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The American Society for Ethnohistory

The Earth-Diver (Th. A 812) Author(s): Elli Kaija Köngäs Reviewed work(s): Source: Ethnohistory, Vol. 7, No. 2 (Spring, 1960), pp. 151-180 Published by: Duke University Press Stable URL: . Accessed: 01/07/2012 14:51
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(Th. K6ngas

A 812)

Indiana Earth-Diver, widely however. serves, distributed of this distribution Th. A 812,

University has been American referred Indian to as "the most myths." 1 The

of all North

myth extends far beyond North America, As the German folklorist Peuckert Will-Erich oboccurs not only in native but also North America Is-

Earth-Diver of native in Europe, Prussia, there

and in part lands, distribution groups

South America, Peuckert Estonia,

in the Pacific westerly certain Slovenia,

Australia, in East

and in eastern

Europe. points Latvia,

Its most

out, is among Lithuania, Finnish has

and Slovakia; This cussed. wide Later

are also

numerous of Earth-Diver some

variants. often been

distribution in this will paper


interpretations Earlier culture

dissemination inclined allelisms. essential always distances; tions like to treat

be briefly

reviewed. different striking

of the myth's were scholars areas as parboth in seems



Yet the versions and secondary the same, even small




The essence geographical correspond wide,

of the myth

notwithstanding details although

and cultural areas, Observa-

in different

and the distribution, these make of parallelism. Various problems influence 'function" problems

is continuous.

the investigator arise from

doubt the probability the study of its of Earth-Diver: to the noticeable subtypes, rites. to the Such

relating of "book

to its origin religions"

and diffusion, in some

of the myth

and its connection 151


152 will not be treated of the myth, and offer of Earth-Diver. in North America

Ethnohistory as these, try to point discussion however, herein; briefly I will review explanation

topics only

out the traits about it,

the long

a possible

of the primary

development Earth-Diver

The myth


in North

The essence of the Myth. has been described America

of the Earth-Diver thus:

Indian myths of the origin In North American of of the world, the culture hero has a succession or flood of dive into the primeval animals waters, to secure bits of mud or sand from which waters, Various the earth is to be formed. animals, birds, and aquatic creatures are sent down into the waters animal that cover the earth. One after another and floats the last one succeeds, however, fails; to the surface, half dead, with a little sand or dirt sometimes Sometimes it is Muskrat, in his claws. Mink who succeeds, Beaver, Crawfish, Hell-diver, in bringother animals have failed, after various ing up the tiny bit of mud which is then put on the of the water and magically surface expands to betime. 3 come the world of the present Some the myth variants is told. will be given in extenso Indian to illustrate the story how goes:

In a Shoshone


The whole earth was covered with water. Only on a high mountain there was a dry spot. Our sent the Crow to get earth in order to make Father 'You Then the Crow came back stinking. land. said the Father; are crazy,' 'you have eaten the drowned people. Now, go back, and go around homeless. You will eat whatever any one has Then he You will be black.' killed. Go, now! said to the small birds, I will now hear 'Come, which one of you has a good heart and good sense.' He found that the Chickadee was the only one that Then he had any sense and was good-hearted. It brought it. bade it bring earth. Our Father 'It will be small,' he made the earth out of it. 'for little hands brought it. You will have said,

ly employed as to where the mud should be deposited. of the watery expanse. You variant are other myths Christian about are the high mountain the central mountain of the and Our Father. here. So they divided the world into two portions. save an eagle There was a stump of a tree that proand a crow. be a very myth. takes place which is very quarrel that this 5 prevalent in Eurasiatic portions eagle the two creators It is mentioned despised. a duck. They were very tired of having nothing but the stump to roost on. the world variant: tree appears in the following Yokuts The whole earth was once covered with water. Explanatory the case in (Th.) influence incorporated. and there were no living creatures.Earth- Diver 153 six moons. which swam about the stump. they entered into an agreement to keep the duck constantdiving for it.1. Indian as is so often mythology. since they had never seen anything like it. only to recall cosmogonic the cosmic .1 may reveal are also American Instead and A 875. Finland. 7 one gains the impression the creator We need that not only the diving in the form of a bird another may animals. A 875. of the mountain. Finally they became weary of the and between them they managed to create solitude. One day the duck dove to the bottom and brought up some earth on his bill. however. and as the mud brought up seemed promising. They could not agree. This struck the eagle and the crow as worth looking into. about their is why the is honored and the crow Two ornithomorphic creators are also met in Ukrainian 6 and in versions from Eastern variants.' Interesting there world which motifs North traits in this track of tongues. jected above the surface and upon this the two birds were wont to stand and hold converse. You will not lose 4 will have good thoughts. After this a scene tradition: of the world. but also ancient trait.1.

