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Journal of Product & Brand Management

Emerald Article: Can brand identity predict brand extensions' success or failure? Catherine Viot

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To cite this document: Catherine Viot, (2011),"Can brand identity predict brand extensions' success or failure?", Journal of Product & Brand Management, Vol. 20 Iss: 3 pp. 216 - 227 Permanent link to this document: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/10610421111134941 Downloaded on: 25-01-2013 References: This document contains references to 42 other documents To copy this document: permissions@emeraldinsight.com This document has been downloaded 3749 times since 2011. *

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Catherine Viot, (2011),"Can brand identity predict brand extensions' success or failure?", Journal of Product & Brand Management, Vol. 20 Iss: 3 pp. 216 - 227 http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/10610421111134941 Catherine Viot, (2011),"Can brand identity predict brand extensions' success or failure?", Journal of Product & Brand Management, Vol. 20 Iss: 3 pp. 216 - 227 http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/10610421111134941 Catherine Viot, (2011),"Can brand identity predict brand extensions' success or failure?", Journal of Product & Brand Management, Vol. 20 Iss: 3 pp. 216 - 227 http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/10610421111134941

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More recently. managers need more accurate tools to determine. relationships and user image (Kapferer. Originality/value – The findings can help managers to determine more consistent brand extensions when brands are already stretched. theoretical and managerial implications are discussed. 1997). However. the success of brand extensions is uncertain. perceived fit was estimated by mono-item measures or by few brand associations. Since the early 1980s. Findings – The second order structure of Kapferer’s brand identity prism is confirmed. However. Introduction Brand extension is the use of an established brand name to enter a new product category (Aaker and Keller. A conceptual model of brand extensions evaluation.emeraldinsight. two main determinants were identified: the first is the similarity between product categories and the second is a more symbolic fit between the new product and The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at www. managers need methodologies that make this symbolic fit more useful to them. Marketing researchers were thus encouraged to explore the determinants of brand extensions’ success or failure. 2. 1990. ¨ 2006). suggesting the need for methodologies that allow better predictions of success or failure of new products launched with a well-known brand name. However. Brand identity provides a more accurate estimation of the fit that can rely on attributes related to brand personality and brand values – the personal dimension of brand identity – or associations related to relationships and users’ image – the social dimension of brand identity. Keller. 1991) remains vague. A first study aimed at developing a brand identity inventory (BII). Although the fit between the extended brand and the brand extension is now considered as one of the most important determinants of brand extensions’ success or failure (Volckner ¨ and Sattler. Finally. Brand extensions were attractive to firms because they were supposed to reduce high new-product failure rates and because they provided a way to take advantage of brand name awareness and image (Aaker and Keller. Batra et al. Marketing strategy. 1997). Our research aims at providing a theoretical foundation to this symbolic fit derived from Kapferer’s brand identity prism (Kapferer.. Brand extensions. limitations. 1. an increasing number of firms are following this strategy. This paper proposes to use Kapferer’s brand identity prism to define more acceptable brand extensions. based on Kapferer’s brand identity prism. 1990). Theoretical background 2.Can brand identity predict brand extensions’ success or failure? Catherine Viot Bordeaux University School of Management. Some of these facets could be useful to managers in defining brand extensions. In a second study. this symbolic fit. A second study using Kapferer’s brand identity prism to estimate perceived fit between the extended brand and an extension product is then developed. brand extensions were considered as an effective way to leverage brand equity. The brand extension literature and the brand identity concept are first developed: they form the theoretical background of this research. In this model. a large proportion of brand extensions still fail. In a first study. Design/methodology/approach – Two studies were conducted. Failure rates are approximately 80 percent (Volkner and Sattler. from a symbolic point-of-view. In previous literature. 2010).. extending their brands into different product categories. Consumer acceptance for brand extensions is greater compared to a new product launched under a new brand name because brand attitude and brand 216 Journal of Product & Brand Management 20/3 (2011) 216– 227 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited [ISSN 1061-0421] [DOI 10. suggesting the need for methodologies that produce better predictions of success or failure of new products launched with a well-known brand name. which brand extensions are consistent with their brand.com/1061-0421.1108/10610421111134941] .htm the parent brand. Brand management. Research limitations/implications – In prior research. Promotional methods. use of established brand names to launch new products – represent one of the most frequentlyused branding strategies.1 Determinants of brand extension success Brand extensions – that is. sometimes called “the brand concept” (Park et al. The paper then demonstrates that brand identity is useful to better predict acceptance of brand extensions. the structure of Kapferer’s brand identity prism is confirmed. 2006). Bordeaux. brand identity results from several dimensions including brand personality. Although the symbolic fit between established brand names and brand extensions is considered as one of the most important determinants of brand extension success or failure. Keywords Brand identity. France Paper type Research paper An executive summary for managers and executive readers can be found at the end of this article. France Abstract Purpose – Brand extension strategies have become widespread since the early 1980s. the BII’s ability to predict brand extensions’ success or failure was tested. brand values. and research hypothesis are then presented. 2003.

