1he Worklng Cell

•  Learnlng CuLcomes
–  Lnergy 1ransformauon ln blologlcal reacuons
–  Adenoslne 1rlphosphaLe (A1Þ) ls used Lo power
blologlcal reacuons
–  Pow enzymes work
–  1he sLrucLure and funcuon of Lhe plasma
membrane
–  1ransporL of molecules across Lhe plasma
membrane
–  Csmosls
WhaL ls Lnergy, exacLly?
Energy (n.) is the capacity to perform work.
1wo Laws Culde Lnergy 1ransformauons
•  llrsL Law of 1hermodynamlcs- ?ou cannoL
creaLe or desLroy energy.
!  Second Law- SOME of the energy used to
power reactions is lost as HEAT.
1wo Lhlngs can happen Lo energy ln a
blologlcal reacuon:
•  1. Lnergy can be S1C8Lu or...
•  2. Lnergy can be 8LLLASLu.


Endergonic Reaction Exergonic Reaction
WhaL ls A1Þ, and why ls lL called Lhe
cells unlL of currency?
Breaking off the last phosphate from ATP releases a LOT of energy!!!
What kind of reactions are NON-SPONTANEOUS, or REQUIRE ENERGY?
ENDERGONIC
A1Þ ls used Lo couple non-favorable reacuons
wlLh favorable ones.
The ATP cycle
Pow does A1Þ power Cellular Work?
Lnzymes!!!: 8uL ñrsL, an enzyme analogy
Lnzymes are Lhe cells caLalysLs.
8lochemlcal reacuons are sped up (caLalzyed)
by Lnzymes!
The Krebs Cycle AKA Citric Acid Cycle
Lnzymes caLalyze speclñc reacuons
WhaL facLors añecL enzyme acuvlLy?
•  1emperaLure (Lhlnk: Lhermal sprlngs bacLerla
vs. your guL bacLerla)
•  pP (Lhlnk: sLomach acld)
•  CofacLors- cerLaln molecules, lnorganlc or
organlc (coenzymes) LhaL an enzyme canL
work wlLhouL
Lnzyme lnhlbluon
Lnzyme lnhlblLors: deLrlmenLal and
Lherapeuuc
Membrane sLrucLure and funcuon
1he membrane ls acLually a ßuld mosalc
What are the various components of a plasma membrane???
WhaL do membrane proLelns do?
Enzyme
activity
Signal
Transduction
Transport
across
membrane
Pow do cells allow passage of
maLerlals lnLo and ouL of Lhe cell?
•  Þasslve LransporL
•  laclllLaLed dlñuslon
•  Acuve LransporL
•  Lndo- and exocyLosls.
Þasslve 1ransporL uoes nC1 8equlre
Lnergy Lo Move SoluLes Across a
Membrane
Þasslve 1ransporL
http://www.youtube.com/v/s0p1ztrbXPY
laclllLaLed ulñuslon requlres proLelns for
LransporL across Lhe membrane
Membranes are selectively permeable. They dont let just any solute in!
Csmosls: Lhe dlñuslon of P2C across a
selecuvely permeable membrane
http://
www.youtube.com/
v/sdiJtDRJQEc
WhaL eñecL does LonlclLy have on a cell?
Acuve LransporL across Lhe membrane requlres
energy
1. The solute binds
to the transport
protein.
2. ATP
phosphorylates the
transport protein.
3. The solute is
transported across
the membrane.
4. The protein is
dephosphorylated
and the transport
protein returns to
its open
conformation.
LxocyLosls and LndocyLosls LransporL Lhe
LA8CL MCLLCuLLS lnLo a cell.
http://www.youtube.com/v/U9pvm_4-bHg
Pow does a cell geL A1Þ? An lnLro
Lo cellular resplrauon.
Cellular respiration is how the cell obtains ATP from glucose and O
2
.
Respiration is comprised of: glycolysis, the citric acid cycle,
and oxidative phosphorylation.
Understanding the flow of electrons from glucose to power
ATP synthesis.
Understanding chemiosmosis as a gradient of electrons.
8esplrauon
DON’T BE MISLED by this picture!! All cells perform
respiration- they MUST in order to obtain energy.
8esplrauon: CvL8slmpllñed!
C
6
P
12
C
6
+ 6C
2
" 6CC
2
+ 6P
2
C
INPUT OUTPUT
WhaL klnds of enzymes perform
8LuCx reacuons?
BIG QUESTION: WHAT HAPPENS
TO THE ELECTRONS???!!!!
Cvervlew of 8esplrauon
ÞroLelns ln Lhe mlLochondrlal lnner
membrane funcuon ln A1Þ synLhesls.
Energy of
ATP: 7.3
kcal/mol
WhaL oLher membrane-bound organelle
conLrlbuLes Lo cellular energy?
ÞhoLosynLhesls reacuons
(overslmpllñed)
6CC
2
+ 6P
2
C " C
6
P
12
C
6
+ 6C
2

INPUT OUTPUT
ÞhoLosynLhesls: A Summary
ÞroLelns ln Lhe Lhylakold membranes funcuon ln
A1Þ synLhesls ln Lhe chloroplasL.
WhaL ls Lhe
relauonshlp
beLween
phoLosynLhesls and
resplrauon?
1he molecule A1Þ possesses whlch
klnd of energy?
A.  klneuc energy
8.  1hermal energy
C.  ÞoLenual energy
u.  Cellular energy
Whlch of Lhe followlng sLaLemenLs besL
descrlbes how enzymes funcuon?
A.  Lnzymes creaLe energy ln Lhe cell.
8.  Lnzymes caLalyze blochemlcal reacuons.
C.  Lnzymes creaLe A1Þ.
u.  Lnzymes lnhlblL blochemlcal reacuons.
Whlch of Lhe followlng modes of
LransporL of soluLe across
membranes doe nC1 requlre a
LransporL proLeln?
A.  Þasslve dlñuslon
8.  laclllLaLed dlñuslon
C.  Acuve LransporL
8educuon speclñcally refers Lo
A.  1he loss of hydrogen.
8.  1he loss of a proLon.
C.  1he loss of an elecLron.
u.  1he galn of an elecLron.
L.  1he galn of a charge.
uurlng cellular resplrauon,
A.  Cxygen ls consumed and sugar ls produced.
8.  Cxygen and waLer are consumed.
C.  Carbon dloxlde ls consumed and sugar ls
produced.
u.  Cxygen ls consumed and carbon dloxlde ls
produced.

A cell wlll lose waLer when lL ls
lmmersed lnLo a ________
envlronmenL.
A.  PyperLonlc
8.  PypoLonlc
C.  lsoLonlc