for they swam variants water is a feature It also floated above. .' he said. bring we'll make the world. Then they met. The birds said that they would of the if they birds could dived find earth and came at the bottom Larger could not reach with the bottom. 'Go. 'All right. of these in a Cheyenne which and varthe iant telling earth. bring Four times they brought some. There was no living thing then. 8 Primeval Yokuts whole other them dive water. They 'Is there any?' 'Yes. how shall bad. birds ducks. Water that swim birds - situation of both the Shoshone appears on water swans. already to some existed and were all about the person. OldMan Coyote alone was going around on the water.' he took it 10 and made the earth . it is They went around together. looking for a companion. let us make the earth. birds became weary of solitude. I am I'll meet one. to the man and put the mud in his hand. some up without anything but there was one small This duck duck that returned mud in its bill. piles Thus Coyote following They he sprinkled until it over the water made of it on the water and it formed see was water land and all was created.' brought some. birds how a person covered and geese.' we make it?' After some time ducks came flying. various creation myths. dive here.9 in the solid and spread as far as he could the earth and primeval the dry land as creator variant: appear Crow The earth was all covered with water.' he said.. The man took the wet earth and worked it with his fingers until it was little grew land. earth. 'We are alone. 'I am alone. 'How shall we do it?' 'Dive into the water. some.' he said. and see He called some and asked to look for earth.154 Ethnohi story An interesting detail this is the notion is a basic that the in egg (Th. 'You dear younger brothers. Then a little coyote met him.. A 641). dry.

12 tell about the measuring . caused the water to rise and to drown all of them. 1 animals The deluge and animals are The diving they earth return American Indian motif here seems Biblical: a raft is built. are drowned or almost in many to the of the water. save one old man. He examined the paws of each to see if they had any earth. and to punish the people of the earth he Creator. visited Two sisters. the to plant trees. when the water had risen and wanted very high. it could Ojibwa be an independently-invented e. The measuring story of the grown However. so he then began to make rivers. which they refused to do. and after it had increased to such an extent that when the ringed-neck plover was sent around it and returned old and tired. so the two young men were murdered which vexed the by the people. then blew up to increase its size. but he found none until he came to the last animal that had been sent down. appears in the deluge of the Bible. fell in love with the young daughters men and wanted to marry them. the old man was satisfied with the size of the world. the old man became lonesome so he sent various to see land again. of the new earth by a wolf. After many days. and did not wish to be sent again. to be saved. diving animals down in the water to bring up some earth from the but as each rose to the surface the old bottom. This was a muskrat. the Creetrait. die when North gathered animals surface variants.. who saved himself by building a raft. but the people desired that the sisters marry two bright stars above.Earth-Diver 155 Instead Sarcee Indian of primeval variant: water we have the deluge in a Once on a time two young men from above the people of the earth. man saw that they were drowned. g. and to distribute he had saved. of a chief. on which he gathered all the animals and birds. in whose paws was some earth which the old man took and rubbed between his hands.