categorization theory (Collins and Loftus. 1963). Park et al. 2006). 1997). brands can be regarded as a cluster of values. helps explain the paramount differences between competing brands.. 1998). Brand physique and self-image are more specific to Kapferer’s identity prism. 1984). 2001). We consider that the brand concept evoked in prior research could be enlarged to the wider brand identity concept. 2001). by definition. The user image is part of the model of Kapferer (1997) and de Chernatony (2001). 2001). these authors find that the fit between the parent brand and an extension product is the most important factor (Figure 1). relationships and user image) of brand identity. brand-consumer relationships.e. 1967. Park et al. 1967. 1920). halo effect (Thorndike. His model. 2010. relationships and user image.. Many studies have shown that the perceived coherence between brand and brand extension influences consumers’ attitude toward brand extension (Broniarczyk and Alba. 1975. culture. 1967). In consequence. (1991) limited the brand concept consistency to a single attribute (functional vs prestige) while Broniarczyk and Alba (1994) used few associations. for example (de Chernatony. p. 1975) and conceptual coherence (Murphy and Medin. Brand physique relates to the tactile features of the brand that are recognised by our senses: Toblerone and its pyramid shape.Can brand identity predict brand extensions’ success or failure? Catherine Viot Journal of Product & Brand Management Volume 20 · Number 3 · 2011 · 216 –227 associations are supposed to be transferred to the new product. 1990. Conceptual model and research hypothesis When managers plan to extend their brand to a new category far from the flagship product.e.. brand culture and relationships are three facets shared by Kapferer (1997). 1985). Brands thrive through the relationships they form with customers (de Chernatony. 1990) or perceived fit between the extended brand and the new product (McInnis and Nakamoto. 2009. called “identity prism”. it could provide a more accurate estimation of fit than mono-item measures. Aaker and Joachimsthaler (2000) and de Chernatony (2001) proposed alternative models of brand identity. They emphasized the role of perceived similarity between existing product categories and new products (Boush et al. perceived fit between existing products and new products (Aaker and Keller. Thus. Osgood. 40). Broniarczyk and Alba. several explanatory models were tested. belonging to a very different category compared with products usually sold under a well-known brand name. 1962). assimilation-contrast theory (Fry. 1967. A brand provides a basis for the customer to reflect externally something about themselves to their peers through owning the brand (de Chernatony. brand personality and brand values) or with the social dimension (i. . 3.1 Effect of perceived coherence between brand identity and brand extension Brand extension success depends heavily on extension fit (Volckner and Sattler. 1987.. Brand identity can provide a foundation to this fit. Kapferer’s identity prism is not the only model in the marketing literature. 1991. 192). Fry.. only four dimensions of brand identity were selected for the empirical study: personality. 1994. 2. 1991. Moreover. 3. often used in previous research. the higher the brand extension evaluation. 2000. Buil et al. 1990. But the more frequently-used method to measure fit is simply a direct rating scale such as: “how well does the proposed extension fit with the parent brand?”. A new product.. Aaker and Joachimsthaler (2000) and by de Chernatony (2001). The identity prism is a combination of six dimensions: brand personality. Only Batra et al. clear brand identity – a set of associations the brand strategist seeks to create or maintain [. contributing partner in the dyadic relationship that exists between the person and the brand (Fournier. p. the fit between the parent brand and the new product is. Park et al. Park et al. Each brand comes from a unique culture characterized by values.. can be congruent either with the personal dimension (i. Coherence 217 According to de Chernatony (2001. 1997). We suggest breaking down this fit into two dimensions. we propose to use this brand identity conception to estimate the fit between the established brand and the new product. Batra et al. four facets emerge which are more consensual. in previous literature. But among these different approaches. (2010) proposed to use a more complete set of brand associations: the 15 facets of the brand personality scale (Aaker. brand identity represents what the organization wants the brand to stand for (Aaker and Joachimsthaler. The higher the perceived coherence. brand culture. 1993. as the most salient facets of brand identity and considering that brand personality and brand values form the personal dimension of brand identity while relationships and user image represent the social dimension of brand identity (Kapferer. McInnis and Nakamoto. Tauber. But this perceived fit was often considered as an overall judgment. 1991). The concept of similarity between categories of products is as clearly defined and measured as the more symbolic fit concept between the parent brand and the new product remains vague and difficult to measure. despite a growing number of studies devoted to this topic. 1994). . 1997): The brand is treated as an active. Loken and Roedder John. This transfer relies on different psychological mechanisms such as semantic generalization (Fry. Brand personality reflects “the set of human characteristics associated with a brand” (Aaker. symbolic and cannot rely on product feature similarity. Self-image relates to the way a brand enables the user to make a private statement back to him or herself. Brand personality. brand identity is a multi-dimensional concept. Rosch and Mervis.. brand values. relationships and user image are considered. 1991). User image is defined as “the set of human characteristics associated with the typical user of a brand” (Plummer. Considering that brand personality. Among ten drivers of brand ¨ extension success. 1981). The fit consists in a product’s ability to accommodate the brand concept (Park et al. Kerby. Based on these psychological mechanisms. a highly useful conceptualisation of brand identity is provided by Kapferer (1997). . Consumers tend to respond more favourably to extensions that fit with their perceptions of the parent brand. Sherif. physique and self-image. An existing brand name fits a new product category if there appears to be a match at the level of concrete attributes or based on abstract imagery or personality attributes (Batra et al. 1997). reflection. Brand identity could provide a relevant conceptual framework for improving our knowledge of perceived fit.2 Brand identity A strong brand should have a rich. As a consequence.] In contrast to brand image. Values are “fundamental principles that regulate brand behavior” (Kapferer.

Perceived coherence between the new product and the social dimension of brand identity is positively related to brand extension evaluation. Perceived coherence between the new product and the personal dimension of brand identity is positively related to brand extension evaluation. We therefore postulate H2: H2. Lafuma. the greater the acceptance of brand extension.. The pre-extension consumer’s attitude toward the extended brand is positively related to the consumer’s attitude toward the extension. Decathlon. is negative. Perceived inconsistency between brand extension and the personal or the social dimension of brand identity leads to a negative change in brand attitude. An extension perceived as coherent would be more likely to result in a positive change in brand attitude whereas an incoherent extension would lead to a negative change. Ten well-known brands in France. 1979) (Figure 2). 2009. Park et al. They were all related to sport activities. 218 3. with brand awareness above 90 percent. this attitude will positively impact the parent brand equity. an exploratory quantitative study and finally a confirmatory quantitative study (Churchill. Perceived consistency between the brand extension and the personal or social dimension of brand identity leads to a positive change in brand attitude. Reebok. The more favourable the brand attitude before stretching. the Churchill paradigm was respected with three stages: a qualitative study. Loken and Roedder John. 1993. perceived fit between the brand extension and one of the two dimensions of brand identity would probably act as a moderator in the attitude transfer between the brand extension and the parent brand. Brand extension strategies are often considered as an effective way to improve brand equity through brand awareness – the brand name appears on several products – brand associations – new product attributes can be transferred to the parent brand – and brand loyalty – consumers who already buy a given brand are supposed to be attracted by new products sold under this brand name. But this relationship between brand extension and brand equity appeared to be two-sided because either brand extension success or failure can impact the parent brand. As far as we know. Thus. Rossignol and Salomon. 2002. Martinez et al.2 Transfer of attitude between the extended brand and the brand extension Evaluations of brand extensions are likely to be more favourable when associations toward the parent brand are positive. we postulate the third hypothesis as follows: H3a. 4. while the direct positive relationship between attitude toward the brand extension and the post-extension attitude toward the parent brand was validated in numerous empirical studies (Buil et al. 1991). Champion USA. enhancing or damaging brand equity. Methodology We conducted two studies: the first study collected data on brand identity perceptions (Brand Identity Inventory or BII). In the first study. 1987. This transfer of attitude between the parent brand and the new product is confirmed in several studies (Boush et al.. (2010) who proposed to use brand personality to help managers to define brand extensions. if the consumer’s evaluation of the brand extension . it could damage the extended brand. Moreover. Fila. de Ruyter and Wetzels. H1b. 2008. Quiksilver. if the consumer’s attitude toward the brand extension is favourable. were selected: Adidas. Thus. H3b.3 Reciprocity effects In the last 20 years... building strong brands has become the objective of many organizations. 2000). in order to develop the BII and to confirm Kapferer’s prism of identity structure.Can brand identity predict brand extensions’ success or failure? Catherine Viot Journal of Product & Brand Management Volume 20 · Number 3 · 2011 · 216 –227 Figure 1 Brand extension model and hypotheses between the parent brand and the new product can be considered separately either for the personal or for the social level of brand identity: H1a. This procedure was already used by Batra et al. Chang. By contrast. this indirect effect was not empirically tested in prior research. and the second study validated extension concepts that we derived from the first study on a second sample of participants. Nike. 3.

