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Rev. sci. tech. Off. int. Epiz.

,

1991, 10 (3), 609-627

Environmental problems of aquaculture in Asia and their solutions
S.N. C H E N *

Summary: During the past decade aquaculture has expanded very rapidly in Asia. Extensive, semi-intensive and especially intensive systems are currently in use. These systems require careful management to avoid deterioration of the environment and mass mortality of cultured species. Taking shrimp culture as an example, the author discusses the major environmental factors which affect the health of aquatic species. Solutions to the various problems are also discussed. KEYWORDS: Aquaculture - Asia - Crustaceans - Environmental pollution Fish farming.

INTRODUCTION

Aquaculture comprises extensive, semi-intensive and intensive systems. Extensive systems require no input of feed or fertiliser, and the stocking density is low. Their success depends upon adequate exchange of tidal water a n d a natural food supply. Semi-intensive systems utilise limited amounts of feed or fertiliser and, except in tidal waters, a p u m p e d water supply and aeration systems. Intensive systems are also equipped with adequate water pumping and aeration facilities. The success of semi-intensive systems is also dependant u p o n a natural supply of feed, while intensive systems rely mainly on exogenous formulated feed. Extensive culture in Asia includes seaweed, coastal bivalves (e.g. mussels, oysters, clams), coastal fish (e.g. mullet, tilapia, milkfish) and crustaceans (shrimps and crabs), all kept in pens or cages (e.g. carp and catfish) immersed in eutrophic water. Semi-intensive systems utilise ponds of fresh or brackish water for fish (carp, catfish, milkfish, mullet, tilapia) or crustaceans (shrimps, p r a w n s , crabs, crayfish), or an integrated agriculture-aquaculture pond system, or culture in cages or pens (e.g. catfish, tilapia, milkfish, snakehead, carp). Intensive culture takes place in controlled areas of fresh or brackish water, or in marine ponds for shrimps, catfish, snakehead, grouper, sea bream, sea bass, mullet, tilapia, milkfish, carp, etc. There are also cages and pens in fresh, brackish or sea water for carnivorous fish (e.g. grouper, sea bass, sea bream) and omnivorous fish (e.g. c o m m o n carp, black carp).

* Department of Zoology, Institute of Fishery Biology, National Taiwan University, N o . I Roosevelt Road, Section 4, Taipei, Taiwan 10764, R.O.C.

000-100. because this type of aquaculture has expanded considerably during the past decade. With the increased use of higher stocking densities and greater pond areas. Capacity for fish or shrimp production is governed by the quality of the fry and stocking densities. intensive units are increasing rapidly. their findings were based on short-term experiments. However. For successful management it is important to consider the ecological equilibrium of culture p o n d s . Capacity of the environment is governed by the quality of water and soil. 3. There are m a n y books a n d articles on the environmental factors involved. WATER QUALITY The ability of organisms t o grow in ponds is determined by correct management of water quality. Asia produces over 8 0 % of all aquaculture products. but it varies with the species cultured. semi-intensive a n d intensive systems.610 Stocking density is the key criterion for classifying culture systems. and is becoming the dominant region for aquaculture (20).000 individuals per hectare. Aquaculture is recognised as the fastest expanding sector of food production. T h e culture of shrimps in Asia will be taken as a n example of environmental constraints. who summarises the environmental and social constraints arising from extensive. and relationships between environment and health of aquatic animals have been reviewed by Braaten and Hektoen (4). According to Huguenin and Colt (9). and further research is needed to establish safety levels for each factor. . which is the key factor in successful aquaculture.000 individuals per hectare. For example. it is impossible t o provide a detailed account. In the case of milkfish. Because the environmental constraints of aquaculture are complex and variable with the system used. carrying capacity is determined by certain environmental factors. 2. 9). the environmental impact of the aquaculture industry has become m o r e important. an extensive system would have less t h a n 30. in the case of penaeid shrimps. a density of 20.000 per hectare would be intensive. a n d because its economic and social benefits are being eroded gradually by environmental degradation. These authors specified the water quality required for the screening process a n d production (Table II).000 and an intensive system more than 100. Although Asian aquaculture still relies on extensive and semiintensive production. P r o d u c t i o n in aquaculture is governed by the capacity of the organisms and the capacity of the aqueous environment. a semi-intensive system 30. summarised in Table I. There are various reports of criteria for the quality of fresh and sea water ( 1 . Culture systems employed in Asia a n d the Pacific. The environmental impact of aquaculture and benefits for producers in Third W o r l d countries have been reviewed by Pullin (18). The former is expressed as the maximum number of individuals which can survive and grow under optimum environmental conditions.