in the form represent and the creator some of the California variants ? versions . Could American e. beings times. the animals 22 a kingfisher. ducks. it is he who organizes 19 Other named beings occur in other versions. are. geese. a duck. g.. 8) is the culture hero in many Algon- bozhu. several Muskrat.. dive When e. 14 The beings who exist 16 15 Manibozho. were on the water ularly the surface he may presented.23 swans. interesting.. these occur. earth-diver: and Yokuts fornia earth. of divers an otter. 25 Wintun. 24 The last of that swim. how easily the divers must the essential Wilhelm Gottesidee. the oldest is only one earth-diver. g. 28 This Asian. can be changed. for example. Der Ursprung the importance of the turtle as the from Maidu. only animals. Finnish he is the eagle for in several variants. Nani(var. quoted beings and - above. birds The particmerely alone.156 Ethnohistory The myth with the water. and even Euroof a bird. of the water. 26 many other dives Califor He also the duck examples presents variants In most in which of these successfully of Earth-Diver versions the creator is is ornithomorphic: extremely pean. point is that the diver in his monumental Schmidt emphasizes he gives 27 traditions. be able to dive. a duck. kaychak four different types of locale In the variants in which a tree. Siina'wavi in Shoshonean variants 20 and Wesa- 21 in Cree variants. muskrat. a mountain. are these a raft. primeval to suppose water or It necessarily which always is good begins is hard to tell is more common. is and a when the first ornithomorphic diver is often a series a raven. meval are water 13 but there that pri- is the original sometimes trait. also there appears or the hawk. der work. reason the deluge. series and other shows and a turtle.17 Wa'n-lbozhil quian versions ing for earth. the divof the myth.

appears to form 34 Here. in North than to list It is more America those illuminating Earthit does. "And there was the Great Island tell that a back. Earl America. a handful of earth is taken from 30 29 or a little sand is found under its fingernails.Earth-Diver of animal-divers." Basin. 33 In a it seemed to grow rapidly. the variants Probably to the Eurasiatic between this there split stressed the two continents. the Eskimo." 3 Some variants upon the Big Turtle's then he blows ball is made from the mud by the creator. most Pacific 36 As the American myth 'covers anthropologist of North coast. 37 Of all the North American areas in appears. more the California have been one is the most recorded than are is Earth-Diver here interesting: elsewhere rather no definite recently similar examples in North America." It is told through to the Woodlands and Eastern Plains. Count excepting California states.' upon it. 'whereupon Carrier island we have ants. or sand is placed a new earth. He writes: Count has . and often ones. 157 The number one or several last attempt dies of times the but it is always Even though that is the successful the last animal its feet. Coast. vari- The Distribution to mention Diver does those areas of the Myth. "from W. on the edges amount soon 31 The earth and becomes may from on a raft. increases in size. the in which in which not appear. be rubbed this small the earth In Wyandot versions of the Big Turtle's shell. 3 myth the earth and finally a trait which is kneaded together in East the world also as it is today. European an again. point. of the the Northwest Southeast the Great Atlantic which the Southwest and most [areas]. while diving. one. of them may dive and the number varies.

Ostyak find no place of the sea. variants. Of course. only one bird. was gliding above divers. its total than on the North also have and that European scholars 39 This is distribution. Yenesei birds the earth Doh made variant. cause much of it is a part of a larger area which tide and the cultural includes so much of Eurasia.42 to be the appears. noted: variant previously the Cheyenne water flowed everywhere.158 Ethnohistory cannot ever be underNorth American mythology beconfined to this continent stood in terms alone. or a swallow44 is not usual in Eurasia. birds. Eurasia from west to east has been prevailingly 38 the recipient. the waters. loons. in Eurasia In the Eurasian show a striking Yenisei area many how the Eurasiatic- of Earth-Diver problem occasionally Earth-Diver The Traits traits of the Myth. to rest.43 devil ing bird. the in disguise. brought up under This water several ever.45 . of the Earth-Diver American resembles similarity Ostyak to North variant The following In the beginning. the great panied water shaman. the donor. begins North Such an opening. and Doh.41 and is said a duck. North America Count also unaware American overlooked the history American comments that most occurs American elsewhere scholars have been that Earth-Diver continent. a swan. but studies shows emerges. The bird accomand other he asked a red-throated When he could diver the bottom on the third From his bill.40 with many like howa div- which accompanying American the culture hero. partly true. attempt the red-throated bit of earth twice. by swans. myth traits. where in the sea. from to dive into the water and bring tried but only did he succeed the red-throated an island opens in bringdiver ing up any earth.