The KMO and Bartlett tests confirmed the relevance of PCA. Except for two factors (utility and emotional stability) reflected by only two items. Data were gathered from a students’ sample (n ¼ 280). 140 adjectives or assertions were thus generated and assigned to one of the four dimensions of brand identity (personality.87 0. They were asked open questions like: “what comes to your mind when you think of brand X”. 1998) and brand values inventory (Aurier et al. “can you describe the typical user of brand X?” . Study 1 – the brand identity inventory 5. 1981. Each respondent evaluated only two brands among ten.74 3 4 3 2 . 1988).84 0.76 0.Can brand identity predict brand extensions’ success or failure? Catherine Viot Journal of Product & Brand Management Volume 20 · Number 3 · 2011 · 216 –227 Figure 2 Methodology to develop the BII The purpose of the second study was to test the proposed model and hypothesis H1 to H3. This decision was motivated by the fact that..87 3 3 3 4 0. relationships and user imagery).79 0.72 3 2 3 0. . seven semi-directed interviews were conducted with brand managers (they were all in charge of sport brands). the Joereskog coefficients were all above 0. consumer-brand relationships (Fournier. 5. on a scale from 1 (totally disagree) to 6 (totally agree). values. Coefficients were estimated by the maximum likelihood method.90 Number of items 3 4 3 Brand personality Pride Competence Friendliness Brand values Usefulness Social orientation Hedonism Ethics Relationships Stimulating Educational Domination User image Leadership Dynamism Social orientation Emotional stability 0.1 Items generation A qualitative method was first conducted in order to generate items for each BII facet. They were undergraduate students from a French university. Each respondent evaluated five brands. The use of students’ samples is justified given the nature of the brands (they are all related to sport activities) and given the product category. the BII contains 43 items and 14 factors[1]. 211 questionnaires were correctly completed and were then used to confirm the structure and test the validity and the reliability of the BII with structural equation modelling (SEM) methods. In parallel. after the PCA. user image inventory (Malhotra.91 0. Data were collected on a convenience sample (n ¼ 200). In total.50 were removed from the analysis. Scales reliability was established by the Joreskog method (Joreskog. Four principal components analyses (PCA) were carried out (one per scale). For the different studies. The 140 adjectives and assertions were then turned into questions. Then. Analyses confirmed the structure of each scale and only two items of the brand values scale had to be discarded (Table II). respondents were asked to complete a questionnaire during regular class time. 1997). They personally participated in only one study. a factorial design with covariance analysis (ANCOVA) was conducted to test the hypothesis.68 0.73 (Table II). The corpus was then subjected to a manual thematic analysis. . 2001).55 0. Evidence for convergent validity was established in accordance with the Table I Exploratory factor analyses (principal component analyses) Facets of brand identity inventory Cronbach 0. because of the length of the questionnaire. They were compared with the corresponding literature and published scales or inventory: the brand personality scale (Aaker. aged between 18 and 25 years (49 per cent men and 51 per cent women consistent with the French population). All 219 dimensions provided satisfactory internal reliability (Table I). The same questionnaire was administered to a new sample of 225 students. A free associations task was carried out with 125 students.90 0. A preliminary cluster analysis was carried out to identify different styles of brand identity. “can you describe brand X as if it was a character?”. Items with an inter-item correlation and with a saturation index lower than 0. 1971).71 0. Confirmatory factor analyses were then performed scale by scale.84 0. only 43 items remain in the BII.

Social orientation Friendly Warm Trusting 4.741 0. Leadership Leader Switched-on Modern 2.77 0.810 0. Hedonism Freedom Pleasure Open to new experiences 4. Usefulness Safety Quality 2.78 0.64 0.802 0.781 0.817 0.878 0.797 0.700 0.87 0.59 0. Emotional stability Rational Realistic Note: The BII was translated from French to English.764 0.63 0.731 0. by a bilingual English native linguist 220 .691 0. Dynamism Active Dynamic Fit Sporty 3.865 0.82 0.621 0.782 0.817 0. Stimulating Brand X enables the consumer to improve his performance Brand X allows you to excel 2. for the needs of this paper.82 0.60 0.938 0.69 Brand personality 1.779 0. Domination Brand X tries too hard to impose its style on the consumer Brand X features too much on products Brand X tends to think “he/she” is a star User image 1.820 0.58 0.59 0.750 0. Friendliness Friendly Pleasant Nice Brand values 1.Can brand identity predict brand extensions’ success or failure? Catherine Viot Journal of Product & Brand Management Volume 20 · Number 3 · 2011 · 216 –227 Table II Confirmatory factor analysis of the brand identity inventory The brand identity inventory Factorial weights Joreskog coefficient 0.690 0.84 0.782 0.764 0.65 0.649 0.890 0.721 0.692 0.61 0.84 0.713 0.796 0.77 0.685 0.702 0. Competence Dynamic Effective Sporty Technically-minded 3.58 0.81 0.56 0.723 0.59 0.832 0. Educational Brand X likes to explain things to the consumer Brand X likes to share its know-how with the consumer Brand X gives good advices 3.53 0. Social orientation Environmentally friendly Generosity Respect for others 3.692 0.85 0.760 0.77 0. Pride Show-off Proud Showy 2.63 0.74 0.780 0.759 0.769 0. Ethics Honesty Fairness Commitment Relationships 1.707 0.813 0.56 Average extracted variance 0.70 0.784 0.626 0.

