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Academic Phrases

:
Table of Contents (English-Spanish)
Table of Contents Índice / Índice General / Tabla de Contenido A list of the sections or chapters of the thesis organized in chronological order A list of figures in the thesis organized in chronological order A list of tables in the thesis organized in chronological order

List of Figures

Lista de Figuras

List of Tables

Lista de Tablas

Appendix

Apéndice

Glossary

Glosario

Bibliography

Bibliografía

Supplementary material that is collected and attached at the end of the thesis An alphabetical list of technical terms with their definitions A systematic list of books and other works cited A list of words or phrases at the end of the thesis with pointers to where related material can be found in a document

Index

Índice Alfabético

Opening
Introduction
In this essay/paper/thesis I En este ensayo/tesis General opening for an shall analizaré/investigaré/evaluar essay/thesis examine/investigate/evaluate é... /analyze…

To answer this question, we Para responder esta begin by taking a closer look pregunta, nos enfocaremos at… en...

To introduce a specific area of a subject on which you shall focus

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The question, whether…has La idea de... ha preocupado General opening to been preoccupying the a los expertos desde hace introduce a subject experts for some time. algún tiempo.

It is a well-known fact that…

Ya es bien sabido que...

General opening to introduce a subject that is well-known

A great deal is being written Mucho se ha escrito sobre... General opening to and said about… introduce a subject

It is generally agreed today Actualmente se concuerda General opening to that… en términos generales con... introduce a subject that is generally agreed upon, but which you would like to question We then review the Examinaremos los factores... Developing your opening to factors… describe exactly what your thesis involves We build on this analysis to Nos basaremos en este identify… análisis para identificar... Developing your opening to describe exactly what your thesis involves Introducing the main themes

A persistent theme in...is… Un tema persistente en... es...

As an empirical phenomenon ... has been observed repeatedly.

Como fenómeno empírico,... To emphasize the ha sido observado importance of your study repetidamente.

Against this background, the En este contexto, la central question that interrogante central que da motivates this paper is: ... pie a este trabajo es...

Specific statement saying what your study is about, comes after general background information Specific statement of intention for your research

This research explores the causes of…

Esta investigación explora las causas de...

The authors of more recent Los autores de los más studies have proposed that… recientes estudios han propuesto que...
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Used to present the current academic thinking around your chosen subject

Our purpose is to…

Tenemos como propósito...

Used to state the main aims of the study

By empirically examining..., Al analizar empíricamente..., Used to describe your we hope to produce a more esperamos generar un mejor method and introduce the complete understanding entendimiento de... central aspect of the study of…

Definition
By definition… means… ...es por definición... Used to define a certain word

For the purposes of this essay, the term… will be taken to mean…

Para efectos de este ensayo, Used to define a certain el término... se definirá word como...

It is important to be clear about the definition of…

Es importante entender correctamente la definición de...

Used to define a certain word

The term… refers to…

El término... se refiere a...

Used to define a certain word

The standard model suggests El modelo estándar sugiere Used to describe a word, for that… can be defined as… que... podría ser definido(a) which a definition has been como... suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation According to..., …is defined De acuerdo con..., ... se as… define como... Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been

…may be defined in many ways. Some people argue that the term denotes…

... puede ser definido(a) de muchas formas. Algunos sostienen que el término denota...

…is commonly understood ... se entiende como... to mean…
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suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation What we usually have in Cuando hablamos de... Used to describe a word, for mind when we talk about… generalmente pensamos en... which a definition has been is… suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation Two brief examples might Dos cortos ejemplos podrían A statement, after which you clarify this concept. aclarar este concepto. can use examples to define an idea It is important to emphasize… Es importante enfatizar... Used when wanting to draw attention to your definition

Our focus is on…

Nuestro punto de enfoque será...

A casual way to define a certain word

Finally, we should clarify our definition of…

Finalmente, quisiéramos aclarar la definición de...

Used towards the end of a paragraph, in order to define a certain word Used to further explain a definition or give examples of that definition A statement, after which you can further explain your definition

What we mean is that…

Queremos decir...

Several explanations have been offered.

Se han ofrecido varias explicaciones...

We can characterize these Podemos decir que estas Used to clarify the basis for explanations as being rooted explicaciones tienen su base your definition in… en...