shows although pears on two continents. for many centuries.. importance the peer answer consider Gab- When the Lord heard the archangel of the ocean version he became and drove him from the tree.. of solitude. appear and his helper Yezids variant. the Lord also created from in the form of a bird. and a earth. at least. After "Who are you and who am I ?" Gabriel and I am I. God lived by divine power." With this proud answer God to understand and that he. the archhad a are you. is In a Russian the two birds are a white duck which there is the devil. version the black something "for many of the same centuries. in the midst of which tree was a tree in the form After Archangel him beside asked "You angel special himself riel's him. wished that. 47 in color and white" and Northern The variant but be- not only because there were are two birds.Earth-Diver of birds not be an original Nevertheless traditions 159 it apof the group may trait. birds Yokuts became the myth. of a bird. the which details phic form in the following of a reflection-helper. was original Both the creator comparison that one water in ornithomor- in the myth. himself on the tree.. of his creator. angry and pecked 46 in the midst The two birds traits which also and the tree appear are of in the California tell that these variant. and Eurasiatic American bird. world. a little created in this his own reflection and placed while he the Gabriel. these duck then forms birds are described the earth. brings and the white interesting cause ginning. e. The Yokuts weary " in the Yezids can be found. terms: elements Asian in the beof the variants the "black European All the East . atmosphere black duck. that each Gabriel. g. of them could answered.. creation In the beginning the world was an ocean.

but only a Tiberian sea with no shores were tells swimming. how the Lord it in which goldeneye asked him. Mikhailo Christian dualism. "Who are you?" "I am (a) God. even when he Ukrainian appears creation the early tales Dragomanov." as Christianized. variants academician who wrote gives a distinguished interesting persons study of dualistic represent these 'About myths.. very These distinctly. The bird answered. as he spat typically toward not only helped variant. in his mouth." God said again: "Whence 'Ego 'And 'De art you ?" ex infimis. the Lord and a goldeneye and the text was Satanail. The show name this strong as a bird. And the Lord said..160 Ethnohistory and seemingly diver is Satan. the earth.. latter when In this text the dualism but it is emphasized tell how the devil God expanded of the The devil devil in numerous saved a bit of earth the stolen it out. describes on the earth. how the spitting of north. was no to The heaven or earth." "And who am I ? "Thou art God of God(s)." into the sea . dived superis." whence am I?" The bird answered. caused formations his mouthful the significant direction .49 his creation. bit grew mountains in the mouth formed. text titled. of the earth or Satanail. of an apocryphal to this the Tiberian according text. the uneven of earth God. but also spoiled A Finnish devil enough." mihi ex infimis. 48 'Da does not appear variants. And the Lord And the bird said. which ornithomorphic Sea. there are transcripts In the beginning. and.

' said the Lord to the devil. God then took the earth from the mouth of the devil. and the devil did so. 'but where ' Let us make 'Let us do so. God moulded that bit of earth with his hands. stole earth.' said the Lord. stole a little earth and hid it in his mouth. did not reach bottom. 'Arise whatever you are!' He arose. put on the water and it be- . and it was the devil. Then God asked: 'How could the earth come into The devil said. right.' God asked him to dive.' The devil went down. who at that time lived together.' shall we get dirt?' is dirt under 'There 'Go down and get some.' the devil. Everywhere was water. Well. and threw it to the North.' answered 'But before you go down. but on the third time.' The second time he did the same and again he tom. There were only the Lord and the devil. at the same his pain grew.Earth-Diver 161 In the beginning when the earth did not exist. Finally 'With God's power and mine !' And then he reached bottom and with his nails he grasped a little dirt. 'Say: With God's power and mine ! Then you will reach the bottom and find dirt. the third time he said. As he saw his image there. He came to tell God that he time. and. Then. and it caused pain. in the mouth of the devil grew. if one dives being?' for earth into the bottom of the sea. And the earth and the earth grew. 'It will come. came That dirt the Lord a little earth. represents the Christian- of the myth At first there was no earth and people.' 'All the water. 50 The following ized type Bulgarian rather variant well. Once the Lord said to the devil: the earth answered and people. the devil. it became stones and rocks. God was on a golden pillar in the middle of the sea. he said. but: 'With my pow'With God's power and mine!' he did not reach botTherefore er and God's power. three times. but he did not say first.

