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COMMENTS ABOUT The book "Atacama

by Claude Michel Cluny, printed in 2000, as part of Stendhal Missions of France Foreign Affairs Ministry, which contains a series of lies, because it contradicts the historical truth. The history of colonial and republican Spanish America has said that the Department of the Litoral of Bolivia was the former province of Atacama, that belonged to the Inspection of Potosí, bounded on the north with Peru in the parallel 21°28’ where is the Loa River, and south with Chile in the 25°28' where is the river Salado. Beginning in 1874, the southern boundary was changed to 24° parallel. All the tissue of lies contained in the book have been corrected by the civil engineer and analyst of History Jorge Edgar Zambrana Jiménez. "ATACAMA : ESSAY ON THE PACIFIC WAR 18791883" ; This reference book, one that is full of lies, was published in 2000 by the publisher E.L.A. La Différence from France, as part of the Missions Stendhal, authored by Claude Michel Cluny, poet, novelist, essayist , editor, art critic, specialized in geopolitical issues with Latin American countries, winner of the Grand Prix of the French Academy in 1985 and the Prix Guillaume Apollinaire. There is the translation to Spanish of the year 2008 by the Fondo de Cultura Económica, Mexico.

We have been deprived of our independence which is an inalienable and indefeasible right. Just as the principle of family life is the soil and territory. those who are making the effort of industrialization. they tend toward the sea. Such an act is beyond the powers of a government and even the national convention. Aggression and "victory" is not a legitimate source of law and is only a brutal disregard of moral values. which was the real valve of our life. even for all great nations’s industry what encourages is the sea. The nature of democratic thought prevents to accept that our country is subject to another by reason of the invasion and piracy with military force. and this only can be achieved effectively with their own and sovereign ports to the sea. and . The Treaty of 1904 has committed a violation of this fundamental right. and should be considered outside the scope of the operations of man. they have usurped and reduced our territory. repudiated by reason and the universal community. It is categoric in the era of global trade. that no country can achieve any degree of self-determination but in exchange with the trade. because we have been completely isolated from the sea and with a character of the surrounding nations’s fiscal dependency. their alienation is so severe that it leaves the common life and ordinary people. The territory is the first and most sacred of national priorities.In Bolivia. The international community disapproves and annuls all treaties that directly affect the independence of peoples.

1900. occupation. spit on our faces the famous scathing attack unprecedented in the annals of American diplomacy. we . The Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs says they are "victory laws" . Our "rights" are born of brute force and aggression triumphant. the supreme law of nations. ¿They call "laws" the AngloChilean corruption? . the filibuster aggression. The Ambassador of Chile to La Paz. The litoral of Bolivia is rich and worth law does not recognize the conquest. ¿They casually refer as “victory” the premeditated aggression against a defenseless country?. They sing from the rooftops that "it is a done deal forever and they owe nothing. by brute force. of the territory of others. August 13. depredation and the current domination of our coasts. by military force and violence that has forced under duress to sign an unequal treaty of 1904 is unacceptable and illegitimate. with the same title which the United States took Puerto Rico. nor anything like restore one of our ports.. which has been seized with the same title as Germany annexed the French provinces of Alsace and Lorraine. and can not be forced to do something.. we already know. saying: "The old Bolivian sea is and always will be Chilean. The Republic of Chile has the illusion that they has buried the maritime law of Bolivia and that the same was placed under the gravestone that laid our seaports and our river Lauca." The invasion.

with a commitment that no one can open the output without the consent of the other. Germany through its Chancellor Prince Otto von Bismarck has had the arrogance to tell them "Let that Chile seize the fruits of their victorious assault. " At that time. Each time a new Chilean consul arrive in present government in La Paz. assign any presense a third power in the territories under their respective sovereignties. without calling Bolivia for this purpose. have signed the Treaty of Amity and Delineation in which specified that the governments of Peru and Chile can not without prior agreement between them. and our interest is in its conservation." and sent a mission to Chile to advise on a restructuring of its armed forces. it is incongruous that in 1929. when France and Italy protested against injustice and Chilean expansionism and threatened to intervene in the conflict. the Bolivian press naive and stupid asks. and they are on sentry duty. Chile has not and is not bound to anything. Thus. let alone restore a port to Bolivia. conspired with the attacker in closing us behind the Andes.keep it because it is worth. which. in Articles 34 and 35 provides: . Chile and Peru. "What do you think about restoring a port to Bolivia?" And an aggressive new spitting soon comes: "Bolivia can have all the ambitions you want. the country which has been our allied during the war. but not the Law of the Sea"! Similarly. This contradicts the 1968 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties between States.

