin kepatian to i Bontoc emo isonga setan i sa-ki -na kepati -an to i Bontoc emo so D2 ABS one -LK NR.IMPFT- believe/obey -__ GEN.3SG COMP Bontoc maybe edafoan na afo na i-Karao. nowan i nowan i edafo -an na afo na iKarao EMPH ABS NR.PFT- come.from -__ GEN ancestor GEN person.from- Karao So that is one of the reasons for believing that Bontoc might indeed be the place where the ancestors of the Karao people came from. 63. Setan i nainistoriya setan i na- istoriya -iyD2 ABS HAB- tell.a.story -PFTcha cha ERG.3PL a na LK edafoan edafo -an NR.PFT- come.from -__ na na GEN

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

20

Sherri Brainard

i-Karao. iKarao person.from- Karao That is the story they tell about where the Karao people came from. 64. Ija ijay D1 pay pay still i echom, nem onkosto i echom nem onkosto ABS other but IMPFT.TH- enough nin iyay. nin i -jay for.now ABS -D1

There are still other stories, but this is enough for now. 65. Asan mowan maistoriyiy echom a istoriya na pangkep na asan mowan meistoriya -i echom na istoriya na maypangkep na will again PASS.IMPFT- tell.a.story -ABS other LK story OBL about OBL edafoan na i-Karao. edafo -an na iKarao NR.PFT- come.from -__ GEN person.from- Karao Another time another story will be told about where the Karao people came from.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

Say say NM

Edafoan edafo -an NR.PFT- come.from -__

na

Karao

na Karao GEN Karao

The Origin of Karao Mrs. Juanita Padon 1. Palingaw i ngaran cha bariyo na Bontoc.

Palingaw i ngaran cha bariyo na Bontoc Palingaw ABS name OBL village GEN Bontoc Palingaw is the name of a village in Bontoc.13 2. Nem idi sa-ki chen ilin gropo, say baliy cha, edibong

nem idi sa-ki cha -na ili -na gropo say baliy cha edibong TI when one ERG.3PL -LK place -LK group NM house GEN.3PL PASS.PFT- encircle na balat. na balat OBL banana.tree When they were one group [of houses], their houses, they were surrounded by banana trees. 3. Nem idi onkirol, inkedis na kirol. nem idi onkirol inkedis na kirol TI when IMPFT.TH- thunder PFT.TH- strike ERG thunder When it thundered, the thunder struck it [the group of houses]. 4. Epoolan i balat, nem say baliy, eg epool -an i balat nem say baliy eg PASS.PFT.TH- burn -__ ABS banana.tree but NM house not iy ma-non athep. epoo-poolan eCVCV- pool -an iy ma-non athep PASS.PFT.TH- INSburn -__ CNTR even.though grass.roof The banana trees were burned, but the houses, they were not burned at all even though the roofs were grass.

13

This version of the origin of Karao begins with a traditional story about thunder striking a group of houses. The story is told in more detail in the text The Story of the Thunder and the Banana Tree, also in this volume.

21
Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

burn -__ It was good that they were not burned. iyayeg to eg to piyoolan pool -iyi -an i baliy. kirol eg eg kedis even. inkedis inkedis so na kirol na balat NR. baliy songjot even. Mapteng a eg epoolan. mapteng na eg epool -an good COMP not PASS.TH. 8. Binidin to ira i “Mesepol a onki-nan bilin -iyto ira i mesafol na onki-nan advise -PFT.22 Sherri Brainard i kebaliy-baliy.3PL COMP ST. 5.PFT.TH.3SG ABS. Karao texts.TH.die because not PASS.1PL.IMPFT. Isonga angken ikedis isonga angken iso kawi metiy to to kawi kawi na na kirol.AG.1PL. 10.3PL TI so na kirol na balat. 2003.PFT.burn -__ ABS each.and.TH.tree So even if thunder strikes us.every. it did not burn the houses. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. 7.necessary COMP IMPFT.move.TH. Ma-non ma-non iyaysongjot.IMPFT. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . 147pp.strike OBJ GEN thunder OBL banana.advise An old man from Bontoc. 9. Sema aama konon i-Bontoc.TH.3SG burn -PFT.strike ERG.man RS -LK person.PFT. Sherri.over Brainard. si-katho -i iyanbilin 3SG -ABS PFT.Bontoc si-kathoy iyanbilin. 6. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.if IMPFT.EX ST.3SG ABS.TH. he is the one who gave some advice.from. Eg pay laeng epoolan eg pay laeng epool -an i kebaliy-baliy PASS.PFT.burn -__ ABS house GEN.though PASS.PFT. we will not die because their houses were not burned when the thunder struck the banana trees.ERG. sema aama kono -na iBontoc D3 old.near not ERG.EX ERG thunder not tep eg epoolan i baliy cha na kawi metiy tep eg epool -an i baliy cha na ABS.house not still __ Not a single house was burned.-__ ABS house Even though it was near. comp. vi.

Karao texts.3PL ira na payow cha Tinek. 12.IMPFT.AG. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. ira na too asan ira na too asan ABS.3PL IMPFT. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .AG.field GEN. 2003.3PL and TI when IMPFT.rice It was necessary that they go headhunting before they could harvest their rice. ira manani ABS. Mangkebenaw i payow cha.2PL -OBL tan tan D2 a na LK ili.ABS. to GEN.3PL OBL rice. 13. 15.” 11.TH. and when the rice was mature.away -PFT.AG.” ili place He said to them. they harvested it. Sherri.mature ABS pahiy.TH. “You must move away from that place.hunting ira man-eni. 147pp. Mesepol a mengayow mesafol na meNngayow ST.3PL -OBL Tinoc They moved away to Tinoc.3PL OBL person before Brainard.PL. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.wide ABS rice. vi.CONT.prepare.necessary COMP IMPFT.rice cha. ki-nan -imira -cha Tinek move.3SG Palingaw was its name.harvest. et nem no onbalag i mangka. ira ABS.rice IMPFT.field OBL Tinoc Their rice fields were wide. Kimi-nan ired Tinek.go. man-eni pahiy manani unhusked.harvest. Iyanpana-panad iyanCVCV.Karao Texts 23 kayod kayo -cha ABS. ira na payow cha Tinek ABS. comp.panad PFT.site They made rice fields at Tinoc. Palingaw Palingaw Palingaw i i ABS ngaran ngaran name to. 14.head.banaw i payow cha et nem no onbalag i AJR.AG.

3PL again ABS.away -PFT. mowan na no onbalag i echen cha -na pahiy again LK when IMPFT. the name of which was Alang.3PL hate -PFT. vi. 18.-__ ERG.rice mengeda ira na too asan ira man-eni.get ABS. Igol cha mowan ira. ira -cha Teboy ABS.3PL They drove them [the Karaos] away again.field but same/like ERG. 20. 2003.away -PFT.3SG They drove them [the Karaos] up to a place above Bambang. Inilan cha di cha et chiyed sa-pat anil -iy-an cha ali ira et cha -ja -cha sa-pat drive. ngiyaaw cha ira. they would get some people before they would harvest. Niman sema kaidian niman sema kaidian cha ngaaw -iycha ira now D3 fellow.TH. Inilan cha mowan ira.ERG.3PL IMPFT.3PL again ABS. 19.3PL ?? OBL -D1 -OBL up/above ngaran to.-__ ERG.site mowan ira na payow. Brainard. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.away -PFT. meNala ira na too asan ira manani IMPFT. Karao texts. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .villager GEN.panad PFT.3PL and go/come -PFT.3PL -LK unhusked.3PL Now their fellow villagers.CONT.ERG.TH.again DIR ched Teboy.AG.mature ABS cultivate.3PL OBL person before ABS.harvest. and they [the Karaos] came to Teboy. na Bambang a Alang i na Bambang na Alang i ngaran to GEN Bambang LK Alang ABS name GEN.AG. they hated them.3PL -OBL Teboy They drove them away. agol -iycha mowan ira drive. Sherri.TH.24 Sherri Brainard cha. nem inges to mowan ira na payow nem inges to again ABS. comp. et kimowan mowan ali anil -iy-an cha mowan ira et kowan -immowan ali drive.TH.rice They planted rice fields again.3PL DIR ABS. 16.field ERG.AG. Iyanpana-panad iyanCVCV. 147pp. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.3SG mowan a no onbalag i echen chen pahiy. 17.3PL ABS. but it was just the same as before in that when the rice that they had cultivated had matured.a.3PL OBL rice.prepare.

AG.14 14 Clothing made from bark is called tiyo-to.LOC. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.for ABS.steal ABS.LOC. 23. comp.go/come kailokoan keiloko -an NR. meNalok ira na bekas iikan -an cha ira IMPFT.IMPFT. 2003.prepare.3SG again LK AJR. na Bambang LK Bambang ired ma ira -cha ma ABS. 26. 25.3PL They would ask for pounded rice. Mengedok ira na chakom a panchait cha na baro meNalok ira na chakom na panchait cha na baro IMPFT. the lowlands] like Bambang.AG.) Traditionally it was the Kalangoya people who made cloth from tree bark. they [the Ilocanos] would give them one. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.site ired man.ask.bark They would ask for a needle so they could sew their clothes which were made from bark.3PL They would ask for a clay pot.3PL OBL animal It was the same again in that they stole animals.kibot ira na animal same/like ERG.give -__ ERG.3PL -OBL D3 But when it was daytime.for ABS. During World War II. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .AG.3PL OBL pounded. Inges to mowan a mahibot ira na animal. 22. 24.for ABS.3PL GEN clothing chen tiyo-to. onkwan nem no seman na maakow onkowan but when D3 LK daytime IMPFT.AG. ira -cha man ABS.from.3PL ABS.pot IMPFT. vi. there was a shortage of factory-made cloth and clothing and so the Karaos started buying bark cloth from Brainard. Sherri.rice IMPFT. Mengedok ira na banga. or tebak.give -__ ERG.3PL OBL clay. Mengedok ira na bekas.TH.Ilocano -__ a Bambang. meNalok ira na banga iikan -an cha ira IMPFT. Nem no seman a maakow. they would give them some. i-kanan cha ira.3PL -LK clothing.sew GEN.3PL OBL needle OBL NR.made.IMPFT. they would go to the place of the Ilocanos [i.ask.e.Karao Texts 25 21. (The Karaos say both terms are borrowed. Iyanpanad iyanpanad PFT. i-kanan cha cha. cha -na tiyo-to GEN.ask. inges to mowan na ma.3PL -OBL D3 They made rice fields there. 147pp. Karao texts.3PL ABS.

iyaptoan cha.give -__ ERG.1PL. Seman ma iy pimetok i bakchat. 2003. 28.1PL.give -__ ERG.AGkawi kawi ABS. why do those who live in the mountains keep stealing from us even though when they ask us for a clay pot.ask. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. comp. 27.3PL and needle na na OBL baro cha?” baro cha clothing GEN. 147pp. na iyanbaliy cha chontog iy no meNalok ira na banga ERG PFT. bayag SURP ABS gun GEN.pot i-kanan mi cha. (even though when) they ask for rice.reside OBL mountain CNTR when IMPFT.AG.EX ABS.1PL.3PL a na penait peNcha chait cha sew GEN. we give them one.kibot -an cha ABS. seman ma iy petok -imi bakchat D3 PERF SIMUL fire -PFT.rice mi cha tan chakom i-kanan iikan -an mi ira tan chakom IMPFT.TH.ABS gun the Kalangoyas.for ABS. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.TH.3PL OBL clay.pray Afo Chiyos i Afo Chiyos i “Si-kam a pimarsowa si-kam na parsowa -imLK create -PFT.26 Sherri Brainard Idoko.with -PFT. Sherri.3PL Now the Ilocanos.1PL. Today bark cloth is not used in Karao. Niman sema iren niman sema ira -na Idoko apto -iy-an cha now D3 PL -LK Ilocano fed.-__ ERG.LOC ERG.ago They had guns long ago.AG. “You who created us here on earth.AG.EX -cha ERG. vi. Brainard.LOC. we give them some and a needle so they can sew their clothes?” 30.3PL OBL NR. niya-mona kibo-kibothan cha kawi kawi so cha -ja dobong niya-mona CVCV. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .EX ABS.NAG.LOC. 29. In-angad ched inangad cha PFT.up.ask.3PL TI DIR -LK long. Karao texts.IMPFT- They [the Ilocanos] prayed to God. mengedok ira na bekas.3PL na iyanbaliy cha chontog iy no mengedok ira na banga. Gwara gayam i gwara gayam i EXT bakchat cha bakchat cha nontan den nontan da -na bayag.EX OBJ OBL -D1 world why CONT.3PL OBL pounded.3PL -OBL God __ COMP 2SG so chiya dobong. they got fed up with them.for ABS. iikan -an mi ira meNalok ira na bekas IMPFT.3PL IMPFT.steal -IMPFT.

-__ ERG. 31. Karao texts.3PL They [the Karaos] were afraid. Si-katho konoy engowan i “Igwan et mango ali mapteng a si-katho kono -i eNkowan i igwan et mango ali mapteng na 3SG RS -ABS PFT.Kabayan There was a man from Kabayan who was related by marriage to the Karao people. kolos river There are lots of pao ferns (pao ferns.simit -imcha many ABS -D3 fern. 34. “There is a good place beside a small valley.from.i chekdan na sangko-tik PFT.by. 2003. Gwariy inepon i-Kabajan.type -LK D3 HAB.Karao Texts 27 Then a gun went off. 36.bit He is the one who said. Sejay i diya-basan ko din dogad. vi. iyanba-sil -in. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .AG&TH. 35. 147pp.by -PFT.who gun Someone with a gun fired it. 32.TH. Sherri. tahot -imira afraid -PFT.type fern. Chakel iwa pao (paon sema nasimimit cha chakel i -ma pao pao -na sema na.OBL kolos). Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.AG.side -__.TH. the ones that usually grow along the edge of the river). Inpetok na para bakchat. inpetok na para bakchat PFT. gwara -i inepo -na iKabajan EXT -ABS in-law -LK person. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. comp.TH.LOC. sejay i da-bas -iy-an ko ali -na dogad D1 ABS pass. Timahot ira. 33.sprout -PFT. kilig na kilig na edge GEN Brainard.ABS valley LK little.say COMP D3 ?? ?? DIR good LK iyanbina-sil i chekdan a sangko-tik.ABS.fire ERG one.side.1SG DIR -LK place It is the place that I passed by on my way here.

ira na sandasos na dokto ABS.IMPFT. 40.hundred LK kamote ali ched jay. kakanen CV.chop. 38. nat panbaliy -an mi na ingka -cha en.to. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.3PL OBL two -LK ten -LK meat They cut up twenty pieces of meat.AG.other.eat -IMPFT. 147pp.3PL -OBL D1 They chopped up one hundred pieces of kamote.chokiy na akow nat NR.AG.IMPFT. In-angad ched Afo Chiyos i “Si-kam a Chiyos a inangad cha -cha Afo Chiyos i si-kam na Chiyos na PFT.3PL -OBL God __ COMP 2SG LK God LK kawi so.-__ cha na chanom. 2003. Gwariy bayengbeng a injanan gwara -i bayengbeng na ejan -iy-an EXT -ABS bamboo LK fill -PFT. Engapkap eNkapkap PFT. Onba-sil onba-sil IMPFT. Chakel iwa chakel i -ma pao -na menigay para sira many ABS -D3 fern. Karao texts.EX TI until -OBL AJR.28 Sherri Brainard paon menikay para sira. Enadtad ira na chon polon bohi. comp. vi.reside -__ GEN.ABS.TH ERG blackbird ABS meat Brainard.move.chop.AG. Sherri. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.TH.pray ERG.unit.food for side.kan -en na kawang i bohi DER.dish There are lots of pao ferns that we can gather for a side dish.” 39.” ali ira -cha jay DIR ABS.gather.EX OBJ TI if want/like ERG.3PL OBL one.side They will move here.vegetables ira na sandasos a dokto. cha na chanom ERG.1PL.2SG-COMP OBL -D1 ABS panbedijan mi na ingked enchokiy a akow. 41. 37. nem no piyan mon chiyay i pimarsowa parsowa -imkawi so nem no piyan mo -na cha -jay i create -PFT.meat ABS.long LK day not na kawang i bohi. eNtadtad ira na chowa -na polo -na bohi PFT.type -LK PASS.TH. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .3PL OBL water There was a bamboo container that they filled with water.TH. 42.1PL.

silak i dokto not PASS. Eg pay ida na kawang i bohi. 147pp. comp.INSscatter ABS kamote None of the kamote had been scattered.TH. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.PFT. Brainard.TH May the rats not eat the kamote.eat -IMPFT.ERG blackbird ABS meat The blackbirds still had not gotten the meat.TH.up -__ It was even more dried up. Seman ma seman ma D3 iy iy mebonal meali ali ched ira jay. “You who are God. 43. 44. Sherri. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Eg esila-silak i dokto. Mas iyakkingan. who created us. Nat kakanen nat CV. Karao texts. eg eCVCV.up -__ ABS water OBL bamboo May the water not dry up in the bamboo container.kan -en not DER. mapteng. vi.3PL good na othot i dokto.PFT.dry. Nat ma-tian i chanom cha bayengbeng.” nat meeti -an i chanom cha bayengbeng not PASS.month IMPFT. na othot i dokto ERG rat ABS kamote bonal -cha PERF SIMUL PASS.Karao Texts 29 They prayed to God. jay ali cha. may the blackbirds not eat the meat. it was good. eg pay ala -iyna kawang i bohi not still get -PFT. 47.IMPFT.dry. Idi gwariy mahabolan.bolan onkowan after EXT -ABS one. 48.IMPFT. they came here. 2003. onkwan idi gwara -i maha.3PL -OBL D1 That was when they moved here.” 45.TH. ali ira mapteng DIR ABS.go/come After one month. if you want that this will be our dwelling place forever. mas ekeking -an more PASS.transfer DIR ABS. 49. 46.

54.dog one.1SG -ABS name nem i-kan jo di ja toktok niya inop na aso. 53. nem ala -iyna iKarao i -ma olsa but get -PFT.TH ERG. Brainard.hunt ERG. 147pp. 2003. a deer hunter [the dog].hunt The owner of the dog. mahaanop.3SG -ABS dog GEN.1SG -i -PFT. Kigwan kowan -iysay to to kono i kono i “Konen kowan -en koy ko ngaran ko ngaran ko GEN. Karao texts. “I will tell you my name if you give me the head of what my dog caught.follow -PFT. 51. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. the head of the deer. kept following it.Karao ABS -D3 deer But a Karao man got that deer.3PL RS COMP who -ABS name GEN.ERG dog He [the hunter] said.ERG person.who. 52.TH. nem iikan jo ali ja toktok na -ja anop -iyna aso if IMPFT. “What is your name?” 55. Ida tho liy toktok.AG. Inbaga ra kono i “Siyay ngaran mo?” inbaga cha kono i siya -i ngaran mo PFT.reside PERF DIR ABS.ERG.3SG DIR -ABS head head GEN deer He [the Karao man] got the head.Kadasan LK PFT.TH.2SG They [the Karaos] asked him.aso mahaanop CONT. ma-nop na olsa.from. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . Nem ida na i-Karao iwa olsa.NTH.onod -iyali -na ta maha.ERG. Iyono-onod alin ta mahaaso.DIR -ERG D2 owner. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.3PL -OBL D1 EXT DIR -ABS i-Kadasan a in-anop toy aso tho. vi.ask ERG.30 Sherri Brainard manbediy ma ali ched jay.3SG RS COMP say -IMPFT.2PL DIR D1 head GEN -D1 hunt -PFT.give ERG. comp.3SG hunter GEN deer When they were staying here. toktok na olsa. ala -iyto da -i toktok toktok na olsa get -PFT. Idi idi manbaliy ma ali ira -cha jay gwara da -i when IMPFT. gwara diy 50. there was a man from Kadasan who went hunting with his dog.from. the hunter. Sherri. CVCV. iKadasan na inanop to -i aso to ma-nop na olsa person.

1SG My name is Karao. comp. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. 2003.” 57. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .TH. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.” 56. vi. Brainard. isonga iyanngaran i -jay na Karao that’s.Karao Texts 31 ngaran ko. Si Karao i si Karao i ngaran ko NM Karao ABS name GEN. 147pp. Karao texts. Isonga iyanngaran iyay na Karao.name ABS -D1 OBL Karao That’s why this place is named Karao. Sherri.why PFT.

TH na na ERG Oleg oleg snake i i ABS I-Karao iKarao person.Niyana Eg niyana eg why not Kedathen kalat -en bite -IMPFT. Sherri.from.TH ERG snake ABS person. 3.3SG This is their story.hunt when to to kono ma toktok na kono ma toktok na D3 head chontog. Karao texts.go/come chanchanin sebien chanchani -na sagwi -en nearly kono -cha chontog na meNanop idi RS -OBL mountain LK IMPFT.Karao It is the story of people long ago about what is the reason that snakes do not bite the Karao people. Istoriya na too na bayag na ngoy kagol na nat istoriya na too na bayag na nengo -i kagol na nat story GEN person TI long. 15 2. When asked to relate a traditional Karao story. idi idi onkowan when IMPFT.TH. a Karao speaker almost invariably starts with one of these two.3SG RS GEN mountain EXT 15 The story about why snakes do not bite the Karaos is one of two classic stories told by the Karaos. John Beray 1. 2003. chontog gwariy gwara -i -ABS -LK reach -IMPFT. comp.time OBL what -ABS reason COMP not kedathen kalat -en na na oleg oleg i i i-Karao. the other being the story about the origin of the Karao people. Sejay konoy istoriya tho. vi. 4.LOC ERG.time LK hunter There was a person long ago who was a hunter. i- Karao bite -IMPFT. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .Karao Why Snakes Do Not Bite the Karao People Mr. Gwara konoy too na bayag a ma-nop. gwara kono -i too na bayag na ma-nop EXT RS -ABS person TI long. 147pp. sejay kono -i istoriya to D1 RS -ABS story GEN. 32 Brainard. Idi onkwan konod chontog a mengenop.AG. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.from.

LOC to da iwa to da i -ma ERG. (Also see sentence 26 in Why the Karaos Do Not Eat the Meat of Dogs.3SG He was hurrying anxiously as he ran to his kamote field so that he could put out the fire so that his garden would not be burned. Idi towan betiha. vi.CONT.anxiously to kono iy bebtihen to kono iy betik -en ERG. an allomorph of -en.3SG -CONT run -ACT EXT RS -ABS hear/listen -PFT.16 16 Regarding the verb betiha. Aga-agag CVCV.water -IMPFT.3SG -ABS fire so.3SG so. the Meat of Horses.field GEN. the transitive suffix -a. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. emangkapool -i kono -i chontog PASS.ERG. 7.3SG DIR ABS -D3 kawad-an na oma tho tep say sebseban kawad-an na oma to tep say sebseb -an place GEN kamote. pool fire When he went to hunt on the mountain.that __ extinguish.field GEN.TH pool et say eg da mepoolan da iwa toy to -i pool et say eg da mepool -an da i -ma ERG.with. 147pp. and Hot Peppers.) Brainard. 2003.TH. has been added to the root betik ‘to run’ in order to focus attention on the action. he heard a voice. 6.3SG -LK voice As he was running. when he had nearly reached the top of the mountain.TH. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . oma oma to kamote.burn -__ RS -ABS mountain The mountain was burning. Sherri. comp. an overt object cannot be added to the sentence.IMPFT. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.hurry.burn -__ DIR ABS -D3 tho. Emangkepooli konoy chontog. idi to -an betik -a gwara kono -i chengel -iyto -na esel when ERG. 5.3SG RS SIMUL run -IMPFT. When -en has this function. gwara konoy chingel ton esel.agag CONT. Karao texts.Karao Texts 33 pool. there was a forest fire.that __ not DIR PASS.

IMPFT.look. he saw a big snake that had been burned that was writhing in pain.CONT.RS -ERG D3 snake COMP since TI now so. comp. the fire got me. 11.ERG.ERG. 147pp.34 Sherri Brainard cha si-katho. Kigwan konon ma oleg i “Manipod na seman. Manta-ta-gway manCVC. 9.tilay LK PASS.2SG -ABS.call OBL 3SG It was calling to him.” aja ala -iyto -ak na pool D1 get -PFT. Kigwan kono na oleg i “Ibeka moak.3SG RS a epoolan a mantila-tilay. 12. ida thoak na pool.1SG The snake said. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .RS ERG snake COMP IMPFT. Aja. 14. Idi idi ongwingi. he was very surprised. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. Setan kono wen too. 2003.AG.IMPFT.3SG -ABS.pain When he looked back.1SG I will die soon. Karao texts. -ABS big na epool -an na manCVCV.TH. say eg kowan -iykono -na ma oleg i manipod na seman say eg say -PFT. 8. ongwingi mita matha tho to konoy kono -i banay a oleg banay na oleg LK snake -iy- when IMPFT.in.that not Brainard.back see/look -PFT.die -ABS.surprised LK very That person.TH.bury ERG. engkay soon -ak ST.” 13.burn -__ LK IMPFT.1SG ERG fire Look.PFT. Sherri. masdaaw a pasiya.writhe. “You bury me.TH.ta-gway cha si-katho IMPFT. 10.AG.CONT. setan kono ma -na too masdaaw na pasiya D2 RS PERF -LK person ST. Metijak metiynem nem TI engkay. kowan -iykono na oleg i ibeka mo -ak say -PFT. vi.