takes to sleep. in Eurasia is. 51 To summarize briefly. This. it occurred a fourth direction. The devil got mad at this. but he lay down and earth. ing S2 from the Eurasiatic version of Earth-Diver. but again he did not reach the water. to He walks towards but the throw him in. ran away from him. but still he could not reach it. quarrels between is done by or credit for the two animals. he thought up this he proposed that they sleep. He picked up the Lord and carried him toward the water. piece of deceit: when the Lord had fallen asleep. of harm of the earth. In this devil all kinds a portion connection. often. more tend to be substifor the culture of course.' said the Lord. develops The Distribution of the Myth. and starts for the water. Then the devil rouses the Lord. God and the devil. 'Get up.162 Ethnohistory When the devil saw that. he would push him into the water. pretended the Lord in his hands. the water. The Lord knew this. then. Then the devil gets up. and thus he (the devil) would be left and he could take credit for having made the alone. for having it may be said that an entire and Asiatic myth cycle involvEast-European the creation of certain members of the animal kingdom. The area again. the whole atmosphere of the myth: take place. hero-creator changes the and his helper-animal. of disseminawide one: tion of Earth-Diver a very . I blessed the earth. As he did not reach the water. and made a cross tions. with me. to him that there was still slept a bit. let us bless the earth! Look how it has grown while we were sleeping!' 'When you were carrying me in all four directo throw me into the water. left the Lord and is the Earth-Diver of Eurasia rather tuted Christianized: God and the devil or. he When he had put the Lord down and lay down also. Lord. Then he turned in the third direction and when he again did not reach the water. earth grows. who wants to have created it. he turned in the other direction.

are ornithomoralmost all the aboriginal variants occupy an interphic. He wrote: was concerned nationality of various up. speaks rather in favor of the opinion that the rather tale has been carried from the aboriginals than the reverse.Earth- Diver similar Asian sea. has to allow that the character of the mythology as been heightened. tell versions peoples however. earth tradition. southwest to northeast. iants - is solvable. and anthropomorphic a correct distinction between . the water. but he pointed out a useful criterion: the occurrence divers. share Slavic. But the Ukrainian as well as the White-Russian whereas variants are completely anthropomorphic. motif with them. so it seems. peoples Yakuts. rather than that it has fallen. This is not as in the American and with the relationship groups within between the Eurasian variants of many Russian Such similarities Great Russian with the Finnoand Ukrainian Who took all the more: raise the question Turkic. the variants passed from one people to another. 163 Baltic. 54 It may be questioned whether Dragomanov's problem and Slavic varof the Finnish. of ornithomorphic He drew. and in Egyptian but no diving. The same for example. the interrelationship Turkic. in Hebrew of Earth-Diver. been the case. and must be brought in quite the same sense earth-diving Eurasian discussed. Had the reverse the variants of the tale should have moved from from Ukrainia to Siberia. urges. bird. the in Indian tradition: has sunk down. myths already Dragomanov the versions area. is a more wide53 and other the conception spread The primeval we have than diving is true for earth. and Finno-Ugric and Tatars. from the 'abothe tale from whom the Russians The notion of the demior vice versa? riginals' in the form of a or at least one of them. while the Great-Russian mediate position between It is more natural them.