These explanations Estas explicaciones se complement each other and complementan y ayudan a help to illuminate the aclarar el fenómeno de... phenomenon of…

Used after having given two similar examples, which together can be used to define a word

Following..., scholars have argued that …

Basados en las afirmaciones Used when there is one clear de X, los expertos han expert in your field, but alegado que... others have contributed towards his definition

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Hypothesis
The central question then becomes: how might… affect…? La principal interrogante sería: ¿Cómo podría afectar... Used to present the main hypothesis

Given this evidence for..., an examination of the factors that impact upon… seems warranted.

Dada la evidencia en el caso Used to present the main de..., parece dar lugar a un hypothesis análisis de los factores que tienen efecto en...

Over a decade ago, … and… Hace más de una década, ... Used to present the main started a debate centering on y... comenzaron un debate hypothesis this question: whether… centrándose en la interrogante de si...

This research addresses… by developing and testing a series of hypotheses indicating how… affects...

Esta investigación se ocupa Used to present the main de... por medio del hypothesis desarrollo y la experimentación con una serie de hipótesis que indican cómo... afecta...

Thus, following the Siguiendo los argumentos Used to present the main reasoning set forth by..., we establecidos por X, podemos hypothesis hypothesize that… suponer que...

Some of these arguments have been formalized by..., but none have been tested.

Algunos de estos Used to introduce the argumentos han sido hypothesis and state that formalizados por X, pero your study is unique ninguno ha sido aún puesto a prueba.

The evidence from these La evidencia arrojada por studies suggests a variety of estos estudios sugiere una factors related to… variedad de factores relacionados con...

Used to present the factors relevant to your study and your hypothesis

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...found a significant X encontró una relación correlation between… and… significativa entre... y ...

Used to point out someone else's work, which has relevance to your own

Main Body
Agreeing
Broadly speaking, I agree with… because… En términos generales, coincido con X porque... Used when in general agreement with someone else's point of view

One is very much inclined to Uno tiende a concordar con Used when in general agree with… because… X ya que... agreement with someone else's point of view I can see his/her point. Comprendo su planteamiento... Used when you believe someone else's point of view is valid, but you do not fully agree Used when in complete agreement with someone else's point of view

I entirely agree that…

Coincido totalmente en que...

I endorse wholeheartedly the Respaldo completamente la Used when in complete opinion that… idea de que... agreement with someone else's point of view

Disagreeing
Broadly speaking, I disagree En términos generales, no with… because… concuerdo con X ya que... Used when in general disagreement with someone else's point of view

One is very much inclined to Tiendo a diferir en gran Used when in general disagree with… because… medida de X debido a que... disagreement with someone else's point of view I can see his point, but disagree with it entirely. Entiendo su planteamiento, Used when you understand pero difiero completamente. someone else's point of view, but you do not agree with it at all Difiero completamente en Used when in complete relación a... disagreement with someone else's point of view

I strongly disagree that…

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I am firmly opposed to the idea that…

Me opongo firmemente a la Used when in complete idea de que... opposition to someone else's point of view

Comparisons
and…are similar/different as ... y... son regards to… similares/diferentes en cuanto a... An informal way of stating specific similarities or comparisons between two things Used when wanting to emphasize the difference between two things Used when wanting to emphasize the difference between two things

In contrast to…, …shows… En contraste con..., ... muestra...

…by contrast with… is/are…

... en contraste con... es/son...

…is similar to… in respect of…

Used when wanting to emphasize and explain a similarity between two things …and… differ in terms of... ... y... difieren en relación Used when wanting to a... emphasize and explain a difference between two things The first…, by contrast, the El primero/La primera..., en Used when wanting to second… contraste, el segundo/la emphasize the difference segunda... between two things

... es similar a... en lo referente a...

One of the main similarities/differences between… and… is that…

Una de las principales similitudes/diferencias entre... y... es que...

Used when stating specific similarities or comparisons between two things

One difference between… Una de las diferencias Used to highlight a and… is that…, whereas… entre... y... es que... mientras difference between two que... things, can be the start of a long list of differences

Opinions
I would say that…
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Podría decir que...