etc.heavy metals .trace metals and speciation Organic compounds .carbon dioxide .611 TABLE I Sea water properties affecting (9) carrying capacity Physical parameters Temperature range (daily and seasonal variability) Salinity range (tidal and seasonal variability) Particulates (solids) .nitrogen compounds .total annual incident energy .nitrogen .size concentration Colour Light .total gas pressure . and increases susceptibility to pathogens (2).quality of light . A d e q u a t e oxygen m a y be supplied by aeration systems (air p u m p s .biodegradable .composition (organic and inorganic) .oxygen . and there should be at least six one-horse-power wheels per hectare.hydrogen sulfide Nutrients .phosphorus compounds .biocides Biological parameters Bacteria (type and concentrations) Virus Fungi Others Dissolved oxygen in p o n d water is a critical factor for fish and shrimps. T h e n u m b e r a n d a r r a n g e m e n t of p a d d l e wheels is crucial for p r a w n culture.photoperiod (daily cycles) Chemical parameters pH and alkalinity Gases . W h e n low.non-biodegradable Toxic compounds . it reduces appetite and growth rate.artificial or natural . .).intensity of radiant energy . p a d d l e wheels.

2 .9-8. 25). gases and other chemicals is dependant on p H (19. and free ammonia may occur. According to Swingle (23).1 to 40°C 1-40 g/kg < 3 Mg/1 < 2 5 Mg/1 < 3 Mg/1 < 100 Mg/1 < 0 .0 or 9.0 within six hours) resulted in mass mortality.5 to 9.2 to 7. The toxicity of a m m o n i a is due to the free. A m m o n i a ionization is dependant upon p H . Investigations of the effect of p H on shrimp larvae have shown that an abrupt fall (from 8.0. 4 .0-6.005 Mg/1 < 5 0 Mg/1 < 2 Mg/1 < 2 Mg/1 < 10 Mg/1 < 1 Mg/1 as H S 2 < 1 Mg/1 <7. A m m o n i a and nitrite.9-8.0. Various factors influence the p H of rearing water. little or no feeding 2 Nitrite Dissolved oxygen (except for plants) Total gas pressure Carbon dioxide (except for plants) Hydrogen sulphide Chlorine residual pH Temperature Salinity Metals (total) Cadmium Chromium Copper Iron Mercury Manganese Nickel Lead Zinc < 0 .612 T A B L E II Preliminary water quality screening and production for marine applications (9) Screening level < 1 ftg/1 N H 3 levels Parameter Ammonia (except for plants) Production level -N < 1 Mg/1 N H 3 -N research < 10 Mg/1 N H 3 -N production < 4 0 Mg/1 N H 3 -N holding. The toxicity of certain heavy metals. the end products of protein breakdown. 1 0 Mg/1 N 0 > 6 mg/1 < 2 0 mm Hg 2 -N > 9 0 % of saturation < 76 mm Hg 5 mg/1 C 0 2 < 1 0 mg/1 C 0 2 2 2 /ig/1 as H S 10 /ig/1 7. un-ionized form NH3 whereas the ionized form ( N H ) is of low toxicity to aquatic animals (21). growth was poor in fish kept at p H 4. 0 0 5 ixg/\ N 0 -N < 0 . are important parameters of water quality. 1 Mg/1 < 2 5 Mg/1 < 5 Mg/1 < 4 Mg/1 < 2 5 Mg/1 Optimum pH for fish or shrimps ranges from 6. Poisoning seldom occurs in ponds of low (acid) p H . but unfortunately the rearing of fish and prawns requires an alkaline p H . The success of aquaculture may depend on maintenance of a stable p H in culture p o n d s . but it remains an important indicator of water quality for fish or shrimp culture.2 Depends on life stage and species Depends on life stage and species < 1 Mg/' < 10 Mg/1 < 1 Mg/1 < 3 0 0 Mg/1 < 0.0-11.