05). Nike and Rebook. a graphic analysis (hierarchical classification) was carried out to determine the number of clusters. Lafuma is a more typically French brand with different categories of products like camping furniture.2 Sample and procedure Our prediction on brand identity effect and on brand extension attitude was examined using a 2 £ 2 £ 4 factorial 221 6. Among the ten brands. to 6 – very coherent). We finally verified that the BII respected the second-order structure proposed by Kapferer (1997).76 48 54 0. two pilot studies were carried out in order to identify different styles of brand identity. the personal and the social dimensions of brand identity were correlated.834 212. Dynamic cluster analysis is equivalent to the K-means method used by Homburg et al. while in the second model. First. Salomon is leader in sports involving sliding (ski.069 0. on the one hand. In the first one. was carried out. In the second stage.98 33 35 0.073 0. A list of 48 extensions was obtained. the degree of coherence with the social dimension of brand identity was evaluated. the differences between the one-factor model (chi-square ¼ 2501. Two models were tested. Nike and Reebock. 1973) was carried out in order to specify the profile of the groups and assign observations to clusters. Two styles of brand identity emerged from the cluster analysis. It can be underlined that extensions rated as congruent with Nike and Reebok.693 . mutually. for example) while in the second group.087 TLI 0. tents.172 0.919 30. on the other hand. including the four scales.920 Values Tested model Constraint model Personality Tested model Constraint model User image Tested model Constraint model Relationships Tested model Constraint model 209. A total of 61 subjects aged between 18 to 25 years were asked to propose new products or services for each brand. the four dimensions of brand identity were related to a second-order variable called brand identity. According to this procedure. two weeks later. the degree of coherence with brand identity. two brands were selected in each cluster for the following stage. Tested models always fit better than constraint models (Table III). In the first group. First. loadings were all statistically significant ( p . The twofactor model fitted better (RMSEA ¼ 0:046). Then. The dendrogram displays the existence of two distinct groups. for example).059 0. Extensions perceived as similar by more than two experts were discarded from the list. coherent extensions with Lafuma and Salomon (paragliding equipment and first aid kit for outdoor sport) were perceived as not coherent with Nike and Reebok.1 Pre-tests Prior to the final experiment. ten experts were asked to judge the similarity with prior products of each brand for the 48 extensions scenarios. Rossignol and Salomon. The cluster analysis was based upon the mean score of the 41 items of the BII for each brand. They were given the mean score obtained. To limit memorisation effects. experts evaluated the degree of coherence with the personal dimension of brand identity on a six-point scale (from 1 – not at all coherent. a reduced list of 20 extensions was obtained. a second-order factor analysis. 0. In this alternative model. This analysis confirms the two-second-order structure of brand identity. snowboard and in-line skating). for each brand and for each extension. A cluster analysis was carried out Table III Discriminant validity BII dimensions Chi-square 204. Study 2 – Test of hypotheses 6. shoes and back-packs. apparel. by the same experts and in the same conditions.078 0. correlations between latent variables are restricted to one. Besides. (2008). Selection of brand extension scenarios The second pre-test aims at generating brand extension scenarios for the four brands. If Nike and Reebok are well-known brands all around the world.5 (Table III).951 0. the performance of fit indexes of the tested model is compared to the performance of fit indexes of a constraint model. 6.01 663.24 17 20 0. The measure used was the square of the Euclidian distance with Ward’s aggregation method. df ¼ 764) were statistically significant ( p . To establish discriminant validity. After this task. Lafuma. by each brand on the personality and values items.991 0.and outdoor-oriented. select brands for the following stage and generate and select brand extension scenarios. hiking equipment. Extensions highly coherent with Nike and Reebok (deodorant and sport clubs) were perceived by experts as not coherent with Lafuma and Salomon and.135 0. brands are more social-oriented and more ethical (Decathlon. sport clubs like fitness and weight-training rooms.48 380. ethical.25 353. experts evaluated. a dynamic cluster analysis (Diday. 0.954 0. we followed the method suggested by Anderson and Gerbing (1988). in study 1.52 Degrees of freedom 36 42 RMSEA 0.05). brands are fashionable and selforiented (Fila. df ¼ 765) and the two-factor model (chi-square ¼ 2375. In this constraint model.83 602.949 0. Then. The average extracted variance for each factor was above 0.029 0. paragliding equipment and first aid kit for outdoor sports. Moreover. and Lafuma and Salomon. were self-oriented and fashionable while products congruent with Lafuma and Salomon were more social-. brand personality and brand values were related to a secondorder variable representing the personal dimension of brand identity and relationships and user image to another secondorder latent variable representing the social dimension of brand identity. Four scenarios of brand extension emerged from this pilot study: deodorant. with the same ten sport brands. Identification of different styles of brand identity and selection of four brands The purpose of the first pre-test was to identify brands with different styles of identity. were chosen because they were the most contrasting brands (Table IV).Can brand identity predict brand extensions’ success or failure? Catherine Viot Journal of Product & Brand Management Volume 20 · Number 3 · 2011 · 216 –227 Fornell and Larcker (1981) procedure. For this purpose.