TH. you say. kayo nat kedathen nat kalat -en ERG.2PL ERG snake say ERG. Karao texts. Dobid ono danchok i ibaniy dobid ono danchok i ibaniy string or wire ABS IMPFT.Karao -ABS. Inges to.2PL -OBL D2 down/below GEN knee GEN.2PL bite -IMPFT.2PL That is what the snakes will see. comp.2PL or rattan setan i matha -en D2 ABS see/look -IMPFT.3PL kayo na oleg.tie ERG.” eg jo eg jo ipathiy i kalat na oleg not ERG. vi.TH ERG snake IMP. or cloth.3SG if PASS. and when they see that leg band. et no metaen jo.from. tan na baniy ira -na ma oleg et no matha -en PL -ERG D3 snake and when see/look -IMPFT.3PL ABS. cha cha kayo kalat -en na oleg panbaniy kayo ERG. Seta baniy. they will not bite you. iiket jod ta sa-kod na poweg jo. panbaniy kayo. rattan.1SG also so.wear.3PL D2 LK leg.IMPFT. Setan i metaen iren ma oleg. A leg band could be a piece of string.band not bite -IMPFT.band String or wire is what you will use as a leg band.TH.do. you wear leg bands. kowan jo i ‘I-Karagwak ngo’ et say kayo na oleg kowan jo i iKarao -ak ngo et say ABS.band IMPFT. ono egwiy. jo ono egwiy ERG. if those snakes accidentally bite you.2PL COMP person. or rattan.TH cha cha tan a baniy.NAG.band ABS.AG.TH ERG.3PL ABS. ‘ I’m a Karao’ so that you will not die from the snake’s bite.leg. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.” 17 Leg bands were worn only by men. you tie it below your knee. It was tied so that no ends were left hanging.leg.accidently a kedathen na kalat -en LK bite -IMPFT.NTH.from ABS bite GEN snake In the same way. seta baniy iiket jo -cha ta sa-kod na poweg jo D2 leg.2PL The snake said.that __ ipathiy i kalat na oleg.2PL That leg band. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.wear. 16. Brainard.17 15. 147pp.TH cha cha kayo. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . nem maydaw-an inges to nem maydaw-an same/like ERG. “From now on. wire. Sherri. 2003.die. 18.TH cha cha ERG.Karao Texts 35 kayo kedathen na oleg. so that snakes will not bite you. 17.2PL IMPFT.

AG.dahi -na companion GEN.die ABS -D2 snake LK king GEN snake After that that snake who was the king of the snakes died.bury PERF -ERG D2 hunter Then the hunter buried it.PERF -ERG D2 hunter OBL echom echom ton to daleki. inbeka ma -na ta ma-nop PFT.IMPFT. 23. Sherri.LOC.wear. vi. Inbeka wen ta ma-nop. 19.TH na oleg a ebaniyan i na oleg na ebaniy -an i ERG snake COMP PASS.iyanma ma iriy ira -i baniy PERF HAB. people here in Karao wore leg bands.3SG so. 21. ira na oleg ABS. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .NR.TH ira na oleg.a.PFT.leg.TH.band -__ ABS Brainard. inistoriya wen ta ma-nop cha manipod ma nontan kono ma istoriya -iyma -na ta ma-nop cha since PERF then RS PERF tell.band PERF PL -ABS too -cha ja Karao nontan person -OBL D1 Karao then From that time on. 24.3PL ERG snake That is the reason why people wore leg bands because it was a sign so that the snakes would not bite them.PFT. Karao texts.leg. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. Setan i kagol na naiyanbanejan na too tep setan i kagol na na. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. comp.wear. 20.36 Sherri Brainard iy metiy itha oleg a ari na oleg.wear.band -__ GEN person because say eg kedathen chingjas to chingjas to say eg kalat -en sign GEN. CV. 22.man/boy After that.leg. 147pp. 2003. naiyanbaniy na. Setan kono wa setan kono ma iy metiy i -ta oleg na ari na oleg D2 RS PERF SIMUL ST. Manipod ma nontan kono wa.PFT. the hunter told the story to his companions who were elders.that not bite -IMPFT.story -PFT. No metaen no matha -en when see/look -IMPFT.3SG -LK PL.iyanbaniy -an na too tep D2 ABS reason GEN HAB. Manipod kono nowan nontan ma. manipod kono nowan nontan ma since tood RS ja EMPH then Karao nontan.

gwariy nem angken kalat -en na oleg gwara -i but even.3PL COMP PASS. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.darag -imnat na. 25. they do not die from it.accidently -__ LK bite -IMPFT.NAG.from ERG. mo -ak ERG.PFT.accidently moak.3PL ABS.PFT. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .from. agdalo nem nat nadimarag. it [the wound] does not swell.3PL -ABS bite GEN snake They do not die from the snake’s bite.NAG.3PL bite -IMPFT. even if there is a Karao person who is accidentally bitten by a snake. 26. nat na.die. I-Karagwak ngo. they would not bite them.from ERG.if bite -IMPFT.inpathiy cha -i kalat na oleg not HAB. nat na. especially if they say.TH.TH.die.TH ERG. 147pp. comp. eg cha cha kedathen. Nem angken kedathen na oleg.Karao also if EXT -ABS bite -IMPFT.IMPFT. Nat nainpathiy chiy kalat na oleg. vi. 2003.Karao -ABS.Karao nat nainpathiy cha. 28.2SG -ABS.LOC. seki seki cha eg cha ira kalat -en leg/foot GEN. “You have accidentally bitten me.do.from.inpathiy cha agdalo nem not HAB. no gwariy kedathen na oleg a echom say nat iKarao pay no gwara -i kalat -en na oleg na echom NM not person. Sherri. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.” iKarao -ak ngo person.TH na oleg a i-Karao.” 27.not HAB.do. na oleg na iKarao ERG snake LK person.1SG also I am a Karao.3PL not ERG.TH ERG snake EXT -ABS maydaw-anan a kedathen maydaw-an -an na kalat -en PASS.1SG But even if a snake bites them.TH When the snakes saw that their legs had bands around them.swell -PFT.PFT.3PL especially if konen cha i “Iyaydaw-an kowan -en cha i iyaydaw-an say -IMPFT. Say nat i-Karao pay. Karao texts.Karao Texts 37 ra.from.TH ERG snake LK other a kidat na kalat -iyLK bite -PFT- Brainard.

PFT.INSdie. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . Sherri.die.” cha i iKarao i -ja kalat -iymo kalat -iyjo ERG.TH.kepes -imet nat na. 29.3PL The swelling goes down.kalat -iyna oleg cha -ma many ABS person.prayer -__ cha i “I-Karao iya kidat mo. echom na dogad nem kaasi to other LK place but pity/compassion ERG.Karao LK CONT.from. 2003. vi. no imadmaran a toon na too -na nat iKarao cha -jay no imadmad -an LK person -LK not person.from OBL bite GEN snake because D3 maybe nowan i tolakan na apo na oleg tan sa-kin i-Karao den nowan i tolakan na apo na oleg tan sa-ki -na iKarao da -na EMPH ABS agreement GEN leader GEN snake and one -LK person. kidat jo.PFT. et nat nainpathiy cha. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. 30.ERG snake OBL -D3 echom a dogad.PASS. na.remove ABS swelling GEN. you bit him. to ekal HAB.swelling -PFT.madmad.ERG.3SG There are many Karao people who have been bitten by snakes in other places.NLOC.Karao DIR -LK Brainard. “This one that you’ve bitten is a Karao.decrease. Nagwariy engipathe-pathiy na kalat na oleg tep seman emo nagwara -i engiCVCV.” the swelling goes down.2PL naiya-kal na.ERG.38 Sherri Brainard nat i-Karao chiyay.Karao OBL -D1 if IMPFT.pathiy na kalat na oleg tep seman emo EXT -ABS PFT. but they have been fortunate.TH. and they do not die from it.say.from. Nakimepes. if a snake bites a person here who is not a Karao.from ERG. Karao texts.bite -PFT.inpathiy cha HAB. Chakel i i-Karao a kide-kidat na oleg chiwa chakel i iKarao na CVCV.2SG bite -PFT.from.3PL COMP person.NAG.3SG Someone too who is not a Karao.from. 31.and not HAB. if they [the Karaos] pray for him saying. 147pp. nem kaasi tho.ei i darag darag to.Karao ABS -D1 bite -PFT. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. comp.

3PL That’s why the Karaos before.as if na oleg. 36. ma-nop hunter No one has ever died from a snake bite because perhaps that was the agreement between the leader of the snakes and that Karao hunter. comp.PFT.band ABS. Nem nagwara da na seman.die. nem nagwara da na seman but EXT DIR TI now But that is not done now. naiyanbaniy ira.AG.wear. Brainard.long. Karao texts.NAG. vi.Karao Texts 39 ma-nop. 35.band No one wears leg bands now. isonga say iKarao nontan na. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.leg.3PL bite -IMPFT. 32. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . 33.from.from ABS bite GEN snake DIR kitdi kitdi no manbaniy no manbaniy ira ira tep tep say eg say eg ira ira kedathen kalat -en as.AG. Sherri.leg. Tolakan cha i eg cha ipathiy i kalat na oleg la tolakan cha i eg cha ipathiy i kalat na oleg da agreement GEN. na.PFT.PFT.band ABS.remove DIR It has been done away with.that __ not ABS. 2003.leg.iyan- baniy DIR -ABS HAB.iyanbaniy ira that’s.wear. Iya-kal eda. 34.wear.AG.3PL IMPFT. da ekal PASS. na oleg ERG snake IMPFT. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Nagwara diy nagwara da -i EXT naiyanbaniy.why NM person. Isonga say i-Karao nontan.Karao before HAB.TH Their agreement was that they [Karaos] would not die from a snake bite as long as they wore leg bands so that the snakes would not bite them.3PL so. they used to wear leg bands. 147pp.3PL ABS not ERG.

from.tahot cha -i oleg that’s. Eg cha tekothan i oleg.pass LK nainis-istoriya na iyangkaama na ingked niman.3PL -ABS snake That’s why these Karao people. Karao texts.40 Sherri Brainard istoriya no niyana eg kedathen 37.die. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.CONT.elbat na D2 ABS story -LK IMPFT. Brainard. Isonga seja iren i-Karao. they will not die from it. na oleg i iKarao ERG snake ABS person. 147pp.story -PFT. Sherri. 40.from. Setan i istoriyen man-elba-elbat a setan i istoriya -na manCVCCV.PL.old.istoriya -iyna iyangka. they are not afraid of snakes.man TI until -OBL now including aanak.NAG ABS snake They are not afraid of snakes. nat ipathiy cha tep angken kalat -en ira na oleg nat ipathiy cha because even. isonga seja ira -na iKarao nat en.Karao not AJR. pati na.CONT.TH ABS. comp.NAG.TH na oleg i i-Karao.awa na ingka -cha niman pati HAB. nat ontahot chiy oleg. 41.if bite -IMPFT.anak PL. 39.CVC.Karao That is the story about why the snakes do not bite the Karao people. vi.offspring That is the story that the old men have been telling which has been passed down from generation to generation until today. Tep angken kedathen ira na oleg.3PL ERG snake not IMPFT. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . including to our children. CV.from ERG.why D1 PL -LK person. kono RS Because even if a snake bites them.a. eg cha tahot -an i oleg not ERG.afraid ERG.3PL kono.tell. Setan i setan i istoriya no niyana eg kalat -en D2 ABS story NM why not bite -IMPFT.3PL afraid -IMPFT. 2003.ERG AJR. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. 38.TH.

band But no one wears leg bands now.NR. nem nagwara da na seman i na. 43. setan bengat D2 only That’s all.Karao That is the reason why the Karao people wore leg bands. Brainard.wear.iyanbaniy but EXT DIR TI now ABS HAB.wear. Amta re amta cha tan na istoriya know ERG.leg. Nem nagwara da na seman i naiyanbaniy.3PL D2 LK story They [the grandchildren] know that story.AG.PFT. 45. 44.PFT.leg. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . vi. 147pp. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Sherri. Karao texts. 42.Karao Texts 41 tan a istoriya. Setan konoy setan kono -i D2 RS kagol kagol na na naiyanbanejan na. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. i- Karao -ABS reason GEN HAB. Setan bengat. comp. 2003.iyanbaniy na -an na i-Karao.band -__ GEN person.from.

rice TI long.PFT.3SG 42 Brainard.field cha. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. say pahiy nonta bayag iyangka. but there was a problem because the owner of the granary had made it too small.PL. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.Say Istoriya na Pahiy say istoriya na pahiy NM story GEN unhusked.TH. 2003.3PL and D3 some EXT -OBL yard They were crowded. 3. Sherri. Et no medom. et sema echom. 5.molimol na CV.time AJR. and some.ERG. piyegpeg-as to idi gwara ali ta dahi bonget -imCVC. they would go to the granary by themselves. vi.3PL There was a married couple who were in the mountains who had a rice field.hit -PFT.granary -__ And when they [the unhusked rice] were ripe. 147pp. nem cha -ma alang nem OBL -D3 granary but ngaaw tep otik i imag niwa mahaalangen. esekot ira et sema echom gwara -cha bo-day ST.ERG -D3 owner.big Unhusked rice long ago. they were outside in the yard. Say pahiy nonta bayag. Mary Quedy 1. bimonget. cha GEN. comp. 2. iyangkamolimol a babenay. Karao texts.TH.CONT.go/come chiwa alang. Idi gwara di ta dahi.IMPFT.couple LK EXT -OBL mountain LK EXT -ABS rice.alang -en bad because small ABS do/make -PFT. 4.crowded ABS. ngaaw tep otik i amag -iyna -ma maha.round LK PL.rice The Story of Unhusked Rice Mrs.angry -PFT. Gwariy sambaliy a gwared chontog a gwariy payow gwara -i san-imbaliy na gwara -cha chontog na gwara -i payow EXT -ABS married.ripe 3PL self -LK IMPFT. gwared bo-day.peg-as -iyto when EXT DIR D2 man/boy get. si-kara ngon onkwan et no meedom si-kara ngo -na onkowan and when ST. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .banay NM unhusked. they were round and big. Iyaskot ira.

comp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . ira ma pahiy. vi.CONT.rice and ST. Sherri. 2003.scatter When the man arrived. Isonga niman say pahiy tayo. Karao texts.IN small. he got angry. seman i istoriya na pahiy D3 ABS story GEN unhusked.bolak PL D3 unhusked.1PL. and then they were scattered. he whipped and whipped the rice.PFT.Karao Texts 43 et ebola-bolak. isonga niman say pahiy tayo babechis that’s. Seman i istoriya na pahiy.rice GEN. ira ma pahiy et eCVCV. 147pp.rice That is the story of unhusked rice. Brainard. they come in small pieces. babechis.pieces That’s why now our unhusked rice. 6.why now NM unhusked. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. 7. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.

kirol sema balat sema balat banana. 2003. vi. Nem salamat seman a baliy.ago RS EXT -ABS house LK bite -PFTna kirol. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .story -PFT.TH ERG thunder D3 44 Brainard.1SG D1 ABS story -GEN afok afo den da -na bii. there were some banana trees that they had planted beside the house.plant ERG. Karao texts.Istoriya na istoriya story na OBL Kirol kirol thunder tan tan and Balat balat banana. 2.TH.tree OBL beside GEN house But fortunately for the house.a.tree and instead OPT -LK D3 house ABS bite -IMPFT. gwariy intanem cha konon nem salamat seman na baliy gwara -i intanem cha kono -na but fortunately D3 LK house EXT -ABS PFT. Petra Catores 1.3SG COMP TI long. Idi nonta kaotikel ko. sejay i istoriyen idi nonta keotikel ko sejay i istoriya -na when TI NR.IMPFT. this was a story of my grandmother’s.1SG DIR -LK woman/girl When I was little.ERG. 3. comp. 147pp.tree The Story about the Thunder and the Banana Tree Mrs. bii -ko grandparent -GEN. Sherri.3PL RS -LK balat balat cha askang na cha askang na baliy. baliy banana. 4. na kirol ERG thunder She told a story that long ago there was a house that the thunder nearly bit. Et et imbis imbis komen sema baliy i koma -na sema baliy i kedathen kalat -en na na kirol. Inistoriya to i nonta bayag kono gwariy baliy a kidat istoriya -iyto i nonta bayag kono gwara -i baliy na kalat -iytell.little GEN. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.

kalot -an na dowit trunk GEN banana.3SG That was her story.TH. 6. i i kalat -iyto ABS bite -PFT.PFT.Karao Texts 45 kidat to.3PL RS D3 banana.tahot kono na kirol i balat that’s. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.ERG. Et sema baliy. 147pp. Sherri. 9.tree LK PASS. setan i istoriya to D2 ABS story GEN. it was not burned. 5.burn -__ And the house. which were tied with banana fibers.3SG And instead of the house being what the thunder bit. et sema baliy nat epool -an and D3 house not PASS.tree That’s why the thunder is afraid of the banana tree.ERG. the banana trees are what it bit.why AJR. comp. 2003.TH ERG.PFT. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .tree TI NR.save OBL house The banana trees are what saved the house.afraid RS ERG thunder ABS banana. 7.PFT. gwara konoy sangi na kirol a mita red ma na kirol gwara kono -i sangi na kirol na matha -iycha -cha ma GEN thunder EXT RS -ABS teeth GEN thunder LK see/look -PFT. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.finish na kirol.tree RS -ABS PFT.3PL -OBL D3 pohel na balat a ekalo-kalotan na dowit. Setan i istoriya tho. pohel na balat na eCVCV.AG.tie -__ OBL banana.fiber When they looked at the banana trees after the thunder was over. Idi idi metaen matha -en cha cha kono ma balat kono ma balat na ingkakcheng na ingka. sema balat kono -i engisalakan na baliy D3 banana. vi. Isonga ontahot kono na kirol i balat.TH.kecheng when see/look -IMPFT.CONT. nat epoolan. there were the teeth of the thunder which they saw in the trunk of the banana tree. Sema balat konoy engisalakan na baliy. isonga en. 8. Karao texts. Brainard.

out -PFT.a.AG. Et sema aso. idi eNkejow when PFT.3PL EXT -ABS dog -LK PFT.ABS water When he had dug a hole in it.take. Idi iyangjow ira.dig. iyanngaran na Kotkot. Nonta bayag.a. 4. the mountain Kotkot.3PL When they went to get firewood. Mary Quedy 1. na bo-day OBL yard ERG. 147pp.3SG go.time D3 mountain na kotkot LK dig.hole -PFT. it is named Kotkot.hole nagwara -i chanom EXT -ABS water Long ago. Karao texts.along ERG.TH.TH.AG.a.a. they took a dog with them. 3. 2003. Isonga seman a chontog. chanom na bo-day. water came out. comp. sema chontog a Kotkot.gather.TH. to bimo-day bo-day -imi i chanom. 46 Brainard.name OBL dig. nagwariy chanom.firewood ira gwara -i aso -na intahin cha ABS. engotkot et sema aso eNkotkot and D3 dog PFT.hole That’s why that mountain. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.hole And the dog. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .Kotkot kotkot dig. 2. 5. Idi kiyotkothan idi kotkot -iy-an when dig. vi.hole Kotkot Mrs.-__ to. Sherri. nonta bayag sema chontog TI long. gwariy ason intahin cha. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. isonga seman na chontog iyanngaran na kotkot that’s.why D3 LK mountain PFT.a. there was no water there. he dug a hole in a yard.LOC.

AG. 3.IN When the turtle found a banana tree. kigwan na bolengen i idi eNsafol i bahoko na balat kowan -iyna bolengen i when PFT. let’s divide it.1PL.bush.ERG.tree say -PFT. 2003.friend ABS.knife -PFT. Engala ira na etak. 47 Brainard. Gwariy istoriya na bolengen tan bahoko. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.IN -PFT. mankagachowa tiwa ngarod ahow mankagachowa yes IMPFT. Idi enafol i bahoko na balat.” kiya ABS. comp. but it is well-told and so it has been included here.Bolengen tan Bahoko bolengen tan bahoko monkey and turtle The Monkey and the Turtle Mr. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.18 2. Sankajem ira. biyetbet cha. sankajem ira related. vi.1PL.ERG turtle COMP okay EMPH And the turtle said. et eNala ira na etak betbet -iycha et PFT.with.get ABS.AG. 147pp. John Beray 1.divide ABS. gwara -i istoriya na bolengen tan bahoko EXT -ABS story OBL monkey and turtle There is a story about the monkey and the turtle.ERG monkey COMP “Mankagachowa kiya. the monkey said.” 5.3PL They were friends.AG. “All right.divide and say kiya. Karao texts.” 4.AG.3PL OBL bush.3PL and 18 This narrative is not a traditional Karao story. yes. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . ahow.” mankagachowa kiya IMPFT. Et et kigwan kowan -iyna na bahoko i bahoko i “Tiwa ngarod.knife cut. “Let’s divide it. Sherri.find ABS turtle OBL banana.

TH.ERG.48 Sherri Brainard impanchegwa impan.3SG -ABS IMPFT.plant ERG.ERG turtle -OBL monkey COMP D1 yours -LK EXT -ABS leaf toy itanem mo. and they planted the banana trees.divide.3SG -ABS IMPFT. 147pp. Sejay enak a sengeg toy sejay enak na sengeg to D1 mine LK base itanem iko.TH.separate PERF PL and PFT. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. and they divided the banana tree in two. Kigwan na bahokod bolengen i “Sejay engken gwariy bolong kowan -iyna bahoko -cha bolengen i sejay engka -na gwara -i bolong say -PFT. “This is yours. Kigwan to i “Ngoaman iwa ini-kan mon kowan -iyto i ngoaman i -ma inikan mo -na say -PFT.” 8. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.plant Then they parted.long. the monkey. vi.tree They got a bush knife. bahoko turtle sema sema D3 ERG. 6. bolengen monkey kimowan cha kowan -imcha go/come -PFT. balat si-jan -i PFT.1SG -i GEN.TH.3PL D3 banana.chegwa PFT.DIM.bayag when ST.3PL -ABS banana.TH.tree bolengen.2SG -LK Brainard. et ira et intanem chiy intanem cha balat.3SG COMP wrong ABS -D3 PFT. Sherri.2SG The turtle said to the monkey. Karao texts.in. 10. Iyansi-jan iyanma ma ira.plant This is mine.give ERG.AG&TH.two ra ma balat. he went to the turtle.TH.time bahoko. 9. Idi meba-ba-jag.” tanem ko ERG. the part that has leaves is what you will plant. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . cha ma balat ERG. idi meCVC.OBL After a little while. to -i itanem mo GEN.IMPFT. the part with the base is what I will plant. 2003.TH. they cut it [the banana tree]. 7. comp.

” 16.tree OBL 1SG not ST. Et et aja engka. it did not live. “Enchi wango.well -PFTna kajo.fruit and D1 yours And here is yours.PFT. “Something’s wrong with that banana tree that you gave to me. isonga etiy that’s.die It died.2SG maybe do. Idi aman. nat ebiyag met. 147pp. nem aman met enchi no ma la etiy.Karao Texts 49 cha si-kak.” 13.PFT. 14. Brainard.ERG turtle COMP not ERG. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. Karao texts. 2003. Etiy. iyandawes. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . 12.die “No.PFT. vi.2SG maybe CONT.AG. it has produced fruit. na kajo LK care After that.water -PFTMaybe you didn’t keep watering it.” eg mo emo CVCV.die That’s why it died. etiy ST. Isonga etiy.bear.alive CNTR He said.PFT. 15. Eg mo emo sinibo-sibog. the turtle said.why ST. “Maybe you didn’t take good care of it.sibog -iynot ERG. comp. it was already dead. Sherri. mango nem aman met ma da etiy ?? but D3 CNTR PERF DIR ST.” aja engka iyandawes PFT. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. balat balat cha si-kak nat ebiyag met banana. 11. kigwan na bahoko i “Eg mo emo siningpet idi aman kowan -iyna bahoko i eg mo emo singpet -iyafter D3 say -PFT.

21.eat LK banana CNTR not ERG.go/come thoy to kakakan kaCV- cha -ma ngoro na balat inkafo OBL -D3 tip GEN banana. because anyway I can’t climb.PERF -ABS monkey Then the monkey climbed up. 19.50 Sherri Brainard moak ngo na dawes niya balat 17. Idi onkwan chiwa ngoro na balat. mahakalab IMPFT.3SG Brainard.1SG CNTR __ And then the turtle said. “Yes.TH.1SG DIR OBL fruit idi onkowan when IMPFT.AG. kalab -imma -i bolengen climb -PFT.give -__ ERG.climb tep eg -ak met laeng because not -ABS.2SG -ABS. Et kigwan na bahoko i “Ahow. Kimalab miy bolengen. inkafo di kalab. and you drop lots of fruit to me.TH.” mo GEN. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. et ali kalab et DIR climb and pan-i-kasi pan.IMP. vi.iekas -i PL.2SG -ABS.” 18.TH.” to GEN.ERG turtle COMP yes mahakalab. Sherri. comp.tree PFT.LOC.” 20. Karao texts.1SG CNTR OBL fruit GEN -D1 banana.start iy iy eg eg to to -i niwa edom a balat kan na -ma edom na balat OBL -D3 ripe ERG.DER.3SG Go ahead and climb up. 147pp. 2003. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .3SG -ABS CONT. Ta ta go to. tep ekak met laeng et kowan -iyna bahoko i Ahow and say -PFT.tree mo.2SG So you give me some of the fruit of your banana tree.drop -__ moak ali na dawes mo -ak ali na dawes ERG. Isonga i-kani isonga iikan -i mo -ak ngo na dawes na -ja balat so IMP.LOC.