2 31 15±2 5+1 ¡1 ± 3 100 Z3 31 8. may harm cultured fish and crustaceans. 7). Only a few micrograms per litre (ppb) of an organophosphorus c o m p o u n d or a nanogram per litre (ppt) of a pyrethroid can cause mass mortality among cultured shrimps after brief exposure.3 31 109± 17 47 ± 9 27 ± 1 78 ± 5 Stages M3 32 7. Heavy metals (such as mercury. Gracilaria) and certain bacteria (Tables IV and V). copper.g. These concentrations can be reduced by using an air-lifting technique or by introducing plants (e. but they are extremely toxic to crustaceans. Mercury and cadmium are the most toxic.92 + 0.04 ± 0 . cadmium and zinc) and their compounds commonly occur in industrial wastes.1 ± 0 . including prawns and shrimps (26). 1) has been established.16 5.6 29 ± 2 3470 ± 4 7 260 ± 4 7 92+15 21 ± 9 Z : Postzoea stage The presence of hydrogen sulphide ( H S ) at just 1 /µg/1 may result in mass mortality.7±0.005 6. To ensure normal growth and survival of shrimp larvae. 0 1 6. 10. TABLE III Effect of water quality on the survival of Penaeus m o n o d o n larvae in hatcheries Items for detection Water temperature (°C) pH Dissolved oxygen (ppm) Salinity (%o) Ammonia-N (ppb) Nitrite-N (ppb) Hydrogen sulphide (Ppb) Survival rate N: Nauplius Mage N6 31 8. This procedure has been used successfully by some prawn farmers in Taiwan.613 Nitrite ( N O 2 ) is also toxic to penaeid shrimps and to fish (2. 21). copper .97 + 0. Copper and zinc are less toxic. but they are capable of inhibiting growth and lowering resistance to pathogens (5.6 + 0. In Asia. pesticides and heavy metal c o m p o u n d s . Table III shows how the survival rate of shrimp larvae declines with increasing concentrations of a m m o n i a and nitrite. and they are toxic for aquatic life. O r g a n o p h o s p h o r u s and pyrethroid insecticides are relatively non-toxic to fish.84±0.4 30 471 ± 9 2 7 8 ± 16 39±4 62 ± 7 P3 32 7.17 5. a safety factor for ammonia concentration (Fig. 2 T w o groups of pollutants. Nitrification by Nitrosomas and Nitrobacter bacteria converts ammonia into nitrite.24 5.0±0. The toxicity of Cypermethrin and methylparathion for shrimps (Tables VI and VII) highlights the need to avert pesticide contamination of crustacean cultures.7 29± 1 1365± 154 140 ± 3 2 63 ± 6 35+11 P: Postlarval stage P6 32 7. A temporary remedy against H 2 S in pond water is the spraying of mud containing a ferric c o m p o u n d ('red m u d ' ) .10±0. and this may be useful in the management of prawn hatcheries. and then into non-toxic nitrate.8±0.

8 6.00 30.10 11.0 24 h 8.0 4.0 5.00 8.70 7.5 4.80 31.00 EDTA + air-lifting 4.1 A l l observations were made between 9:00-10:00 am .00 2.00 N D : not detectable compounds (e.g.00 . 5.4 1. 2.00 ND 48.00 Air-lifting 4.00 8.1 24 h 0.40 ND ND 36.0 4.00 ND 21.80 31.614 TABLE IV Water quality after treatment using various techniques Treatment Items for detection Control EDTA 8.00 8.50 ND ND 16.00 30.1 0.00 ND 53.9 1.00 22.8 6. and this procedure has been used widely in hatcheries in Asia.2 0.00 3.00 28.05 6.5 3.2 7.07 6.40 ND ND ' 22.8 2. Excessive use of these c o m p o u n d s may retard growth and increase susceptibility of fish and crustaceans to pathogens (unpublished results). TABLE V Ammonia and nitrite contents before and after introduction in pond water of Gracilaria N H -N (ppm) 4 N 0 -N (ppm) 2 o Before 2 (ppm) After 1 h Exp.2 8.07 6. no.0 7.4 0.1 0. Before 1 h After Before 1 h 4.20 4. 3.0 1.00 ND 18.00 0.0 1.80 31.00 36.3 6.00 4.80 31.2 2.00 11.80 ND ND 35. The concentration of heavy metals in water can be reduced by adding the chelating agent E D T A (disodium ethylenediamine tetra-acetate) at 1-5 p p m (Table IV).00 Sum of solid (mg/1) Water temperature (°C) pH Dissolved oxygen (ppm) Salinity (% ) Ammonia-N (ppb) Nitrite-N (ppb) Hydrogen sulphide (ppb) Fe (ppb) Mn (ppb) Cu (ppb) Zn (ppb) Cd (ppb) Hg (ppb) Pb (ppb) 0 10.00 16. 35.00 1.8 1.00 11.9 After 24 h 0.00 30.00 13.07 6. the sulphate) are commonly used to control phytoplankton bloom.10 27.0 6.00 30.00 12.80 2.00 1.00 8.