The first factor was the degree of coherence between the extension and the parent brand (high vs low) and the second factor was the brand identity dimension (personal vs social).Can brand identity predict brand extensions’ success or failure? Catherine Viot Journal of Product & Brand Management Volume 20 · Number 3 · 2011 · 216 –227 Table IV Style of brand identity Second order brand identity dimensions Personal dimension of brand image Brand identity facets Brand personality Dimensions Pride Friendliness Competence Social orientation Hedonism Ethics Usefulness Leadership Social orientation Emotional stability Dynamism Domination Educational Stimulating Nike Reebok þ 2 þ 2 2 2 þ þ 2 2 þ þ 2 þ Lafuma Salomon 2 þ þ þ þ þ þ 2 þ þ þ 2 þ þ Brand values Social dimension of brand image Users’ image Relationships design. Attitude toward brand extension was measured by a sixpoint scale from 1 “not at all agree” to 6 “totally agree”. brands were presented in a different order.80 222 .811 0. Subjects evaluated extension consistency with brand identity on the same six-point scale (1 ¼ not at all coherent.6). Lafuma.and post-extension attitudes toward the parent brand were measured by a similar six-point scale. Pre-extension brand attitude was considered as a covariant. subjects indicated their attitude toward each brand on a six-point scale. p . A total of 175 questionnaires were correctly completed and analysed. Pre. In the first part of the questionnaire. Finally. in the second part of the questionnaire.887 0. Paragliding equipment was coherent with Lafuma (M ¼ 4) and Salomon (M ¼ 4:05) and incoherent with Nike (M ¼ 2:48) and Reebok (M ¼ 2:59). a scenario of brand extension – including a short description – was presented to respondents who evaluated the product. Lafuma and Salomon). subjects were asked to give their general opinion on the brand (post-extension brand attitude). Saturations 0.903 0. Deodorant was coherent with Nike (M ¼ 3:5) and Reebok (M ¼ 3:14) while incoherent with Lafuma (M ¼ 2) and Salomon (M ¼ 2:04).845 Cronbach 0.3 Results of study 2 Manipulation check Extensions rated as coherent during pre-tests were also considered as consistent in the final experiment. The third factor was the brand name (Nike.and post-extension brand attitude Product “X” under brand “A” is a good product I like product “X” under brand “A” I will probably buy this product Brand “A” is a good brand I like brand “A” I will probably buy brand “A” 0. Extraneous variables A covariance analysis revealed no significant effect of gender (F ¼ 0:769. Salomon) as a within-subject factor. Then. For each condition. In order to reduce memorization effects.844 0. p . affective and behavioural components of attitude (Table V). These two factors were between subjects. Each respondent evaluated the same extension (either deodorant. other brands were added as well as some questions about sport in general. familiarity with product category measured by the number of regular sport activities (F ¼ 0:213. Table V Extension attitude and brand attitude scales Variable Attitude toward brand extension Items 6. before being exposed to the stimuli (pre-extension brand attitude). Reebok. 200 subjects were randomly assigned to one of the four between subjects’ conditions.98) and order of brands (F ¼ 1:817. Reebok. or first aid kit) for the four brands (Nike. First aid kit for outdoor sport was coherent with Lafuma (M ¼ 4:11) and Salomon (M ¼ 4:23) but incoherent with Nike (M ¼ 2:18) and Reebok (M ¼ 2:08). in the third part. or sport club. 0. A multiple ´ comparisons of means post hoc test (Scheffe. or paragliding equipment. 0.945 0.07) on brand extension evaluation but a significant effect of pre-extension brand attitude. This measure included cognitive. 6 ¼ very coherent). p . Sport clubs were coherent with Nike (M ¼ 4:02) and Reebok (M ¼ 4:04) whereas they were incoherent with Lafuma (M ¼ 1:87) and Salomon (M ¼ 2:08). They were asked to complete a questionnaire. 0. 1953) showed that means differences were not statistically significant when comparing the same level of coherence and that they were statistically significant when comparing high versus low coherence conditions.87 Pre.

38 1.02 0.37 1.91 Table VII Attitudes toward brand extensions High Personal dimension of BI Paragliding equipment Mean SD Lafuma Salomon 3.94 1.27 Findings of this second study revealed that consumers prefer extensions that are coherent either with the personal dimension or with the social dimension of brand identity.1522 0.1486 0. Changes in brand attitude before and after extension were significant (F ¼ 8:970. was performed in order to investigate these hypotheses.000 0.4811 1. with pre-extension brand attitude as covariant.000 0.94 Social dimension of BI First aid kit for outdoor sports Mean SD 3.79 3.05 1.2813 Standard error 0.001. 0.02 Personal dimension of BI Deodorant Mean SD 2.1530 0.52 1.1549 0.129 0. Brand extensions are better accepted when they are congruent either with the personal or with the social dimension of brand identity (Tables VI and VII). p . Table VI Attitudes toward brand extensions High Personal dimension of BI Deodorant Mean SD Nike Reebok 3.24 Social dimension of BI Sporting clubs Mean SD 3.98 0.1583 0.000 0. Thus. 627. Lafuma. F ¼ 5.12 1. p .24 2.76 Low Social dimension of BI Sporting clubs Mean SD 2. 0.1165 21. Reebok.85 0. 0. p . ´ A multiple comparisons of means post hoc test (Scheffe. This factor explained 42 per cent of variance. Brand attitude before extension had a significant effect on brand extension evaluation for the four brands (Nike.1486 0.1542 0.15 1.8351 21.4811 0. F ¼ 6. showed that means differences were not statistically significant when comparing the same level of coherence while they were statistically significant when comparing high versus low coherence conditions (Tables VIII and IX).1549 Significance 0. Salomon) analysis of covariance. 0. F ¼ 4:237. H2 concerned attitude transfer between the extended brand and the brand extension. p . 1953).16 3.04 0.1542 0. p .3646 1.129 0.1165 0. The test of H3 was based upon the change in subjects’ attitude.000 0.001).1997 0. 0. Results showed that the coherence between one of the dimensions of brand identity and the brand extension had a significant main effect on consumer attitude toward brand extension (F ¼ 40:31. Reebok.95 0.351 2 – High coherence with social dimension 3 – Low coherence with personal dimension 4 – Low coherence with social dimension Note: While conditions 1 and 2 formed a first homogeneous group.000 0.39 3. 305.1997 21.02 0.01).8351 0.001) while the Low Personal dimension of BI Paragliding equipment Mean SD 2.000 0.14 2.Can brand identity predict brand extensions’ success or failure? Catherine Viot Journal of Product & Brand Management Volume 20 · Number 3 · 2011 · 216 –227 Test of hypotheses H1a and H1b concerned the expected effect of coherence between brand identity and brand extension.1583 0. A 2 (high vs low coherence) £ 2 (personal vs social brand identity dimension) £ 4 (brand name: Nike.90 Social dimension of BI First aid kit for outdoor sports Mean SD 2.31 1.21 2. p .02. Reebok. Lafuma.000 0.62 2. F ¼ 3:776.3646 1.96 ´ ´ Table VIII Sheffe test of multiple comparisons of means: multiple comparisons of means (Scheffe test) (I) Condition 1 – High coherence with personal dimension (J) Condition 2 3 4 1 3 4 1 2 4 1 2 3 Means differences 20.1522 0.2813 20. conditions 3 and 4 formed a second homogeneous group (Table IX) 223 .32 0.44 3. A second analysis of variance was then conducted with the same factorial design: 2 (high vs low coherence) £ 2 (personal vs social brand identity dimension) £ 4 (brand name: Nike. Salomon) but the dependent variable was the change in brand attitude instead of attitude toward brand extension.001 and Salomon. We first calculated the difference between the preand the post-extension attitude toward the parent brand.351 0. Thus H1a and H1b are supported. 0. H2 is supported. Lafuma.000 0.1530 0.43 0.

