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Definition Asthma bronchial is airway disease obstruction intermittent, reversible where trachea bronchial responds in a hyperactive to certainly stimulation

or chronic inflammatory changes in the bronchial submucosa or increased responsiveness of the airways. Etiology Some things that became the predisposisi factor and presipitasi factors to cause asthma a. Factor predisposisi - Genetic b. Factor presipitasi - Allergy, ex = dust, bacteria, pollution, foods, medicines, and jewelry, metal, smoking allergy - Weather changes, ex = rain season / cold weather - Stress - Working environmental, ex = textile industry, traffic police, factory - Sport / hard exercise, ex = fast running Sign and symptoms - Usually a sufferer asthma: - Cough - Nervous - Cyanosis - Hard to breathe - Worried - Wheezing - Exhaustion - More sweaty - Queasy Those sign and symptoms are rarely found together Reaction asthma occurs at night commonly Asthma can be happen to all people but usually often to child and adult. Prevalence of asthma in Indonesian is 5 %. Treatment for asthma non-pharmacology - Healthy education - Avoid etiology factor - Exercise, ex: yoga - Fysiotherapy - Give an oxygen

Pathophysiology We are taught that there are chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. mucosal edema. which are found in loose connective tissue. . occupational infection. impaired mucociliary action (removal of mucus and contaminants within the bronchial tree by movement of the cilia inside the bronchioles). such as chronic bronchitis and emphysema. a chronic obstructive lung condition that has an episodic presentation. is asthma . lymphocytes and eosinophils to infiltrate thecells of the bronchial lining. medications. in fact. are responsible for releasing vasoactive (action on vessels) chemical mediators. allergens. That is. bradykinin. emotionsand stress. Chemotactic (produces specific cell movement) chemical mediators released from the mast cells cause neutrophils. vasodilation. leukotrienes. asthma patients are usually asymptomatic between attacks. including histamine. cytokines and prostaglandins. This is actually the basis for some of the misunderstanding of the disease. These pathophysiology factors produce the typical clinical presentation of asthma . mast cells of the immune system. increases in capillary permeability. and increased mucus production. These target the respiratory system and cause bronchoconstriction. Asthma has many known "triggers. vascular congestion. and. in a separate category. Mucus plugging may also occur in the smaller bronchioles. whereas patients with emphysema and chronic bronchitis almost always are affected in some fashion by their disease. In response to contact with a triggering substance or mechanism. Asthma is. which leads to an increase in airway resistance." including physical exertion. including wheezing and respiratory distress.