22.TH.ERG -D3 turtle COMP get ABS. etiy da et nagwara enak ST. “That’s what you get. vi.CONT.2SG -OBL 1SG Why was it the shoot of the banana tree that you gave to me? 26. Etiy da et nagwa enak.1SG PERF ABS -D1 fruit GEN banana.” iekas -i mo -ak ali na balat IMP. Karao texts.” 24.deserved mo.drop -__ ERG. 2003. kowan -iyna -ma bahoko i ala ka ngo ali say -PFT. he started to eat some of the ripe bananas.die DIR and EXT mine It died and I have nothing. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .eat -IMPFT. 23. but he did not give the turtle any. Niman kakanen niman CV. 147pp.1SG DIR OBL banana Drop some bananas to me. Brainard.tree Now I will eat this fruit of the banana tree.give -__ ABS -D3 turtle When he had gone to the top of the banana tree. Niyana echan sema ngoro na balat i ini-kan mod si-kak? niyana echan sema ngoro na balat i inikan mo -cha si-kak why indeed D3 tip GEN banana.LOC.ngi-ngi ngo i -ma bolengen i tekel not LK CONT.PFT. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Kigwan niwa bahoko i “Ale ka ngo ali.TH ko ko wa ma iya i -ja dawes na dawes na balat.Karao Texts 51 iwa bahoko.kan -en now DER.2SG -ABS.LOC. mo ERG.2SG Instead the monkey laughed and laughed. 27. I-kasi moak ali na balat.tree ABS PFT. “Give me some too. Saan ta kengi-ngi-ngi ngo iwa bolengen i “Tekel saan ta keCVC. i-kanan iikan -an i -ma bahoko IMPFT.laugh CNTR ABS -D3 monkey COMP what’s.2SG also DIR The turtle said.give ERG. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. balat ERG. 25. comp. Sherri.

tree He inserted them around the base of the banana tree. iyatbek. Et iyan-emot.PFT. iyapsel idi aman epesel after D3 ST.full. 33.get PERF DIR -ABS Turtle OBL thorn GEN bamboo After that. Karao texts. 34.3SG -OBL D3 base GEN banana.step OBL -D3 soil PASS.pa-chek to -cha ma sengeg na balat PFT. ma i -ma bolengen PERF ABS -D3 monkey Brainard.PFT. 35. Imepas ali.TH. et iyanemot iyansa-keb cha kawil and PFT. Turtle got some thorns of the bamboo plant. Niyemnem men Bahoko i “Ay apaw nowan nemnem -iy. vi. iyay a!” i -jay a ABS -D1 D inCVC. idi aman eNala ma ali -si Bahoko na sebit na kawajan after D3 PFT. he covered himself with a coconut shell.hide PFT.TH.down -PFT. 2003.” 28. engala wa alis Bahoko na sebit na kawajan.eating After that.from. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.pierce When he stepped on the ground.52 Sherri Brainard moak. iyansa-keb cha kawil. Idi aman.DIR He came down. ma iwa bolengen. idi onkathin cha -ma pithek etebek when IMPFT.AG&TH.PERF -ERG Turtle COMP ay damn EMPH Then Turtle thought. 32.AG&TH.TH. Idi onkathin chiwa pithek. “Damn this monkey!” 30. Inpa-pa-chek tod ma sengeg na balat. the monkey was full. he was pierced.” 29. Sherri. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Iyolbod olbod -iymo -ak trick -PFT.insert ERG. epas -imali get. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . 31.shell And then he hid himself.cover OBL coconut.ERG.CONT. 147pp. Idi aman.AG.2SG -ABS.ma -na Bahoko i ay apaw nowan think -PFT. comp.1SG You tricked me.

et toha eka-ekaliy sebit a niwa na -ma bahoko et to -ka CVCV. 36. timokkong chiwa kawil a iyan-emothan et idi aman tokkong -imcha -ma kawil na iyanemot -an and after D3 sit -PFT. “To to la da ithan den bahoko? i -tan da -na bahoko DIR -LK turtle where DIR ABS -D2 “Where is that turtle? 39.ekal -a -i sebit na GEN -D3 turtle and ERG.hide -__ bahoko.PFT. to -ka CVCV.LOC.Karao Texts 53 niwa sebit na kawajan a inpa-pa-chek Bahoko.3SG -CONT CONT.pierce OBL body GEN. 37. Esahi-sahitan mes Bolengen. Toha ana-anapa iy eg to sepolen.1SG I’ll kill him.PFT. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .for -TH CNTR not ERG. eCVCV. and he removed the thorns that had been used to pierce his body.shell LK NR. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.look. Bonoen ko.insert Turtle The thorns of the bamboo plant that Turtle had inserted pierced him. but he didn’t find him. Et idi aman. Brainard.CONT.pa-chek Bahoko pierce -PFT.remove -TH -ABS thorn LK iyaytebek cha bakdang to.3SG And then after that. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.3SG -CONT CONT.TH. he sat down on the coconut shell where the turtle was hiding.INSThen Monkey was in great pain. comp.anap -a iy eg to safol -en ERG. vi.TH He searched and searched.” 40. 147pp. 2003. Karao texts.ERG -D3 thorn GEN bamboo LK PFT.OBL -D3 coconut.3SG find -IMPFT.TH.TH ERG. Timbek tebek -iyna -ma sebit na kawajan na inCVC.PFT. iyaytebek cha bakdang to PASS. 41.” bono -en ko kill -IMPFT. Sherri.sahit -an ma -si Bolengen hurt -__ PERF -ABS Monkey PASS.NTH. 38.

Sherri. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. 44. Karao texts.TH ERG.PFT. “Aja ka aja D1 gayam. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . imakgwat idi aman akgwat -imma -si Bolengen after D3 stand.” ajay ma eCVCV. 43.2SG I’m going to kill you. Bonoen taha. Idi aman.ERG.1SG -ABS.3SG -ABS coconut.INShurt ABS leg/foot -GEN.” 45. 48.” ala -en ko get -IMPFT. Kigwan to i “Ajay i kowan -iyto i ajay i say -PFT. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. 147pp.1SG My feet were really hurt.shell idi ala -en when get -IMPFT. “Here’s a beautiful coconut shell.ERG. Edaen ko.PERF -ABS Monkey After that. 42.up -PFT. bono -en ko -ka kill -IMPFT. Idi a-daen toy kawil. 47.1SG I’ll take it. gwares Bahoko. ka gayam ABS.TH.TH to -i kawil gwara -si Bahoko ERG.1SG Why did you pierce me? 49. Apay nga diyochok moak? apay nga dorok -iymo -ak why LK pierce -PFT.54 Sherri Brainard mes Bolengen. 46. 2003. comp. vi. Ajay ma esoga-sogat i sekik.sogat i seki -ko D1 PERF PASS.2SG -ABS. there was Turtle. Monkey stood up. mapteng mapteng good a kawil.2SG SURP “So here you are.” Brainard.shell EXT -ABS Turtle When he took the coconut shell. na kawil LK coconut.3SG COMP D1 ABS He said.TH ERG.

” 51.2SG -ABS.1SG -ABS. "Thank you if you will pound me. I will become lots. and he said.” a ipool ko -ka a IMPFT.TH.Turtle COMP thank if pound -IMPFT. “Now I will pound you. mo -ak ERG. Karao texts.1SG -ak -ak ERG. Engales Bolengen na afoy.2SG “No then. “A. I will burn you. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.Karao Texts 55 50.TH Then he took Turtle.AG.get -ABS Monkey OBL fire Monkey got some fire.2SG -ABS.3SG PERF -ABS Turtle and say -PFTtaha.” 54.become -ABS. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. 55.TH Turtle said. “Enchi ngarod.1SG PAUS IMPFT.” ko -ka ERG. poolan enchi no ngarod pool -an EMPH burn -IMPFT. Sherri. No bejoen no bayo -en if pound -IMPFT.1SG -ABS.burn ERG.TH taha. 2003.AG. eNala -si Bolengen na afoy PFT.1SG OBL chakel. vi.3SG COMP “Niman bejoen niman bayo -en now pound -IMPFT. et kigwan to ma -si Bahoko et kowan -iyERG.2SG to i to i ERG. comp.2SG “Ah. 52.” chakel many If you pound me.TH moak mo ket ket manbedinak manbalin na na moak.” 53.” Brainard. Ida ala -iyget -PFT- tho wes Bahoko. Kigwan Bahoko i “Salamat nem bejoen kowan -iyBahoko i Salamat nem bayo -en say -PFT. 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . ipool taha.1SG -ABS. I will burn you.” ko -ka ERG.

think COMP thank if IMPFT.good -ABS.” meanod -ak PASS.throw ERG.burn ERG.TH.2SG -ABS. comp.1SG I’ll be swept away.AG.1SG Turtle said.throw Brainard.2SG don’t -ABS. Karao texts.” 61. please.sweep.PERF -ERG Monkey COMP damn what maybe EMPH ABS pesing chiyay a? pesing cha -jay a do OBL -D1 D Then Monkey said.throw OBL water Turtle said. “Please.1SG OBL red and IMPFT.TH. vi.TH.” ita-boy ko -ka -cha chanom IMPFT.Turtle COMP thank if IMPFT.TH.become -ABS. Ma-norak. ngo emo nowan i kowan -iyma -na Bolengen i Apaw nengo emo nowan i say -PFT.” 59.away -ABS. enogak i kowan -iyBahoko i pangaasi -mo enog -ak i say -PFT.Turtle COMP please -ERG.IMPFT. Ah.1SG tep say manbedinak na depang et onmaptengak. don’t throw me in the water. “Damn.1SG ABS inta-boy cha chanom.” tep say manbalin -ak na depang et onmapteng -ak so. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Kigwan Bahoko i “Pangaasim. inta-boy cha chanom PFT. 147pp. Kigwan men Bolengen i “Apaw.56 Sherri Brainard Bahoko i “Salamat nem ipool moak 56.TH.” 57.2SG -OBL water Ah.3SG -CONT IMPFT. 2003.that __ IMPFT. what shall I do with this turtle? 58. Nem towan inemnem i salamat nem ita-boy nem to -an inemnem i salamat nem ita-boy but ERG.1SG -ABS. I’ll throw you in the water. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . Kigwan kowan -iyBahoko i Salamat nem ipool mo -ak say -PFT. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.TH. ita-boy ah ah tahed chanom. 60. Sherri. “Thank you if you will burn me so that I will become red and beautiful.

Karao texts.PERF -ERG Monkey ABS Turtle Then Monkey got Turtle. ha.throw tahed chanom chiwed kolos say ma-nod ko -ka -cha chanom cha -ma -cha kolos say meanod ERG.IMPFT. ngimi-ngi idi gwara ma -cha ma chanom si Bahoko ngi-ngi -imwhen EXT PERF -OBL D3 water NM Turtle laugh -PFT. ha.throw ERG. 2003. comp. ha.sweep. vi.2SG Then Monkey said.3SG -ABS water But he was thinking it would be fortunate if he were thrown in the water because the water was his home. ha. “Too bad for you. 147pp.TH. 65. ita-boy kowan -iyma -na Bolengen i hala ita-boy say -PFT. Kigwan men Bolengen i “Hala. ala -iyma -na Bolengen si Bahoko get -PFT.that PASS. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. 64. 62. “Ha. ha. Inta-boy tod kolos.TH. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.away ka. Sherri. ha ha ha ha ha ha ha ha Then when he was in the water.2SG -OBL water OBL -D3 -OBL river so. he laughed.TH“Ha. si Bahoko.PERF -ERG Monkey COMP hala IMPFT.1SG -ABS.” 63.3SG -OBL river He threw him in the river. Brainard.Karao Texts 57 chanom tep baliy toy chanom. Idi gwara wed ma chanom. Ida wen Bolengen si Bahoko. Turtle.” ka ABS. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . I’m going to throw you in the water in the river so that you will be swept away.3PL -OBL water because house GEN. inta-boy to -cha kolos PFT. ched cha -cha chanom tep baliy to -i chanom ERG. ha.

Karao texts. et aanod.3SG and 3SG ngoy enga-engan niwa balat. vi. Osil moak alid jay. comp.CONT. 70.” 68.ngi-ngi ma -si Bahoko CONT.PERF -OBL D3 place GEN banana. Imoli wed ma kad-an na balat to.TH ERG. kaCVC.3SG COMP chase -IMPFT. and he thought that he could go after Turtle.eat OBL -D3 banana Then he went back to where his banana tree was.angry -PFT. he jumped into the water. et si-katho oli -imma -cha ma kawad-an na balat to et si-katho return -PFT. Brainard. Kengi-ngi-ngi wes Bahoko.swim and PASS. but he didn’t know how to swim. 69. ngo -i CVCV. nem nat amta thon Bahoko nem nat amta to but -si -na ERG. Bolengen.3SG -ABS Turtle mannangoy.TH.2SG -ABS.1SG DIR -OBL D1 You come after me.58 Sherri Brainard amta i baliy ko ja chanom? 66. not know ERG. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.AG. Sherri.2SG know COMP house GEN.AG.sweep.TH. et kin bonget -imsi Bolengen japtok -imcha -ma chanom et kowan -iyget.3SG -LK mannangoy et eanod IMPFT. and he himself was the one who eat and eat those bananas.tree GEN.OBL -D3 water and say -PFTto to i i osilen osil -en tos to Bahoko.PFT.” osil mo -ak ali -cha jay chase ERG.eNkan na -ma balat self -ABS CONT. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.ABS Monkey jump -PFT. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . don’t you know that this water is my home? 67.PFT. 147pp.away Monkey got mad. jimaptok chiwa chanom.1SG D1 water Monkey.TH. Bimonget si Bolengen. and so he was swept away. 2003.laugh PERF -ABS Turtle Then Turtle laughed and laughed. eg mo Bolengen eg mo amta i baliy ko ja chanom Monkey not ERG.

Karao texts. 2003. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. 147pp. Brainard. Hetan i setan i istoriya na bahoko tan bolengen D2 ABS story OBL turtle and monkey That is the story about the turtle and the monkey. comp.Karao Texts 59 istoriya na bahoko tan bolengen. vi. Sherri. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. 71.

5. biin edafod Bokot. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Nagwiy anak cha.3PL They had no children. 147pp. Say imbaliy to. 4.PFT.PFT.govern iyan-iyan iyaniyan ired ira Bokot tep Bokot tep na Hapon cha -ja Pilipinas GEN Japanese OBL -D1 Philippines edigat ei i biyag cha Trinidad biyag cha Trinidad OBL Trinidad -cha digat PFT. vi. 2003.3PL They were childless.childless ABS.PFT. she was a woman who came from Bokod.toray TI time GEN NR. he was a rich person in Trinidad.come.from -OBL Bokod His wife.3PL -OBL Bokod because ST.difficult ABS life 60 Brainard.reside ABS. John Beray 1. nagwara -i anak cha EXT -ABS offspring GEN. Karao texts. Sherri.3SG woman/girl -LK ST.AG.TH.protect Koy Biyag Pagit Pagit Pagit ko -i biyag ERG. Nonta timpo na impantoray na Hapon chiya Pilipinas.1SG -ABS life I Protected Pagit’s Life Mr. Si Pagit.Insalaknib insalaknib PFT. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. si Pagit baknang na too -cha Trinidad NM Pagit rich LK person -OBL Trinidad Pagit.PFT. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . nonta timpo na impan. ebasig ira ST. say imbaliy to bii -na edafo -cha Bokot NM spouse GEN. comp. 2. baknang a tood Trinidad. 3. Ebasig ira.

Brainard. nontan then During the time when the Japanese controlled the Philippines. Sherri. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. the American soldiers arrived to liberate the Philippines. 2003. ira ABS. Et nontan idi kegtechen et nontan idi keted -en and then when realize -IMPFT. 8. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.3PL So all the civilians. cha ERG.Karao Texts 61 nontan.kill -PFT.3PL They killed any civilians that they happened to meet.TH echangkas echangkas PASS. iyanpanbakwit isonga emiin na sibilyan iyanpan.PFT. Nem idi tawen na 1945.AG.PLira. they killed without cause.3PL And then when the Japanese realized that they would be defeated. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .3PL na Hapon i ma-bak ira.bono -iycha -i angken sibilyan na sa–mek -en HAB. Nabiyono riy angken sibilyan a sa-meken na.without.bakwit so all LK civilian PFT.AG. Pilipinas IMPFT. they fled.TH. mimothok i solcharo na Merikanon nem idi tawen na 1945 mothok -imi solcharo na Merikano -na but when year GEN 1945 arrive -PFT. 6.defeat ABS. they lived in Bokod because life in Trinidad was hard then.ERG.ABS soldier GEN American -LK manlibirit manlibirit na na Pilipinas.unexpectedly -IMPFT. na Hapon i meagwak ira ERG Japanese COMP PASS.TH cha.safety ABS.3PL -ABS any civilian LK meet. vi. ira flee.cause ira. 147pp. Karao texts.for.liberate OBL Philippines But in the year 1945.kill. 7. comp. Isonga emiin a sibilyan.IMPFT. 9.

et inkowan ala -iycha et inkowan get -PFT. comp.eat -IMPFT. 12. vi. Iyan-iya-iyan ired man na tedon bolan.reside ABS.3SG -ABS place PL GEN guerrilla ched ma kampo ra. tan miyalmaltrit cha tep piyan CVC. Binisbistigal cha.3PL -OBL D3 TI three -LK month They stayed there three months.ERG soldier GEN Japanese Then one day when he had gone to look for something that they would eat.62 Sherri Brainard a Pagit ni Marina.for OBL kiyapchor na solcharo na Hapon. Ida ra.3PL and CONT. the Japanese soldiers captured him.LK IMPFT. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .3PL capture -PFT.interrogate -PFT.for.ERG.3PL -OBL Kadasan And this married couple. 14.3PL and PFT. Karao texts. 13. Et seja sambaliy et seja san-imbaliy na Pagit ni Marina iyanbakwit and D1 married.ERG. and they took him to their camp. iyanbakwit 10.couple LK Pagit and Marina PFT.kan -en cha kapchor -iyna solcharo na Hapon DER. ira -cha Kadasan ABS. Idi idi pinsak a akow a kimowan pinsak na akow na kowan -imLK day cha. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.3PL -OBL D3 camp GEN. 11. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.bistigal -iycha tan CVC.AG.safety ired Kadasan.TH.flee. cha -cha ma kampo cha ERG.maltrit -iycha tep piyan CONT.iyan ira -cha man na tedo -na bolan PFT. Sherri.maltreat -PFT.3PL because want/like chen igwanggwang cha -na igwanggwang ERG.ERG.tell toy kawad-an ira na girilya. 147pp.3PL -COMP IMPFT. iyanCVCV. Pagit and Marina.take/bring They got him. 2003. to -i kawad-an ira na girilya ERG. a mengenap na meNanap na na then once kakanen LK go/come -PFT.AG.TH.3PL They kept interrogating him and mistreating him because they wanted him to tell where the guerrillas were.TH.AG.CONT.look. they fled to Kadasan. Brainard. CV.TH ERG.

147pp. 15. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. 18. and he was very hungry. 19. Eg cha eg cha CVCV. Idi maykatdon akow. and he ran away.PL -ERG ERG companion GEN.unexpectedly -PFT.tedo -na akow sa–mek -iy-an then ORD.INShungry They never fed him.feed -PFT. Iyan-aha-ahad cha chontog tep eg to amtiy kawad-an to.walk OBL mountain because not ERG.PL.pahan -iyet eCVCV. Idi pinsak a dagwi a kejino-gwek iriy Hapon. 17.3SG know -ABS place GEN.AG.from. Sherri.3PL INS.3SG and PFT. to -cha ma bakwitan cha ERG. et iyamtik. et aofa-ofa.and ST. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. Kigwan iren na echom ton i-Kadasan i “Ispay kowan -iyira -na na echom to -na iKadasan i ispay say -PFT. 16.PFT.PL -ABS Japanese untie -PFTPagit i balod na seki tho. Karao texts. 2003. Pagit i balod na seki to et eNbetik Pagit ABS bond GEN leg/foot GEN.take/bring tod ma bakwitan cha. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .TH.3SG He walked and walked in the mountains because he did not know where he was.ERG.Kadasan COMP spy Brainard.CONT. i-Kadasan iKadasan na si Salawad i ngaran to person.three -LK day meet.3SG On the third day. comp.3PL na na ERG He tied him up.AG. Pagit untied the bonds on his legs. iyanCVCV.3SG and PFT. et inkowan balod -iyto et inkowan bind -PFT. biyasbas idi pinsak na dagwi na kajo-kow -in.3SG -LK person.ofa not ERG.sleep -__.Karao Texts 63 pika-pikan. a person from Kadasan whose name was Salawad happened to come upon him. siya-mekan idi mayka.ira -i Hapon basbas -iythen one LK night LK CONT.site GEN. vi.from.3SG -OBL D3 evacuation. 20.Kadasan LK NM Salawad ABS name GEN.ahad cha chontog tep eg to amta -i kawad-an to PFT. Bidod to.LOC -__ a si Salawad i ngaran to.run Then one night when the Japanese were sleeping. and he took him to their evacuation site.

Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi. nat ispay -ak not spy -ABS.1SG ERG Japanese and escape -PFT.3SG COMP please ERG. enog -ak i bono -iydon’t -ABS.necessary COMP kill -IMPFT.1SG DIR The Japanese captured me.1SG I’m not a spy. 26.TH.64 Sherri Brainard ithan. Nat ispayak.1SG ABS kill -PFTDon’t kill me.3SG -ABS. kapchor -iyto -ak na Hapon et debsik -im-ak ali capture -PFT.ERG.” mesafol na bono -en tayo ST. Kiyapchor toak na Hapon. Karao texts. Sherri. 21. Brainard.TH ERG.3PL PERF -OBL trunk GEN tree Then they tied him tightly against the trunk of a tree. 24.ERG. and I escaped to here. “Please have pity! 25. 23.” 22.IN We will have to kill him.TH. cha ma -cha sengeg na kadasan ERG. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Enogak i biyono.tie.2PL He said. Ekikaasi ekikaasi PFT. Kigwan to i “Pangaasi yo! kowan -iyto i pangaasi jo say -PFT.AG. na Hapon na Hapon i -tan GEN Japanese ABS -D2 His companions who were from Kadasan said.1PL. et dimebsihak ali. ma -si Pagit PERF -ABS Pagit Then Pagit pleaded with them for mercy.-ABS. 27. comp.pity/compassion wes Pagit. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . Inpangaw inpangaw PFT. Mesepol a bonoen tayo.against cha wed sengeg na kadasan. 2003. “He is a spy for the Japanese. 147pp.IMPFT.

” enog -ak i bono -iydon’t -ABS. Am-amta thoak ngo. Sherri.Karao I know Beray who is from Karao very well.from. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . 29.TH. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.that __ IMPFT.3PL COMP EXT DIR -ABS offspring Beray LK si John a iyanpasiyal. Mengito-no kiya na menned et say on-oli di.Karao Texts 65 si Beray a i-Karao. 147pp. 33. 2003.Kadasan ABS -D3 LK kigwan to.amta -ko si Beray na iKarao INS. was here visiting.1SG also He knows me very well too. Am-amtak CVC.1SG ABS kill -PFTDon’t kill me.return DIR We will send someone to follow him so that he will return here.know ERG. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.2PL So please have pity.” 32. Enogak i biyono. Isonga pangaasi yo.follow so.AG.IN LK IMPFT.AG. they said.know -ERG.from.visit When the people from Kadasan heard what he had said. kigwan cha i “Gwara diy anak Beray a kowan -iyto kowan -iycha i gwara da -i anak Beray na say -PFT. mengito-no kiya na meNtened et say onoli ali IMPFT.3SG -ABS.AG. 31. Brainard. vi. Idi chedngeden na i-Kadasan iwan a idi chengel -en when hear/listen -IMPFT. CVC.1SG ABS Beray LK person.send ABS.amta to -ak ngo INS. 30. Karao texts. “Beray’s son.1PL. si John na iyanpasiyal NM John LK PFT. 28.3SG say -PFT.ERG. comp.TH na iKadasan i -man na ERG person. isonga pangaasi jo so please ERG.ERG. John.

follow -ABS. Sherri. 36.EX He said. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . Brainard.go POL So let’s go. Into-no res into-no cha PFT. Ispay emo na Hapon.” 34.ask -__ if true We will ask him if they really know this person. chalan -iy- -ak catch. 39.3SG -ABS Beray And we intend to kill him. but he said that he knows Beray well. ispay emo na Hapon spy maybe GEN Japanese He might be a spy for the Japanese.3PL D1 LK person PASS. nem kigwan to i am-amta mi koma nem kowan -iyto i CVC.TH thos Beray.send Socti a iyannechak.” 35.1PL.1SG They sent Socti to follow me. comp. Et emoy. please.1PL.AG.EX OPT but say -PFT. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Et bonoen et bono -en and kill -IMPFT.1SG OBL middle GEN path He caught up with me halfway along the way [to where I was going]. vi.3SG -ABS.IMPFT. Siya-kop sa-kop toak to cha kawa cha kawa na na chalan. “There is a person that we have captured. Karao texts. Kigwan to i “Igwan i toon kiyapchor mi.ERG.66 Sherri Brainard no to-to-gwen am-amta re jay a too.3SG COMP D3 ABS person -LK capture -PFT. 147pp.3SG COMP INS. kowan -iyto i igwan i too -na kapchor -iymi say -PFT. Maybekaan maybaga -an no to-to-gwa -na CVC. pango.ERG. to -si Beray ERG.amta ERG. 38.with -PFT.amta cha jay na too -COMP INS.ERG.LOC. 2003. Socti na iyaNtened -ak -si ERG. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. mi koma.TH. 40.know et emoy pango and let’s. 37.ERG.know ERG.up.3PL -ABS Socti LK PFT.

ERG.EX see/look -PFT. Kigwan kod Salawad i “Si Pagit iyay. mitak a si Pagit idi onmothok kawi matha -iy-ko na si Pagit when IMPFT. 41.EX -OBL trunk GEN tree We tied him to the trunk of a tree.1PL.1PL. 47. Karao texts. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . Brainard. 147pp. oli -im-ak ma return -PFT. 44.TH.TH ERG. 42.AG. na to-to-gwa LK true When we arrived.-ABS. “This is Pagit.” mi -cha sengeg na kadasan ERG. vi. Metaen matha -en mo no to-to-gwa -na CVC. I saw that it was really Pagit.2PL You will see if you really know him.for. Nat ispay na Hapon. 46. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. comp.safety OBL 1PL. 45.arrive ABS.amta jo see/look -IMPFT.CONT. Idi onmothok kawi.1SG PERF Then I returned.know ERG. Imoliak ma.-ERG. kowan -iyko -cha Salawad i si Pagit i -jay say -PFT.EX He fled with us.against mid sengeg na kadasan. Sherri.2SG if true -COMP INS.TH.Karao Texts 67 mo no to-to-gwen am-amta yo.bakwit cha si-kawi PFT. ekiCVC. 2003.1SG COMP ABS Pagit a to-to-gwa.1SG -OBL Salawad COMP NM Pagit ABS -D1 I said to Salawad. nat ispay na Hapon not spy GEN Japanese He is not a spy for the Japanese.tie. Inpangaw inpangaw PFT. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Ekibakbakwit cha si-kawi.flee.TH.” 43.

walk But he was not able to walk.pahan -iyko na sabsabong na kadasan tan CONT.ERG.TH.TH. nem eg onposi -na manahad but not IMPFT. iyayCVCV. imdeng -imma -na pasiya -si Pagit happy -PFT.2PL D2 bond GEN. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.EX -OBL corner GEN house GEN person.3SG You untie his bonds. Pika-pikan ko na sabsabong na kadasan tan CVCV. 2003. Basbas jo basbas jo ta balod to untie ERG.from. Karao texts.saya -an na imdeng to ST.ERG.1SG PERF DIR -OBL evacuation.shed. comp. 147pp. vi. Sherri.along -PFT.1PL. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.INSmoldy -__ LK peeling GEN kamote -LK find -PFTmid mi sohong na sohong na baliy na baliy na i-Kadasan ia Kadasan na -cha ERG.1SG OBL flower GEN tree and eboo-boothan a chaschas na dokton sipol eCVCV.feed -PFT.1PL.CONT. Iyodop ko wa ded bakwitan mi. Iyaysaya-sayaan na imdeng to.LOC.EX Then I took him with me to our evacuation site. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .able -LK IMPFT.LOC. olop -iyko ma da -cha bakwitan mi take/go.PFT.” 48. Nem eg onposin man-ekad.site GEN.68 Sherri Brainard ta balod to. 50. 52.PFT.3SG He shed lots of tears because he was so happy.AG. 51.tears -__ OBL happiness GEN.PERF -LK very -ABS Pagit Then Pagit became very happy. 53.” 49.Kadasan LK Brainard. Imimdeng men pasiyes Pagit.boot -an na chaschas na dokto -na safol -iyPASS.