19 0.78 0. p .40 2 0. a multi-dimensional construct. P 5 0. This may be explained by the fact that new extensions for brands such as Nike and Reebok – which are already widely stretched – are probably much further from original categories than new extensions for Lafuma and Salomon Standard deviation 0.81 3. In prior literature.014 1.63 0.72 1. Our findings provide a number of precise contributions on either brand identity measure or consumers’ evaluation of brand extensions.00 2 0.013 2. (2010) proposed to use brand personality associations.014 1. 1963) 0. perceived fit was estimated by mono-item measures (McInnis and Nakamoto. Affect transfer occurs in all conditions (high and low coherence with the personal or with the social dimension of brand identity).67 0.014 1.35 2 0. a unilateral test was carried out.89 0.82 0.86 T value.014 1. the emphasis was on products rather than services (de Ruyter and Wetzels. Results were more mitigated for Lafuma and Salomon. a t-test was conducted to determine if means differences were statistically different to zero. 2000).23 1.05 2. Table X Reciprocity effects Brand Nike Extension Deodorant Sporting club Paragliding equation First aid kit Deodorant Sporting club Paragliding equation First aid kit Deodorant Sporting club Paragliding equation First aid kit Deodorant Sporting club Paragliding equation First aid kit Means difference 2 0. Batra et al.39 0.013 2.019 2. sport clubs were service extensions and it seems that our conception of perceived fit is also helpful to launch new services.06 Reebok Lafuma Salomon 224 . we offer a more structured conception of perceived fit based upon brand identity that allows a better understanding of brand extension success or failure.61 0.21 0. Our findings also showed that pre-extension brand attitude impacts consumer attitude toward the brand extension but independently from the degree of coherence.43 2 0.91 2. is relevant to estimate coherence between the extended brand and the brand extension.86 0.33 3.21 2 0.63 interaction effect of coherence was not significant (F ¼ 0:589.94 1. 1991) or by few brand associations (Broniarczyk and Alba.84 0. Thus.1 Theoretical implications The main theoretical contribution concerns the perceived fit between the parent brand and the brand extension.16 0. The null hypothesis was always rejected for Nike and Reebok. in high coherence conditions (Table X).87 0.68 Sample size 42 47 46 40 42 47 46 40 42 47 46 40 42 47 46 40 Critical T value 5.26 3.65 1.26 2 0.41 2 0. 1994). Brand identity provides a more accurate estimation of the fit that can be based upon attributes related to brand personality and brand values – the personal dimension of brand identity – or associations related to relationships and users image – the social dimension of brand identity.684 2.74 3. a negative reciprocity effect may occur even if brand extensions are coherent with brand identity.34 0. In prior research. First of all. More recently.31 2 0.019 2. only sport clubs (incoherent with the social dimension of brand identity) had a negative impact on the parent brand while. 0. H3a and H3b are not supported. We offer a more complete conception of perceived fit based upon brand identity. 1990.019 2.45 2.19 ns 0.85 0. for Salomon.17 ns ns ns ns ns 0. Since all differences were negative or equal to zero.07 2 0.013 2. under certain conditions.77 0.019 2.Can brand identity predict brand extensions’ success or failure? Catherine Viot Journal of Product & Brand Management Volume 20 · Number 3 · 2011 · 216 –227 ´ Table IX Sheffe test of multiple comparisons of means: means for each group Groups Coherence condition Sample size 46 40 1 2.684 v2 (Hays.51 2 0.00 0.14 2. 7.31 2 0. Discussion We investigated the relevance of brand identity to better understand brand extensions’ acceptation by consumers. Our findings suggest that.19 0.20 2 0.684 2.2). consumers prefer brand extensions that are coherent with either the personal or the social dimension of brand identity.013 2.. For Lafuma. Park et al.42 2 Low coherence with: Personal dimension Social dimension High coherence with: Personal dimension Social dimension 42 47 3. Little is known of extensions from tangible products to intangible services.62 0. Prior research showed that brand can be damaged by incoherent extensions. We then demonstrated that brand identity is useful to better predict acceptance of brand extensions: indeed. only first aid kit (coherent with the social dimension of brand identity) conveyed to a dilution effect.62 2 0.58 4. Theoretical and managerial implications and limitations of these findings are now discussed. denoting a dilution in low and. more surprising.24 1. To refine these results.84 0.20 0.44 2 0.684 2.20 7.91 0. we showed that brand identity.98 3.64 0.78 0. More precisely.12 0.56 3. In the final experiment.