The "domain" that Chile imposed in the Treaty of 1904 is not supported by any law but by brute military force of a standing army and financed with money against the ravages of ours mines Chuquicamata and La Escondida. which prevents to Bolivia in a practical way to enforce their property rights according tu justice. The cloistering of Bolivia claims quick repair. The boundaries of the nineteenth century made with bayonets and guns."A treaty between two states can not force a third State without its express written consent. intensive exploitation of resources and wealth of others and continuing illegal occupation and domination for 132 years. we must make them again in terms of a modern and dynamic world. can not live forever mutilated." Bolivia. existing territorial aggression and usurpation by force. The ninth transitional provision of the new Constitution of the State of Bolivia order to denounce the treaty of 1904 which violates the inalienable right of the Bolivian state to exercise its full sovereignty over its coastline. closed. This treaty has no legitimacy because instead of solving . This is a colonial problem. The Bolivian nation proclaims its maritime reintegration as an essential attribute of sovereignty. the favorite daughter of Bolivar. Recovering of our sea will rediscover the maritime destiny of our state and save it from falling into the trap of a useless "corridor" without sovereignty and property. development and progress. pillaged. stagnant and chained to the rope by which it was reduced with the implacable injustice under the treaties of 1904 and 1929 in violation of the geography and history.

Duty and honor requires nations of the need to protest in the name of civilization and even the human race against a country that violates sound principles of law and equity. just as the conquest by brute force. has worsened the halter in Bolivia. and therefore the cloistering remains as an international injustice. Being quiet. only to learn that Pierre de La Gasca. Claude Michel Cluny. could overcome the gaps in knowledge and especially the extension of its insolence and chilenofilia . as the French poet laureate. Some international analysts of historical facts of the Pacific War 1879-1883. invasion and usurpation. ecclesiastical and political. Do not fall into the folly to believe that crimes of a nation are washed by time and it is wise to forget them. which reflects and compares imprudent and shameless on the art of war and political practices and strategic nations that were part of this conflict. the President of the Audiencia of Lima and Plenipotentiary of the King . consulting official documents and history of Spanish colony. observing neutrality is to become complicit in the attack’s robber. obscuring rather than clarifying the reasons for and details of the invasion of Chile.the problems arising from the theft of our Chilean coast. One can not speak of a union of South American Nations [UNASUR] without justice for Bolivia and clear you can not ignore the atrocious wickedness of the people who shut up his brother and was inducted into the corrupt politics in America and that appeals only to the injustice and weapons for them. a partner of both immorality and treachery.

which states that : ". and is bounded on the north by the province of Atacama that belongs to Upper Peru." Chilean educators would be helpful to read the Almanach of the Republic of Chile. thirty miles north of Copiapo River.. French scientist Alcide d'Orbigny discovered large deposits of guano in Cobija and Mejillones. Salado and Taltal). 1824 edition. Chilean students are brainwashed with false teaching that "Chile has invaded in 1879 to regain their territory" and that "Bolivia has never had a sea. distorting history and disseminating lies in the way of Pinochet: 1) that Bolivia has never had the sea (they forget that in the treaty of 1866. and .of Spain. being the boundary between both the Salado River. La Difference publishers in France and the Fondo de Cultura Economica in Mexico. Coquimbo Department occupies the northern tip of the Republic. so do not lie and write the book "Atacama: Essays on the Pacific War. four centuries and a half ago set up the current limit. " In 1830. until 1866. 2) that Bolivia has usurped the territory of the Viceroyalty of Chile (it seems that in France and Mexico. we have given them a free degree and a half of our environment geography and two more ports.L.A. ratified by the Treaty of 1874... 1879-1883" under Mission Stendhal published by E. between New Extremadura (now Chile) and New Toledo (now Bolivia) in the Salado River (Paposo) at 25°28’ south latitude. they casually refer a simple captaincy as viceroyalty) 3) that such encroachment was done with the help of Simon Bolivar (Chile is believed that the Liberator is his compatriot since they dare call him an "usurper").