American his main with the distribution He shared the opinion of these and origin stories of Eurasiatic folklorist had been tribes. 60 We must here stress the variants. H. must any primary Dragomanov definitely be placed tales. had a thorough knowledge of the medieval We can say that he proved the thesis that of the tales is due to the influence character by Iranoby of in their turn. Indian elaborated by the 56 he also admitted Finnic some legends" similarity but was them. between stated: to see Veselovski. the 'Christian" of these Chaldean Oskar sects. the point fluence of the book religions is a secondary the original recordings. 57 'these inas He saw and Slavic connection American legends. "these of the Finnish that the base Finno-Magyar that Gnosticism they traveled between North not inclined Following traditions dependent Gnostic or Ural-Altaic had influenced toward the Slavs. although was scholar aware who wrote of Earthconcern versions." 58 in the category of completely Dragomanov sects. Julius was 55 Krohn of the dualistic variants.164 of the bird-divers. were modified which. Lowie con- with the probable and Eurasian variants of the same of the North that if they of this really the distribution . Ethnohistory and the effects the primary appearance of the 'heightening" influence Discussion Alexander two studies Diver's Veselovski. and has nothing such influence to do with is in the late collection that the in- development however obvious was The American cerned American were anthropologist genetic variants myth. 59 His thesis was then accepted religions. who compiled an outstanding Dihnhardt. a Russian myths. Robert connection and noted myth. of book-religions.

in a statement in 1952: I have assembled from the literature about 230 of the tale. This parative mythology efforts of a host of study awaits the combined scholars who would view the mythological systems of northern Eurasia and of North America simuland comprehensively. substitution In the Earth-Diver Gladys variants 1920's were creation suggested had traveled that the for the original and 1930's published. variants. and relate the mythopoea to the social processes and religious and political evolution of the peoples of these two . that 62 myth of the deluge story. 64 bird. in Algonkian and Yurak Samoyed that all these scholars say attempted of the history this task is. 66 Count's connections Schmidt of the emphasizes He was traits the intercontinental not the first to do so. to develop of of the myth. similar One could a synthesis How difficult Count's 65 and two European the non-American point dealt with the of view. the deluge Uno Harva. Walter Anderson. Eurasian latter. theme thesis myths. water secondary and primeval discussed between who thoroughly saw the connection myths.Earth- Diver would be enormous. was the Estonian folklorist. summarized in 1923. one of a comas yet scarcely touched. taneously noting the similarities and differences of total pattern. and distribution is indicated had listed 67 myths. 61 165 He treated Earth-Diver as part showed original. late Independently. Their scrutiny specimens quickly broadens into a far greater study. but doubted the question Bogomil Harva a great number of the the American and character of the the dualistic whether he posed it could story 63 be possible so was a devil that the medieval far. several studies relating to The American the North a doctoral scholars anthropologist Indian was written thesis Reichard American of the myth from in California.

and or. appears an animal: would the great shaman for the Ostyaks. to conceptions to changes already introduced by other Conclusions The Earth-Diver It is told in various traits earth myth has a world-wide forms. Doh. modified later." devil. In the Yezids reflection bird. the myth distribution. folk. 'the Gabriel. for or as having a clear formerly development been example. for the Algonquians. it occurs. which according according systems. way: studying that mythology but I agree I would express Earth-Diver become which are is a culturthat myths the thought we learn integrated exist. acculturated. religious is highly debatable. 68 The last of these thoughts of a culture. part different when they are accepted. of problem. This study would work from the hypothesis that mythology is the cultural of the philosophy and pragmatically. Lord also created from his own of a the Archangel in the form In the Finnish variants the Earth-Diver. expressed symbolically and therefore it is an integral part of their culture. Such variation holds the variations At present. . water. has four invariable the diver. variant. has been and the making Wherever the creator of the earth. to all of the traits. but it always with water. covered the creator. to discuss be an historical-geographical problem. I am concerned with another kind however. al philosophy are an integral in a slightly how myths. is. that is the has his origin in the reflected image of God on the 69 All over the area of dissemination the earth-diver either there as an animal.166 Ethnohistory continents. Manibozho is God for the Christianized in regard peoples.