TH.go/come -PFT. Etiy ma les Pagit.1SG OBL rice. but I never went. kimowan ires idi mekecheng when PASS.Karao Texts 69 bintihan betik -iy-an leave -PFT. pati si imbaliy to.THHe kept having me called to come so that he could give me a rice field.CONT. and his wife too.LOC. Pagit and his companions went to San Fabian. cha -man Pagit cha San Fabian.3SG Then Pagit died.forget -IMPFT.1SG INS. Karao texts. Naimpata-ta-gway toak i na.1SG COMP onkowanak et i-kanan toak na payow. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Nueva Vizcaya. comp.PFT.die PERF DIR -ABS Pagit including NM spouse GEN. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.3SG -ABS. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .dingding -en i -jay na epasamak cha si-kak na not -ERG.reside OBL -D3 When the war had finished.1SG and IMPFT. Ekak dingdingdingen iyay a epasamak cha si-kak na eg -ko CVC. 147pp. Nueva Biscayen Pagit cha San Fabian Nueva Biscaya -na Pagit OBL San Fabian Nueva Vizcaya -LK IMPFT. nem ekak nem eg -ak nowan CVCV.ta-gway to -ak i HAB. 54.impaCVC.TH ABS -D1 LK ST. 57.3SG -ABS.PL -ABS manbediy manbaliy chiwan.give -__ ERG. onkowan -ak et iikan -an to -ak na payow IMPFT.-__ cha.TH. vi.IMPFT.field nowan kimowa-kowan.PFT. 55. cha ERG.finish ma -i kobat kowan -imira -si PERF -ABS war go/come -PFT.1SG EMPH INS.go/come -ABS.CAUS.LOC.call ERG. Idi mekcheng miy kobat.TH. to live there.happen OBL 1SG TI Brainard. etiy ma da -si Pagit pati si imbaliy to ST. Sherri. 56.kowan -imbut not -ABS.3PL I kept feeding him flowers of the trees and moldy peelings of a kamote that we had found in the corner of a house of the Kadasan people who had fled from it. 2003.AG.PFT.

salaknib GEN. vi.little na too.1SG -LK NR. na too GEN person kon impangisalaknib ko -na impangi. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . 2003. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Karao texts. 147pp. comp.protect ko na biyag ko na biyag GEN.70 Sherri Brainard kaotik keotik NR. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.1SG GEN biyag I will never forget this that happened to me when I was little when I protected a person’s life. Brainard.IMPFT. Sherri.PFT.

Biyag biyag life

Nontan, nontan before

Nagwariy nagwara -i EXT -ABS

Kalsara kalsara road

Life Before, There was No Road Mrs. Petra Catores 1. Idi nonta kaotikel ko, siya-kofan koy ko -i ERG.1SG -ABS

idi nonta keotikel when TI NR.IMPFT- little

ko sa-kop -iy-an GEN.1SG experience -PFT.TH- -__

panbiyag itsora na itsora na panbiyag way GEN NR.IMPFT- live

a edigat tep nontan nagwariy kalsara, na edigat tep nontan nagwara -i kalsara LK ST.PFT- difficult because before EXT -ABS road ali na ali na DIR TI olay na mesepol na olay na mesafol na always GEN ST.IMPFT- necessary GEN

et say naedafoan et say naedafo -an and NM HAB- NR.PFT- come.from -__

chiwa alid Bagiw. panbiyag, panbiyag cha -ma ali -cha Bagiw NR.IMPFT- live OBL -D3 DIR -OBL Baguio When I was a little girl, I experienced a hard life because before there was no road, and so the place where the necessities for living always came from, it was Baguio. 2. Nem naiyan-aha-ahad ired jay ingkathod Bagiw, et nem na- iyanCVCV- ahad ira -cha jay ingkatho -cha Bagiw et but HAB- PFT.AG- CONT- walk ABS.3PL -OBL D1 until -OBL Baguio and mejo-kow mejo-kow ST.IMPFT- stay.overnight ired kawa na chalan. ira -cha kawa na chalan ABS.3PL -OBL middle GEN path

But they used to walk from here to Baguio, and they would sleep at the halfway point on the trail. 3. No ngoy tongkalen cha did man, otikel a asin ono sema no nengo -i tongkal -en cha ali -cha man otikel na asin ono sema NM what -ABS buy -IMPFT.TH ERG.3PL DIR -OBL D3 little LK salt or D3

71
Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

72

Sherri Brainard

mekomboy ali. mesepol, mesepol mekomboy ali ST.IMPFT- necessary PASS.IMPFT- carry DIR Whatever they would buy there, a little salt or a necessity, it would be carried here [by a person]. 4. Et man-eka-ekad kiya, et mejo-kow et manCVCV- ahad kiya et mejo-kow and IMPFT.AG- CONT- walk ABS.1PL.IN and ST.IMPFT- stay.overnight cha kawa na chalan. cha kawa na chalan OBL middle GEN path And then we would continue walking, and we would sleep again at the halfway point on the trail. 5. No megwa-gwa man-ekad kiya no megwa-gwa manahad kiya TI next.day mowan ali. mowan ali DIR kiya mowan kiya mowan ABS.1PL.IN again

IMPFT.AG- walk ABS.1PL.IN again

The next day we would walk to here. 6. Chegwen akow i chegwa -na akow i two -LK day ahad alid ahad ali -cha Bagiw tan chiyay. Bagiw tan cha -jay

ABS walk DIR -OBL Baguio and OBL -D1

It would take two days to walk from Baguio to here. 7. Et isonga edigat i biyag nontan tep nagwariy et isonga edigat i biyag nontan tep nagwara -i and so ST.PFT- difficult ABS life before because EXT -ABS pandokanan. pandogan -an NR.IMPFT- vehicle -__ And so life was hard before because there was no transportation. 8. Et et say naesikdop say na- engo nontan no ngo nontan no also before when

sikdop

and NM HAB- PASS.PFT- take.a.pack.lunch

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

Karao Texts

73

kiyed Bagiw, dokto. onkowan onkowan kiya -cha Bagiw dokto IMPFT.TH- go/come ABS.1PL.IN -OBL Baguio kamote And what was taken as a pack lunch before when we went to Baguio, it was kamote. 9. May-ejan mayngod ejan ngo -cha pasiking. pasiking

PASS.IMPFT.TH- put It was put in a backpack. 10. Et et no no gwariy gwara -i

also -OBL backpack

sebien sagwi -en

mon mo

-na

pa-dok, mengan pa-dok meN-

kan

and when EXT

-ABS reach -IMPFT.LOC

ERG.2SG -LK stream IMPFT.AG- eat ngoy chanom et ngo -i chanom et also -ABS water and

kiya wed man, et mesejang kiya ma -cha man et mesayang ABS.1PL.IN PERF -OBL D3 and PASS.IMPFT- scoop.with.hand mainom. meinom PASS.IMPFT- drink

And when we reached a stream, we would eat there, and we would scoop the water with our hands and drink it. 11. Maysayang maysayang PASS.IMPFT.NTH- scoop.with.hand ngoy diwa et mainom. ngo -i diwa et meinom also -ABS hand/arm and PASS.IMPFT- drink

We would use our hands to scoop the water and drink it. 12. Et no iyan-inana kiya mowan na otikel, man-eka-ekad

et no iyaninana kiya mowan na otikel manCVCV- ahad and when PFT.AG- rest ABS.1PL.IN again TI little IMPFT.AG- CONT- walk kiya kiya mowan ali mowan ali ingkathod ingkatho -cha imothok imid mothok mi jay. jay

-cha

ABS.1PL.IN again

DIR until

-OBL NR.IMPFT- arrive

GEN.1PL.EX -OBL D1

And when we had rested again a little while, we would continue walking until we arrived here.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

13. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Say iskwidaan. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .74 Sherri Brainard iskwidaan chiya Karao.go. Bokot. Et say iskwida. Isonga manmanoy iyan-achal tep nagwariy iskwidaan nontan.many -ABS PFT. 15. Nontan pay. 14. na gwiya-gwa TI every. say iskwidaan Bokot NM school Bokod The school.AG. isonga manmano -i iyanachal tep nagwara -i iskwidaan nontan so not. Ingkathod Grade 6 bengat. 147pp.walk -IMPFT.many -ABS ST.PFT.day And the students.patient LK IMPFT. Manmanoy manmano -i aanos ea man-odi-odin na manoli-oli man-ekad -na manahad chiy Karao ingkathod Bokot cha -i Karao ingkatho -cha Bokot ERG. Brainard.educated because EXT -ABS school before So only a few were educated because there was no school before. 16. cha Bokot OBL Bokod Only a few had the patience to walk back and forth to Bokod. ingkatho -cha grade 6 bengat until -OBL grade 6 only It [Bokod] only went up to Grade 6.walk cha Bokot. comp.3PL -ABS Karao until -OBL Bokod anos not. it was in Bokod. vi. Karao texts.back.ahad -en and NM student CONT. Sherri.AG. 18. they would walk from Karao to Bokod every day. there was no school here in Karao. eka-ekaren et say iskwida CVCV.LOC na gwiya-gwa. nagwariy nontan pay nagwara -i iskwidaan cha -ja Karao before too EXT -ABS school OBL -D1 Karao Before too. 17.TH.and.forth -LK IMPFT. 2003. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.

grade 6 Bokot da grade 6 Bokod DIR Grades 1 and 2 were here.1PL. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.LOC.offspring before LK not student take/go. 22. Gwared gwara -cha jay i grade 1 ingkatho -cha grade 2 nem grade 3 ingkatho -cha EXT -OBL D1 ABS grade 1 until -OBL grade 2 but grade 3 until -OBL Grade 6. Bagiw bengat da. nem Grade 3 ingkathod 19.anak nontan na nat iskwida olop -en 1PL. odofen si-kawi ngo -na CV. our parents would take us along with them to make kamote gardens in the mountains. comp.toro -iy-an cha kawi na oyon na HAB.Karao Texts 75 jay i Grade 1 ingkathod Grade 2.3PL ABS.1PL. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . 23. there is none here. 147pp. Bagiw bengat da Baguio only DIR Before it was only in Baguio. Bokot da.teach -PFT.garden chontog na dokto. they were in Bokod. Sherri. Bokot Bokod It [the high school] is only in Bokod [today]. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.EX -LK IMPFT. Karao texts.TH cha kawi na ina win mandabdab cha kawi na ina mi -na mandabdab ERG.EX self -LK PL. chontog na dokto mountain OBL kamote Before we children who were not students.a. no high school nagwara -cha jay as. Si-kawi ngon aanak nontan a nat iskwida. No high school.AG. 24.basket OBL cha cha OBL Brainard. 21.make. 2003. but Grades 3 through 6.EX ERG mother GEN.kaybang.kamote.along -IMPFT.for high school EXT -OBL D1 As for high school. Bokot.3PL ABS. nagwared jay. vi. Natiyochoan cha kawi na oyon na na.1PL.-__ ERG.EX LK carry. 20.

Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. the kamote garden.ERG aanak nontan tep nagwariy konan na aanak a iskwidaan CV. it was a little rice field and kamote.anak na iskwidaan PL.NTH. dabdab.EX -ABS work And all the kinds of work done by the adults in the family. kaybang women’s. nontan -an -ABS employment -NR before There were no jobs before. 28.offspring LK school isonga naintoro ched si-kawiy obda. Sherri. 26.intoro cha -cha si-kawi -i obda so HAB.live ERG.work -PFT.PFT. It is conical in shape and is carried on the back using a tumpline placed across the forehead. naiyobda na et emiin na kilasi na obda na etaengan na ali pamilja na.3PL There was no employment to provide for the needs of their children.IMPFT.19 25.IMPFT. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .teach ERG. 19 The kaybang basket is the women’s carrying basket.obda -iyna and all LK kind GEN work GEN adult LK DIR family HAB. Say panbiyag bengat nontan. 2003. comp. Nagwiy pandagboan a ibiyag ched nagwara -i pandagbo -an na ibiyag cha -cha EXT -ABS NR. anak anak cha offspring GEN. say panbiyag bengat nontan seja payow na otik tan dokto dabdab NM NR.offspring before because EXT -ABS go/come -NR GEN PL. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi. Nagwariy nagwara -i EXT dagboan dagbo nontan.employment -__ LK IMPFT. isonga na. seja payow a otik tan dokto. Et emiin a kilasi na obda na etaengan a di pamilja. Karao texts.3PL -OBL 1PL. Brainard.basket They would teach us how to carry a kaybang basket.3PL -OBL cha.garden The only means of making a living before.76 Sherri Brainard kaybang. 147pp.TH. the children used to do it before because there was no school for the children to go to so they [the parents] taught us the work.field LK little and kamote kamote. 27.anak nontan tep nagwara -i kowan -an na CV.live only before D1 rice.

30. Karao texts. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . 147pp. vi. our way of life changed a bit. Today a public jeepney makes a daily round trip from Karao to Baguio. Isonga idi isonga idi mothok -imali -i kalsara edofat so when arrive -PFT. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.if PFT.change i itsora na panbiyag. 2003.PFT.easy OBL little It is as though it became a little bit easier. Sherri. singen iyaninam-ay na otik as. Singen iyan-inam-ay na otik.IMPFT. comp.TH. i itsora na panbiyag ABS way GEN NR.20 na otik na otik OBL little 20 The road finally reached Karao in 1977.live So when the road came.TH. Brainard.Karao Texts 77 mimothok aliy kalsara. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.DIR -ABS road PASS. edofat 29.

23 The aweto (literally ‘its father’). or malmal.AG. Sherri. or chikel. no man-ani nontan da bayag no manani TI DIR long.IMPFT.TH.3PL And when the little meal was finished. when we harvested rice. it was necessary that we eat just a little meal which they called malmal. Karao texts.Pangkep maypangkep about na Ani na na OBL Eg eg not Kaysespa kaysepa NR. na -ma pahiy na aweto -na kowan -iycha OBL -D3 unhusked. thereby gaining their favor and ensuring a plentiful harvest. 22 The purpose of eating only a small meal. the one who bundles the owner’s share of the rice which they call aweto would start [to harvest].rice About Not Setting Down the Kaybang Basket During Harvest Time Mrs.ago when IMPFT. kiya ABS.rice mesepol a mengan kiya kiya.rice -LK say -PFT.21 22 2. or sool.IN RS OBL little LK say -PFTcha cha i i malmal. are bundles of rice stalks having the largest grains.basket TI time na ani GEN harvest.harvest.IN otikel a kigwan kono na mesafol na meNkan kiya kono na otikel na kowan -iyST. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.of. Those who plant a field will also harvest the field.IMPFT. and belong to those who are harvesting as their payment for both 78 Brainard.IMPFT. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . comp. malmal ERG. Bundles of rice stalks having smaller grains are called anakto (literally ‘its child’).down na Kaybang na Timpo na kaybang na timpo GEN women’s.share. Virginia Epi 1.1PL.AG.set.1PL. Nontan da bayag. onkowan i para bedbed et no mekecheng i malmal onkowan and when PASS.23 21 The planting and harvesting of rice fields is done only by women. 147pp. is to leave some food for the spirits to eat. vi.necessary COMP IMPFT.go/come i para bedbed ABS one.ERG.who bundle niwa pahiy a aweton kigwan cha. 2003.3PL COMP snack Long ago.rice LK owner’s.finish ABS snack IMPFT. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. These bundles belong to the owner of the field. Et no mekcheng i malmal.eat ABS.

carry.share. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Sherri.kaybang.produce And when it was almost noon. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .TH.IMPFT.2SG after IMPFT.Karao Texts 79 3. 2003.that __ not RS PASS.24 planting and harvesting the rice. Brainard. Karao texts. Et no chanchani mowan a alas dosi.set.rice so.2SG PERF isepay kaybang mo no isepa isepa -i kaybang mo no isepa IMPFT.o’clock will ERG. you would set down your basket only after the one who is bundling the owner’s share of the rice first set down her basket so that the harvest would not be reduced.basket GEN.set.TH. vi. asan mo wa et no chanchani mowan na alas dosi asan mo ma and when nearly again LK o’clock twelve.who bundle OBL owner’s. i i afit ABS harvested.of. comp. 24 Again the purpose of the custom of carrying the kaybang basket while harvesting is to gain the favor of the spirits so that the harvest will be abundant.reduce -__ afit.basket And we would all carry our kaybang baskets.IMPFT.basket 4. Et maoyon et meoyon and PASS. a emiin i kaybang.TH. na emiin i kaybang LK all ABS women’s. 147pp.down nin niwa nin na -ma first ERG -D3 para bedbed na aweto tep say eg kono meksayan para bedbed na aweto tep say eg kono mekesay -an one. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.down -ABS women’s.

PFT.Karao OBL meat GEN dog meat GEN horse and hot.iyayCVCV. na. tan sili. and hot peppers. tan Sili bohi na kabajo tan sili meat GEN horse and hot. but these are the common ones.kan -an D1 PL -ABS story OBL not OBJ DER.AG. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. nakiyadkadgwa na too.kan -en DER.iyanbantay na baliy HAB.PASS. the meat of horses.eat -IMPFT.ABS story ABS common The stories differ from each other. nem sejay i istoriya nem sejay i but D1 gwagwa-cha.guard OBL house It guards the house.kadgwa -iyna too NM dog HAB.Karao i i ABS Bohi bohi meat na Aso. iKarao na bohi na aso bohi na kabajo tan sili person. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.differ -__.3SG no. and Hot Peppers Mr.peppers These are the stories about the Karaos not eating the meat of dogs. 4.matter where -ABS 80 Brainard. 5. Sejay iriy istoriya na eg so kakanan sejay ira -i istoriya na eg so CV.companion -PFT. Iyan-inafil iyani i istoriya.CVC.make. gwagwa-cha afil -in- PFT.take/go. the Meat of Horses.CONT. say aso na.a. Naiyay-olo-olop cha afo to angken toy na. Say aso.Niyana Eg niyana eg why not Bohi na Kakanen CV. people always keep it as a companion. bohi na na na GEN kabajo.ERG person The dog. 147pp.TH na na ERG I-Karao iKarao person.olop cha afo to angken to -i HAB. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .AG&TH. 3.eat -NR i-Karao na bohi na aso.along OBL master GEN. vi. na aso GEN dog Kabajo. 2. John Beray 1. Naiyanbantay na baliy.PFT.from. Sherri. Karao texts.from. 2003. comp.TH.peppers Why the Karaos Do Not Eat the Meat of Dogs.CONT.

stay. 7.TH. it will sleep with him.take/go.go/come LK IMPFT. Banbantayan tocha.along cha si-kara.Karao Texts 81 to i. comp.3SG not ERG.3SG -OBL D3 go/come -NR GEN. Naiyodop na ma-nop nem onkowan a mengenop. 10. 9.sleep also If its master stays overnight somewhere. Brainard.AG. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.along -PFT.LOC It will not leave him.guard -IMPFT. it will always go along with them.overnight mekijo-gwek ngo. vi. kona-konan CVCV.3SG IMPFT.tahin etan ST. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . No ma-tan no meif iriy ira -i afo afo to. 147pp.3PL It will always guard them.olop -iyna ma-nop nem onkowan na meNanop HAB.hunt A hunter takes it along when he goes hunting. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. 8.kowan -an to i PLgo/come -NR GEN.go.TH. mekijo-kow ngo IMPFT.bantay -an to -ira INS. cha si-kara OBL 3PL If its masters go to work in the fields. betik -an i afo tod ma konan to.3SG -ABS. 6. 2003.to.3SG leave -IMPFT.IMPFT. na.3SG LOC It goes with its master wherever he goes.AG. to ontahi-tahin onCVCV.ERG hunter when IMPFT. Eg to eg to bebtihan. No mejo-gwek no mejo-kow if ST. CVC.IMPFT. i afo to -cha ma kowan -an to ABS master GEN.work.CONT.outside PL -ABS master GEN.TH ERG.go. Karao texts. Sherri.

forget -IMPFT.2SG -LK pasiyed pasiya -cha very -OBL ma ma D3 konan mo. mepasamak ST.afraid LK mepesamak.TH.CVC.kedsang na powek LK storm when time GEN AJR.3PL -ABS dog -OBL house especially nem nem timpo na timpo na mahedsang a powek.PFT.strong That’s why people. long time.TH Even if you are away somewhere a long.teach -__ ngaran a singen too.INS.2SG INS. vi.shut.IMPFT. eg to -ka CVC.PFT. Naiyaytoroan na. 15.3SG -ABS.TH ERG.LOC. ngaran na singen too name LK as.long.if ST.3SG The dog never forgets its master. 12. Angken mebejag angken mebayag even. 147pp. kowan -an mo go/come -NR GEN.why NM person HAB.give -__ A dog is trained. nainpohok chiy asod baliy. especially when it is the time of a strong storm. Isonga say too.PASS.IMPFT.82 Sherri Brainard 11.2SG when EXT -ABS NR. tan naiyay-i-kanan aso tan na.PASS.dingding not AJR.up ERG. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. 14.iyayi -an i aso. Sherri.3SG -ABS. they shut the dog up in the house. Banchaanan toka nem gwariy kathaktahot a banchaan -an to -ka nem gwara -i ka.PFT.LOC. and it is given a name like a person.if person ABS dog and HAB. i aso na afo to ABS dog OBL master GEN. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .time ken ka -na ABS.tahot na warn -IMPFT. Karao texts. Nat malingding nat ma. agdalo isonga say too na. it will never forget you. Brainard. 2003. 13.dingding -en not ERG.inpohok cha -i aso -cha baliy agdalo that’s.iyayna ikan -an na OBL toro HAB.2SG eg toka dingdingdingen. comp. ma.forget i aso na afo to. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.a.happen It will warn you when something really frightening is going to happen.

Karao Texts

83

i aso na ngepos iy piyan ton 16. No mengitengal no mengitangal i aso na ngepos iy piyan to -na if IMPFT.AG- put.in.mouth ABS dog OBL burnt.firewood SIMUL want/like ERG.3SG-COMP on-awas, onawas IMPFT.TH- go.outside igwa igwan D3 mesepol a on-awas mesafol na onawas ST.IMPFT- necessary COMP IMPFT.TH- go.outside kiya tep kiya tep ABS.1PL.IN because

aliy danas ono kechay a mena-po na baliy. ali -i danas ono kechay na meNta-po na baliy DIR -ABS flood or landslide LK IMPFT.AG- cover OBL house

If the dog takes a piece of partially burnt firewood in its mouth and wants to go out, we have to go outside because a flood is coming or a landslide that will cover the house. 17. No gwariy no gwara -i if nain-olofan na- inHAB- CAUS.PFT.THEXT metiy metiy a aama na aama ono eba-kol, ono eba-kol old.woman tep say

-ABS ST.IMPFT.die LK old.man or cha na

aso tho

olop -an cha na aso to tep say take/go.along -__ ERG.3PL OBL dog GEN.3SG so.that __

to kono ngod ma konan to. odo-odofen CVCV- olop -en to kono ngo -cha ma kowan -an to INS- take/go.along -IMPFT.TH ERG.3SG RS also -OBL D3 go/come -NR GEN.3SG If an old man or an old woman dies, they have him accompanied by his dog so that he [the person] will always take it along where he is going.25 18. Nem nat kiyakan nem nat CV- kan -iybut na na mahabaliy maha- baliy iwa aso, pati i -ma aso pati iyangka-tengan. iyangka- etengan

not DER- eat -PFT- ERG owner- house ABS -D3

dog including AJR.PL- adult

But the owner of the house will not eat the dog, even the old people.

25

The traditional belief of the Karaos is that when a person dies his spirit continues to exist in a supernatural world. In order to provide for the person’s spirit, a dog might be killed so that the spirit would have the dog’s spirit for a companion, or a horse might be killed so that it would have the horse’s spirit to ride.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

84

Sherri Brainard

bedoleki, nem manmano pay. 19. Seman bengat iren seman bengat ira -na bedoleki nem manmano pay D3 only PL -LK young.men but not.many still It is only the young men, but just a few still do it. 20. Say kabajo, sa-ki mowan a kajem na say kabajo sa-ki mowan na kajem na NM horse one again too. too

LK friend GEN person

The horse, it is another friend of people. 21. Naiyansahayan na- iyansahay cha. -an cha ERG.3PL

HAB- PFT.TH- ride.astride -__ They ride it.

