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You are on page 1of 3

**Scientiﬁc test : Mathematics
**

Exercise 1 : A few results on polynomial interpolation

Let f : [a, b] → R be a continuous function. Let n ∈ N, and n + 1 points x

0

< x

1

< < x

n

in

[a, b], all distinct, in increasing order.

1) Show that there is one and only one polynomial p

n

with degree less than n satisfying

p

n

(x

i

) = f(x

i

), i = 0, . . . , n.

2) We assume from now on that f is n + 1 times diﬀerentiable over [a, b]. Show that for any

x ∈ [a, b], there is a point ξ

x

∈ ] min(x, x

i

), max(x, x

i

)[ such that

f(x) −p

n

(x) =

1

(n + 1)!

π

n+1

(x) f

(n+1)

(ξ

x

),

where π

n+1

(t) :=

n

i=0

(t −x

i

). Deduce from this identity the upper bound

sup

[a,b]

[f −p

n

[ ≤

(b −a)

n+1

(n + 1)!

sup

[a,b]

[f

(n+1)

[.

3) Let R >

b−a

2

, and c :=

a+b

2

. We assume (only for this question) that f is deﬁned over ]c−R, c+R[,

and given there by a power series centered at c:

f(x) =

+∞

k=0

a

k

(x −c)

k

, for all x ∈]c −R, c + R[.

Show that for R large enough, the sequence (p

n

)

n∈N

converges uniformly to f over [a, b].

4) We assume (only for this question) that the points x

i

are uniformly distributed:

x

i

:= a + ih, h :=

b −a

n

.

a) Show that: sup

[a,b]

[π

n+1

[ ≤ h

n+1

max

s∈[0,n]

[s(s −1) (s −n)[

b) Using Stirling’s formula: n! ∼

√

2πn

n

e

n

, deduce from this inequality: there exists C > 0

(independent of n) such that

sup

[a,b]

[π

n+1

[ ≤ C

b −a

e

n+1

Deduce from this inequlaity an upper bound on sup

[a,b]

[f −p

n

[, better than the one given in 2).

c) Show that there exists c > 0 (independent of n) such that: sup

[a,b]

[π

n+1

[ ≥

c

n

b−a

e

n+1

.

5) We deﬁne, for n ∈ N, t ∈ R, T

n

(t) := cos(narccos t). Show that T

n

is a polynomial with degree

n, satisfying the induction relation

T

n+1

(t) = 2t T

n

(t) − T

n−1

(t), n ∈ N, t ∈ R.

1

Show that T

n

has n roots y

0

< y

1

< < y

n

in [−1, 1], all real and distinct. Determine these roots.

6) We assume (only for this question) that x

i

:=

a+b

2

+

b−a

2

y

i

. Show that sup

[a,b]

[π

n+1

[ =

2

b−a

4

n+1

, and deduce from this identity an upper bound for sup

[a,b]

[f −p

n

[, better than the one

given in 2).

7) Let R

n

[X] the set of all polynomials with real coeﬃcients and degree less than n. Show that

there is p ∈ R

n

[X] such that

sup

[a,b]

[f −p[ = inf

q∈R

n

[X]

sup

[a,b]

[f −q[

Such a polynomial p will be called a polynomial of best approximation of f.

8) We say that g ∈ C([a, b]) equioscillates on (k + 1) points of [a, b] if there are points x

0

< x

1

<

< x

k

in [a, b] such that

For all i = 0, . . . , k, [g(x

i

)[ = |g| and for all i = 0, . . . , k −1, g(x

i+1

) = −g(x

i

).

Show that if p is a polynomial of best approximation , it equioscillates on n + 2 points in [a, b].

9) Deduce from the previous question that there is only one polynomial of best approximation.

10) Show that there is a unique unitary polynomial p with degree n+1 which has minimal uniform

norm over [−1, 1] (|p| = sup

[−1,1]

.[p[). Determine this polynomial.

Exercise 2

Let K be a ﬁeld of characteristic diﬀerent from 2. Recall that a quadratic form (of ﬁnite dimension)

over K is given by a ﬁnite dimensional K-vector space V and a map q : V →K such that

i) q(λv) = λ

2

v for all λ ∈ K and v ∈ V ;

ii) the map q : V V →K deﬁned by (x, y) → q(x, y) =

1

2

q(x + y) −q(x) −q(y)

is bilinear.

Also recall that q → q is a bijection from the set of quadratic forms over K onto the symetric

bilinear forms. In the following, all quadratic forms will be non-degenerate, i.e., for all v ∈ V −¦0¦,

there exists w ∈ V such that q(v, w) ,= 0. An isometry between two quadratic forms (V, q), (V

, q

)

is a bijective linear map f : V

→ V

such that q

◦ f = q.