71 The bird owner's person Could soul. of the shaman. wandering this concept the Arctic the concept fulfil states. an animal. difficult is the terminus technicus The distribution especially practice his prevalent presupposes soul away to shamanistic the shaman As the German sends scholar Ad. E. and as the constant Which animal factor. studies alone. fulfil tasks wander over can move which independently the other of the are not possible and visit animal for the world. he summons to help him when he sees his image What does this indicate? There which and a bird is an old and wide-spread notion of something is with a person even when he is alone. all over like mentioned I would not appeared First to suggest an interpretation. the turtle. soul for example. body. part of the characteristic capacities that his soul is able to leave his body. is the bird of the creator? In shamanistic . other or some of the Earth-Diver we have Then we have the creator being who is with him. himself. literature." Seelenvogel. This someThe soul can take the form of a bird. the area where the duck? the myth The duck is is known. or spirit. it is in practice connection with this dualistic as a world-concept. area where where tasks. a bird the Let us forget think then of the animal the reflection-helper for a while. in the many the creator. the seas. soul in folklore is widespread. from devil. 70 it is actually the term for the of in of thing is the soul. or whom in the water.Earth-Diver 167 to bird-Satanail. we not think that the helpful in the Earth-Diver terms. and finally to Satan. mostly the form "bird soul. which has myth. the muskrat. Jensen wherever shamanistic is found.

for good reason: with roots and others for the interthe conin is a late doctrines. story of the I water. point area are numerous: are even several is not in accord is that there variants are were with my explanation. fully also proof of such is a form of the soul. pretation cept of Earth-Diver: being of the soul The notion dualism. 'disguise" I suggest Christian with this. The variations the diver divers appears in a single which earth: spirit. development. variants collected We cannot vived in different expect but the important with it. A myth and the Earth-Diver undergoing has had the common after change. spirit-helper and there naturally. looking being help. on primeval he "became states. of the shapes. history stressed meaning traveling the changes one culture myth change is to another." illustrates or into water. another as Dragomanov kind of dualism shown. and summoned as one variant it to beauti- parallel the beginning my interpretation.168 Ethnohi story In the Earth-Diver his spirit helper myth the creto fulfil the dif- soul is the helpingator needs ficult task. psycho-physical from the body. Scholars not original the dualistic medieval have have of a narrative. of the whole do accord parts and that these of distribution. the fact I agree that religious dualism in the myth. This. We all remember the spirit of the creation upon the primeval of God moved . of the myth from sur- that the original it suffered when is a narrative. he sends in form in many variant. A very Bible: familiar water aware that a person saw his image of himself. can lose his soul when the first That is why it is believed in a mirror. separable was originally is an additional image that the helper on the water the reflected the reflection a 72 of the creator dualism. Thus.

Shoshone and Comanche The Earth Diver and the Rival Twins. and Lowie. Sch6pfung. 279. 58. Altain suvun Suomalaisen muinaisrunouden maailma. Some Lonely Early creator. pp. Count. Clair 22. of the Sarcee Indians. vol.181. Dragomanov. Diver and the Rival uskonto. orientalische of the Finnish Folklore Archives Legenden. the god. but I cannot myth. pp. 5. vol. p. p. 170. 244. 17. 10. pp. Tales. vol.Earth- Diver 169 do not mean seeing to suggest notion was genetic identity. 4. pp. but a very the soul it was not any occasional kind of animal "the spirit of Notes 1. p. 9. 8. Count. Traditions pp. 13-14. 1. 273. St.245. help a similar in the Earth-Diver The helper of the creator animal. 6. Harva. vol. Count. 11. ." not the Devil. Haavio. 1. p. 9. 260. Uber 2. p. p. vol. 59-60. 7. Peuckert. See Th. 3. Cheyenne Tales. 334. 20. Wheeler-Voegelin. 62-67. Simrnms. A 73. Haavio. Earth Diver. Notes. Grinnell. p. definite of the creator. Creation. 180. The Earth Diver and the Rival Twins. The Earth Twins. 60. vol. Wheeler-Voegelin. Literature Society (Helsinki).