22. No manbiyahi ched ma aragwi, naiyansahay no manbiyahi ira -cha ma aragwi na- iyansahay when IMPFT.AG- travel ABS.3PL -OBL D3 far HAB- PFT.AG- ride.astride ired kabajo. ira -cha kabajo ABS.3PL -OBL horse When they travel to a far place, they ride on a horse. 23. Angken meboteng angken mebotheng even.if PASS.IMPFT- drunk ira, angken onbolinget a pasiya, ira angken en- bolinget na pasiya ABS.3PL even.if AJR- dark LK very

itolod ira na kabajod baliy cha. itolod ira na kabajo -cha baliy cha IMPFT.TH- take ABS.3PL ERG horse -OBL house GEN.3PL Even if they are drunk, even if it is very dark, the horse will take them to their house. 24. Naimpangalka na- impaNHAB- CAUS.PFT.THriy kabajo na onbel-at a kalka. kalka cha -i kabajo na en- bel-at na kalka carry.cargo ERG.3PL -ABS horse OBL AJR- heavy LK cargo

They have the horse carry heavy cargo.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

Karao Texts

85

a inges toy aso. 25. Say kabajo, naiyaytoroan say kabajo na- iyaytoro -an na inges to -i aso NM horse HAB- PASS.PFT.LOC- teach -__ LK same/like ERG.3SG -ABS dog The horse, it is trained like a dog. 26. No konen no kowan -en if say -IMPFT.TH mo mo i i bebtihen betik -en to, to bebtihen betik -en to. to

ERG.2SG COMP run

-ACT ERG.3SG run

-ACT ERG.3SG

If you tell it to run, it will run.26 27. No konen no kowan -en if say -IMPFT.TH mo mo i i onsalcheng, onsalcheng. onsalcheng onsalcheng IMPFT.TH- stop

ERG.2SG COMP IMPFT.TH- stop

If you tell it to stop, it will stop. 28. Kajem na tooy kabajo. kajem na too -i kabajo friend GEN person -ABS horse The horse is the friend of people. 29. Inges toy aso. inges to -i aso same/like ERG.3SG -ABS dog It is like a dog. 30. Chakel i osal na kabajo: para sakayan, para koyod na kariton, chakel i osal na kabajo para sahay -an para koyod na kariton many ABS use GEN horse for ride.astride -NR for pull GEN cart para domba, tan para sakbat na onbel-at a kalka. para domba tan para sakbat na en- bel-at na kalka for race and for carry GEN AJR- heavy LK cargo The horse has many uses: for riding, for pulling a cart, for racing, and for carrying heavy cargo.

26

Regarding the verb bebtihen, the transitive suffix -en has been added to the root betik ‘to run’ in order to focus attention on the action. When -en has this function, an overt object cannot be added to the sentence. (Also see sentence 7 in the text Why Snakes Do Not Bite the Karao People.)

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

Isonga isonga say too -cha Karao nat na.CAUS.DER. Brainard.astride -__ GEN.eNkan na bohi na kabajo agdalo -i iyangka.eat OBL meat GEN horse especially -ABS AJR.awa tan HAB.3PL OBL horse -OBL to led ma kona-konan to.THEXT metiy metiy a aama. 147pp. 33.3PL -ABS meat GEN kabajo. they have him accompanied by a horse as something for him to ride wherever he goes. especially the old men and women. they do not eat the meat of horses. Karao texts.IMPFT.kan -iycha -i bohi na that’s. Sherri. there are many Karaos who do not eat the meat of horses.AG. iyangka. kabajo horse That’s why the people in Karao. vi.3SG -ABS dog It is like the dog. pansekayan pansahay -an to da -cha ma CVCV. agdaloy iyangkaama tan na.man and iyangkeba-kol. No gwariy no gwara -i if nain-olofan na.IMPFT. Inges toy aso.PL.man cha na kabajon olop -an cha na kabajo -na take/go.old.ride.die LK old. Maypangkep niyay a dason.along -__ ERG.inHAB.PFT.PL.PFT.3SG If an old man dies.why NM person -OBL Karao not HAB. inges to -i aso same/like ERG.Karao LK not naengan na bohi na kabajo. 32. chakel i i-Karao a nat maypangkep na -jay na dason chakel i iKarao na nat about OBL -D1 LK reason many ABS person. 2003. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . 34.3SG DIR -OBL D3 PLgo/come -NR GEN.ERG. nat nakiyakan chiy bohi na 31.ba-kol AJR. na aama -ABS ST.eat -PFT.CV. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.from. comp.old. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.kowan -an to NR.86 Sherri Brainard say tood Karao.woman For this reason.

dip.IMPFT.buffalo ST. The ritual lasts one day. vi. It is usually attended just by the family of the deceased.hot. the custom is changing.TH.TH. the sindad ritual.type ritual. Sherri. Onbonget konoy aninit nem mesidian ono onbonget kono -i aninit nem mesili -an ono IMPFT.type a indothoan. na indothoan sindad tan echom pay na chilos na kechel i meosal LK ritual. The sindad ritual may be performed for a variety of reasons. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.peppers -__ or maysiwsiw maysiwsiw PASS. e.IMPFT.TH. not inside.get. emangkesa-dathiy ogadi. one pig is butchered. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.PFT. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .hot.27 36. The indothoan ritual and the sindad ritual are specific types of chilos rituals. Say sili. Chilos rituals are a general category of rituals all of which require the butchering of a pig or a water buffalo for a feast.change -__ -ABS custom But now. one pig is butchered.forbidden a maosal cha chilos na meosal cha chilos LK PASS. No bohi na nowang. nem niman ma da emangkasa-dat -i -i ogadi but now PERF DIR PASS. nat cha sekep. 37. tan echom pay a chilos a kechel i maosal.sauce cha siliy bohi na kechel ono manok. not the whole village.possible COMP PASS. 147pp. 2003. 38.LOC. we can add hot peppers to it. 27 Brainard.IMPFT.use Hot peppers. The indothoan ritual is usually performed on the eighth day following the burial of a person who has died.IMPFT.IMPFT. It lasts two days.CONT.use OBL ritual.IMPFT. mebedin a maysidi. Nem niman ma la.add.angry RS -ABS spirit if PASS.peppers -ABS meat GEN pig or chicken They say that the spirits will get angry if the meat of the pig or the chicken has hot peppers added to it or it is dipped in a sauce made of hot peppers. cha -ma awas na baliy nat cha sekep OBL -D3 outside GEN house not OBL inside If it is the meat of a water buffalo. to celebrate one’s wealth or to appeal to the spirits to heal a sick person or to remove misfortune of some type.g.Karao Texts 87 iyaypagel 35. comp.peppers PASS. and other chilos rituals in which a pig is used.type LK pig ABS PASS.in. say sili iyaypagel NM hot. but it must be outside the house.peppers nem ampet nem ampet but necessary chiwa awas na baliy. sindad.TH.add. it is forbidden to use them in the indothoan ritual. Karao texts. cha sili -i bohi na kechel ono manok OBL hot. no bohi na nowang mebalin na maysili if meat GEN water.type and other also LK ritual.TH.

Mayngechan i bithoka say eg kono amtaen mayngaran i bithoka say eg kono amta -en PASS.IMPFT. Karao texts.IMPFT.why HAB. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.IMPFT.TH. 40. Brainard.TH We call it bithoka so that the spirits will not know.peppers Now we can add hot peppers to the meat inside the house.TH.IMPFT. na aninit ERG spirit balin ST. comp.IMPFT.possible PERF DIR -COMP PASS. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .IMPFT. Mebedin mebalin ma da -na maysili -i bohi -cha ST. sili that’s. basta eg mayngechan i sili.hot. aninit na aninit. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.name ABS bithoka so.eNmiy kan ma -i COUNTER PL -ABS spirit i-Karao i- niman na Karao niman na sili. vi.add. 147pp.peppers -ABS meat -OBL sekep na baliy. Mebedin mea na maolbod megayam olbod gayam iriy ira -i aninit.trick The spirits can be tricked.TH.possible COMP PASS.peppers That’s why now the Karaos eat hot peppers.name ABS hot.Karao now OBL hot.AG. sekep na baliy basta eg mayngaran i sili inside GEN house as. 2003. Sherri. 42.eat PERF -ABS person.as not PASS. as long as we do not call it sili. 41.from.long.88 Sherri Brainard ma len maysidiy bohid 39. Isonga isonga naengan na.that not RS know -IMPFT.PFT.

ERG. 4. 147pp. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. cha si-katho ma baliy si-katho ma baliy D3 house foundation GEN house LK HAB. it is about the foundation house. 2003. Chiya Karao bengat i kigwan cha i gwariy sengeg na cha -ja Karao bengat i kowan -iycha i gwara -i sengeg na OBL -D1 Karao only ABS say -PFT. John Beray 1. Karao texts. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . comp. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. Chiya cha -ja Karao. it exists.say -PFT. maypangkep na sengeg na baliy.ERG. 5. baliy house They say that it is only here in Karao that the foundation house exists. 2. 3. sejay na sodsod maypangkep na sengeg na baliy D1 LK explanation about OBL foundation GEN house This explanation.3PL 3SG 89 Brainard.3PL COMP EXT -ABS foundation GEN baliy. vi.kowan -iycha. cha -ma echom na tribo nagwara emo OBL -D3 other LK cultural. Hejay a sodsod.group EXT maybe There in other cultural groups. maybe it [the foundation house] does not exist. nagwara emo.Sengeg sengeg foundation na Baliy na baliy GEN house The Foundation House Mr. Karao gwara OBL -D1 Karao EXT Here in Karao. Sema sengeg sema sengeg D3 na na baliy a nekigwan baliy na na. Sherri. Chiwa echom a tribo. gwara.

arrive LK ritual.PFT. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .NR.28 6.3PL TI -ABS IMPFT.eiren -an ira -na na na daga daga ono ono amag LK house ABS HAB.other. Sema poon na baliy.than. it is the house where all the bonong prayers are said. 29 Brainard. comp. The daga ritual is performed to seek the help of the spirits for the healing of a sick person. Sherri. Chiwan a baliy i cha -man na baliy i OBL -D3 chilos. angken afil diy naaamagan na. 2003.type GEN.90 Sherri Brainard a kawad-an na emiin a bonong.AG. cha nem no gwariy nem no gwara -i if EXT da ira. chilos ritual.foundation.type GEN. Karao texts.PFT.3PL The foundation house.bonat no gwara -i chilos cha all LK related.in.reside. Sema iren anak na iyan-iyan cha baliy.baliy PLcha.if iyansigib iyansigib PFT.3PL even. chiwan i naesa-nofan na sema poon na baliy cha -man i na. na kawad-an na emiin na bonong LK place GEN all LK prayer.house bale-baliy CVCV. 147pp.do/make -__ PL -GEN GEN ritual.esa-nop -an na D3 foundation GEN house OBL -D3 ABS HAB.house. vi. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. cha nat nat onmothok a chilos onmothok na chilos house GEN.NR. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.TH.AG.if different DIR -ABS cha. that is where all the relatives gather together when they have a chilos ritual. 30 Chilos rituals are a general category of rituals in which a pig or a water buffalo is butchered.type What they call the foundation house.type or da ira angken afil da -i DIR ABS.relative when EXT -ABS ritual.reside OBL house even. emiin a sanbobonat emiin na sanCV.gather.3PL not 28 Bonong prayers are a general category of prayers addressed to the spirits.together -__ GEN no gwariy chilos cha. angken sema ira -na anak na iyaniyan cha baliy angken D3 PL -LK offspring GEN PFT.PL.29 30 7.type That house is where the daga rituals and the chilos rituals are performed. 8.

Karao texts. Nainkowan cha led ma poonan.3PL DIR -OBL D3 foundation -NR or D3 foundation na baliy.inchilos HAB. No kaspangarigan i gwariy metiy no kaspangarigan i gwara -i metiy if example COMP EXT -ABS ST.3PL OBJ COMP foundation -NR or foundation na baliy. 9.kowan -iy-an cha so i poon -an ono sengeg D3 ABS HAB.say -PFT.house. even if they have different houses.3SG -ABS Brainard. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. comp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .die pamiljen ma iyansigib pamilja -na ma iyansigib family -GEN D3 PFT. 2003.in.perform.foundation.AG.IMPFT.TH.than.3PL The children of those who live in the foundation house. Sherri. na.PFT.-NR ERG.house GEN.foundation.PFT. nat chiwa na pamilja nat cha -ma LK family not OBL -D3 baliy ton kad-an na sigib toy baliy to -na kawad-an na sigib to -i house GEN. 11. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. na baliy GEN house They take it to that foundation house.ritual ched ma baliy a cha -cha ma baliy na ERG.3PL -OBL D3 house LK sigib cha. sigib cha house. they do not perform it at the house where they are staying.3SG -LK place GEN house.a. 10. ono sengeg.other.Karao Texts 91 nainchilos na. ono sema sengeg.take/bring ERG. 147pp. na baliy GEN house That is why they say it is the foundation house.than.source.house chiwa cha -ma OBL -D3 kompormin kompormi -na any -LK a pamilja. seman i na. if they have a chilos ritual.reside.other.chilos.inkowan cha da -cha ma poon -an ono sema sengeg HAB.other.house GEN. even if they [the children] live in another house. Seman i nakigwanan cha so i poonan.TH. vi.than.

PFT.type -__ GEN. kaaremagan kearemag -an to NR. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. Nem na sejay a timpo.remove DIR ABS -D3 LK 31 The aremag ritual is a vigil held for someone who has died.come.bury -__ GEN -D3 person -LK ST.3PL They will take him to their foundation house.take/bring tod ma sengeg na baliy cha. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .IMPFT.ritual. the house where he was staying is not where they will perform the aremag ritual for him.strong OBL relations iren na emiin a sanbobonat a edafod man a baliy.3SG -OBL D3 foundation GEN house GEN. cha -man i kaybeka -an na -ma too -na etiy OBL -D3 ABS NR. Seja sengeg na baliy. Ikowan ikowan IMPFT. ira -na na emiin na sanCV.TH.IMPFT. Sema baliy a edafoan cha.PL.engipakedsang na timpoyog D1 foundation GEN house 3SG -ABS HAB. Sherri. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.CONT. singen emangka-kal da iwan a nem na sejay na timpo singen emangkaekal da i -man na but TI today LK time as.if PASS.from -OBL D3 LK house This foundation house.PFT. Brainard. so OBJ If for example someone dies in any family that is not living in the foundation house.ritual.AG. 14.3SG so. 2003. Karao texts.from -__ GEN.come.CAUS.3SG The house where they came from [the foundation house]. to -cha ma sengeg na baliy cha ERG. 15. 13.PFT.3PL OBL -D3 ABS to. chiwan i sema baliy na edafo -an cha cha -man i D3 house LK NR.type -__ to to ERG. that is the place where the aremag ritual will be held. 16.die That is the place where that dead person will be buried. vi.92 Sherri Brainard iaremagan iaremag -an NR. comp. si-kathoy naengipakedsang na timpoyog seja sengeg na baliy si-katho -i na.31 12.bonat na edafo -cha man na baliy PL -GEN GEN all LK related.IMPFT.relative LK ST. 147pp. Chiwan i kaybekaan niwa toon etiy.PFT. it is what strengthens the relationships between all the relatives who have come from that house.

do/make ERG. cha -cha ma baliy cha GEN. Niyandomana na sejay ira na religion a kigwan cha. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.change -TH TI now PL ERG religious. Niyandomana niya badon mangkaachal.have.doman -a na -ja bado -na emangkaachal CONT. niyan. 18. Isonga chakel diy emangkaomas a sengeg na baliy.out chiwan a baliy.3PL What they call religious groups are changing it now.PFT.3PL CNTR -ABS ritual.3PL -LK PFT.bring.ERG. 20.3PL -OBL D3 house GEN.doman -a na sejay ira na religion na kowan -iycha CONT. 19.family -LK PASS. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.why many DIR -ABS ST. nain-amag cha ngoy chilos cha -man na baliy na. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .CONT. they perform their chilos rituals at their own houses. 17.PFT.a. kigwan kowan -iycha i sengeg na baliy say -PFT. they say that it is as though the foundation house is being removed.AG.3PL COMP foundation GEN house But today.group LK say -PFT.inamag cha ngo -i chilos OBL -D3 LK house HAB. 2003.TH.ERG.Karao Texts 93 cha i sengeg na baliy.3PL Their children who have a family who came from that house [the foundation house]. vi. Karao texts. isonga chakel da -i emangka.learn The new things that are being learned are changing it. niyan.disappear LK foundation GEN house That’s why many of the foundation houses are disappearing. Brainard.omas na sengeg na baliy that’s. 147pp. Sema iren anak chen iyanpamiljen aohat sema ira -na anak cha -na iyanpamilja -na eohat D3 PL -LK offspring GEN. comp. Sherri.CONT.change -TH ERG -D1 new -LK PASS.type ched ma baliy cha.

cha da -cha ma sengeg na baliy ERG. nem chakel pay pesing na -tan nem chakel pay OBL -D2 but many still ABS some LK family -LK HAB.IN -LK very when EXT -ABS ritual. it will not cost us much when a chilos ritual takes place because the relatives who live at the foundation house will help us. Brainard.TH.sigib LK even PFT.PFT.type LK tep cha-chaan cha kiya chen man a mepesamak mepasamak tep cha-cha -an cha kiya ira -na man na ST.AG. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . vi.94 Sherri Brainard 21. 23.in. Igwan igwan D3 i i echom a pamiljen echom na pamilja -na naengipasing na.IN PL -ERG D3 LK bonat a gwared man a sengeg na baliy. na angken iyanpan.PFT.1PL. Say sa-ki nowan a kamaptengan niya sengeg na baliy.1PL.do naengonod niya sengeg na baliy.mapteng -an na -ja sengeg na baliy nat NM one EMPH LK NR.other.happen because help -IMPFT.PFT.IMPFT. 22.cost -__ ABS.AG.2SG a angken iyanpansigib da ira. Sherri. or even your relatives who live in other houses.good -__ OBL -D1 foundation GEN house not kiyen pasiya nem gwariy chilos a mekastosan mekastos -an kiya -na pasiya nem gwara -i chilos na PASS.3PL ABS.TH ERG. nat say sa-ki nowan na ka.reside. Nat nainkowan nat na.inkowan not HAB.3PL DIR -OBL D3 foundation GEN house They do not take it [the chilos ritual] to the foundation house. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.take/bring cha led ma sengeg na baliy.PL.enginithan.3PL The one really good thing about the foundation house is. comp. but many still follow this [custom of the] foundation house. 2003. laeng iya laeng i -ja na.house.than.foundation.LOC. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.house da ira DIR ABS. 147pp.eNonod na -ja sengeg na baliy __ ABS -D1 HAB. Karao texts.AG.IMPFT. ono sema iren bonat mo bonat na gwara -cha man na sengeg na baliy ono sema ira -na bonat mo relative LK EXT -OBL D3 LK foundation GEN house or D3 PL -LK relative GEN.follow OBL -D1 foundation GEN house There are some families that do that.

they help each other. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.2SG They will help with your expenses.relative That too is one good thing about the foundation house.mapteng -an na -ja sengeg na baliy D3 also -ABS one -LK NR. and another thing is.burdened -__ na pangkep na chilos. naiyankastos na.good -__ OBL -D1 foundation GEN house tan sa-ki pay. kinasan-aaki na sanCV.3PL They do not forget each other so that if any one of them has difficulties.iyankastos na maypangkep na chilos HAB. 28.3PL OBL expenses GEN. 147pp.AG.PFT.AG&TH. seman ngo -i sa-ki -na ka. 26. tan sa-kid tan sa-ki -cha si-kara na.firm na na OBL pandekna pandekna NR.eiwa pamiljen -an i -ma pamilja -na ABS -D3 family -LK bel-at that’s.ABS.why not HAB.iyancha-cha -in. 27. 24. comp. Karao texts.forget -__.so. Chiyay Karao a kawad-an na sengeg na baliy. Oncha-cha oncha-cha ali ira na kastos mo IMPFT. Sherri.Karao Texts 95 di cha na kastos mo. Eg ira eg ira mandiningding mandingding -insay say no gwariy no gwara -i EXT digat digat na na sa-ki sa-ki not ABS. naiyanchina-cha cha.help DIR ABS.type That’s why that family will not be burdened with paying expenses for chilos rituals.ira and one -OBL 3PL HAB.LOC.AG.that if -ABS difficult GEN one si-kara.feeling na na GEN kinasan-aaki na sanbobonat.AG. 25.PFT.IMPFT. it strengthens the feelings of kinship between those who are related to each other. Isonga isonga nat naebel-athan nat na.PASS. chakel pay laeng cha -jay Karao na kawad-an na sengeg na baliy chakel pay laeng OBL -D1 Karao LK place GEN foundation GEN house many still __ Brainard.PFT. igwan tan sa-ki pay igwan and one more D3 iwa naengikeneg i -ma naengikeneg ABS -D3 HAB.bonat kinship GEN related. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .PFT.expenses OBL purpose OBL ritual.help -__.AG&TH.PL. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.3PL IMPFT. vi. Seman ngoy sa-kin kamaptengan niya sengeg na baliy. 2003.pay.

3SG especially now indeed -LK i ogadi na too. iya i -ja kaonong ABS -D1 CONT.NR.bad -__ GEN. 30.3SG -CONT NR. Chiya Karao i naaamagan nithan a itsora na cha -ja Karao i na. Karao texts.carefully LK very OBL custom GEN foundation GEN baliy.carefully a ogadi na sengeg na baliy. 2003.do/make -__ GEN -D2 LK custom GEN na baliy tep chakel i toha panmaptengi.good -__ but igwa igwan D3 ngoy echom a kangaawan to. nem sengeg sengeg na baliy tep chakel i to -ka panmapteng -i nem foundation GEN house because many ABS GEN.PFT.CONT. baliy house A few here. Sherri.AG. nat menintil a pasiya na itsora na sengeg na sansa-ki ja nat meNsintil na pasiya na itsora na sengeg na a.AG. 147pp. Sansa-ki ja. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . 29.do. they do not observe this custom [of the foundation house] faithfully. mangkedoman emangkadoman i ogadi na too PASS.PFT.change ABS custom GEN person Here in Karao is where the custom of the foundation house is observed because it does many good things.eamag -an na -tan na itsora na OBL -D1 Karao ABS HAB.do.remain Here in Karao which is the place of the foundation house. vi. Brainard. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. ija nem angken setan ijay but even. there are still others who faithfully observe that custom of the foundation house.eN- sintil PL -ABS other LK HAB.96 Sherri Brainard kaonong. comp.few D1 not IMPFT. 31. but there are also some bad things. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. Nem angken setan. nithan na -tan na ogadi na sengeg na baliy OBL -D2 LK custom GEN foundation GEN house But even if that is the case. agdalo niman tin ngo -i echom a ka. especially now that people’s customs are changing.CONT.if D2 D1 pay laeng iriy pay laeng ira -i still __ echom a naenintil echom na na. there are still many here.ngaaw -an to agdalo niman ti -na also -ABS some LK NR.

change et namnamak i et namnama -ko i and expectation -GEN. Mangkebadoi emangkabado -i maypangkep ti na achal tan emangka. it might not exist any more.replace -__ on. and people now are becoming mixed because of marriages [with non-Karaos]. 2003. Chakel i mangkedoman. 34.CONT.1SG ABS no no when aliy ali -i ogadi.account. 36. ma -i too na maypangkep ira na panCVC.IMPFT. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. Chakel i towan baliwi.CONT. 33.past EXT emo wa. Mepokaw emo wiy nekigwan cha i sengeg mepokaw emo ma -i na. Karao texts.marriage They are being replaced because of education.IMPFT.IMPFT.say -PFT.imbaliy PERF -ABS person OBL on.change DIR -TI how. 147pp. Mangkesamdok ma emangka.3SG -CONT change -TH They [all of these causes] are changing many things.of OBL maysa-dat alin piyen tawen a mepedabas.TH. vi. and my expectation is that when it [the custom of the foundation house] changes after a number of years have passed.PL.mix kinakristiyano. chakel i emangkadoman many ABS PASS. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .disappear maybe PERF -ABS HAB.ERG.Karao Texts 97 maypangkep ti na achal.CONT. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. tan mangkesamdok 32. kinakristiyano Christianity The customs are becoming mixed.samdok ma ST.CONT. nagwara maysa-dat ali -na piya -na tawen na mepalabas nagwara PASS.many -LK year LK ST. comp. emo ma maybe PERF Many things are being changed.of PL OBL NR.kowan -iycha i sengeg ST.mix miy too na pangkep ira na pan-im-imbaliy.samdok PASS.3PL COMP foundation Brainard.TH. 35.IMPFT.account.of indeed OBL education and ST. chakel i to -an baliw -i many ABS ERG. Sherri. ogadi tan sejay i tan sejay i maypangkep maypangkep na na PERF DIR -ABS custom and D1 ABS on. and this is because of Christianity.account.