Used to give a personal

It seems to me that…

A mi parecer...

In my opinion…

En mi opinión...

opinion, of which you are not fully confident Used to give a personal opinion, of which you are not fully confident Used to give a personal opinion Used to give a personal opinion Used to give a personal opinion

From my point of view…

Desde mi punto de vista...

I am of the opinion that…

Soy de la opinión de que...

I believe that there are several reasons. Firstly,… Secondly…

Considero que existen varias Used when wanting to list razones, en primer lugar,... many reasons for something en segundo lugar,...

It is my belief that… because…

A mi parecer... debido a que...

Used to give a personal opinion that you are sure of and an explanation of said opinion

Connecting Elements
Let us now analyze/turn to/examine… Ahora analicemos/enfoquémonos en/revisemos... Used when changing subject and to start a new paragraph

It is now clear that… . Let us turn our attention to…

No queda claro si... . Enfoquemos nuestra atención en...

Used when changing subject and to start a new paragraph

Moreover, one argument against this cannot be ignored: …

Adicionalmente, no se puede Used when adding important ignorar la idea de que... information to an already developed argument

Admittedly…, but…

Es cierto que..., pero...

It is true that…, yet the fact Es cierto que..., pero los remains that… hechos demuestran que...
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Used when conceding a counter-argument, but wanting to suggest further analysis of your own Used when conceding a counter-argument, but

Granted, …, nevertheless… Se acepta la idea de que..., sin embargo...,

On the contrary, …

Por el contrario,...

On the one hand…

Por una parte...

wanting to suggest further analysis of your own Used when conceding a counter-argument, but wanting to suggest further analysis of your own Used when correcting a mistaken belief, after said belief has been stated Used to introduce one side of an argument Used to show another side of an argument. Always used after "on the one hand…" Used when making an argument, which goes against certain data or beliefs Used when making an argument, which goes against certain data or beliefs Used when referring to science or past events in history Used when an additional point is thought of that can support your analysis Used when developing a point to a high analytical level

On the other hand…

Por otra parte...

In spite of…

A pesar de...

Despite the fact that…

A pesar de que...

Scientifically/Historically speaking…

Desde el punto de vista científico / histórico...

Incidentally…

Cabe acotar...

Furthermore…

Además,...

Statistical data
Empirical Data
It can be seen from… that… A partir de... se puede observar que... Used to describe raw data

As can be seen from…, …

Como se puede ver en...

Used to describe raw data

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The data would seem to suggest that…

Los datos parecen sugerir que...

Used to describe raw data

The figures reveal that…

La figuras revelan que...

Used to describe raw data

From the figures it is apparent that…

Con base en las figuras se puede notar que...

Used to describe raw data

Several noteworthy results were…

Varios resultados relevantes Used to describe raw data fueron... that is especially important

The results of the present study demonstrate that…

Los resultados del presente estudio demuestran que...

Used to describe raw data

Presenting
The number of… has increased/decreased/stayed the same. El número de... ha Used to further describe aumentado/disminuido/se ha data, and any relevant trends mantenido.

The statistics show that the number of… between… and… has doubled/halved.

Las estadísticas muestran que el número de... entre... y... se ha duplicado/ha disminuido a la mitad.

Used to further describe data, and any relevant trends between a certain time period

The numbers show a steady Los números muestran un Used to further describe increase/decrease from… aumento/una reducción de... data, and any relevant trends to… a...

The number of… has risen/fallen in correlation to…

El número de... ha aumentado/descendido en correlación con...

Used to further describe data, and any relevant trends

Between… and… one can clearly see that the number of… has increased/decreased/stayed the same.

Entre... y... podemos ver claramente que el número de... se ha incrementado/ha disminuido/se ha mantenido.

Used to further describe data, and any relevant trends between a certain time period

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...was positively correlated with…

... fue asociado positivamente con...

Used to describe the relationship between two sets of data

As predicted, …

Como se predijo...

This finding is consistent with X's contention that…

Used to further describe data, and confirm your original predictions Este hallazgo es consistente Used to compare your con el argumento de X que results with someone else's expone

This finding reinforces X's assertion that…

Este hallazgo afianza la afirmación de X de que...