particularly shrimp culture. leading to deterioration of the b o t t o m of p o n d s .001 or less 1 pptr or less .000 5. m o n o d o n postlarvae in a 24 hour test in 20 litre Control tanks showed no mortality (26) Concentration ppm/ppb/pptr Mortality aquaria. Time % 100 100 100 100 100 100 0 < 10 min < 10 min < 10 min <1 h <4 h <24 h 24 h 10.000 500-1 0.615 FIG. 2). l S a f e t y p a r a m e t e r s f o r a m m o n i a c o n c e n t r a t i o n in w a t e r in e a c h d e v e l o p i n g s t a g e o f Penaeus monodon l a r v a e in h a t c h e r i e s E f f l u e n t f r o m culture p o n d s A q u a c u l t u r e . Because intensive systems use high-protein feed to meet the nutritional needs of the cultured animals.5-0.005 10 ppm 5 ppm 1 ppm 500-1 ppb 500-10 pptr 5 pptr 0. dissolved feed or degraded feed remnants a n d excrement become pollutants. is confined to certain areas in Asia (Fig. Lack of governmental planning and regulation has resulted in overcrowding of farms.01 0. Pollution by effluents of low water quality has become a serious problem in areas of intensive TABLE VI on survival Effect of a single addition of Cypermethrin (µg per litre) of P.000 1.

616 FIG. The physical. T h e general objective of water . chemical and biological properties and contaminants of effluent from intensive ponds are summarised in Tables VIII and I X . It is therefore important t o establish standards for discharged water. The increased demand in quantity and quality of water for aquaculture has drawn attention to procedures for recirculating the water. T h e effluent of one unit may be p u m p e d in by a neighbouring unit. resulting in disease and reduced productivity. 2 Intensive shrimp culture ponds in Asia culture. and to develop ways of overcoming the problem.

carbohydrates and fat from uneaten feeds and/or metabolites Applied in ponds for predator control Interaction among biological and chemical constituents of water and soil Decomposition of organic matter from uneaten feeds. viruses from diseased shrimp in ponds Biological constituents Planktonic organisms Pathogens B O D : Biochemical oxygen demand Source: Asia Shrimp News. leaching of inorganic substances from soil Decomposing organic matter from uneaten feeds and metabolites Uneaten feed particles. dead plants and animals Antibiotics applied in ponds for disease control or incorporated in feeds. m o n o d o n postlarvae in a 24 hour test in 20 litre aquaria. disinfectants. algal population. composed mainly of proteins. 1st quarter. scoured soil particles Chemical constituents Organic: Oxygen-demanding waste (BOD) Pesticides Inorganic: pH Total nitrogen Phosphorus Gases: Other drugs and chemicals Biodegradable organics. Control tanks showed no mortality (26) Concentration ppm/ppb 5. other chemotherapeutic substances Phytoplankton and Zooplankton flourishing in ponds Bacteria.617 TABLE VII Effect of a single addition of methylparathion (µg per litre) on survival of P . detritus. metabolites Decomposition of organic matter. chemical and biological characteristics of intensive shrimp pond Cause effluents Characteristics Physical properties Colour Odour Solids Decomposing organic matter. 1991 . coagulated/flocculated products of dead organisms and/or inorganic particles.000 500 150-90 50 30 15 10 or less 5 ppm 500 ppb 150-90 ppb 50 ppb 30 ppb 15 ppb 10 ppb or less Mortality % 100 100 100 100 100 100 0 Time < 1h <1 h <2h <4 h <9h <24h 24 h TABLE V I I I Physical.