ERG. that he will be the one who is responsible for these chilos rituals.3PL COMP house GEN.regard indeed PERF -ABS person ABS pan-ichilos pan. Brainard. Karao texts.3SG own COMP si-katho ngoy mahaamta na maypangkep na panchidos si-katho ngo -i mahaamta na maypangkep na panchilos 3SG self -ABS responsible.TH.3PL COMP foundation GEN house But if people perform the chilos rituals at their own houses without regard for the custom of the foundation house. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .if D3 PERF -LK say -PFT.3SG mepokaw miy kigwan cha i sengeg na baliy. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.98 Sherri Brainard na baliy. comp.perform. 38.know OBL concerning OBL NR. 2003.3SG self -OBL D3 house GEN. i singen sema ma -na kowan -iycha i baliy to ngo i as.ERG.ritual.a.without.if do. vi.3SG They say that now it will be his own house.for. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.type to.say cha cha because EMPH D1 i i COMP ampet ritual.chilos. 147pp. to GEN.ritual to ngod ma baliy to. 39. to ngo -cha ma baliy to ERG. 37. they say that the foundation house will disappear. Singen sema wen kigwan cha i baliy to ngo.ichilos PL. Nem no sin isi-isik ti wiy too i nem no singen isi-isik ti ma -i too i but if as. -PFT.IMPFT.disappear PERF -ABS say -PFT.3PL gwariy ampet gwara -i necessary EXT -ABS sengeg na baliy foundation GEN house For they say that the chilos rituals are the reason for the existence of the foundation house.IMPFT.type ABS reason COMP D1 sengeg na baliy. mepokaw ma -i kowan -iycha i sengeg na baliy ST.ERG.IMPFT. Tep tep koy koy seja chilos seja chilos i i kagol kagol na na heja nekigwan seja nakowan -iyHAB. na baliy GEN house What they call the foundation house might disappear. Sherri.

all the inheritance.AG. who lived in other houses. Sherri.house.AG.TH.AG.PFT. 32 Traditionally it was the oldest child who inherited the family’s wealth. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. ira nem niman mangkesa-dathi. they did not share in the inheritance. 43.32 41.3PL IMPFT. but now it is changing.distribute ABS inheritance Before they did not distribute the inheritance. Karao texts.change -__ The relatives who had families. 2003.TH sengeg na baliy.ekitawid DIR PAUS not HAB. nontan da eg cha igwatgwat i tawid before DIR not ERG.house ira. egchian emiin na payow emiin na tawid egchi -an all LK rice.TH.Karao Texts 99 nontan da say sa-kin itsora na sengeg na baliy ket 40.field all LK inheritance hold -IMPFT. Egchian egchi -an niwa man-iyan na -ma mancha sengeg cha sengeg na na baliy.foundation.3PL but today PASS.other.AG.inherit -i ABS.AG.family -LK da ket nat naekitawid da ket nat na. 147pp.TH ERG -D3 IMPFT.reside OBL -na -na PERF PL -LK relative GEN.reside. nem niman emangkasa-dat iren ira -na ahi ahi ren cha iyanpamiljen iyanpamilja niwa man-iyan cha na -ma maniyan cha ERG -D3 IMPFT. Nontan da eg cha igwatgwat i tawid.3PL -LK PFT.than.a. Tep tep nontan da say sa-ki -na itsora na sengeg na baliy ket because before DIR NM one -LK custom GEN foundation GEN house PAUS emiin a payow. baliy iyan hold -IMPFT. the person living in the foundation house held them.reside OBL foundation GEN house The person living in the foundation house held it.in.have. Seman ma seman ma D3 iyansigib iyansigib PFT.CONT. sengeg na baliy foundation GEN house Because before one of the customs of the foundation house. 42. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . Brainard. all the rice fields. vi. emiin a tawid. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. comp.

3PL It seems that all the people now.PFT. 45.remove -__ DIR ABS -D3 But now that custom is being removed a bit. Karao texts. 47.ask ERG.inbaga cha -i as. Sin emiin men too na seman ket nainbaga riy singen emiin ma -na too na seman ket na. et naida ra ngoy tawid cha.foundation. comp. 44.AG.TH ERG.ERG.CONT.iyansigib HAB.house. Nagwiy naiden ma nagwara -i na. tawid cha et na.in.ala -iy-na ma EXT -ABS HAB.get -PFT. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.TH.house That too is why that is the place of all the chilos rituals.reside.other. the chilos ritual of any relative who lives in another house.foundation.TH.reside.why OBL -D3 angken siyen ahi also -LK all ra a ABS place iyansigib.in. nem niman ma emangkaekal -i da i -man but now PERF PASS. GEN ritual.TH.than. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .type ritual.get -PFT. Isonga isonga chiwan ngon cha -man ngo -na emiin i emiin i kawad-an na kawad-an na chilos. and they get their own inheritance.why if D3 PERF -LK custom PAUS IMPFT.other. na.than.matter who -LK relative GEN.house. 46.100 Sherri Brainard ton emiin i tawid.-ERG D3 naiyansigib.type GEN angken siya -na ahi cha na iyansigib no. 147pp.3PL own -ABS inheritance GEN.ashamed self PL -ABS Brainard. Sherri. vi. Nem niman ma emangka-kali da iwan. 48. 49.ala -iycha ngo -i tawid cha inheritance GEN.3SG -LK all ABS inheritance He [or she] held all the inheritance.AG.3PL -ABS tawid cha.3PL and HAB. 2003. chilos chilos chilos na na that’s. Isonga no seman men itsora ket onbaing ngo iriy isonga no seman ma -na itsora ket onbaing ngo ira -i that’s. Egchian egchi -an to -na emiin i tawid hold -IMPFT.PFT.3PL LK PFT.house The ones who lived in another house did not get anything.if all PERF -LK person TI now PAUS HAB. they ask for their inheritance.

ERG.foundation. if someone dies in the family that lives in another house. no metiy metiy angkena impan. Karao texts. ekecheng na CVCV. na chilos cha -cha ma sengeg na baliy OBL ritual.remain still __ LK HAB.house baliy i nain-aremagan baliy i na.AG.bingay cha ma da -i tawid no ST.ritual cha ngod ma baliy cha tep cha ngo -cha ma baliy cha tep ERG.CV.Karao Texts 101 mengikowan mengikowan IMPFT.PFT.NR. 51.3PL if angkena impanbibingay cha wa diy tawid. Sherri. iyansigib PFT.divide ERG. cha no gwariy no gwara -i EXT -ABS -iy- NM CONT. 50. Pan-ichilos pan.IMPFT. 52.type -__ ERG.chilos. Hetan bengat pangkep na setan bengat maypangkep na D2 only concerning minatay minatay i i sin kaonong singen kaonong pay pay OBL customs.for.TH.ERG.house. vi.PL.do/make -PFT.TH.a.PFTchiwed ma sengeg na cha -ma -cha ma sengeg na OBL -D3 -OBL D3 foundation GEN cha so ngorechan.3PL OBJ anyway The thing that still exists that they do. comp. 2003.finish LK CONT.IMPFT.if PFT.amag cha. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.other.IMPFT. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.3PL -OBL D3 foundation GEN house That’s why if that is the custom. the foundation house is where they hold the vigil for him regardless.in. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .3PL PERF DIR -ABS inheritance if gwariy metiy chiwa pamiljen ma gwara -i metiy cha -ma pamilja -na ma EXT -ABS ST. Say kaonong say kaonong pay laeng a naimag pay laeng na na.divide -PFT. aremag -an cha so ngorechan ritual. 147pp.take/bring na chilos ched ma sengeg na baliy.type GEN.reside.than.perform.inhouse ABS HAB.3PL -ABS inheritance They will perform the chilos rituals at their own house because they have already divided up the inheritance.AG.remain still Brainard.ichilos PL.if CONT.3PL because iyakcheng a bininga-bingay chiy tawid.3PL self -OBL D3 house GEN.die OBL -D3 family -GEN D3 iyansigib.bingay -iycha -i tawid PASS.the.dead ABS as. if someone dies even if they have already divided the inheritance.die even. they will become ashamed to take their chilos rituals to the foundation house.

in.than. Karao texts.chilos. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.102 Sherri Brainard laeng. Brainard.3PL wa ira ma ma ira ma PERF PL D3 a chiwa baliy cha ngo na cha -ma baliy cha ngo LK OBL -D3 house GEN. Nem no echom men chilos ket ija nem no echom ma -na chilos ket ijay but as.ritual cha. laeng __ It is only in respect to the customs for the dead that it seems to be remaining the same.house i panchidosan i panchilos ABS NR. there are now those who live in other houses who their own houses are where they perform their chilos rituals.3PL COMP foundation GEN baliy chiya Karao. 53.other.PL.for other PERF -LK ritual. baliy cha -ja Karao house OBL -D1 Karao This is the explanation or story about what they call the foundation house here in Karao.house.3PL own But for other chilos rituals now. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . 147pp.AG. Hetan i sodsod ono istoriya na kigwan cha i sengeg na setan i sodsod ono istoriya na kowan -iycha i sengeg na D2 ABS explanation or story OBL say -PFT.reside. -an cha -__ GEN. 54. comp. Sherri.type PAUS D1 iyanpansigib iyanpan. 2003.perform.ERG.a. vi.foundation.sigib PFT. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.IMPFT.

we look for something to plant because sometimes it is difficult to get watercress for planting. Sherri. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.PFT. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.IMPFT.for na maytenem tep edigat i pengedaan kiya kiya na maytanem tep edigat i peNala -an ABS.TH.PASS.TH. naiyaykafoy cha kolos na.TH.subside -__ ABS water panad na panteneman cha kolos.IMPFT.start -ABS preparation.of.Pesing a pesing way na LK Mantenem mantanem IMPFT.sweep.plant na na OBL Tapsoy tapsoy watercress The Way to Plant Watercress Mrs.IMPFT.IMPFT.iyaykafo -i panad na pantanem -an OBL river HAB.site GEN NR.difficult ABS NR.prepare.IMPFT.AG. na tapsoy OBL watercress After the end of rainy season when the water subsides in the river.TH. 103 Brainard.plant TI After it has been prepared.TH.difficult ABS NR. mengenap na mepanad -an meNanap LK PASS.IMPFT.TH.1PL.finish a mepanaran.look.season SIMUL PASS. Vicenta Sabaoan 1. 147pp.PFT. 2003. Karao texts. vi.33 2.site -__ IMPFT. They are usually prepared and tended by women.PFT.plant because ST. No kecheng na powek iy ma-jeran i chanom no kecheng na powek iy meejed -an i chanom after finish GEN rainy.IMPFT.away 33 Watercress gardens line the shallows of the river that runs through the valley where Karao is located.IN OBL PASS. mola nem singka-chom sometimes GEN watercress LK PASS.AG.plant -__ na tapsoy. 3. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . we will start preparing the place where we will plant watercress. Edigat i pengedaan na tanem tep iyaykel-od edigat i peNala -an na tanem tep iyaykel-od ST.get -__ na na tapsoy tapsoy a maymola na maynem singka-chom.PFT.get -__ GEN plant because PASS. No mekcheng no mekecheng after PASS. comp.IMPFT.

finish bengat i bengat i only chanom to chanom to i tanem. 7.IMPFT.TH.turn.IMPFT. nasimimit a chakos i no kosto -i chanom to na olay na. 147pp.simit -imna chakos i if enough -ABS water GEN.sprout -PFT.CONT. 4.104 Sherri Brainard da nonta powek. amed to nem tiyakow na.THEspecially during dry season. chanom to edigat ea onbadeg. no maytanem i tapsoy meCVCV. 6.season HAB.IMPFT.LK immediately ABS Brainard.divide OBL little. na on- digat badeg because if little ABS water GEN. 8. comp.bit When we plant watercress.2SG no kosto.grow Because if they have only a little water.brown -PFT. we divide it into small bunches [and plant them].bingay na sangko-tik when PASS.covered OBL water They have to be covered with water. they usually turn brown.PFT.plant ABS watercress PASS. 9.3SG ST. mebinga-bingay na sangko-tik.bala-ba -imespecially ERG.3SG if When the planting is finished. da nonta powek DIR TI rainy. Ampet i mesalneb na chanom.season It is difficult to get the plants because they are swept away during rainy season. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.TH. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.TH. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .difficult LK IMPFT. No mekcheng no mekecheng when PASS.IMPFT.watch -IMPFT. Amed to nem tiyakow. No maytenem i tapsoy. Sherri. vi. No kostoy chanom to na olay. nabimala-ba. Tep tep no otik i no otik i chanom to. you just keep watching the water to be sure that it is enough. ampet i mesalneb na chanom necessary ABS ST. Karao texts. 2003.3SG TI always HAB.bantay -an mo ABS plant CONT.3SG TI dry.TH ERG. banbantayan mo i tanem CVC. no kosto enough ABS water GEN. they [the plants] will have a hard time growing. 5.

DIM. Naida thoy chon domingko ono mesosodok na.knife -TH It usually takes about two weeks or a little longer before you can harvest it.iyantanem -an na NM HAB. -__ tapsoy.solok HAB.3SG -ABS two -LK week or ST. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. 10. Say naiyanteneman na say na.NR.ERG. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. pay asan mo -ka kolta -a more will ERG.IMPFT. Karao texts.2SG -CONT harvest. 147pp.plant na temtem. it is at the location of a fresh water spring. na temtem GEN spring The place where watercress is usually planted. Sherri. 2003. tapsoy watercress If they always have enough water. the watercress usually sprouts right away.Karao Texts 105 tapsoy. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .more.ala -iyto -i chowa -na domingko ono meCV. tapsoy chiwed cha -ma -cha ma kad-an ma kawad-an GEN watercress OBL -D3 -OBL D3 place Brainard.than pay asan moha koltaa. vi.PFT. comp.with. 11.take -PFT.

IMPFT.3SG -ABS one -LK vehicle But if he has a lot of produce or vegetables.AG.IMPFT. he hires a jeepney.AG.vehicle -PFT. vegetable GEN.harvest.sell na na OBL Natnateng CVC.with. cabbage. 34 In Karao today.harvest.TH.vegetable The Way to Sell Vegetables Mrs. no sa-ki to -na meNkolta if one ERG. Si-nengen na gardiniro no mebedin a si-neng -en na gardiniro no mebalin na see -IMPFT.indogan HAB. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . No sa-ki thon mengolta. comp. meNkolta IMPFT. Vicenta Sabaoan 1.alkira -iyto -i sa-ki -na dogan HAB. Karao texts.34 2.PFT.3SG or dogan. 147pp.vehicle tod ma kanayon a naiyanbiyakin jeep alid ja Karao. to -en many ABS harvest.possible COMP mengolta. and people had a way to transport their vegetables easily.knife naindogan na. to -cha ma kanayon na na.iyanbiyahi -na jeep ali -cha ja Karao ERG.travel -LK jeepney DIR -OBL D1 Karao If he is the only one who is harvesting [vegetables].with.TH ERG gardener if ST.natheng PLto. 3.Pesing a pesing way na LK Pandeko pandaho NR.ERG.a. Vegetables commonly grown in Karao for sale in Baguio are green onions. a primary means of acquiring cash income is to grow vegetables to sell wholesale to the main market in Baguio.knife The gardener will see if the vegetables are ready to harvest. This activity began only after the road reached Karao in 1977.TH toy sa-kin ERG. 2003.on. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.3SG -LK IMPFT.knife -IMPFT.a.natheng PL.with. 106 Brainard. and Chinese cabbage. Sherri.3SG naiyalkira na. then he sends them on the regular jeepney that goes back and forth from Karao.PFT. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.AG.send. Nem no chakel i nem no chakel i but if koltaen kolta to to ono natnateng ono CVC.hire.3SG -OBL D3 regular LK HAB. vi. green beans.

vi. No chakel iren no chakel ira -na meNkolta if many ABS. kilo to et et -i and see ERG conductor COMP how.AG. 147pp.a. they will have a jeepney hired.vehicle -PFT.ERG.many -ABS kilo GEN.pay ERG.a.iyanbiyahi -cha ja Karao D3 regular LK HAB.PL. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .cargo ERG.PFT.3PL -ABS one -LK jeepney OBL five dasos. 2003. et pantothodagan cha ialkira -et cha et panCV.3SG -OBL ma kanayon a naiyanbiyakid ja Karao.agree -__ ERG.Karao Texts 107 mengolta 4.knife et.TH.PFT.alkira TI sometimes ono enem a chiy cha sa-kin sa-ki -na jeep jeep na na dima dima -iy- -i HAB.IMPFT. Sherri.travel -OBL D1 Karao If however the gardener has only a little cargo.vehicle -CNTR ERG. and they will agree upon how much they will each pay.inkalka to -cha but if little CNTR CNTR cargo GEN gardener HAB. Nem no otik met kitdi kalka na gardiniro.3SG and Brainard.load. nem piyay nem piya -i ibayad cha COMP how. if there are many who have harvested vegetables. comp. No singka-chom naiyalkira no singka-chom na. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.TH na na kondoktor nem kondoktor nem piyay piya kilo tho. he loads it on the regular jeepney going to and from Karao.with. ma kanayon na na. 6.TH.hire.AG. 7.3PL On the other hand. Karao texts. et CNTR ialkiret cha.hire. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. 5.TH.3PL ibayad cha.3PL -LK IMPFT. nainkalka thod nem no otik met kitdi kalka na gardiniro na.TH.tolag -an cha CAUS.harvest.3PL and IMPFT. ono enem na dasos or six LK hundred Sometimes they will hire a jeepney for five or six hundred pesos. Et et si-nengen si-neng -en -IMPFT.much -ABS IMPFT.

kilo to kilo GEN.IMPFT. nakimowan iren emiin no piyan cha na. 2003. Niman nainbasar chiy bayad na kalken natnateng cha niman na.cargo -__ HAB. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .a. one or two of them who want to will go along [on the jeepney] to Baguio.TH. 10. vi. Karao texts. they will all go if they want to. comp.TH.go/come cha Bagiw. Sherri.vehicle ABS many PL -LK owner.3SG Today they base the charge for the transportation of the vegetables on its kilo weight.PFT. 8.want/like a mekikowan na mekikowan LK IMPFT.TH niwa mahakalkaen.PFT.kalka -en ERG -D3 owner. and that will be what the owner of the cargo pays [for the transportation]. 147pp.3PL HAB.take/go. cha Bagiw OBL Baguio If many vegetable owners hire a jeepney.AG.vehicle -IMPFT.kalka -en na.natheng cha today HAB.iyayolop if hire.ABS.along sa-ki ono chegwen mahapiyan i i sa-ki ono chegwa -na maha.a.piyan ABS one or two -LK CONT. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.TH cha. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. cha ERG.base ERG. na -ma maha.cargo -__ And then the conductor will see how many kilos [of vegetables he has].3PL -LK all if want/like Brainard.kowan -imira -na emiin no piyan ERG.3PL -ABS pay GEN cargo -LK PL.PASS. naiyay-olop no alkira i chakel ira -na maha. 9. Ono no singka-chom iy gwariy mebedin a gwayed ma ono no singka-chom iy gwara -i mebalin na gwaya -cha ma or TI sometimes SIMUL EXT -ABS ST. cha.go/come -PFT.TH.inbasar cha -i bayad na kalka -na CVC.vegetable OBL kilo tho. No alkira i chakel iren mahakalkaen.possible COMP space -OBL D3 alkiraen alkira -en hire.3PL Or sometimes when there is space in the jeepney that they hired.108 Sherri Brainard bejaran si-kathoy si-katho -i bayad -an 3SG -ABS pay -IMPFT.

LK all The carriers will take it to the booths.LOC.CONT.PERF -LK all IMPFT. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.cargo or Brainard. 2003. 147pp.AG. 11.3PL But before they load the cargo on the jeepney.CVCVCV.CONTwrite -PFT.IMPFT.TH. igwa no onmothok da ira -cha Bagiw igwan when IMPFT.Karao Texts 109 riy kalked jeep.TH.TH. ibaga na mahinkalka ono no mothok -imma -na emiin ibaga na mahin.TH.-__ ERG. comp.take/bring PL -ERG D3 carrier EMPH OBL booth and verify -IMPFT.solat -iy-an cha i saho ono basket na nomiro -na ma HAB. Nem asan a ikalka nem asan na ikalka cha -i kalka -cha jeep but before LK IMPFT.load. et tetpeken ikowan ira -na ma komboy ngarod cha powisto et tepeg -en IMPFT.wait LK IMPFT.kalka -cha ma powisto no mothok -imna emiin PL -ERG D3 owner.give -__ GEN.seked na mengikowan carrier LK HAB. No onmothok da ired Bagiw. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.cargo ERG.arrive DIR ABS. and the owners of the cargo will check at the booths to be sure that all the cargo arrived.TH iren ma mahakalked ma powisto no mimothok a emiin.3PL or name GEN -D3 person -LK cha. ma powisto ded da -cha DIR -OBL D3 booth When they arrive in Baguio.kalka ono when arrive -PFT. Ikowan iren ma komboy ngarod cha powisto.iyanCVCV. 14. vi.TH.3PL -OBL Baguio D3 komboy a naiyanseke-seked a mengikowan komboy na na. there are carriers [with handcarts] who are waiting to take it to the booths.3PL ABS sack or basket OBL number -GEN D3 pengikowanan cha ono ngaran niwa toon powiston powisto -na pengikowan -an cha ono ngaran na -ma too -na booth -LK NR.ask ERG owner.take/bring -__ GEN. they label all the sacks or baskets with the number of the booth where they are sending it or the name of the person to whom they will give it.AG. 12. Karao texts.PFT.TH. No mimothok men emiin.IMPFT. 13.3PL -ABS cargo -OBL jeepney nasiyola-siyolathan cha i saho ono basket na nomiron ma na. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .cargo -OBL D3 booth if arrive -PFT. Sherri. ira -na ma maha. pengi-kanan pengiikan -an cha NR.take/bring ngo iriy ngo ira -i ?? PL -ABS ma powisto.

ala -iyna kondoktor ono sema engipiyal -an and TI sometimes HAB.give igwanggwang igwanggwang IMPFT. Et et i-kan iniwa iyanpowistoy ikan na -ma iyanpowisto ERG -D3 kilo tho.booth -ABS kilo GEN.3SG -ABS price GEN one -LK kilo -GEN D3 PL. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.3SG and toy prisiyo na sa-kin kilon ma natnateng.natheng ERG.tell PFT. vi. Karao texts.iyanpowisto figure.TH. the owner of the cargo or the conductor of the jeepney on which they sent it will ask how many kilos it was. kilo to kilo GEN. and he will tell the price of one kilo of that kind of vegetable.3SG -ABS money and receipt GEN. 17. kilo to tan tan -i and IMPFT. Et no singka-chom naida na kondoktor ono sema engipiyalan et no singka-chom na. iikan to -i pilak tan disibo to IMPFT.TH EMPH ERG -D3 HAB. Sherri.3SG When all the cargo has arrived.amount -IMPFT.give ERG.ERG conductor or D3 NR.many -ABS kilo tho. comp.on.entrust -__ iren ira -na ma eg ma eg ekikowan ekikowan cha Bagiw a gwariy cha Bagiw na gwara -i kalka thon kalka to et et and -na PL -GEN D3 not PFT.get -PFT.AG.TH.booth i-kan toy pilak tan disibo tho.vehicle -__ GEN.run.110 Sherri Brainard engidokanan cha nem piyay kondoktor niwa kondoktor na -ma engidogan -an cha nem piya -i conductor GEN -D3 NR.3SG The owner of the booth will figure the amount. 16. to -i prisiyo na sa-ki -na kilo -na ma CVC.PFT.go/come OBL Baguio LK EXT -ABS cargo GEN. 147pp. Kowintaen ngarod niwa naiyanpowisto.AG.PFT. 15. and then he will give the money and the receipt for it.a.a.3PL COMP how.a. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.vegetable And then the owner of the booth will give the kilos.AG.TH.run. kowinta -en ngarod na -ma na. 2003.3SG -LK Brainard.PFT. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .send.

because there are some booth owners who make too much profit.baga ira nem siya -i mapteng na pengiikan -an HAB.too. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .TH.intolok ira -na na gardiniro -i but if supply CNTR CNTR HAB.allow PL -ERG ERG gardener -ABS piyan chen penongkal piyan cha -na peNtongkal want/like ERG.booth -LK not D3 AJR.bado -na manCVC.know ERG.iyanCVCV.a.IMPFT.run.3PL Brainard.3PL -LK booth -OBL Baguio or ira nem siyay mapteng a pengi-kanan naiyanbaga-baga na.3PL -na INS.a. 2003.3PL COMP who -ABS good LK NR. peki-da pekiala cha -i disibo -na ma kalka cha tan pilak to IMPFT.gardin na nagwara -i D3 PL -LK INS.IMPFT.PFT.3PL -LK HAB.a. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. naintolok iren na gardiniroy nem no supply met kitdi na. 18. chen cha -na na.PFT.sell -__ GEN.3SG Sometimes the conductor or the one who has been asked to collect the money by those who did not go to Baguio gets the receipt for the cargo and the money for it along with his.daha GEN.AG.3PL and money GEN.buy.inda-kad PL D3 some LK HAB.PFT.run.TH.TH.Karao Texts 111 riy disibon ma kalka ra tan pilak to. vi.price igwa igwan D3 tep tep because ira ma echom a naiyanpowiston nainda-kad ira ma echom na na.at.AG. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.iyanpowisto -na na.cheap. Bagiw ono pengidaho -an cha NR.iyanpowisto -na nat sema ma. comp.PFT. cha -i kanansiya ERG.3PL -ABS receipt -GEN D3 cargo GEN.ask ABS.AG. Sema iren badbadon mangargardin a nagwariy sema ira -na CVC.amta ren cha powistod powisto -cha Bagiw ono pengidekoan cha.PL.CONT.buy basta eg cha basta eg cha as.give -__ naiyanpowiston nat sema maleka. Karao texts.3PL -ABS profit Those who are very new at gardening.get ERG.PFT.as not ERG.much chiy kanansiya. who do not know any booths in Baguio or any place where they can sell their produce. 147pp.3PL -OBL NR. 19.do.booth -LK HAB.long.new -LK IMPFT.garden LK EXT -ABS am-amta CVC. they ask around to find out who is a good booth owner to give their produce to.AG.IMPFT. Nem no supply met kitdi. Sherri. one who does not buy at a low price.