dictating an absurd law of property of the Bolivian guano and by holding plunder our wealth between the years 1842 and 1866. and caused. It was really a British war against Bolivia and Peru. the armored ships the most perfect ever built so far from the Anglaterre shipyards for the Chilean Navy. but they did it because the support of the British capital. Given the impotence and neglect of our government to protect our coasts. first. on this occasion. the attack took place with aggression and usurpation of the Department of the Coast. In 1841. invading the territory twice during the Confederation of Peru and Bolivia. for the first time. and then. with Chile as the instrument. giving rise to conflicts. Chilean president Bulnes heard this news and in 1842 passed a law declaring arbitrary and arrogantly chilean property territory south of latitude 23°. carrying the best rifles. The treacherous and outrageous aggression and invasion of the Bolivian coast ensemble was performed by Chile in 1879 to break our land with an army with funding from England. The government of Santiago since 1837 followed a conspiracy in different ways to usurp our coast. formerly known as Provincia de Atacama. Chile claimed entitlement to a portion of that territory. The Chilean country alone never would have invaded. machine guns and cannons of that time. afterwards. a border dispute.foresaw the enormous importance of this fertilizer as a source of wealth tax for Bolivia. the Bolivian government of President José Ballivián granted a concession to French investors to the export of guano for Europe. Aggression was organized for the purpose of plundering . Chile and Bolivia lived in perfect peace until we discovered the richness of Bolivia in the Department of Coastal desert of Bolivia.

and continued until the end of 1881 in Bolivia had ravaged the country of the shortage. 1879. lack of water and the plague. ¿What the saint. Intentionally. suddenly the crime was consummated against Bolivia and violating the international law of nations by invading our port of Antofagasta on February 14. Bolivia had not a single ship and was unarmed of resources of the war. A severe drought that occurred during the years 1877-78. killed by starvation. typhus. and half Chile. After the confrontation. smallpox. and deliberately preconceived forty years earlier. where 90% of buildings collapsed and were destroyed by the tsunami that followed. the Department of Litoral of Bolivia became "temporarily occupied" by the war. the use of force was used cutting the border area of the departments of . with famine. every day they picked up many bodies. primarily Cobija. armed only with dignity and pride and mounted without military equipment and stripped of equipment and supplies to a military campaign. was to meet his treacherous and criminal assailant.and looting. after 1904. With a secret plan. The nation was in a state of total collapse. the occupation was replaced with the "domain". when England takes a half. dysentery. became a territory under "absolute and perpetual dominion" by Chile?. In addition. and in that trance of deep crisis and bitter. yellow fever and plague. on behalf of the same interests which England took control of India. disorder and still affected by the consequences of the terrible earthquake that destroyed on 8/May/1877 the coast ports. according to the Truce Pact of 1884.

the Chilean army decided. robbing by way of the exercise of brute force. on their own. the legal agreement has been violated again by Chile through military invasion of our port in Mejillones 1847 with his corvette "Esmeralda". The American Congress in Lima in 1848 reinforced the principle of uti possidetis of 1810 for all countries of Spanish origin.Potosi. With the Treaty of 1904. Chile has usurped the territories captured. raped by Chile in 1842 by usurping the guano at port Mejillones in Bolivia. in the knowledge. to stay on our shores. and seeks to move from dominance to "owner". the upper river Lauca was then improperly diverted and its flow decreased in the upper and sent to Arica by a tunnel. The American Covenant held in Washington in April . that no State may impose to another an everlasting waiver of territory and independence. Chile has violated this principle with the military invasion of the Department of Coastal Bolivia. while the reason is not imposed against force. by international law. South America can not have integration within a geographic area of development for exemplary relations stability. The Meeting of the International Congress in Paris in 1856 entered the new international law and does not recognize the "conquest" to dominate by military force in foreign territory. The Congress of Panama in 1826 lifted the legal principle of uti possidetis. Oruro and La Paz. Second.

However. The nation that has made such transfers shall be entitled to demand his return. war against the Mexico in 1847. Arizona. after they discovered more hidden mines. stripped of its ports essential for effective conservation and their own autonomy and independence. compliance with this Covenant. so in this case we would also have to change many borders in the world. California. by means of arbitrary military occupation of the Department of Litoral in Bolivia. The Chilean government has argued that if Chile would restore to Bolivia the territory usurped in the coast. not to mention the usurped in Peru. reaches the fabulous sum equivalent to 4 elevated to the 12 power in dollars of the year 2011. Nevada. an annual . " Chile prevents. in which the Aztecs were stripped of the vast territory of Texas. Wyoming and New Mexico. Mexicans do not claim. Bolivians claim because the invasion has left Bolivia without direct communication with the sovereign sea.S.1890 found that "the theory of the conquest will be repudiated by the American international law and is not recognized and is considered null and void any transfer of territory made under threat war or in the presence of armed force. Utah. Only the Peruvian and Bolivian copper worth their cost in the XXI century. Income earned by Chile exploiting Bolivian Litoral intentionally since the time of the fratricide attack in 1879 until the late twentieth century. and gives as an example the case of the U. It is equivalent to 29 times what was taken by Spain from Potosí in 300 years of colony. Colorado.