7 9 % were resistant to one or more antimicrobials. including chloramphenicol. and Edwardsiella. such as Gracilaria s p . The introduction of plants. Among strains of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from eel ponds in Taiwan. lst quarter. biodegradable organic matter and suspended solids. Poor environmental conditions or bad management may increase the susceptibility of fish to a pathogen. 1991 treatment is to control the amounts of total a m m o n i a . Formaldehyde. sulphonamides (sulfamonomethoxine. Certain bacterial diseases. Oxytetracycline. such as vibriosis. 17). pseudotuberculosis. causing septic conditions Can lead to the development of sludge deposits and aerobic conditions Diseases can be transmitted by pathogenic organisms When discharged into the aquatic environment. chloramphenicol. All of these diseases occur in ponds in a deteriorated environmental condition. pathogen and environment. most pesticides cannot be naturally decomposed in the environment Sonne: Asia Shrimp News. these lead to the growth of undesirable aquatic life Presence of antibiotics in the environment can lead to resistant strains of bacteria. Diseases of fish and prawns can be prevented by good management of the environment. Therapeutic substances commonly used to control these diseases are antibiotics (Chlortetracycline. brackish or sea water in Asia. can purify effluents rich in nutrients (14). . Various biological filtration systems have been used successfully (15. Frequent use of drugs has resulted in a high incidence of drug resistance among pathogenic bacteria isolated in Asia. biological stabilisation leads to depletion of oxygen resources in the receiving water body. Flexibacter coiumnaris and Aeromonas hydrophila infections commonly occur among fish kept in fresh. trichlorfon and copper sulphate have been used against parasitoses. DISEASES A N D THEIR CONTROL Most of the diseases of aquatic animals are multifactorial and are initiated by complex interactions of host. so that polluted water can be purified and used again. although it is necessary for a specific pathogen to be present. streptococcosis. In recent years various diseases of fish have occurred frequently under intensive management conditions in Asia.618 TABLE IX Contaminants Contaminants Biodegradable organic matter Suspended solids Pathogens Nutrients Other drugs/chemicals of concern in intensive shrimp pond Significance effluents If discharged at relatively high concentrations. 16. neomycin). . furazolidone). sulfadimidine) and furane derivatives (nifurpirinol. sulfadimethoxine. Vibriosis is the most serious bacterial disease of penaeid shrimps in Asia.

furazolidone. Certain drugs. The pond bottom may seriously affect the life of bottom-dwelling organisms. but also in a risk to h u m a n health from drug residues. such as prawns. and the p o n d soil is a secondary or generative environment which affects water quality. shrimps and crabs. carbon. drug residues in aquaculture products should be monitored. BOTTOM QUALITY Water quality is a major environmental factor in aquaculture. 3. H and C H may be released into the water from the pond b o t t o m . kanamycin and sulfadimethoxine. 5 & 6) are such that organic acids. The pond environment is governed by organic substances in the water and in the pond b o t t o m .619 Chlortetracycline.5%) of the strains isolated from eels were resistant to these antimicrobials (11). The metabolic pathways of organic c o m p o u n d s . The withdrawal periods for drugs vary with water temperature. 4. CO2. Nearly ail (98. but observance of a withdrawal period is still needed to guarantee that the product is free from residues. The use of drugs in aquaculture may result not only in pollution and increased bacterial resistance. N2 Sediment FIG. such as oxolinic acid and Oxytetracycline. 3 The fate of nitrogen in soil and water . have been recommended for bacterial diseases of cultured shrimps and fish. nitrogen and sulphate (Figs. 2 4 WATER Organic N NH4 Living organisms Food chain for bottom-feeding organisms N 2 Soil NH + 4 Organic N substances NO3- N-fixation bacteria NO Anaerobic bacteria 2 Organic N - N2O. T o protect human health.