Tep no amta na gardiniro i maleka tep no amta na gardiniro i ma.sale GEN.buy.at.a.PFT.AG. 147pp..TH. echom mowan na powisto other again LK booth Because if the gardener knows that the booth or the one buying his goods is paying too low a price.a.112 Sherri Brainard i kanansiya.do. 21.AG.3SG HAB.daha because if know ERG gardener ABS AJR. he transfers to another booth. the booth owner should get or make only a little profit.for.AG. etc.too.TH or make. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. chakel vegetable when many This is the way gardeners sell vegetables when there is lots of produce. ma na.PFT. otikel komiy a-daen ono kanansiyaen nem no nat supply otikel koma -i ala -en ono kanansiya -en but if not supply little OPT -ABS get -IMPFT.much -__ ABS profit But on the other hand if the owner of the booth has supplied fertilizer.iyandaho na D1 ABS HAB.PFT.price iwan a powisto i -man na powisto ABS -D3 LK booth ono sema naenongkal na daho to. the gardeners will accept what the booth owners give them as long as they do not make too much profit. 20. naiyanbonal cha ono sema na.a. Brainard.do ERG gardener -LK HAB. comp.eNtongkal na daho to na.iyanbonal cha or D3 HAB.profit -IMPFT. vi.booth But if nothing has been supplied. 22.PFT.AG.PFT. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.inpesing na gardiniro -na na. 2003. Karao texts.TH.iyanpowisto PL -ERG D3 HAB.run. ida-karan ida-kad -an i kanansiya IMPFT. Sherri.cheap.transfer OBL echom mowan a powisto.buy OBL goods. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . Nem no nat supply.TH iren ira -na ma naiyanpowisto.natheng PLnem nem chakel. Sejay i nainpasing na gardiniron naiyandaho na sejay i na.sell OBL natnateng CVC.

offspring D1 PERF IMPFT. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.behind ERG. Piyan min man-achal kayo tep sejay a karakel piyan mi -na manachal kayo tep sejay na ka.go/come man-iskwida.sa-ki mi -cha ja ERG.INS.AG.IMPFT.EX -COMP IMPFT. Sherri.AG. Karao texts.EX -COMP IMPFT.1PL. 3.school Now you children.school Advice about Going Away to School Mr.attend.TH.TH.educated ABS. Enosan anos -an have. Niman si-kayon aanak. maniskwida IMPFT. 2. 2003.EX PERF You will leave us.patience -IMPFT.one GEN. comp.2PL -LK niman si-kayo -na CV.2PL baliy tep piyan min man-iskwida baliy tep piyan mi -na maniskwida house because want/like ERG.school We will be patient about being all alone in this house because we want you to go to school. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. Ipayas jo kawi ma.1PL.leave. 4. ipayas jo kawi ma IMPFT.anak sejay ma onkowan now 2PL -LK PL.IMPFT.attend. jo ERG.EX -OBL D1 kayo. you are going away to school now.2PL We want you to get an education because there are many of you.EX -ABS NR.chakel want/like ERG. kayo ABS.1PL.1PL.1PL.TH. vi.2PL ABS. 147pp.Bilin bilin advice na na OBL Pan-iskwida paniskwida NR.TH miy pansa-sa-ki wid ja mi -i panCVC.attend. John Beray 1. hejay ma onkwan kayon kayo -na ABS.many jo. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . 113 Brainard.2PL because D1 LK NR.

114

Sherri Brainard

met i chakel kayon san-aaki, et nagwariy 5. Amta yo amta jo met i chakel kayo -na sanCV- ahi et nagwara -i know ERG.2PL also COMP many ABS.2PL -LK related- PL- sibling and EXT -ABS amta win itawid amta mi -na itawid know ERG.1PL.EX -LK IMPFT.TH- give.an.inheritance seja pan-achal jo. seja panachal jo D1 NR.IMPFT- educated GEN.2PL You also know that there are many of you who are brothers and sisters, and we do not know of anything to give to you as an inheritance if not your education. 6. Nagwariy nagwara -i EXT nagwara. nagwara EXT You will not inherit any property, rice fields, animals, or money — nothing. 7. Agos toy achal a tegwiren jo tep say achal, tegwiren tawid -en jon jo kameng, payow, -na kameng payow animal, pilak animal pilak — — — mid si-kayo nem eg mi -cha si-kayo nem eg ERG.1PL.EX -OBL 2PL if not

-ABS inherit -IMPFT.TH

ERG.2PL -LK property rice.field animal money

agos to -i achal na tawid -en jo tep say achal only ERG.3SG -ABS education LK inherit -IMPFT.TH ERG.2PL because NM education angken toy kona-konan jo, itahi-tahin jo. angken to -i CVCV- kowan -an jo iCVCV- tahin jo no.matter where -ABS PLgo/come -NR GEN.2PL IMPFT.TH- INStake.along ERG.2PL It is only education that you will inherit because education, no matter where you go, you can always take it with you. 8. Osa-osalen jo. CVCV- osal -en jo INS- use -IMPFT.TH ERG.2PL You can always use it.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

Karao Texts

115

mengosal na achalen 9. Nagwiy nagwara -i meNosal na achal -en EXT -ABS IMPFT.AG- use OBL learn -IMPFT.TH No one else can use what you learn. 10. Si-kayo ngo. si-kayo ngo 2PL self

jo. jo ERG.2PL

It is only you yourselves. 11. Para si-kayo ngo. para si-kayo ngo for 2PL self

It is for you yourselves. 12. Isonga sejay i kalikagom min piyan isonga sejay i kalikagom mi -na piyan that’s.why D1 ABS hope/desire GEN.1PL.EX -COMP want/like min man-iskwida mi -na maniskwida ERG.1PL.EX -COMP IMPFT.AG- attend.school kayo say mahaachal kayo. kayo say mahaachal kayo ABS.2PL so.that IMPFT.AG- educated ABS.2PL

That’s why it is our desire that we want you to go to school so that you will be able to get educated. 13. Tep tep say toon say too gwariy gwara -i achal achal to, to inam-ay a igwan inam-ay na igwan LK D3 i i ABS

-na

because NM person -LK EXT pan-obdaan to.

-ABS education GEN.3SG easy

panobda -an to NR.IMPFT- employment -__ GEN.3SG Because a person who has an education, it is easy for him to get employment. 14. Nagwariy payow tayon i-kan min

nagwara -i payow tayo -na iikan mi -na EXT -ABS rice.field GEN.1PL.IN -LK IMPFT.TH- give ERG.1PL.EX -OBL

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

116

Sherri Brainard

jo. tegwiren tawid -en jo inherit -IMPFT.TH ERG.2PL We have no fields to give to you as what you will inherit. 15. Say tegwiren say tawid -en NM inherit -IMPFT.TH jo, seta achal jo. jo seta achal jo ERG.2PL D2 education GEN.2PL

What you will inherit, it is your education. 16. Isonga singpet joy pan-is-iskwida isonga singpet jo -i panCVC- iskwida that’s.why do.well ERG.2PL -ABS NR.IMPFT- CONT- attend.school That’s why you should work diligently at your schooling. 17. Enog i indama-damang i pilak. yo. jo GEN.2PL

enog i inCVCV- damang i pilak don’t ABS PFT.TH- INSwaste ABS money Do not waste any money. 18. Palit i pilak.

palit i pilak expensive ABS money Money is dear. 19. Enchek kayo manchine-chinel enchek kayo manCVCV- chinel don’t ABS.2PL IMPFT.AG- INSbehave.in.carefree.manner a inges na inges LK same/like

toy echom jon iskwiden aanak na bebaknang. to -i echom jo -na iskwida -na CV- anak na CV- baknang ERG.3SG -ABS companion GEN.2PL -LK student -LK PL- offspring GEN PL- rich Do not spend it freely like your fellow students who are the children of rich people. 20. Ago-agos cha pay. CVCV- agos cha pay INS- alone ERG.3PL still They are all alone. [They have no brothers and sisters.]

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

carefree ira a mankaskastos.why AJR.AG.1PL. kawi ABS.well They do not spend their money wisely.2PL and mother GEN. Eg cha isingpet. vi.IN D3 nat sema mangwangwanchay.time kawi. school is what we should concentrate on.3PL LK IMPFT.3PL That’s why they are carefree in spending their money. Singpet joy iskwida yo.EX -LK father GEN.wander LK IMPFT. eg cha isingpet not ERG.EX We who are your father and mother.waste OBL money GEN.3PL IMPFT. 22.AG.CONT. nat onbayag si-kawi -na awa jo tan ina jo nat onbayag 1PL.2PL Work diligently at your studies. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .do.wander When we go to school.well ERG. not on lazing about.long.IMPFT. kiya sema iskwidiy sema iskwida -i school -ABS nat sema when IMPFT.gwanchay nat sema PASS.attend. singpet jo -i iskwida jo do.school menemnem. Isonga isonga ma. No no man-iskwida maniskwida kiya. ira na manCVC.Karao Texts 117 marinel 21. 2003.laze. menemnem nat sema manCVC. manCVC- belakbol IMPFT.AG.CONT. ABS.money a na LK manbelbelakbol. 147pp. a mengidama-damang na pilak cha. we are not going to live a long time. in wandering about. Brainard. manCVC.a. Sherri.spend.CONT. in wasting their money.about not D3 manbelbelakbol. 23. not on wandering about. Karao texts.2PL not IMPFT.TH. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.AG. Si-kawin awa jo tan ina jo.AG.kastos ABS. comp. 25.think not D3 IMPFT.1PL.AG.CONT.chinel that’s.2PL -ABS school GEN.live.belakbol na mengiCVCV.damang na pilak cha IMPFT. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.TH. 24.CONT.

Ajay ma.give ERG. comp. 31.work true tolong a na LK i-kan mid onkafoy ngo i tolong IMPFT.TH. the help that we give you will surely also become weak.CONT.TH. Isonga asan na ka-ma wi.while Now is the time when you should desire to go to school because we will be here for a little while yet.school because D1 IMPFT. we want you to finish your schooling. Sherri.1PL. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. manobda talaken talaga -na -LK si-kayo.TH. 26.1PL.EX jo so na iskwida tep aja jo so na iskwida tep aja GEN.IMPFT. Intono onkapsot intono onwhen onkafoy kawi kapsot kawi men ma -na man-obda. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.EX -OBL 2PL When we become too weak to work. we are now getting to be an old woman and an old man.2PL -ABS schooling GEN.1PL. piyan min kekchengen pasiya piyan mi -na kecheng -en very want/like ERG. Niman i ikalikagom niman i ikalikagom now ABS NR.EX -LK pasiya.EX ST. kawi ABS.ba-kol kawi emangka.2PL LK see/look -IMPFT.old GEN.EX PERF -LK IMPFT. 28.TH joy iskwida yo.2PL OBJ OBL attend.time We are not going to live forever. vi.live.EX a.TH Brainard.batho not IMPFT.EX Look now.CONT. 29.1PL.2PL That’s why before we become really old.1PL.EX NR.TH.a. kawi nin ABS.1PL. 147pp. 27. emangkeba-kol ajay ma emangka.1PL. Piyan min gwariy obda yo a metaen piyan mi -na gwara -i obda jo na matha -en want/like ERG.old ABS.why before TI NR. jo -i iskwida jo ERG.1PL.CONT.EX -COMP finish -IMPFT. Nat onbatho-batho nat onCVCV.IMPFT.old GEN.AG.weak ngo i ABS.118 Sherri Brainard kawi.1PL.awa kawi D1 PERF ST.IMPFT.little. kawi.hope/desire kawi nin. 30. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .1PL. Karao texts.EX -COMP EXT -ABS work GEN. 2003. emangka-ma kawi. keba-kol min isonga asan na keawa mi keba-kol mi -na that’s.weak also ABS help iikan mi -cha si-kayo IMPFT.long.old ABS.

1PL.CONT.Karao Texts 119 pan-obdaan jo say no angken ma-ma min mi -na panobda -an jo say no angken ma-ma ERG.olaw na iCVCV. 2003.difficulties We will not be worried that we are leaving you with difficulties.IMPFT. pangaasi jo enog i CVC.2PL -LK student Don’t join any bad gangs with your fellow students.more.into.have. Mapteng i barkada nem sema mapteng i ma-ma-mag.EX -COMP IMPFT. enog i kedkedsel. 36. 33.1PL.barkada na echom jo -na iskwida don’t ABS INS.if ST.2PL -LK IMPFT. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.take/go. Enog i barbarkada na echom jon iskwida.so kawi ma.IMPFT. 35.PASS.gang OBL companion GEN. nagwariy chanag mi.trouble Please.kedsel please ERG.2PL so.INSconfused TI NR.IMPFT.1PL.employment -__ GEN. even though we will die.if even.1PL.1PL.do/make Joining a group would be good if the things it did were good.olop don’t ABS. Karao texts. Sherri.2PL don’t ABS INS. 32. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .behind mi kayon mandikat. Nagwiy sahit na nemnem min ipayas nagwara -i sahit na nemnem mi -na ipayas EXT -ABS illness GEN thought GEN. kawi ma angken metiy kawi ma nagwara -i chanag mi ABS.EX PERF even.TH.die ABS.along Brainard. don’t get into any trouble.that TI even.EX We want you to have a job that we can see you working at [so that we are sure you have employment] so that even though we will grow old. comp.get.leave. angken metiy kawi ma. mi kayo -na mandigat ERG. Pangaasi yo. mapteng i barkada nem sema mapteng i CVC.TH.EX -OBL NR.IMPFT. we will have no worries [about you].meamag good ABS gang if D3 good ABS CONT. vi. 147pp.EX PERF EXT -ABS worry GEN. enog i CVC.IMPFT.1PL.2PL ST. Enchek kayo maoda-odaw na iolo-olop enchek kayo meCVCV. 34.EX ABS.

Maytongkal na kasepolan cha iskwidaan. maytongkal na kasepolan cha iskwidaan kasepolan na bakdang PASS. comp. Enog i ininges ira ma anak na bebaknang a kompormiy enog i inges -iyira ma anak na CV.NLOC cha so na pilak cha.NTH.IMPFT. Sherri.well ABS schooling Work diligently at studying. 38.IMPFT. Karao texts. 37.2PL -LK any Don’t be led astray when they ask you to come along with them wherever they go.3PL Don’t be like those children of rich people who keep spending their money on any sort of thing.buy OBL PASS.use OBL iskwidaan.buy OBL necessities OBL school necessities OBL body You use it to buy what you need for school.money -IMPFT.kowan -an jo -na kompormi ERG.buy You use it to buy food. 147pp.3PL ABS. 2003.spend. vi.NTH. OBL food 40. kasepolan na bakdang.NTH.IMPFT. Brainard. Mesingpet i iskwida.3PL OBJ OBL money GEN. cha so na pilak cha ERG. Maytongkal mayna tongkal na mekan. iskwidaan school If you have money.do.kastos -an CONT.IMPFT.2PL OBJ -OBL D3 PLgo/come -NR GEN. No gwariy pilak. you use it to buy what you will use for school.IMPFT. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.120 Sherri Brainard kayo sod ma kona-konan jon kompormi. 39.PL D3 offspring GEN PL. mesingpet i iskwida PASS. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . what you need for your physical well-being. 41. mekan PASS.rich LK any -ABS kaskastosan CVC. maytongkal na maosal cha no gwara -i pilak maytongkal na meosal cha if EXT -ABS money PASS.baknang na kompormi -i don’t ABS same/like -PFT. cha cha kayo so -cha ma CVCV.

it is difficult.TH. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.1PL. Kada otik a siya-nop mi.food -IMPFT. comp.destroy OBL body Please. vi. 45. 2003.Karao Texts 121 met i biyag tayo.PFT.TH.innahol each little LK gather. don’t get drunk because drinking.purpose mid si-kayo.ERG. si-kayon daleki. tep say tep say because NM Brainard.dahi enog i botheng please ERG.inCVC.dish nainpawpaw-it mid si-kayo. enog i botheng pangaasi jo si-kayo -na CV. botheng drunkenness Drunkenness. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.paw-it mi -cha si-kayo HAB. amta yo si-kathayo amta jo met i biyag tayo mandigat 1PL.1PL. Karao texts. 147pp. 43.for.save.EX OBL side. 42.TH.2PL 2PL -LK PL.EX -OBL 2PL Every little bit that we accumulated. mi -cha si-kayo ERG. Si-kathayo.charal na bakdang drunkenness NR.IN know ERG. Botheng.PFT. oncharal na bakdang. you also know our way of life. you boys.difficulties As for you.a. na.man/boy don’t ABS drunk botheng.send ERG.EX -OBL 2PL Every little bit of vegetables that we gather for a side dish.TH ERG. mandikat.have.1PL.EX HAB. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .1PL. we send it to you.together -PFT. we saved it for you.2PL also ABS life GEN.1PL. Sherri. 44. Pangaasi yo.CONT.IN IMPFT. Kada otik a nikayen kada otik na nigay mi mi a na sira. botheng on. nainnahol kada otik na sa-nop -iymi na. it ruins the body. 46. sira -en each little LK gather.

49.122 Sherri Brainard na iskwida. ka ABS. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. 53. 48. 52. it is absence. ma dangan.charal na iskwida NR. ka ABS. 147pp.PFT.have. 50. Oncharal on. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . 2003. iskwidaan mo GEN.2SG instead LK ABS. 51. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.2SG IMPFT. eg ka mahapangan not ABS.drunk Instead of you studying. 47. ma inoman -cha instead LK IMPFT.take.PFT.an. dangan NM NR.2SG -OBL D3 drinking. GEN. you are drunk. you have a hangover.attend.eat You cannot eat. Sherri.2SG ka.3SG PERF absence Brainard. comp. you are at the drinking place. Eg ka mahapangan. Imbis imbis a man-iskwida na maniskwida ka.AG.2SG ABS. Mandengan mandangan IMPFT. Intono egwa-gwa.2SG PERF -OBL school Then you are absent from your school.destroy OBL schooling It ruins school.school ABS. Imbis imbis nga man-istudy ka. ka igwa igwan ked ka ma inoman.outcome -__ The outcome then.hangover Then the next day.IMPFT.AG. Karao texts. nga manistudy ka IMPFT.AG.AG. vi. epaes intono egwa-gwa epaes when next.place ebotheng ebotheng ka.study ABS.day PASS.2SG D3 Instead of you going to school. Say panpa-noan say panpa-no to -an to wa.2SG PASS.absence ka ka wed ma -cha iskwidaan mo.

Emangka-ma kayo wa.EX As for us.AG&TH. 56. 147pp. kowan -en mo mowan i asan ka mowan nem sa-ki -na tawen say -IMPFT.1PL.old ABS. comp.remove ABS. 60. ka etaktak ei taktak i iskwidam. Brainard. iskwida -mo ekal IMPFT.for ABS.2SG If you have to quit. No man-a-kal no manif ka. ngoy panbenagan mon too? 54. your schooling will be delayed. 2003.2SG again COMP will ABS. Karao texts.CONT.Karao Texts 123 na olay. Kenchat man-a-kal kenchat manresult ka. emangkadagwas ma da -i timpo PASS. Mangkedagwas ma liy timpo.awa kawi as.2SG PASS.remove ABS.CONT. Kasta kawi met.TH ERG. 57.CONT. ka ekal IMPFT.2SG The result will be that you will have to quit. vi.AG&TH. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. emangka-ma kawi.old ABS. Sherri.2SG -OBL person If it is always that way. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .EX also ST.pass PERF DIR -ABS time Time is passing now.2PL PERF You are getting old.2SG again TI one -LK year You say that you will [go to school] again next year.delay ABS schooling -GEN. Konen mo mowan i asan ka mowan nem sa-kin tawen. No setan ma no setan ma na olay nengo -i panbanag -an mo -na too if D2 PERF TI always what -ABS NR. 58. emangka.awa kayo ma ST. what kind of person will you become? 55. we are also getting old.PFT.meaning -__ GEN. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.IMPFT. kasta kawi met emangka.1PL. 59.

Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.money ABS. Nagwa wiy kekchengen i iskwida jo ABS schooling GEN.2PL The result will be that you will have to quit. Karao texts. Eg jo wa kekchengen i iskwida yo. iskwida jo schooling GEN. kenchat ma -na manekal kayo result PERF -COMP IMPFT. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.why SUBJNCT. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . Isonga isonga pansingpet jo -i iskwida jo that’s. eg jo ma kecheng -en not ERG.remove ABS.EX TI iskwida yo.AG&TH. Sherri. 66. 63. 62.1PL.2PL That’s why you should work diligently at your studies.die ABS.spend.TH jo -na degree et kenchat ma -na ERG.2PL CNTR not ERG. 64.2PL PERF finish -IMPFT.2PL -LK degree and result PERF -COMP Brainard. 67. 147pp.2PL Who will support you then? 65.2PL finish We will die soon.EX PERF We are getting old now. ma even. et kenchat men nagwara ma -i kecheng -en EXT PERF -ABS finish -IMPFT.AG.TH i i ABS ST.1PL. Kenchat men man-a-kal kayo.more. and you will not have finished your schooling. vi.so ABS. Ma-ma ma-ma kawi kawi ma.TH You will not have finished your schooling.124 Sherri Brainard pansingpet joy iskwida yo. comp.2PL jon degree.IMPFT.TH.2PL -ABS schooling GEN.do. 2003. 61. Siya wiy mengastos kayo? siya ma -i meNkastos kayo who PERF -ABS IMPFT.well ERG. Metiy metiy kawi kawi nem engkay iy nem engkay iy soon eg eg jo jo kekchengen kecheng -en -IMPFT.

it will not be lost.employment -__ jo.TH. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .sa-ki -i achal person -OBL NR.depend.IMPFT. osalen olay osal -en always use -IMPFT. mo ERG. Sherri. it is always with you.matter where -LK olay.IMPFT.IMPFT.2PL -LK good -LK NR.2SG No matter where you go.good -__ LK NR. comp. toon too -na panbiyag -an to nem eg CVC.2SG EXT -OBL mo. you can always use it.behind Education will not be left behind.one -ABS education There is absolutely nothing better for a person to depend on for a living if not education. 2003. say achal eg meathiw NM education not PASS. Angken ton kona-konan mo. vi. i achal ABS education Brainard. 69. and the result will be that you will not find good employment. jo GEN. i achal. 68. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.mapteng -an na panchinel -an na EXT -ABS NR.living -__ GEN. eg ma-tiw. Nat maypejas nat maypayas not PASS. 70.3SG if not INS. 147pp.IMPFT.TH CVCV.IMPFT. Say achal. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.Karao Texts 125 enafen jon koston pan-obdaan nagwa wiy nagwara ma -i anap -en jo -na kosto -na panobda -an EXT PERF -ABS find -IMPFT. Nagwariy kamaptengan a panchinedan na nagwara -i ka.TH ERG.on -__ GEN panbiyagan to nem eg sa-sa-kiy achal.lose Education. Karao texts. 71.kowan -an mo gwara -cha PLgo/come -NR GEN.leave. gwared si-kam si-kam 2SG na na TI angken to -na no.2PL You will not have finished a degree.

72. Brainard.matter where -LK place ABS go/come -NR GEN. egwahen tep no meepos i -ma kinabaknang to agwak -en because if PASS.126 Sherri Brainard na olay.2SG use -IMPFT. mo -na -an no. chakel i amta thon pesing tep say too -na iyanachal chakel i amta to -na pesing because NM person -LK PFT. 74. ngorechan na too -na iyanachal surely ERG person -LK PFT.TH ERG. Angken angken ton to dogad i dogad i konan kowan mo. Sherri. vi.tahin na olay PASS.3SG -ABS person -LK even.if rich if EXT -ABS education GEN. Mayteki-tekin mayCVCV.why NM person -LK PFT. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.TH.3SG defeat -IMPFT. he knows how to do many things. 75. the person who is educated will surely do better than him.educated many ABS know ERG.IMPFT. you can use it. Tep no ma-pos iwa kinabaknang to. 76. to ERG.poor toy toon angken baknang no nagwariy achal to. 2003. 73. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .if ST.INStake.2SG No matter what place you go to.3SG That’s why a person who is educated.educated Because if his wealth is used up. 147pp. Karao texts.IMPFT.3SG -LK do to. Isonga isonga say toon say too iyan-achal. even if he is poor. to -i too -na angken baknang no nagwara -i achal to ERG.TH.TH. comp.use.3SG Because a person who is educated.PFT.along TI always It can always be taken along. he is better than a person who has no education even if he is rich.educated even.TH ngorechan na toon iyan-achal. iyanachal angken ebitheg.TH. mo osalen osal -en mo. agwak angken ebitheg agwak defeat -na that’s. Tep say toon iyan-achal.up ABS -D3 wealth GEN.

living -__ GEN.EX self -LK father jo ni ina jo. jo kawi ma ERG. Karao texts. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . bebtihan isonga si-kayo -na CV. please.AG.2PL Brainard. Onkwan kayon man-iskwida. Chakel i chakel i remidjo -na panbiyag -an to iy say sema many ABS alternative -LK NR. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.go/come ABS. 2003. you are leaving us now. jo ni ina jo GEN. ignoranti -na nagwara -i achal to uneducated -LK EXT -ABS education GEN. Nagwiy echom a memidin kayo nem eg si-kawi ngon awa nagwara -i echom na meNbilin kayo nem eg si-kawi ngo -na awa EXT -ABS other LK IMPFT. 78. vi. Sherri.EX Don’t forget this advice of ours.offspring please ERG.IMPFT. et nemnemnem jo et CVC.LOC jo kawi wa.2PL -LK IMPFT.EX PERF That’s why you children. jay D1 You are going away to school.attend. 147pp. 81. enog i dingding -iyira jay na CVCV.1PL.nemnem jo and CONT. pangaasi yo.3SG CNTR NM D3 ignorantin nagwiy achal to.2PL There is no one else who will advise you if not we ourselves who are your father and mother.2PL ABS. Isonga si-kayon aanak.why 2PL -LK PL. Enog i diningding ira jay a bili-bilin mi.think ERG.advise ABS. onkowan kayo -na maniskwida IMPFT.2PL if not 1PL.2PL and mother GEN. 79.Karao Texts 127 remidjon panbiyakan to iy say sema 77.school jay.bilin mi don’t ABS forget -PFT.PL D1 LK PLadvice GEN.AG.anak pangaasi jo betik -an that’s.2PL leave -IMPFT. and so you keep thinking about these things.1PL.3SG He has many more ways of earning a living than an uneducated person who has no schooling. comp.TH. 80. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.

CONT. From whom will you hear advice?] 83.TH to to ka ka na na toon too afil? afil -na ERG.2PL OBL advice Who will give you advice? [Lit.hear/listen -__ GEN. Iolay icha cha ka.2SG They will abandon you.CONT.3SG ABS. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi.128 Sherri Brainard penngedan jo na bilin? 82.take/go.abandon ERG.why don’t ABS INS. cha ka -na manCVCV. wandering about.2PL COMP D3 ngarod i apal nem singka-chom. 87.along chiwa echom a toon cha -ma echom na too -na OBL -D3 other LK person -LK Brainard. Ampay bidinen ampay bilin -en RQ advise -IMPFT.wander RQ ERG. ka olay IMPFT. will they really say.TH.dangan ERG.2SG -LK IMPFT.AG. ngarod i apal nem singka-chom EMPH ABS jealousy TI sometimes They will leave you by yourself because you know that sometimes there is jealousy.abandon ERG.TH cha ken mandenga-dengan.2PL self because know ERG. Karao texts.3PL ABS.AG.3PL ABS.belakbol ampay cha ka kowan -en IMPFT.absence i “Niyana aja i niyana aja COMP why D1 manbela-belakbol. Sherri. Iolay icha cha kayo kayo ngo tep ngo tep amta yo amta jo i i igwan igwan olay IMPFT. ampay cha ka konen manCVCV.TH. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Et no metaen et no matha -en and if see/look -IMPFT.2SG -OBL D1 And when they see you that you are absent.olop that’s.3PL ABS. “Why are you here?” 86. comp.2SG say -IMPFT. Ampay siyay ampay siya -i peNchengel -an jo na bilin RQ who -ABS NR.3PL ABS.an. 147pp.take. 85. 2003. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .IMPFT. Isonga enog i olo-olop isonga enog i CVCV.2SG ERG person -LK other Will other people really advise you? 84.TH ked jay?” ka -cha jay ABS.