Used to show that your results are consistent with someone else's Used to show that your results are consistent with someone else's

Consistent with X's findings, En concordancia con los ...is positively related to… hallazgos de X, ... se relaciona positivamente con...

Concluding
The statistics show that… Las estadísticas muestran que... Used to develop your ideas and to infer what the statistics mean in a broader sense Used to develop your ideas and to infer what the statistics mean in a broader sense Used to develop your ideas and to infer what the statistics mean in a broader sense

According to the statistics… Según las estadísticas,...

When one looks at the Cuando observamos las statistics, one can see that… estadísticas podemos ver que...

Statistically speaking…

Desde el punto de vista estadístico...

Taking into account the statistical data, we can surmise that…

Used to develop your ideas and to infer what the statistics mean in a broader sense Tomando en cuenta los datos Used to develop your ideas estadísticos, podemos inferir and to infer what the que... statistics mean in a broader sense

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The implications of this Las implicaciones de esta Used to develop your ideas research are manifold. First, investigación son múltiples. and give several conclusions … is critical because… Primero,... es crucial of your results porque...

The current study has practical implications as well. First, ...is intuitively appealing and is easily understood by strategists.

El estudio actual tiene implicaciones prácticas también. Primero,... es interesante y es fácilmente comprendido por los estrategas.

Used to develop your ideas and give several conclusions of your results

Graphs, Pictures and Diagrams
Description
The graph shows that…started climbing steadily, peaking at…, and flattened out at a level of… El gráfico muestra que... Used when describing a comenzó su ascenso trend in a graph constantemente, alcanzando su punto máximo en... y luego se mantuvo al nivel de...

According to the diagram, the number of…rose sharply between…and…, before plunging back down to its original level.

De acuerdo al diagrama, el Used when describing a número de... aumentó de trend in a graph forma importante entre... y..., antes de caer a su nivel original.

The graphs show a plateau at the level of…

Los gráficos muestran un aplanamiento a nivel de...

Used when a graph levels out

Within the picture is contained…

Dentro de la figura se encuentra...

Used when describing a picture

The diagram depicts that El diagrama delinea que Used when describing the there were hubo más... que... entre... y... information in diagram more…than…between…and …

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Interpretation
This diagram represents…and therefore shows that… Este diagrama representa... y Used for deeper por ello muestra que... interpretation of a diagram and to explain it

The shape of the graph demonstrates that…

La forma del gráfico demuestra que...

Used for deeper interpretation of a graph and to explain it

There is a clearly defined El gráfico muestra un patrón Used for deeper pattern to the graph, and this claramente definido y a interpretation of a graph and can be taken to mean that… partir de esto se puede to explain it suponer que...

The graph can thus be used Así, con el gráfico podemos Used when a future trend in to predict… predecir... a graph can be assumed

One can interpret the graph Uno podría interpretar un in several ways. Firstly it gráfico de muchas formas. shows… En primer lugar muestra...

Used when there are several ways of explaining a graph

Legends
Figure…representing… La figura... representa... Used as text below a diagram Used as text below a diagram Used as text below a diagram Used as text below a diagram

Figure…showing…

La figura... muestra...

Diagram…examining…

El diagrama... analiza...

Diagram…depicting…

El diagrama... representa...

Closing
Summarizing
We opened this paper by noting…
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En la introducción de este trabajo mencionamos...

Used to begin a summary of the thesis

The foregoing discussion has attempted to…

La discusión anterior ha tenido la intención de...

Used to describe what you have tried to achieve in the thesis Used to describe the data you used and how it aided your arguments

The hypotheses were tested Las hipótesis fueron with data covering… examinadas con los datos relacionados con...

To sum up…

En resumen,...

In summary, …

En síntesis,...

Used as a general opening to describe what you have tried to achieve in the thesis Used as a general opening to describe the what you have tried to achieve in the thesis

Concluding
We feel that our study enhances academic understanding of the factors… Creemos que nuestro estudio Used to give an overview of contribuye a mejorar el the thesis and to state the entendimiento académico de main outcome of the thesis los factores...

All in all…

En definitiva,...

Used to give a general assessment of the thesis

By and large…

En términos generales,...

Used to give a general assessment of the thesis Used to give a definite conclusion with solid arguments to support it

…leads us to the conclusion ... nos lleva a la conclusión that… de que...

