Ngo Khawm Skeletal Muscle = Skeletal muscle is a discrete organ, made up for several kinds of tissues.

Cardiac Muscle = Cardiac muscle tissue occurs only in the heart where it constitutes the bulk of the heart walls. Smooth Muscle = Smooth muscle tissue is found in the walls of hollow visceral organs , such as the stomach, urinary bladder , and respiratory passages. Endomysium = The endomysium ( within the muscle ) is a wispy sheath of connective tissue that surround each individual muscle fiber. Perimysium = Surrounding each fascicle is a layer of fibrous connective tissue call perimysium ( around the muscle ). Fascicle = Within each skeletal muscle , the muscle fibers are grouped into fascicles ( bundles ) that resemble bundles of sticks. Epimysium = The Epimysium ( outside the muscle ) is an overcoat of dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds the whole muscle. Aponeurosis = The muscle's connective tissue wrapping extend beyond the muscle as a sheetlike aponeurosis. Sarcomere = the region of a myofiber between two successive Z discs is is a sarfomere. Overshoot = a rapid change in electrical potential and reversal of polarity that occurs during an action potential when a cell or tissue is stimulated. Hyperpolarization = An increase in membrane potential in which the membrane becomes more negative than resting membrane potential. Resting membrane potential = The voltage that exist across the plasma membrane during the resting state of an excitable cell; ranges from -90 to – 20 millivolts depending on cell type. Mechanoreceptors = Receptor sensitive to mechanical pressure such as touch , sound , or exerted by muscle contraction . Thermoreceptor = Receptor sensitive to a temperature changes . Photoreceptor = Specialize receptor cells that respond to light energy; rods and cones. Nociceptors = Receptor sensitive to potentially damaging stimuli that result in pain. Chemoreceptor = receptor sensitive to various chemicals in solution. Proprioceptor = Receptor located in a joint , muscle , or tendon ; concern with locomotion, posture and muscle tone. Merkel Discs = The disklike expension of the end of a nerve fiber together with a closely associated Merkel cell that has a presumed tactile function. Meissner's corpuscles = Any of the small tactile end organs in hairless skin containing numerous transversely placed tactile cells and fine flattened nerve termination. Pacinian corpuscles = A pressure sensitive mechanoreceptor that is an oval capsule terminating some sensory nerve fibers especially in the skin.+ Ruffini endings = any of numerous oval sensory end organs occurring in subcutaneous tissue of the fingers. Dendrites = Any of the usually branching protoplasmic processes that conduct impulses toward the body of a nerve cell. Cell body = The nucleus containing central part of a neuron exclusive of is axons and dendrite that is the major structural element of the gray matter of the brain and spinal cord, the ganglia and the retina.

Once the resistance is overcome. Threshold=The stimulus at which the first observable contraction occurs. are equally important for coordination and purposeful movements. or excessicely stretched tendons or ligaments. but the muscles does not shorten. Motor Unit=Consits of one motor neurn and all the muscle fibers it innervates. Lumbar Plexus=Arises from spinal nerves L1. Depolarization=Generation and propagation of an action potential. Action Potential=An electric current in its sarcolemma. and the tension remains constant for the rest f the contraction. Isometric Contraction=Muscle is attached to a weight that exceeds the muscle’s peak tensiondeveloping capabilities. compression. sensory . Actin=A contractile protein of muscle. also the area of skin innervated by the cutaneous branches of a single spinal nerve. small membranous sacs containing the neurotransmitter. Wallerian Degeneration=A process of disintegration of an axon that occurs when it is curshed or severed and cannot receive nutrients from the cell body. Tropomyosin=Polypeptide strands. RICE=Acronym for rest. is a globular three polypeptide complex. The standard treatment for a pulled muscle. Polarized=A resting sarcolemma in the plasma membranes of all cells.L4 and lies within the psoas major muscle. the sarcolemma of the muscle cell protrudes deep into the cell interior. Reflex Arc=Reflexes occur over neural pathways that have five essential components. or supplies.receptor. gives rise to virtually all the nerves that innervate the upper limb. spiral about the actin core and help stiffen and stabilize it.S4 and lies immediately caudal to the lumbar plexus.Axons = A usually long and single nerve-cell process that usually conducts impulses away from the cell body. Sarcoplasmic Reticulum=An elaborate smooth endoplasmic reticulum.When stimulated. the tension increases to the muscle’s peak tension-developing capability. Eccentric Contraction=The muscle genetates frce as it lengthens. Troponin=The other major protein in thin filaments. ice. Myoglobin=A red pigment that stores oxygen. Muscle spindles=Encapsulated recptor found in skeletal muscle that is sensitive to stretch. muscle develops enough tension to lift the load. Repolarization=Restoring the sarcolemma to its initial polarized state. Acetylcholine=Within the moundlike axon terminal are synaptic vesicles. Isotonic Contraction=On stimulation. forming an elongated tube. Sarcolemma=The plasma membrane of a muscle fiber. Synaptic Cleft=Filled with a gel-like extracellur substance rich in glycoproteins and collagen fibers. Transverse Tubules=At each A band-I band junction. Spatial Discrimination=The ability of neurons to identify the site or patern of stimulation. Ganglia=Collections of neurn cell bodies associated with nerves in the PNS. Dermatomes=Portion of somite mesoderm that forms the dermis of the skin. Brachial Plexus=Situated partly in the neck and partly in the axilla. Sliding Filament Theory=During contraction the thin filaments slide past the thick nes so that the actin and myosin filaments ocerlap t a greater degree. the muscle shortens. a rod-shaped portein. Sacral Plexus=Arises from spinal nerves L4. Neuromuscular Junction=Each axon ending gives off several shrt.Its interconnecting tubules surround each myofifril the way the sleeve of a loosely crocheted sweater surrounds your arm. the ventral rami of the first four cervical nerves from the looping cervical plexus. and elevation. curling branches that collectively form with a single muscle fiber. Cervical Plexus=Buried deep in the neck under the sternocleidomastoid muscle.