2PL That’s why you should never go with other people who keep leading you to other places.lead ABS. Karao texts.AG&TH.waste -PFT.IMPFT. other places that make you forget [about school] so that you do not attend to any of your work.take.to -IMPFT. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.AG. it doesn’t matter. Asanak nem megwa-gwa.IN many ABS HAB.2PL CNTR INS.AG&TH.remove ABS.1SG TI today You will say..TH obda yo.AG.2PL COMP yes na sejay. to. Ahow angken no. much will have been wasted.TH ERG. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.THIf you quit.kawas -imif IMPFT. 147pp.2SG If it is always that way.. mandenganak mandangan -ak na sejay IMPFT. 89. No setan man na olay.” asan -ak nem megwa-gwa will -ABS.sangab -en NR. to manekal ka GEN. no manekal kiya chakel i na. Brainard. you will quit. onkwan men say pantongpalan no setan man na olay onkowan ma -na say pantongpal -an if D2 D3 TI always IMPFT..forget -__ GEN. 91.2PL CNTR not ERG. 2003. No man-a-kal kiya. “Yes. echom den mengibenga-bengat mengiCVCV. the outcome will be. angken.2PL -OBL D3 other LK place other DIR -LK kedingdingan jo iy eg jo et senga-sengaben kedingding -an jo iy eg jo et CVCV. vi.1PL.an.I will be absent today. chakel i nakimawas. comp.IMPFT.outcome -__ man-a-kal ka.” 90.TH.matter -IMPFT. 88.Karao Texts 129 kayod ma echom a dogad.3SG IMPFT. Konen kowan -en say jo jo i i “Ahow.bangat kayo -cha ma echom na dogad echom da -na IMPFT.1SG TI tomorrow I will go tomorrow. Sherri. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .. i i obda jo ABS work GEN.absence -ABS.attend.remove ABS.CONT.go/come PERF -LK NM NR.

TH.think That is what you should keep thinking about. 2003. 96. 147pp. vi.TH ERG. Karao texts.put.TH. jo et onod -an jo na olay ERG. 94. Hetan i setan i D2 nemnemnem jo.TH.nemnem jo ERG. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.TH.1PL.2PL ABS CONT.waste ABS money Money will have been wasted.IMPFT. Ipasnek jo tan. Onkawas i timpo.2PL D2 You do your best concerning that. nat mebedin a sema timpo -na onkawas nat mebalin na D3 time -LK IMPFT. comp.IMPFT. Brainard.waste not ST.one’s. 95. Sema timpon onkawas.TH. it is not possible to get it back. 93. you will store it away. ipasnek jo tan IMPFT.back Wasted time. et onoran jo na olay. onkawas i timpo IMPFT.2PL and follow -IMPFT. 92. 97.possible COMP maodi. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .2PL TI always Hopefully this advice of ours.130 Sherri Brainard i pilak. and you will always follow it. Onkawas onkawas i pilak IMPFT.do. Sherri.away jo. me- oli PASS.waste ABS time Time will have been wasted. Sapay koma ta hejay a bilin mid si-kayo.EX -OBL 2PL IMPFT.best ERG. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. CVC. ikamid sapay koma ta sejay na bilin mi -cha si-kayo ikamid OPT OPT LK D1 LK advice GEN.take/get.

and P is the less agentive. ‘Marked’ markers precede NPs in marked positions. syntactically required NP of a transitive clause. a vowel-final word (1)(2). Nominal markers Nominal markers occurring with S. 2003.e. and P arguments are marked for case and follow an ergative-absolutive pattern.35 Ergative markers are homophonous with 1) genitive markers that precede the possessor in genitive NPs. physical sites. e. The general rule is that the first allomorph follows either a consonant-final or.Appendix A Nominal Markers and Pronouns The following is a brief description of nominal markers. S and P are marked alike and A is marked differently. syntactically required NP of a transitive clause. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. and deictic pronouns in Karao. and 2) oblique markers that precede non-Locs. personal pronouns. e. 1. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . less commonly. A. comp. syntactically required NP of an intransitive clause. NPs in sentence-initial positions. that is. A is the more agentive. The cha set of oblique markers precedes only Locs.g. i. several nominal markers have two allomorphs. 131 Brainard. the second follows only a vowel-final word (3). Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. 147pp.g. 35 Here S is the single. Sherri. Karao Nominal Markers Absolutive (S and P) Singular Common noun Personal name Plural Common noun Personal name iriy ires chiy ches ira na iren cha na chen ired ired ched ched say si i si -y -s na Ø cha cha -d -d say si Ergative (A) Oblique (Loc) Marked -n In table 1. Table 1. vi. Karao texts. demoted objects.

(2) Aofa i too.TH ABS person -OBL river The person went to the river. comp. is composed of i plus cha in which case ch [t ] becomes r [ ] intervocalically. (The phoneme ch [t ] has three allophones: [t ] which occurs in word-initially.36 (4) Kimowan iriy tood kolos. ches. [ ] which occurs intervocalically. 147pp. kowan -imi too -cha kolos go/come-PFT. Karao texts. (5) Aofa iriy too.TH PL -ABS person-OBL river The people went to the river. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . and ched follow a vowel-final word only (4)–(7). an allomorph of cha. or syllable-initially following a closed syllable. Brainard. and [d] which occurs syllable-finally.hungry PL -ABS person The people are hungry.hungry ABS person The person is hungry.132 Sherri Brainard (1) Kimowan i tood kolos. The nominal markers chiy. kowan -imira -i too -cha kolos go/come -PFT.PFT. 36 All plural nominal markers are composed of the plural morpheme cha plus one or more morphemes. eofa -i too ST. The form ira. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. (3) Aofiy too. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.) The allomorphs ira and cha function as plural markers and as third-person plural pronouns.PFT.hungry -ABS person The person is hungry. eofa ira -i too ST.PFT. 2003. eofa i too ST. vi. Sherri.

ta(n). ala -en ira -na na too -i bekas get -PFT. (7) *Igwan chiy tood baliy.rice The people got the rice. however.TH PL ERG person-ABS husked. For the marker ira na. na becomes -n resulting in iren. igwan ali ira -i too D3 DIR PL -ABS person People will come.Karao Texts 133 (6) Igwan di chiy too. Specifically. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. the plural deictics are composed of the plural marker iren (which consists of the plural marker ira plus the ergative or genitive marker na) and the deictic ja(y). Karao texts. some use chen (12)(13). Ergative markers. genitive markers. 147pp. comp. (9) A-daen iren na tooy bekas. and oblique markers that precede non-Locs are homophonous.rice The people got the rice.37 For the marker cha na. 37 The exact identity of the morpheme -n in iren na (ira+-n na) is ambiguous. 2003. Sherri. (Since the ergative or genitive marker na follows ira which ends in a vowel.TH PL -ERG ERG person-ABS husked. iren ma suggests that iren na may have developed by analogy with these forms. vi. iren ta. (8) A-daen ira na tooy bekas. however. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . Brainard. the existence of the plural deictics iren ja. ala -en ira na too -i bekas get -PFT.) This pattern suggests that the morpheme -n in iren na is a copy of the ergative or genitive na that follows it and is labeled accordingly. speakers vary in their pronunciation of the plural forms of these markers. some speakers use iren na (8)–(11). or ma(n). igwan ira -i too -cha baliy D3 PL -ABS person-OBL house There are people at the house.

ira na too PL GEN person That is the house of the people.134 Sherri Brainard (10) Setan setan D2 i i ABS baliy baliy house ira na too. 2003. (12) Setan setan D2 i i ABS aso aso dog cha na too. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Oblique pronouns function only as Locs and are always preceded by the marker cha. ira na too PL GEN person That is the dog of the people. too person That is the dog of the people. Ergative pronouns are homophonous with genitive pronouns. (13) Setan setan D2 i i ABS aso aso dog chen ira -na PL -GEN too. 2. comp. Marked pronouns are homophonous with oblique pronouns and are not preceded by a nominal marker with one exception noted to date which will be discussed shortly. (11) Setan setan D2 i i ABS baliy baliy house iren na too. 147pp. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. Personal pronouns Personal pronouns in Karao are marked for case and display an ergativeabsolutive pattern. vi. Sherri. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . Brainard. Karao texts. ira -na na too PL -GEN GEN person That is the house of the people.

kiya cha. Karao Personal Pronouns Absolutive (S and P) Singular 1 2 3 Plural 1 IN 1 EX 2 3 kiya kawi kayo ira tayo mi jo cha thayo wi yo ra si-kathayo si-kawi si-kayo si-kara -ak ka Ø ko mo to -k -m tho si-kak si-kam si-katho Ergative (A) Oblique/ Marked (Loc) cha In table 2 certain pronouns have two allomorphs. 147pp. the plural marker cha optionally follows the pronouns.Karao Texts 135 Table 2. and 2) ko ‘ergative firstperson singular’ and kayo ‘absolutive second-person plural’. the nominal marker say does not occur before the pronoun (14) or personal name (15). Instead ko + ka is represented by taha and ko + kayo by tahejo. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . When a first-person plural pronoun. Karao texts. the one exception found to date occurs in a comparative construction which displays two patterns when the compared item following the comparative marker iy is a pronoun or a personal name. e. in the second pattern. it does (16)(17). Regarding the absence of nominal markers before marked pronouns. kawi cha. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. refers to more than two people. inclusive or exclusive. comp.g. 2003. Notice that Karao does not have a first-person dual pronoun. Brainard. the plural marker cha may be added optionally to second and third-person plural pronouns as well. In the first pattern. vi. The first-person inclusive plural pronoun is used for any situation in which the addressee is also included with the speaker regardless of number. Sherri. 38 Depending on the case of the pronoun. the second always follows a vowel-final word. tayo cha.38 Also notice that the following pronoun combinations never occur: 1) ko ‘ergative first-person singular’ and ka ‘absolutive second-person singular’. The first follows a consonant-final word.

(18) Ka-ka-jangan CVC. It may be that the construction is also undergoing reanalysis in that say may be associating with iy to form a new comparative marker. (20) [iy] [say si-kak] → [iy say] [si-kak] Brainard. In (16) and (17). Karao texts. CVC. (15) Pangodowan si Jose iy si Pedro. say is obligatory (18)(19).tall -__ i i anak Juanita anak Juanita iy iy say anak Maria. vi. (19) *Ka-ka-jangan i anak Juanita iy anak Maria. iy say. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . (17) Pangodowan si Jose iy say si Pedro. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. say anak Maria ABS child Juanita CMPR NM child Maria Juanita’s child is taller than Maria’s child. say appears to be added by analogy following the pattern for common nouns (18).136 Sherri Brainard (14) Pangodowan si Jose iy si-kak. i. (16) Ba-banayan si Jose iy say si-kak. pangodo-an si Jose iy say si Pedro older -CMPR ABS Jose CMPR NM NM Pedro Jose is older than Pedro. 147pp. as in (20). comp. Sherri.kayang -an CMPR. When the compared item is a common noun.e.big -__ ABS Jose CMPR NM 1SG Jose is bigger than I am. pangodo-an si Jose iy si Pedro older -CMPR ABS Jose CMPR NM Pedro Jose is older than Pedro. 2003. pangodo-an si Jose iy si-kak older -CMPR ABS Jose CMPR 1SG Jose is older than I am.banay -an si Jose iy say si-kak CMPR. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.

ergative deictics are homophonous with possessors in genitive NPs and oblique deictics that are non-Locs. Karao Deictics Basic form Absolutive (S and P) Singular forms jay ‘near speaker’ tan ‘near hearer’ man ‘away from speaker and hearer’ Plural forms jay ‘near speaker’ tan ‘near hearer’ man ‘away from speaker and hearer’ ira jay ira tan ira man cha jay cha tan cha man iren jay iren tan iren man chen jay chen tan chen man ired jay ired tan ired man ched jay ched tan ched man sejay ira setan ira seman ira iyay ithan iwan jay tan man niyay nithan niwan -n jay -n tan -n man chiyay chithan chiwan -d jay -d tan -d man sejay setan seman Ergative (A) Oblique (Loc) Marked Brainard. jay. Also when deictics function as adjectives.g. The cha oblique deictics. Singular absolutive forms. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. i plus jay becomes iyay. comp. Sherri. the final consonant of the deictic is optionally deleted. say plus jay becomes sejay. iren jay or iren ja. Thus.Karao Texts 137 The reanalysis hypothesis is based on the observation that the nominal marker si before a personal name is retained when say occurs in the sentence (17).g. vi. but following a vowel-final word. deictic pronouns are composed of a nominal marker plus a basic deictic morpheme (see table 3). 147pp. Table 3.g. however. 3. and sejay or seja. display a slightly different pattern. on the other hand. Following a consonant-final word. Similarly. the absolutive marker i combines with the deictic morpheme. Karao texts. rather than nominals. are always Locs. e. tan ‘that/there’ (near hearer). The basic deictic morphemes are: jay ‘this/here’ (near speaker). ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . the absolutive marker is obligatorily absent and only the deictic morpheme occurs before the noun. and man ‘that/there’ (away from both speaker and hearer). 2003. Deictic pronouns In general. e. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. In table 3. the ergative marker na plus the deictic morpheme jay becomes niyay (following consonant-final words) or -n jay (following vowel-final words). e.

ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . 147pp. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. when a deictic has two allomorphs. and the second always follows a vowel-final word. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. the first follows a consonant-final word. 2003. comp. Brainard. Sherri.138 Sherri Brainard In table 3. a vowel-final word. vi. or less commonly. Karao texts.

and a semantically transitive verb may occur in an antipassive clause or a passive clause as well as a transitive.) Depending on the verb. the vast majority of verbs may occur in more than one clause type. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. Thus a semantically intransitive verb may occur in a transitive clause as well as an intransitive clause. and the verb affix crossreferences the Loc. As a general rule.cross-referencing an absolutive Theme. When this is the case. (Regarding aspect. In addition many intransitive motion verbs may also occur in transitive clauses in which the Theme is the ergative NP. such as intentional action. The ability of a verb to occur in a particular clause type and to take particular verb affixes is controlled by the semantics of the verb. 2003. 147pp.39 Certain verb affixes have more than one allomorph. selection is determined by the canonical shape of the verb root. Finally stative affixes are homophonous with passive affixes. the first allomorph is the basic one. but if it is moving in any other direction (i. comp. If the Theme is moving towards the Loc. the affix is -an. S and P). the main distinction is perfective versus imperfective. Although every Karao verb is specified as semantically intransitive or transitive. partial affectedness. intransitive motion verbs tend to pattern alike in that they typically occur in intransitive clauses with the verb affix on.e. conversely.Appendix B Verb Affixes Karao has an impressive array of verb affixes that signal a range of information including syntactic transitivity. verb affixes. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.40 Continuous affixes listed in these tables are usually interpreted as signalling present continuous action. and semantic roles is found in Brainard (1994b). becoming the absolutive NP. vi. aspect. Karao texts. away from the Loc or vertically). although for many verbs.) In tables 4–6. and the semantic role of the absolutive NP (i. 139 Brainard. the Loc is promoted to direct object. Continuous aspect for future and past events is usually signalled by reduplication. although the details are somewhat complex and beyond the scope of this description. a verb is identified as passive if it is semantically transitive and does occur in a basic transitive clause. affixes may also signal other kinds of information. For example. the verb affix is -en. 39 A comprehensive analysis of the association between verbs. Those verbs that are semantically similar also display similar syntactic behavior. Sherri. 40 The basic allomorph occurs with the greatest number of verb roots and also occurs with borrowed words.e. and direction of movement. (See Brainard 1994a. continuous action can also be indicated. a verb is identified as stative if it is semantically stative and never occurs in a basic transitive clause.

Sherri. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Brainard. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . vi. 2003. Verb Affixes Occurring with Semantically Transitive Verbs in Karao Transitive IMPFT CONT PFT IMPFT CONT PFT IMPFT CONT PFT IMPFT CONT PFT i—— in-en -a -iy-an -i -iy--an i--an i--i in--an -i--an -in--an -i-inAntipassive mengi—— engimeNman-+CV(C)eNmeNman-+CV(C)eNmengi—— engiiyaNiyaNPassive mayemangkaiiyaymeemangkeeme--an emangke--i e--an may--an emangkai--i iyay--an maemangkaiyama--an emangka--i iya--an Note that the transitive affix i. comp. for mengi-. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. however. some speakers use the Ibaloi present continuous affix emengi-.and the antipassive affix mengi.140 Sherri Brainard Table 4.in table 5 do not have present continuous forms. Karao texts. 147pp. Verb Affixes Occurring with Semantically Intransitive Verbs in Karao Intransitive Pattern 1 IMPFT CONT PFT IMPFT CONT PFT IMPFT CONT PFT onman-+CV(C)-immanman-+CV(C)iyanmeNman-+CV(C)eNiyaN-en -a -iypan--an -i iyan--an -en -a -iy-i-in-i-in-an -i -iy--an -i--an -in--an Transitive Pattern 2 Table 5.

and the affix -an may also be added optionally to the verb in an intransitive clause. some Karao speakers use the Ibaloi present continuous affix emeki-.occurs on the verb in both intransitive and transitive clauses. comp. Brainard. Verb Affixes Occurring with Reciprocal and Reflexive Verbs in Karao Intransitive Reciprocal/Reflexive IMPFT CONT PFT Comitative IMPFT CONT PFT meki—— ekipeki--an peki--i eki--an man-+(-in-)+(-an) —— iyan-+(-in-)+(-an) pan-+(-in-)+-an pan-+(-in-)+-i iyan-+(-in-)+-an Transitive Note that in table 6 intransitive reciprocal/reflexive affixes and comitative affixes do not have a present continuous form. Sherri. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . and -indoes not occur on the verb in a transitive clause. Table 6.Karao Texts 141 Reciprocal and reflexive forms of verbs display two patterns depending on whether or not the verb is inherently reciprocal or reflexive. the affixes -in. 2003. vi. Karao texts. If the verb is not inherently reciprocal or reflexive. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. If the verb is inherently reciprocal or reflexive. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. the affix -in. 147pp. For the intransitive comitative affix set.and -an do not occur on the verb in an intransitive clause.

In tables 7 and 8. Examples follow. verb classes are represented by the verb affix that occurs on the greatest number of verbs in that class. Selection of a particular nominalizing affix is controlled by semantic verb class. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. For example. the selection of which is determined by the canonical shape of the root.41 Note that pattern 2 in table 7 appears to be borrowed from Ibaloi.Appendix C Nominalizing Affixes One way in which verbs may be nominalized is by adding an appropriate nominalizing affix. Affixes associated with this type of nominalization pattern are given in table 7. intransitive motion verbs. 2003. Karao texts. certain nominalizing affixes may have several allomorphs. 143 Brainard. vi. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. comp. also take the nominalizing affix i-. The first pattern occurs in topic/comment-type nonverbal clauses in which a temporal is the comment. Nominalizing affixes form two general patterns. 41 As for verb affixes. 147pp. Sherri. the majority of which take the verb affix on-. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . In tables 7 and 8 the basic allomorph is given first.

ko -cha Juan GEN.3PL Tomorrow is when they will arrive.arrive GEN. comp.144 Sherri Brainard Table 7.IMPFT. i imothok cha ABS NR. 147pp. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.1SG -OBL Juan Tomorrow is when I will talk to Juan.talk. Sherri. vi. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .with kod Juan. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Brainard. 2003.IMPFT. (22) Megwa-gwa megwa-gwa tomorrow i i ABS penbal peNtebal NR. Nominalizing Affixes in Karao – Time Verb affix Active intransitive onIMPFT PFT IMPFT PFT Aspect iinpanimpanPattern 1 Nominalizer Pattern 2 man- Transitive iIMPFT PFT IMPFT PFT pengiimpangipeNimpaNiiniin- -en/-an Stative/passive me-/me--an IMPFT PFT IMPFT PFT keingkakayingkayka- may-/may--an (21) Megwa-gwa megwa-gwa tomorrow i imothok cha.

comp. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. Again pattern 2 appears to be borrowed from Ibaloi. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Affixes associated with this type are given in table 8. Karao texts. Sherri. Nominalizing Affixes in Karao – Location Verb affix Active intransitive onIMPFT CONT PFT IMPFT CONT PFT Aspect Nominalizer Pattern 1 -an -i -im--an pan--an pan--i iyan--an Pattern 2 man- Transitive iIMPFT CONT PFT IMPFT CONT PFT pengi--an pengi--i engi--an peN--an peN--i eN--an i--an i--i in--an -en/-an Stative/passive me-/me--an IMPFT CONT PFT may-/may--an IMPFT CONT PFT ke--an ke--i e--an kay--an kay--i iyay--an ka--an ka--i iya--an Brainard.Karao Texts 145 The second general pattern occurs in topic/comment-type nonverbal clauses in which a location is the comment. Examples follow. vi. 2003. Table 8. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . 147pp.

(24) Kolos kolos river i i ABS iyandabaan ko na barok. vi. Brainard.1SG The river is where I washed (clothes). Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13.146 Sherri Brainard (23) Kolos kolos river i i ABS iyandabaan ko.PFT-wash. iyan. Sherri. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 .clothes-__ GEN. iyan. 2003. 147pp.1SG OBL clothes -GEN. Karao texts.clothes-__ GEN. comp. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.1SG The river is where I washed my clothes.daba -an ko NR.daba -an ko na baro -ko NR.PFT-wash.

Brainard. 147 Brainard. 1980. Scott.References Anderson. 1994b. Papers from the Parasession on Causatives and Agentivity at the Twenty-first Regional Meeting Chicago Linguistic Society 21. 147pp. Series B-110. Voice and ergativity in Karao. Karao texts. Studies in Language 8. Oregon: University of Oregon Ph. Proceedings of the Seventeenth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society 17. Semantic structures. Cambridge: MIT Press. The grammar of case: Towards a localistic theory.D. The Southern Cordilleran group of Philippine languages. Tokyo: Instititute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa. comp.1– 12. A linguistic atlas of the Philippines. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi. Notes on agentivity and causation. McFarland. Jeffrey.338–353. Tokyo University of Foreign Studies. Cambridge: MIT Press. 1994a. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. 1971. _____. Agentivity and syntax. Jackendoff. 1990. (compiler). DeLancey. Gruber. the Philippines. John M. 15. 1991. Pacific Linguistics. Amsterdam: NorthHolland. Ray. Sherri. The phonology of Karao. dissertation. Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa Monograph Series No. Eugene. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . 1985. Semantics and cognition. Ronald S. Sherri. 1983. _____.181–213. Lexical structures in syntax and semantics. Curtis D. _____. _____. Event construal and case role assignment. Oceanic Languages 37:120–177. Himes. 2003. 1984. 1976. 1998.

5 1991 Mamanwa Texts Studies Volume Volume Volume Volume Volume Volume Volume Volume Volume Volume Volume Volume Volume Volume Volume Volume in Philippine Linguistics 1 No. 1099 Manila.sil. Philippines. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. comp. 1 1978 2 No. 1 1997 A Discourse-Oriented Grammar of Eastern Bontoc Studies in Philippine Languages and Cultures Volume 10 No. Sherri.org/asia/philippines/book_store. 2003. 2 1992 Binukid Dictionary Volume 10 No. SIPL Supplementary Series: Philippine Texts No. 1 1979 3 No. Summer Institute of Linguistics. 1 1977 1 No. The publication is issued irregularly. 1 2003 Karao Texts Brainard.org. 2 1986 7 No.html#culture>. 1 1990 8 No. Karao texts. 2 1979 4 No.Studies in Philippine Languages and Cultures (SPLC) combines two former publications titled Studies in Philippine Linguistics (SIPL) and the SIPL Supplementary Series: Philippine Texts. 1 1985 Upper Tanudan Kalinga Texts No. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . 2 1978 3 No. 3 1987 Dibabawon Manobo Texts No. 2 1989 A Composite Dictionary of Philippine Creole Spanish (PCS) 8 No. 1 1999 Studies in Agutaynen Volume 12 No. vi. 1 1984 5 No. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. 1 1986 6 No. 2 1983 5 No. E-mail: Acad-Pub_Philippines@sil. 1 1980 4 No. P. Back issues may be purchased from the Academic Publications Manager. 2 1977 2 No. The focus of SPLC has been expanded to include cultural as well as linguistic studies. Box 2270 CPO. 2 1999 Studies in Kagayanen Volume 11 No. 2 1991 Discourse Approaches to Cohesion: A Study of the Structure and Unity of a Central Bontoc Expository Text Volume 9 No. 2 1987 Central Cagayan Agta Texts No. 1 1988 7 No.O. 1 1992 Volume 9 No. 2 1984 The Elaboration of a Technical Lexicon of Pilipino 6 No. Details (including prices) of individual issues are available on the SIL Philippines web site: <www. 147pp. 1 2001 Volume 13 No. 4 1987 Guinaang Kalinga Texts No.

bohi na kabajo.Niyana eg kakanen na i-Karao i bohi na aso. 147pp. vi. Karao texts. tan sili Why the Karaos do not eat the meat of dogs. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. 2003. and hot peppers Sengeg na baliy The foundation house Pesing a mantenem na tapsoy The way to plant watercress Pesing a pandeko na natnateng The way to sell vegetables Bilin na pan-iskwida Advice about going away to school Appendix A Nominal markers and pronouns Appendix B Verb affixes Appendix C Nominalizing affixes References 80 89 103 106 113 131 139 143 147 Brainard. the meat of horses. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0 . Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. comp. Sherri.