. K. 3. back-packs. 6. Fornell. “Dimensions of brand personality”. Vol. treadmills. Hillsdale.L. Indeed. soccer balls. Vol. D. and Loftus. Kennedy. Broniarczyk. running. pp. La Londe les Maures. paper presented at 4th International Research Seminar on Marketing Communications and Consumer Behavior. Journal of Marketing Research.3 Limitations and further research Although our study offers several important findings. It has been shown that students’ responses are more homogeneous (Peterson. The Free Press. Vol.W. 29. 27-41. swimming suits. (Eds). generally speaking. resistance balls. Journal of Marketing Research. DVDs. and Keller. 2. They can extend brands using personal or social attributes and choose extensions coherent with brand personality. tennis.. yoga gear. Lenk. D. This study needs to be replicated in different product categories and with more representative samples with high. and Misurell. Y. For managers. heart-rate monitors. Another limitation is due to the nature of samples. E. Advances in Consumer Research. and de Chernatony. E. wrist weights. No. “Consumers and their brands: developing relationships theory in consumer research”. References Aaker. Journal of Euromarketing.F. Buil. D. Finally.. “The role of corporate image and extension similarity in service brand extensions”. L. (2001). Batra. de Ruyter. . Evrard. pp. Vol. 299-304.. Vol. “Consumer evaluation of brand extensions”. bags. steppers. pp. Oxford. 2. pp. 225-37. (1975). It has been shown that the impact of fit on extension evaluation diminishes when product-related information increases (Klink and Smith. football. 64-73. our findings could be helpful for managers envisaging service extensions. (1973). “Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error”. P. 34 No. Vol. D. First. 21 No. R. Moreover. but our findings show that brand identity can help managers to take up this challenge. soccer. extensions were presented by a short description of products.2 Managerial implications Our findings can help managers to determine more consistent brand extensions when brands are already stretched. (1987). Lawrence Erlbaum. 335-45. Aaker. S.A. For example. (1994). D.. 347-56. hiking shoes. classic. (1998).and low-involvement consumers to gain in external validity. NY. Another explanation is that consumers may reach a saturation point with brands that are already widely stretched. Gencturk. J. C. whereas Lafuma’s products are limited to sport apparel. D. M. Psychological Review. P. “Brand extension strategy planning: empirical estimation of brand: category personality fit and atypicality”. Chang. S. Shipp. “From consumption functions to global value: an integrative framework”. J. Vol. From Brand Vision to Brand Evaluation. Boush. pp. 2. and Singh..W. Journal of Marketing Research. and Wetzels. Brand Leadership. sunglasses. “Structural modeling in practice: a review and recommended two steps approach”. “The dynamic cluster method and sequentialization in non hierarchical clustering”.. “The brand personality component of brand goodwill: some antecedents and consequences”. Brand Equity and Advertising. pp. 407-28. 4.A. Lehmann. without pictures. (2002). G. exercise bikes. 214-28. 18 No.). pp. 103 No. Collins. and Alba. 2001). pp. shoes (golf. tents. Anderson. 71-88. garden furniture and sleeping bags. K. 83-96. (1988). it is quite difficult for managers to estimate the similarity between products’ features and services’ features while brand identity may prove to be more relevant to determine the degree of coherence between the parent brand and the service extension managers are thinking of. the importance of perceived fit between the parent brand and the brand extension may be overestimated. R. Reebok offers apparel (classic and sport). S. pp. I. Aaker. J. Batra. weight benchers. (1990). Aurier. Martinez. Journal of Economic Psychology.. 82. (2001). (1979). 1. D. Rapport de Recherche INRIA. and Gerbing. Fournier. and Biel. the BII can be used in further researches to identify complementary brands. Vol.. Psychological Bulletin. Vol. (1981). (1997). Minshall. A. B. Because of this lack of information. and Wedel. 47 No. A. Vol. Vol. 26. Journal of Consumer Research. “Brand extension effects on brand equity: a cross-national study”. Crockett. pp.C.. Psychology and Marketing. it may prove more difficult to find new extensions when brands are already widely stretched. and Larcker.Can brand identity predict brand extensions’ success or failure? Catherine Viot Journal of Product & Brand Management Volume 20 · Number 3 · 2011 · 216 –227 brands which are less extended. brand values. can also be helpful in co-branding strategies. This limitation was counterbalanced by the fact that subjects were assigned to only one condition of coherence. young people are more greatly involved when considering sport and sports goods’ brands compared with older people. “A paradigm for developing better measures of marketing constructs”. pp. This lack of information may also increase the affect transfer. New York. E. Vol. B. 7. 39-50. Diday. 2001). Churchill. Journal of Marketing Research. 4 No. L. (2000). (2009). (2010). “The importance of the brand in brand extension”. Our estimation of perceived fit. D. 24 No. Vol. 18. 1. de Chernatony. E. We thus limited the risk of overestimation of coherence that can occur when the same respondent evaluates coherent and incoherent brand extensions. relationships or user image. G. and N’Goala. 3. 225 Note 1 Details of the final scales are presented in Table II. E. pp. “Will a family brand image be diluted by an unfavourable brand extension? A brand trial-based approach”. it should be noted that the conditions of the experiment involve some limitations.M. NJ. based upon brand identity. S. E. Journal of Marketing. 54 No. “A spreading activation theory of semantic processing”. Nike and Reebok offer a wider range of products compared with Salomon and Lafuma. 343-73. (2000). Loken.F. “Affect generalisation to similar and dissimilar brand extensions”. basketball etc. (1993). Indeed. 639-59. pp. pp. J. 7. 16. D. M. gloves. in Aaker. and Joachimsthaler. 411-23. Journal of Marketing Research. Butterworth-Heinemann. 31 No.. mineral water etc.

Brand extension typically involves attitudes and associations connected with the parent brand being transferred to the new product. Investigations claim that transfer is facilitated by various “psychological mechanisms” and success depends on how well the new product is deemed to match existing products and/or the parent brand. 4. J. Thorndike. image and equity of an established brand. Vol. 18 No. 25-9. and de Chernatony. Upper Saddle River. 10-11. CA. pp. K.fr Executive summary and implications for managers and executives This summary has been provided to allow managers and executives a rapid appreciation of the content of this article. Vol. pp.T. F. “Statistical analysis of sets of congeneric tests”. 133-54. Pearson Education. (1967). Vol. Rinehart and Winston. E. Journal of Economic Psychology. 9 No. Hays. pp. person concepts and product concepts”. Malhotra. H. (1967). attitude transfer from extension to parent brand is likelier to be negative. D. B. pp. London. (1953). 18-34. H. 3. Measuring. Vol. Volckner. Vol. Peterson. J. Kerby. (1962). Y. 17. 92 No. pp. (1997). W. “Social categorization as a function of latitude of acceptance and series range”. University of California. “Self concept and product choice: an integrated perspective”. “Diluting brand beliefs: when do brand extensions have a negative impact?”. ´ Scheffe. Different studies have found that attitude is transferred between parent brand and new extension. (2003). “The role of theories in conceptual coherence”. “Brand franchise extension: new product benefit from existing brand names”. Journal of Marketing Research. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology. Coherence between an extension and its parent brand is deemed most important and evidence suggests that consumers will respond more favourably to an extension product when fit between the two is perceived as high.. J. AZ. Vol. working paper. Vol. 4 No. R. C. pp. Journal of Marketing Research. Murphy. Psychological Review. 28 No. pp. Vol. Polo. 237-47. 3. 573-605. pp. (1984). pp. 3. pp. 4. 87-104. pp. 1. 183-5.-N. Catherine Viot can be contacted at: viot@u-bordeaux4. Martinez. “Semantic generalization in the formation of consumer attitudes”. Holt.L.L. 326-35. 314-7. Vol. But some researchers point out the brand extension success cannot be guaranteed either. Milberg. 72 No. (1991). and Krohmer. (1985). Osgood. (1990). 2. (2006).L. The propensity for brand extensions to impact on the parent brand has been noted by many researchers. In the opinion of Viot. Journal of Advertising Research. 67 No. . 27-31. Psychometrika. a positive attitude towards a new product is likely to enhance the equity of the parent brand. “Evaluation of brand extensions: the role of product feature similarity and brand concept consistency”. (2001).L.K. (1975).. (2008). “Effect of brand extension strategies on brand image: a comparative study of the UK and Spanish markets”. “A consistent error in psychological ratings”. Journal of Applied Psychology. working paper. The American Psychologist. Klink. 40. fit is perceived to be stronger. C.G. Journal of Marketing. Biometrika. E. Plummer. H. Failure rates for new products are considerable and brand extensions enable firms to combat this problem by exploiting the awareness. (1971). D. Strategic Brand Management. Business Horizons. D. O. Vol.. W. 70 No. (1963). 4 No. Those with a particular interest in the topic covered may then read the article in toto to take advantage of the more comprehensive description of the research undertaken and its results to get the full benefits of the material present. Park. (1981).K. NY. pp. About the author Catherine Viot is a Research Fellow to the E-commerce and Retail Chair of BEM Bordeaux Management School.L.A. (2008). When consistency is evident across single or multiple features. D. 3. and Mervis.C. “Family resemblances: studies in the internal structure of categories”. Vol.Can brand identity predict brand extensions’ success or failure? Catherine Viot Journal of Product & Brand Management Volume 20 · Number 3 · 2011 · 216 –227 Fry. pp. pp. “On the use of college students in social science research: insights from a second order metaanalysis”. Statistics for Psychologists. K. (1920). E.M. and Medin. C. Malhotra. S. (2001). 57 No. Vol. Journal of Consumer Research. “Family branding and consumer brand choice”. and Nakamoto. 107-37. G. Journal of Marketing. pp. “Threats to the external validity of brand extension research”.R. and Smith. K. and Managing Brand Equity. Vol. New York. Vol. (1988). 2. 1-28. 3. and Roedder John. 25. McInnis.K. 24 No. 39 No. pp. Keller. International Marketing Review. “Drivers of brand ¨ extension success”. Fit can be based on attributes that are concrete or abstract in nature and is often symbolic. pp. “Examining factors that influence the perceived goodness of brand extensions”. 3. Thus. Journal of Consumer Research. The reverse is likewise true. “A method for judging all possible contrasts in the analysis of variance”. pp. Rosch. NJ. 226 Tauber. (1981). Vol. Loken. “A scale to measure self concepts. 456-64. 36 No. 2.E. Berkeley. R. Vol. 71-84. N. Vol. 289-316. Vol. 24 No. (1963). N. Journal of Marketing. 36-41. “How personality makes a difference”. and Sattler. University of Arizona. “Configurations of marketing and sales: a taxonomy”. A growing number of organizations regard brand extensions as one of the most effective branding strategies. Kapferer. Kogan Page. L. and Lawson. J. Journal of Marketing Research. (1993). 450-61. There is likewise a view that support for brand extensions is likelier when consumers already hold a positive attitude towards the parent brand. Joreskog. Sherif. In the absence of perceived fit. 148-56. pp. 6. pp. R. 18 No. Journal of Marketing Research. 2. “Studies in the generality of affective meaning systems”. Homburg. Jensen. Tucson. Managers consider this approach less risky than launching a new product under a new and therefore unknown brand name. Strategic Brand Management: Branding. Vol.N. It is consequently assumed that attitude is moderated by perceived fit in that consumer attitude will probably be more positive towards extensions that are regarded as coherent with the parent brand.C. 109-33. C. 2. 2. E. Academic efforts to better understand and exploit symbolic fit have adopted various approaches.