For all a

1

, . . . , a

n

∈ K − ¦0¦, we denote ¸a

1

, . . . , a

n

¸ the quadratic form deﬁned over K

n

by the

formula q((x

1

, . . . , x

n

)) = a

1

x

2

1

+ + a

n

x

2

n

. Finally we denote Q(K) the set of non-degenerate

quadratic forms of ﬁnite dimension.

Isotropic forms, isometries and orthogonal sum.

We write q

∼

= q

if q and q

are isometric.

1) Show that

∼

= is an equivalence relation on Q(K).

2) A quadratic form q is said to be isotropic if there exists x ,= 0 such that q(x) = 0. Otherwise, q

is said to be anisotropic.

a) Prove that for q ∈ Q(K), there exists x ∈ V such that q(x) ,= 0.

b) Denote H the quadratic form over K

2

deﬁned by H((x

1

, x

2

)) = x

1

x

2

. Show that any isotropic

quadratic form q ∈ Q(K) of dimension 2 is isometric to H and deduce that, for all λ ∈ K − ¦0¦,

one has H

∼

= ¸λ, −λ¸.

2

3) A basis (e

1

, . . . , e

n

) of V is said to be orthogonal for q if q(e

i

, e

j

) = 0 for all i ,= j. Prove that

for any quadratic form q ∈ Q(K), there exists an orthogonal basis (one can use question 2)a) and

consider ¦x¦

⊥

= ¦y ∈ V / q(x, y) = 0¦). Deduce that there exists a

1

, . . . , a

n

∈ K − ¦0¦ such that

q

∼

= ¸a

1

, . . . , a

n

¸.

4) Assume q(x) ,= 0. Prove that the map y → s

x

(y) = y − 2

q(x,y)

q(x)

x is an isometry. Deduce that if

q(v) = q(w) ,= 0, then there exists an isometry u from q onto itself such that u(v) = w.

5) Let (V, q), (V

, q

) be two quadratic forms in Q(K). Deﬁne a quadratic form q ⊥ q

: V V

→K

by the formula q ⊥ q

((x, x

)) = q(x) + q

(x

) for all x ∈ V, x

∈ V

.

a) Show that q ⊥ q

is in Q(K).

b) Show that if q

1

, q

2

, q

3

satisfy q

1

⊥ q

3

∼

= q

2

⊥ q

3

, then q

1

∼

= q

2

(one can argue by induction and

use question 4)).

II: Pﬁster forms and similarity factors.

Denote im(q) = ¦a ∈ K−¦0¦ / ∃x ∈ V q(x) = a¦ and Sim(q) = ¦a ∈ K−¦0¦ / aq

∼

= q¦.

1) Prove that Sim(q) is a subgroup of K−¦0¦ that contains all squares of K−¦0¦.

2) Prove that for all quadratic forms q, there exist a unique integer m and an anisotropic quadratic

form q

an

, unique up to an isometry, such that q

∼

= q

an

⊥ mH where mH = H ⊥ ⊥ H. (One can

use Part I).

3) Show that if q is isotropic, im(q) = K−¦0¦.

For all a

1

, . . . , a

n

∈ K−¦0¦ and all quadratic forms (V, q), we denote ¸a

1

, . . . , a

n

¸ ⊗q the quadratic

form a

1

q ⊥ ⊥ a

n

q over V

n

. A Pﬁster form is a quadratic form of the form

¸¸a

1

, . . . , a

n

¸¸ := ¸1, −a

1

¸ ⊗ ⊗¸1, −a

n

¸.

4) Show that for all a, b, λ ∈ K−¦0¦, one has ¸¸a, b¸¸

∼

= ¸¸−ab, a+b¸¸ and ¸¸a, b¸¸

∼

= ¸¸a, (λ

2

−a)b¸¸.

5) Let p = ¸¸a

1

, . . . , a

n

¸¸ be a Pﬁster form.

a) Show that 1 ∈ im(p) and deduce that there exists φ unique up to an isometry such that

p = ¸1¸ ⊥ −φ.

b) Let b

1

∈ im(φ). Prove that there exists b

2

, . . . , b

n

∈ K − ¦0¦ such that p = ¸¸a

1

, . . . , a

n

¸¸

∼

=

¸¸b

1

, . . . , b

n

¸¸.

c) Let x ∈ V be such that p(x) ,= 0. Show that p

∼

= p(x)p and deduce that Sim(p) = im(p).

III: Application to the level of a ﬁeld.

The level of a ﬁeld K is the least integer n(K) such that −1 is a sum of n(K) squares in K. If such

an integer does not exist, we set n(K) = +∞.

1) Compute the level of the ﬁeld Q of rational numbers, of the ﬁeld C of complex numbers, and of

the ﬁeld Z/pZ for p an odd prime number.

2) Prove that if n(K) is ﬁnite, then n(K) is an (integer) power of 2. (Hint: one can introduce an

adequate Pﬁster form and use Part II).

3

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