620 CO3WATER H 2 CH 4 Organic acid HC0 ~ 3 Living organisms Organic matter C0 2 CH 4 C0 2 . 4 T h e fate o f c a r b o n in soil a n d w a t e r Organic substances in the p o n d b o t t o m p r o f o u n d l y affect the o x i d a t i o n . A m u d d y o d o u r is a s s o c i a t e d with the g r o w t h o f certain WATER Organic S H S 2 Living organisms SO 4 - Organic debris Soil H2S Organic S Anaerobic bacteria Sediment FIG.r e d u c t i o n potential o f s e d i m e n t . 7). Soil Bacteria Organic acid CO Debris 2 H 2 Anaerobic bacteria Sediment FIG. 5 T h e fate o f s u l p h a t e in soil a n d w a t e r . D e t e r i o r a t e d s e d i m e n t m a y p r o d u c e a m u d d y f l a v o u r in cultured a n i m a l s . a n d m a y lead to d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f b o t t o m quality (Fig. a n d m a y impair their quality.

Microbispora. 8. including species of Micromonospora. Nocardia. 7 ponds Deteriorated intensive culture (the photographs were taken after harvest) . 12). a n d Streptomyces Actinomyces. Nocardiopsis Actinoplanes. FIG.621 WATER Organic c o m p o u n d in suspended particle or living cell release absorb bio-decompose Free organic compound in w a t e r sediment suspend diffuse Soil biodecompose Organic compound or living cells Organic release compound in solid particles between t w o mud absorb particles FIG. 6 T h e fate o f organic c o m p o u n d s in soil a n d w a t e r bio-decompose fungi a n d b a c t e r i a in p o n d s for fish or s h r i m p s . Actinomadura. (6.

the water can be stabilised by adding fertiliser to obtain a good phytoplankton bloom with a water transparency of 30-45 cm.0 and below) ensure an adequate supply of clean water. inhibition of plant growth in the pond. resulting in heavy mortality of fish or shrimps. and diminished occurrence of the environmental diseases of fish and prawns. stabilisation of changes in water quality brought about by rapid temperature f l u c t u a t i o n s . 24). Certain phytoplanktons (Oscillatoria spp. G o o d p o n d d e s i g n : . excess p h y t o p l a n k t o n bloom may promote environmental deterioration. The advantages of plankton (particularly phytoplankton) bloom in water are: enhancement of dissolved oxygen. It is important to avoid water that is too clean and unstable. industrial or agricultural sources (particularly areas in which herbicides. the pumping system should take into account tidal variations the p u m p i n g system should have an adequate capacity .availability of sea or fresh water. impairing the quality of aquaculture products. Selection of a g o o d site: - avoid eutrophic areas avoid areas which produce hydrogen sulphide (especially in mangrove areas) avoid areas with soil containing peat. 22. At the beginning of culture.. h u m u s or pyrite — avoid areas polluted by domestic.) can produce an undesirable o d o u r a n d flavour (13. improvement of the conversion ratio of artificial feed. insecticides and other pesticides are used) avoid areas contaminated with toxic organisms . a source of feed. Microcystis spp. MANAGEMENT T o ensure successful management of intensive p r a w n culture and to decrease the occurrence of bacterial infections. 1.avoid areas which undergo abrupt changes in temperature or p H avoid areas with a low soil p H (4. stabilisation of water quality (with reduction in the toxicity of toxic pollutants). 2. However. the following are recommended.622 PLANKTON A N D THE ENVIRONMENT Maintenance of a proper phytoplankton bloom and growth of Z o o p l a n k t o n is important for fish and shrimp culture.