Tales. Dixon. of the Carrier vol. Tales. pp. p. pp. 2. p. 20. 7. 845. 20. 845. 42. Ibid. 37. 143. Literary of each. 18. 139ff. Sykes. p. g. 21. Indians. Tales of the Missisaguas. 292-293. vol. Ursprung der Gottesidee. Der Ursprung der Gottesidee. Folk-Lore Swindlehurst. 18. pp. p. Trickster p. 22. 150. about an equal number 14. 170. 109-111. vol. pp. Gifford. 2. 2. 25. 138-139. Jenness. 27. 3. pp. Mono Myths.. p. vol. pp. 756-757. Dictionary. of Central and Eastern Mythology Algonquians. 274 presents Flutsagen. pp. vol. Nordasiatische vol. 7. Some Early Cheyenne Tales. Nanibozhu. See e. Shoshonean Cree Ahenakew. 34. Reichard. 850. of the Cree Indians. p. vol. 26. 36. Grinnell. vol. Types. vol. 193. 178. 15. Ibid.170 Ethnohistory 12. p. Der 23. 19. Chamberlain. Schmidt. vol. 13. Anderson. 249. Lowie. Dictionary. 17. 1-4. 16. 22.. vol. 7. 305-306. vol. Sykes. Chamberlain. vol.. . 7. 258. 2. pp. Sykes. vol. 24. Dictionary. Schmidt. 48. 275-277. 4. 326. p. Myths Western p.

vol. Cree Myths Myth. p. Russian and Vogul variants: des Tauchmotivs. 39. Count.) 36. pp. p. 688-689. Wheeler-Voegelin.. Mountain Cheremis. Jenness. 40. 43. p. Ibid. Ibid.Earth- Diver 171 28. vol. 33. Russian Vogul: Walk. 326-327. 55. pp. 42. and Lebed-Tatar: Walk. pp.. 5. and the Rival ja vasta-luoja. 66-75. 260. 41. 70. pp. Die Ver- E. pp. 72. 48. 30. pp. vol. Kuusi. p. (Salinan). ibid. Connelley. 43. 38. Creation Notes. 62. 305-306.. Cf. vol. 66. pp. vol. Walk. 32.. vol. p. ibid. Trickster of the Carrier Indians. The Earth Diver luornistarun jainteiti. 11. Myths. 312. Yokuts and Gayton. p. 122. 42. K6ngis. 288-289 Ibid. 55. Tales. Suomalaisen 35. Luoja Creation. Ahenakew. Chukchansi Mono Myths. . Diver 1. Rogers Twenty-seven Western vol. 2. 274. 73. Twins.. 31. vol. breitung Count. p. p. Twins. 34. pp. 2. 37. p. p. 66. The Earth p. Gifford. God kneads the earth (Finnish: devil had dived for and brought sea. 277 (Yokuts). g. 12. Russian. 63 from the mud which the up from the bottom of the and the Rival vol. 57. 192. 36.. 29. Potts.

. ibid. 56. 53. pp. Notes. Natursagen. Altain p. 47.. Walk. 110. The Earth Diver and the Rival TUber orientalische Legenden. 112. Natursagen. 23. suvun uskonto. 58. Dragomanov. 58-59. Kuusi. The Earth Diver and the Rival des Tauchmotivs. p. Count. Dihnhardt. Ibid. p. Dragomanov. 1. 1. 51. Die Verbreitung p. 280. 1-3. pp. Krohn. 54. p. Dragomanov. des Tauchrnotivs. 1-89. A 1750. cycle. 279. Luoja ja vasta-luoja. jaanteita. Notes. Count. pp. historia. 72. See among others Twins. No. pp. 46. Haavio. deals with this K6ngas. 89-93. Die Verbreitung Notes. . Mustakallio. Ibid. 59. vol. 72.. 12-13. Peuckert. vol. 60. pt. Suomalaisen Notes. 69. 45. Yakut: Walk. 1-89. pp. Dragomanov. Ms. Dragomanov. Notes. Notes. and Dahnhardt. 59. D'ihnhardt. 57. and Dragomanov. Th. Twins. See Harva. Suomalaisen luomistarun pt. IUber orientalische Legenden. 1. 1. Sch6pfung. p. 55. pp. p. Peuckert. 48. An essential trait in Eurasia. Haavio. 66-67. Schopfung. p. 49.172 Ethnohistory 44. p. 63. 18-20. 50. pp. See. initially. 52. Walk. kirjallisuuden pp.

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