which is further divided into personal and social aspects. Four of these facets are incorporated within several other models and are therefore selected for the current study. Ensuing analysis confirmed a structure of brand identity incorporating both personal and social elements. . Since Nike and Reebok compete in a wide range of product categories. By comparison. snowboarding and other sports where “sliding” is involved. consumer response to an extension is influenced by their pre-existing attitude towards the parent brand. More generally. User image. ´ (A precis of the article “Can brand identity predict brand extensions’ success or failure?”.Can brand identity predict brand extensions’ success or failure? Catherine Viot Journal of Product & Brand Management Volume 20 · Number 3 · 2011 · 216 –227 brand identity warrants closer consideration.) To purchase reprints of this article please e-mail: reprints@emeraldinsight. Lafuna is described as a “more typically French brand” with a presence in various product categories. Personality. The premise here is that a brand possesses a set of values that shape its behaviour and reflect its unique culture. The 140 associations generated were subsequently allocated to one of the four brand identity dimensions and used to create a questionnaire. This dimension concerns the set of human traits that supposedly define the brand’s typical users. An exercise was conducted in the first study to identify associations for each of the brands. but the author believes that a focus on brand identity can help. Supplied by Marketing Consultants for Emerald. That the selected brands all relate to sporting activities is believed to justify using student samples in both studies. A pre-test was first carried out to ascertain different brand identity styles. which exist between the individual and the brand. relationships or user image. Viot concludes that. It is claimed that the brand enjoys an active role in the relationship. Relationships. Participants were also asked to indicate their attitude towards the brand both before and after exposure to the extension scenario. Salomon is a leading brand within skiing. such a problem is likelier for these brands. while the social element is represented by relationships and user image. The study suggested that a negative impact on parent brand equity is possible even with extensions that are coherent with brand identity. Lafuma and Salomon have a limited focus.com/reprints 227 . Analysis of the 175 responses indicated that: . . deodorant and sport clubs were regarded as coherent with Nike and Reebok. . Different conceptualizations of the construct prevail and essentially reflect the various associations a marketer will generate for a brand in order to project a specific meaning and differentiate it from rival offerings. resulting in extensions that are distant from original categories. personal or social brand identity dimension and one of the four brand names. She additionally believes that brand identity helps to better predict which extensions will be accepted. contrary to expectation. Subjects and experts participated in a second pre-test to create brand extension scenarios for the four chosen brands. Samples of 280 and 225 were presented with the questionnaire and respectively asked to evaluate two and five of the ten brands. Brand identity can also help managers introduce service extensions that fit parent brand perceptions. New products or services were proposed and evaluated to ascertain their degree of fit with the personal and social brand identity dimensions. Another idea is to replicate the study using different product categories and more diverse samples that include high and low involvement consumers. one scholar proposed that brand identity is composed of six dimensions. Analysis revealed two groups. while the latter was represented by Lafuma and Salomon.com Or visit our web site for further details: www. evaluation of a brand extension is likely to be more positive when coherence is perceived between the new product and the personal or social aspect of brand identity. . Future exploration of the importance of perceived fit might experiment with the amount of product information provided. while paragliding equipment and first aid kit for outdoor sports were considered a match for Lafuma and Salomon. with brands being either “fashionable and self-oriented” or “more social oriented and more ethical”. values. One suggestion here is that certain brands become too “widely stretched”. Of the four extensions ultimately selected. French university undergraduates participated in the second study in which various hypotheses were explored. Values. she recommends extensions that cohere to personal or social brand identity dimensions in terms of personality. Nike and Reebok were chosen to characterize the first group. Marketers face a challenge is succeeding with extensions when brands are stretched widely. through attributes linked to its personal or social dimensions. and . The dimensions are: . The literature regards personality and values as the personal aspect. the perceived match between the brand extension and either the personal or social brand identity element did not influence any post-extension changes in attitude towards the parent brand. The aim of the first study is to validate brand identity using ten brands that are well-known in France.emeraldinsight. Subjects in the main study were assigned to a scenario involving high or low coherence between extension and parent brand. Research has established these dimensions as the “most salient facets” of brand identity. In order to explain how competing brands differ from each other. Two studies are carried out for the present work. determined by the human characteristics attributed to a brand. brand identity enables greater accuracy in estimating how a new product fits the parent brand.