temperature.ensure adequate water exchange and mechanical aeration and circulation (6-7 paddle wheels or air jets per ha) . Establish an a p p r o p r i a t e s t o c k i n g d e n s i t y .5 m or more) . strong enough to allow the use of vehicles and to prevent flooding by heavy rain. to obtain a water transparency of 30-40 cm avoid clear water and an unstable aquatic environment. redox potential of the bottom. R o u t i n e m o n i t o r i n g o f w a t e r a n d the p o n d : . S t o c k larvae o f g o o d quality 5. N H 3 . 7. p H .623 - a large reservoir (approx. Maintain a stable p h y t o p l a n k t o n b l o o m : . 2 9. salinity. avoid adding large volumes of new water which may be of variable quality or may contain pollutants (allow new water to settle for a few days in the reservoir) improve eutrophic water by using biological procedures avoid pollution by appropriate treatment of discharged water avoid using unsuitable drugs and chemicals. G o o d p o n d p r e p a r a t i o n : - complete drying a n d liming of sediments . H 2 S . 4. M a n a g e m e n t o f w a t e r quality: .water colour. instead of flushing into a waterway or the sea avoid mixing inlet and outlet water.construction and sloping of dike walls. and a v o i d o v e r c r o w d i n g 6.avoid pollution by tilling and ploughing sediments u p to the dikes. proper feeding and water exchange .establish and maintain a plankton bloom. reduced feed wastage and improved productivity avoid pollution by not overfeeding pellets or fresh feed . preferably greenish brown. 30°7o of the cultured area) is desirable — proper design of gates for inlet and outlet of water sufficient water depth (1. turbidity. 8. dissolved oxygen. P r o p e r f e e d i n g p r o g r a m m e : — use pelleted or natural feed of high quality to achieve a low feed conversion ratio.to ensure a stable environment. N O .through fertilisation. 3.

2 2 Adoption of a given technology may prove to be a limiting factor for subsequent increases in productivity. an increase in the carrying capacity of ponds will augment the amounts of organic and inorganic products. To a certain extent the organic and inorganic substances can be discharged or mineralised with the aid of micro-organisms and additives. the blame should be attached to damage to the environment of the p o n d . hepatopancreatic impression smears. Treatment with drugs and chemicals: — as a first step. Keep records and encourage g o o d c o m m u n i c a t i o n s among the entire team. correct any primary environmental problem or management fault — accurate diagnosis before treating — treat only when necessary.m i c r o s c o p i c e x a m i n a t i o n of fresh p r e p a r a t i o n s of h a e m o l y m p h . 8) for fish and shrimps are more easily controlled than semi-intensive and extensive systems. gill m o u n t s .use drugs (particularly antibiotics) therapeutically instead of prophylactically at proper dosage and for a sufficient period . Early a n d accurate d i a g n o s i s o f disease p r o b l e m s 12. 14. Successful results are achieved with balanced ecological systems.624 regularly monitor feed consumption by using lift nets. 10.test bacterial isolates for sensitivity and resistance ensure an adequate withdrawal period. When this occurs. presence of food in the gut. and the capacities of the environment and the organism can be enhanced by adopting the technology described above. faecal strands . Intensive systems (Fig. These substances can be removed by changes of water and self-purification through aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. rather than to the occurrence of a pathogen. presence of obvious lesions — microbiology histopathology. NH3 and N 0 . 11. Place new stock in quarantine 13. and early in the course of the disease . However. R o u t i n e m o n i t o r i n g o f s h r i m p survival. by measuring weight and size after capture with lift or cast nets — visual appearance and activity (observed at night). Attempts to exceed the limits of nature and to degrade the environment should be resisted. Beyond this extent the life of cultured animals may be endangered by the presence of H . . Overstocking may result in disease and mass mortality. g r o w t h a n d health: — in the p o n d .

Academia Sinica. plants. 8 F l o w chart f o r intensive a q u a c u l t u r e systems ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 1 am grateful to Professor Dr Robert Lee.625 Environment (water resources) Pond Input feed or other exogenous materials (drugs and fertilisers. N H . this paper could not have been completed. soil and organic c o m p o u n d s FIG. * * . NO . Lecturer at the National Marine University. Vice-President.Bacteria Pollutant Anaerobic ( C H . H S) 4 3 2 Pollutant Aerobic ( C O . P . Dean of Academic Affairs. National Taiwan University for their kind support on my work. Assistance from my colleagues in the Asia Shrimp Culture Council (ASCC) is also gratefully acknowledged. 2 32O5 = SO = ) 4 Minerals. Liu. C . etc. Republic of China and Professor Dr Guang-Hsiung Kou.) Intake Dissolved or waste Intake Pollutant Waste products Cultured fish or p r a w n .) Living organisms (plankton. etc. Without the skilled technical help of Mr P .

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