Today would have us believe that these water is an international river. We are . and earn profits until today by selling the one hundred percent of the flow. Carmen Alto. all in the territory of the former Department of the Coast of Bolivia. the weakness and poverty is growth. Sierra Gorda. The only solution against the delay. Baquedano. so have engaged in unlawful violence and arrogant by exploiting our water without paying. with the weakness of the Bolivian army. the cloistering of Bolivia leads to capital flight each year toward Chile of 400 million dollars for the costs of "free passage" tax. However. It should be added the debt by the diversion and abuse of the Lauca River for irrigation and power generation in Arica. O'Higgins. Prat. the Chilean government. Cerritos Bayos. economic and social development.income of forty two billion dollars. which is essential for the recovery of our coasts. of which 10% destined for the army. intended to offset from today only 8000 dollars a day when they usufruct profits of one hundred thousand dollars every day and do not want take over a century old debt that achieves four billion dollars. for which they built underground channels and gatherers a storage tank in the territory of Bolivia and across the border they have a wastewater treatment plant to sell drinking water in cities Calama. In addition. and half the water they use for the mining company that operates Chuquicamata copper usurped by the invasion of 1879. usurped a century ago four hundred gallons of water per second of water source in Silale which is in the Canton Province Sud Lipez Quetena Department Potosi. Antofagasta and Mejillones.

That America and the world know that Bolivia is no longer willing to continue to endure in silence the humiliating situation. We hope this clarifies the Bolivian intelligence officials to analyze and review the international policy of our Department of Foreign Affairs. Enough euphemisms and honeyed phrases courtesy of the protocol. without first resolving the issue of sovereign and proprietary ports for Bolivia. cultures.therefore forced to increase our economic power quickly. carry the development of mines. is the key to our prison chains that stop our progress. agriculture. as a nation. We must industrialize. South America longs for peace and the rule of integrated development. and keep the money accumulated surplus in the country and prevent the growth of external and domestic debt. tourism. guilty of our geographical cloistering. social behavior. a bird without wings. education. The Bolivian state has to enforce its maritime law on the diplomatic scene. In addition. gas. so that all states reaches a more or less balanced. as is the case in EEC. We can not continue being. and therefore the outstanding issue with Chile automatically become multilateral. so as to eliminate the current state of semicolony dependent on both Chile and the great powers. so the national budget programs have productive investment and infrastructure. Chile. . the independence of Latin America can not be achieved on the basis of continental integration in the economic field.

This unresolved issue is really a pot on the fire. Cobija and Tocopilla. that Chile has an iron lid to think it has ever declared its dominium to Bolivia. which continues to impose its false arrogance with barbarian contempt for human rights of Bolivians and their future. must give way to the defense of the great ports needed. We can not accept an illegitimate claim to a corridor that belongs to Peru. only to break his lungs vitals built with great sacrifice by Bolivians during its first fifty years of the Republic. as in this case. The Bolivian people never stop to think about the release of its ports. which is simply a mirage treacherous. which will always be a source of patriotic inspiration for future generations. without presents as the geographical corridor north of Arica. Bolivians are unworthy to exist if we want to abdicate our instinct to seek the recovery of our legitimate maritime ports. What made Chile to Bolivia has no precedent in world history. Current Diplomacy. especially Mejillones and Antofagasta. but the steam is rising point and . Mejillones. these ports are Antofagasta.The community of nations and international bodies should require the solution of our cloistering by Chile. heir to the sinister grip of Charaña between Pinochet and Banzer. which has arbitrarily deprived Bolivia by the devastation made by Chile. being the safest and most beautiful of the southern coast of Bolivia and Peru. No State has sentenced to asphyxia to another in a prison. Multinational Congress of Bolivia is to reform the Constitution to amend section 267. and affirm the inalienable and imprescriptible right of Bolivia to ports that have been usurped by the invasion of 1879.

. the problem is sent to the International Court of Justice to find a satisfactory solution to restore to Bolivia its sovereign and useful territory in this side of the Pacific Ocean where we are right Bolivians to invoke the legal principle of "first occupation" from the Rio Salado (also called Paposo) up to the mouth of the Loa River. The above observations were made by Jorge Edgar Zambrana Jiménez Civil Engineer. Analyst of history and economics. had no autonomy. belonging first to the coast of Tiwanaku state and the district Collasuyo of the Inca Empire. a wild territory of Araucania. In contrast. and finally. Chile (formerly Nueva Extremadura). and by order of the viceroy of Peru was raised in a lower condition of colonial captaincy still administered by the Viceroyalty of Peru until 1810. for unless.ends all blow to smithereens. then to become independent Audiencia of Charcas. in a constructive spirit of Americanism. as a dependency of the Audiencia of Lima and supported by resources from the source of the Cerro of Potosí silver. in 1825 Republic within limits unchanged.