localized changes in membrane pontential that can be either depolarizations or hyperpolarizations. and effector. Repolarization=Restoring the sarcolemma to its initial polarized state. Ependymal Cells=Wrapping garment range in shape from squamous to columnar. CNS integration center. Threshold=When depolarization at the stimulation site reaches a certain critical level. Graded Potential=Short-lived. and glands. Depolaration=An increase in membrane pontential: The inside of the membrane becomes more negative than the resting pontential. motor neuron. which occupy the dorsal body cavity. they have fewer processes than astrocytes. Satellite Cells=Surround neuron cell bodies located in the peripheral nervous system. Tendon Reflex=Produce exactly the opposite effect: Muscles relax and lengthen in response to tension. IPSP=Hyperpolarizing changes in pontential are calles inhibitory postsynaptic potentials. ANS=The autonomic nervous system consists of visceral motor nerve fibers that regulate the activity of smooth muscles. segmented. CNS=The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. Temporal Summation=Occurs when one or more presynaptic neurons transmit impulses in rapid-fire order and bursts of neurotransmitter are released in quick succession. fatty. Gray Matter=Contains mostly nerve cell bodies and nonmyelinated fibers. and many are ciliated. are covered with a whitish. particularly those that are long or large in diameter. Neuroglia=Neurons associate closely with much smaller cells. are the structural units of the nervous system. Saltatory Conduction=Aps are triggered only at the gaps . a type of conduction. Action Potential=A brief reversal of membrane pontential with a total ammplitude of about 100 mV. Microglia=Small and ovoid with relatively long “thorny” processes.neuron. Neurons=Also called nerve cells. RelativeRefractory=The interval following the absolute refractory period. Oligodendrocytes=Though they also branch. more commonly. RMP=Potential difference in a resting neuron. Spatial Summation=Occurs when the pstsynaptic neuron is stimulated simultaneusly by a large number of terminals from one or. many presynaptic neurons. Absolute Refractory=Period from the opening of the Na+ channels until the Na+ channels begin to rest to their original resting state. and are thought to have many of the same functions in the PNS as astrocytes do in the CNS. Schwann Cells=Surround all nerve fibers in the PNS and form myelin sheaths around the thicker nerve fibers. cardiac muscles. Astrocytes=Shaped like delicate branching sea anemones and they are the most abundant and versatile glial cells. Myelin=Many nerve tibers. Hyperpolarization=An increase in membrane pontential: The inside of the membrane becomes more negative than the resting pontential. PNS=The peripheral nervous system is the part of the nervous system outside the CNS. EPSP=Excitatory postsynaptic potentials occur at excitatory postsynaptic membranes. White Matter=Regions of the brain and spinal cord containing dense collections of myelinated fibers are referred to as white matter and are primarily fiber tracts. Afferent Efferent=Consits of nerve fibers that convey impulses to the central nervous system from sensory recptors located throught the body. Interneurns=Lie between motor and sensory neurons in neural pathways and shuttle signals through CNS pathways where integration occurs. .