The arguments given above Los argumentos antes Used to give a definite prove that… mencionados prueban que... conclusion with solid arguments to support it We can see then, that… Podemos evidenciar que... Used to give a definite conclusion after having written your supporting

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All of this points to the fact Todo esto apunta a... that…

Understanding...can help reveal…

Tener un mejor entendimiento de... puede ayudar a develar...

arguments Used to give a definite conclusion after having written your supporting arguments Used to give evidence, which further supports your conclusion

On balance…

En resumen...

Used to give an unbiased assessment of your findings

A number of restrictions of our study and areas for future research should be mentioned…

Debemos mencionar ciertas Comes in the conclusion of restricciones que tuvo the thesis to acknowledge nuestro estudio y algunas any limiting factors áreas que pueden ser analizadas en el futuro...

Thus, our thesis is that there Así, nuestra tesis establece are a number of factors que hay cierto número de that… factores...

Used to give a definite conclusion

Clearly, some of propositions that we have offered are not entirely unique…

Sin duda, algunas de las proposiciones que hemos ofrecido no son totalmente nuevas...

Used to acknowledge borrowed ideas

However, we submit that the Sin embargo, planteamos contribution of our paper que la contribución de rests on three areas… nuestro trabajo se basa en tres áreas...

Used to emphasize the main conclusions of the thesis

Our study serves as a Nuestro estudio da pie a un Used to express what the window to an understanding proceso de entendimiento... thesis aimed to explain of the process…

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Citation
Academic Citation
Author's surname, author's initials. (Year of publication). Title of book. Place of publication: name of publisher. Apellido del autor, iniciales del autor. (Año de publicación). Título del libro. Lugar de publicación: nombre de la editorial. Harvard Style: a very common citation method for many types of academic papers, and the standard method used in the UK

Author's surname, Author's first name. Title of book. Place of publication: name of publisher, year of publication.

Apellido del autor, Primer nombre del autor. Título del libro. Lugar de la publicación: nombre de la editorial, año de la publicación.

MLA Style: commonly used in the US and Canada for language, literature and media publications

Author's surname and initials. Title of book. # ed.[if not 1st] Place of publication: publisher's name; year of publication.

Apellido del autor e Vancouver System: used for iniciales. Título del libro. physical science and nro. de edición [a excepción medicine papers de la primera]. Lugar de publicación: nombre de la editorial; año de publicación.

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Abbreviations
Academic Abbreviations
app. (appendix) ap. (apéndice) Used when there are relevant files added to the work Used when quantity is unknown List of sources used

approx. (approximately)

aprox. (aproximadamente)

bibliog. (bibliography)

bibl. (bibliografía)

ca. (circa)

circ. (circa)

Used when estimating a quantity A defined section of the work The vertical part of a table

ch. (chapter)

cap. (capítulo)

col. (column)

col. (columna)

diss. (dissertation)

disertación

A complete work on a specific subject Used when the work has been altered by a third party Used when giving an example Used when trying to define something more clearly Used when stating an infinite list, literally meaning 'and so forth' A diagram that accompanies part of the work Used when developing an idea, literally meaning 'therefore' or 'that is' Used when adding something to a list Used when a person is required to take note of

ed. (edited by)

editado por

e.g. (exempli gratia)

p. ej. (por ejemplo)

esp. (especially)

especialmente

etc. (et cetera)

etc. (etcétera)

fig. (figure)

fig. (figura)

i.e. (id est)

es decir,...

incl. (including)

incl.

N.B. (nota bene)
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N.B. (nota bene)

p. (page)

p. (página)

something important Each individual side of paper in a manuscript Several sides of paper in a manuscript A short paragraph that provides a background to a study Used to name the person who has published the work Used when the work has been altered slightly by someone to make it more relevant to the current audience Used when the work is not an original, but a direct copy

pp. (pages)

pp. (páginas)

pref. (preface)

Prefacio

pub. (published by)

publicado por

rev. (revised by)

revisado por

rpt. (reprint)

reedición / nueva edición / reimpresión

trans. (translated by)

traducido por

vol. (volume)

t.

Used when the work has been translated into another language Indicates a specific volume or section of work

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